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Sample records for sunflower oil based

  1. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  2. French environmental communication on sunflower and rapeseed oils based on life cycle assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badey Laureen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The French “Grenelle” laws sparked a French national experiment trialling the environmental labelling of fast-moving consumer goods. The data required for this labelling scheme are generated by carrying out a life cycle assessment (LCA. The aim of this study is to provide all necessary information to fit the national experiment for two standard oils: sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The complete oil life cycle was studied, from oilseed farming through to the end-of-life of the packaging. We focused heavily on the impacts of crushing and refining. The seed processing data was collected from different plants that are representative of the French crushing/refining industry and packaging site practice. The data inventory was used to calculate the identified environmental labelling indicators, i.e. greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water consumption. The production of 100g of refined bulk sunflower and rapeseed emits 89 and 127 g equivalent CO2 and consumes 1.7 L and 0.8 L of water, respectively. Most impacts on the studied indicators stem from the farming phase. Energy and water consumptions during crushing and refining also weigh on the studied indicators. The results of this study provide a relevant overview of all sunflower and rapeseed oils produced in France, and are usable as standard values for vegetable oil producers and users. Oil supply chain operators can use these values to compare to their own process values and gauge the improvements brought about by their ecodesign strategies. For example, using a biomass boiler, using less packaging, and making different choices on seed suppliers can lead to a lower set of impact values.

  3. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  4. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  5. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting

  6. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  7. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  8. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  9. Diets based on virgin olive oil or fish oil but not on sunflower oil prevent age-related alveolar bone resorption by mitochondrial-related mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bullon

    Full Text Available Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old and old (24 months old rats.Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA, as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations.The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis.

  10. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  11. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  12. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  13. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  14. Transesterification of linoleic and oleic sunflower oils to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević Zlatica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to characterize biodiesel (i.e. methyl esters, MEs produced from linoleic and oleic sunflower oils (LSO and OSO, respectively by alkali transesterification with methanol and CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst under different reaction parameters. The parameters investigated were the methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1, 6:1, 7.5:1, 9:1 and 12:1 and the mass ratio of CaO to oil (2% and 3%. The physical and chemical properties of the feedstocks and MEs, like density at 15oC, kinematic viscosity at 40oC, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, cetane index, fatty acid (methyl ester composition, were determined in order to investigate the effects of LSO and OSO properties and reaction parameters on the product characteristics, yields and purity. The properties of feedstock had decisive effect on the physical and chemical properties of MEs as majority of them did not differ significantly under studied reaction conditions. The MEs produced generally met the criteria required for commercial biodiesel; in fact, the only exception was in the case of iodine value of ME produced from LSO. The product yields only slightly changed with the applied conditions; the highest yield (99.22% was obtained for ME-LSO produced at 6 mol% methanol to oil ratio, while the lowest one (93.20% was for ME-OSO produced under the lowest methanol/oil molar ratio (4.5:1. The applied catalyst amounts had similar influence on the oil conversion to biodiesel. The yields of ME-LSOs were in general somewhat higher than those obtained for ME-OSOs under the same conditions, which was attributed to the influence of the respective feedstocks' acid value and viscosity.

  15. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  16. Modulating the properties of sunflower oil based novel emulgels using castor oil fatty acid ester: prospects for topical antimicrobial drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, B; Biswal, D; Uvanesh, K; Srivastava, A K; Bhattacharya, Mrinal K; Paramanik, K; Pal, K

    2015-04-01

    The current study describes the effect of polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the properties of sunflower oil and span-40 based emulgels. The prepared emulgels contained PGPR in varied concentrations. The microstructure of the emulgels was characterized by bright-field microscopy. The molecular interactions amongst the components of the emulgels were studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The flow and mechanical behaviors of the emulgels were studied using cone-and-plate viscometer and static mechanical tester, respectively. The efficiency of the metronidazole-loaded emulgels as antimicrobial formulations was tested in vitro. E. coli was used as the model microorganism for the antimicrobial study. The emulgels were also explored for iontophoretic delivery applications. The biocompatibility of the emulgels was tested using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). The microscopic evaluation of the emulgels indicated formation of biphasic formulations. FTIR studies suggested a decrease in the hydrogen bonding amongst the components of the emulgels as the concentration of the PGPR was increased. Viscosity studies indicated shear-thinning property of the emulgels. An increase in the PGPR concentration resulted in the reduction in the mechanical properties of the emulgels. Incorporation of PGPR resulted in the decrease in the drug released (both passive and iontophoresis) from the emulgels. The emulgels were found to be cytocompatible in the presence of keratinocytes. The drug loaded emulgels showed good antimicrobial activity against E. coli. In gist, the developed emulgels can be tried for controlled delivery of antimicrobial drugs. The physical and the release properties of the emulgels can be modulated by incorporating PGPR in varied proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  18. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  19. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  20. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  1. Microemulsions based on a sunflower lecithin-Tween 20 blend have high capacity for dissolving peppermint oil and stabilizing coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-28

    The objectives of the present study were to improve the capability of microemulsions to dissolve peppermint oil by blending sunflower lecithin with Tween 20 and to study the possibility of codelivering lipophilic bioactive compounds. The oil loading in microemulsions with 20% (w/w) Tween 20 increased from 3% (w/w) to 20% (w/w) upon gradual supplementation of 6% (w/w) lecithin. All microemulsions had particles of lecithin. Therefore, natural surfactant lecithin can reduce the use of synthetic Tween 20 to dissolve peppermint oil and protect the degradation of dissolved lipophilic bioactive components in transparent products.

  2. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  3. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  4. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96-99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  5. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayati, Talib M., E-mail: talib-albyati@yahoo.com [University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Iraq); Doyle, Aidan M., E-mail: a.m.doyle@mmu.ac.uk [Manchester Metropolitan University, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction.

  6. Encapsulated heterogeneous base catalysts onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts in the transesterification of sunflower oil to biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albayati, Talib M.; Doyle, Aidan M.

    2015-01-01

    Alkali metals and their hydroxides, Na, NaOH, Li, and LiOH, were encapsulated onto SBA-15 nanoporous material as highly active catalysts for the production of biodiesel fuel from sunflower oil. The incipient wetness impregnation method was adopted for the prepared catalysts. The characterization properties of the catalysts and unmodified SBA-15 were determined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, EDAX, nitrogen adsorption–desorption porosimetry (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transesterification was conducted in a batch reactor at atmospheric pressure and 65 °C. The catalysts were highly active with yields of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in the range 96–99 %. Na/SBA-15 catalyst was reused for seven consecutive cycles under the same reaction conditions; the yield to FAME on the final cycle was 96 %. This study shows that the alkali metals and their hydroxides supported on SBA-15-based catalyst are excellent catalysts for the biodiesel reaction

  7. The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouin, Hélène; Gouzy, Jérôme; Grassa, Christopher J; Murat, Florent; Staton, S Evan; Cottret, Ludovic; Lelandais-Brière, Christine; Owens, Gregory L; Carrère, Sébastien; Mayjonade, Baptiste; Legrand, Ludovic; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Bowers, John E; Hubner, Sariel; Bellec, Arnaud; Bérard, Aurélie; Bergès, Hélène; Blanchet, Nicolas; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Brunel, Dominique; Catrice, Olivier; Chaidir, Nadia; Claudel, Clotilde; Donnadieu, Cécile; Faraut, Thomas; Fievet, Ghislain; Helmstetter, Nicolas; King, Matthew; Knapp, Steven J; Lai, Zhao; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Lippi, Yannick; Lorenzon, Lolita; Mandel, Jennifer R; Marage, Gwenola; Marchand, Gwenaëlle; Marquand, Elodie; Bret-Mestries, Emmanuelle; Morien, Evan; Nambeesan, Savithri; Nguyen, Thuy; Pegot-Espagnet, Prune; Pouilly, Nicolas; Raftis, Frances; Sallet, Erika; Schiex, Thomas; Thomas, Justine; Vandecasteele, Céline; Varès, Didier; Vear, Felicity; Vautrin, Sonia; Crespi, Martin; Mangin, Brigitte; Burke, John M; Salse, Jérôme; Muños, Stéphane; Vincourt, Patrick; Rieseberg, Loren H; Langlade, Nicolas B

    2017-06-01

    The domesticated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., is a global oil crop that has promise for climate change adaptation, because it can maintain stable yields across a wide variety of environmental conditions, including drought. Even greater resilience is achievable through the mining of resistance alleles from compatible wild sunflower relatives, including numerous extremophile species. Here we report a high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (3.6 gigabases), together with extensive transcriptomic data from vegetative and floral organs. The genome mostly consists of highly similar, related sequences and required single-molecule real-time sequencing technologies for successful assembly. Genome analyses enabled the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Asterids, further establishing the existence of a whole-genome triplication at the base of the Asterids II clade and a sunflower-specific whole-genome duplication around 29 million years ago. An integrative approach combining quantitative genetics, expression and diversity data permitted development of comprehensive gene networks for two major breeding traits, flowering time and oil metabolism, and revealed new candidate genes in these networks. We found that the genomic architecture of flowering time has been shaped by the most recent whole-genome duplication, which suggests that ancient paralogues can remain in the same regulatory networks for dozens of millions of years. This genome represents a cornerstone for future research programs aiming to exploit genetic diversity to improve biotic and abiotic stress resistance and oil production, while also considering agricultural constraints and human nutritional needs.

  8. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  9. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  10. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  11. Biodiesel from sunflower oil in supercritical methanol with calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sunflower seed oil was subjected to the transesterification reaction with calcium oxide (CaO) in supercritical methanol for obtaining biodiesel. Methanol is used most frequently as the alcohol in the transesterification process. Calcium oxide (CaO) can considerably improve the transesterification reaction of sunflower seed oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as the catalyst content, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of soybean oil to alcohol, were investigated and compared with those of non-catalyst runs. The catalytic transesterification ability of CaO is quite weak under ambient temperature. At a temperature of 335 K, the yield of methyl ester is only about 5% in 3 h. When CaO was added from 1.0% to 3.0%, the transesterification speed increased evidently, while when the catalyst content was further enhanced to 5%, the yield of methyl ester slowly reached to a plateau. It was observed that increasing the reaction temperature had a favorable influence on the methyl ester yield. In addition, for molar ratios ranging from 1 to 41, as the higher molar ratios of methanol to oil were charged, the greater transesterification speed was obtained. When the temperature was increased to 525 K, the transesterification reaction was essentially completed within 6 min with 3 wt% CaO and 41:1 methanol/oil molar ratio

  12. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L. Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winne Sia Chiaw Mei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05 higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA. Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  13. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Mohd. Esa, Norhaizan; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation. PMID:26784877

  14. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids based on the bio-refinery concept using sunflower oil as an alternative solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Tomao, Valérie; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    A green, inexpensive and easy-to-use method for carotenoids extraction from fresh carrots assisted by ultrasound was designed in this work. Sunflower oil was applied as a substitute to organic solvents in this green ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE): a process which is in line with green extraction and bio-refinery concepts. The processing procedure of this original UAE was first compared with conventional solvent extraction (CSE) using hexane as solvent. Moreover, the UAE optimal conditions for the subsequent comparison were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and ultra performance liquid chromatography--diode array detector--mass spectroscopy (UPLC-DAD-MS). The results showed that the UAE using sunflower as solvent has obtained its highest β-carotene yield (334.75 mg/l) in 20 min only, while CSE using hexane as solvent obtained a similar yield (321.35 mg/l) in 60 min. The green UAE performed under optimal extraction conditions (carrot to oil ratio of 2:10, ultrasonic intensity of 22.5 W cm(-2), temperature of 40 °C and sonication time of 20 min) gave the best yield of β-carotene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  16. Impact of climate changes and correlations on oil fatty acids in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onemli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower oil is a major important vegetable oil because it is widely used in human nutrition and in many industrial productions depends on fatty acid composition. Field studies were conducted during in two years on the same soil to investigate changes of climate induced oil fatty acid composition of a traditional sunflower, and to obtain correlations among oil fatty acids. Seed oil content and twelve fatty acid percentages of sunflower oil were analyzed. Variations for years were significant for seed oil content and palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), miristic (C14:0) and eicosenoic acids (C20:1). Higher temperatures during seed development in 2010 resulted with 68.38 % increasing in oleic content of the traditional sunflower hybrid. The highest negative correlations (r= -0.99) were noted between oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  17. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  18. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  19. Dietary fat (virgin olive oil or sunflower oil) and physical training interactions on blood lipids in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, José L; Huertas, Jesús R; Ochoa, Julio J; Battino, Maurizio; Mataix, José; Mañas, Mariano

    2003-04-01

    We investigated whether the intake of virgin olive oil or sunflower oil and performance of physical exercise (at different states) affect plasma levels of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile in rats. The study was carried out with six groups of male rats subjected for 8 wk to a diet based on virgin olive oil (three groups) or sunflower oil (three groups) as dietary fat. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control; the other two groups ran in a treadmill for 8 wk at 65% of the maximum oxygen consumption. One group for each diet was killed 24 h after the last bout of exercise and the other was killed immediately after the exercise performance. Triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and fatty acid profile were analyzed in plasma. Analysis of variance was used to test differences among groups. Animals fed on virgin olive oil had lower triacylglycerol and cholesterol values. Physical exercise reduced these parameters with both dietary treatments. Fatty acid profile showed higher monounsaturated fatty acid proportion in virgin olive fed oil animals and a higher omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion in sunflower oil fed animals. Physical exercise reduced the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids with both diets and increased the proportions of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results from the present study supported the idea that physical exercise and the intake of virgin olive oil are very good ways of reducing plasma triacylglycerols and cholesterol, which is desirable in many pathologic situations. Concerning findings on fatty acid profile, we had results similar to those of other investigators regarding the effect of different sources of dietary fat on plasma. The most interesting results came from the effect of physical exercise, with significant increases in the levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may contribute to the antithrombotic state and lower production of proinflammatory prostanoids attributed to

  20. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  1. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  2. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  3. Process parameters optimization for synthesis of methyl ester from sunflower oil using Taguchi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Senthilkumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, transesterification of sunflower oil for obtaining biodiesel was studied. Taguchi’s methodology (L9 orthogonal array was selected to optimize the most significant variables (methanol, catalyst concentration and stirrer speed in transesterification process. Experiments have conducted based on development of L9 orthogonal array by using Taguchi technique. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the regression equations were used to find the optimum yield of sunflower methyl ester under the influence of methanol, catalyst & stirrer speed. The study resulted in a maximum yield of sun flower methyl ester as 96% with the optimal conditions of methanol 110 ml with 0.5% by wt. of sodium hydroxide (NaOH stirred at 1200 rpm. The yield was analyzed on the basis of “larger is better”. Finally, confirmation tests were carried out to verify the experimental results.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE WOUNDS OF GOATS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF SUNFLOWER OIL AND OLIVE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Anand

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally created forty eight wounds of similar size and shape were randomly divided in to three groups, of 16 wounds in each group. Sunflower seed oil impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats belonging to group I, while Olive oil (Olea europaea impregnated gauze were subjected to the wounds of goats of group II and normal saline solution (control soaked gauze to the wounds of goats of group III. Healing tissues were collected from the junction of wound and intact skin from all the experimental wounds in each of the three groups on 3, 10, 15 and 25 days. Biochemical examinations of healing tissue were done for collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline. The level of collagen, elastin, hexosamine and hydroxyproline were significantly higher in group I followed by group II and then group III. It can be concluded that both sunflower oil and olive oil are effective for acceleration of wound healing and sunflower oil is more effective than olive oil.

  5. Regularities of filtration of sunflower oil with the use of vibroacoustic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue in sunflower oil is a dispersed phase consisting of particulate products grinding sunflower seeds in the form of particles of the pulp, oil cake, meal, residual quantities of metals, pesticides. In the recycling process they are in the oil in suspension and negatively affect its quality. For research an experimental setup was developed allowing to change the angle of inclination of the filter element. The regularities of filtration were determined without preliminary purification of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. It is established, the contamination of centrifuged oil in the initial period is 14.6 times lower. After 10 minutes of treatment, it decreases by 62%, after 20 minutes – by 79.4%. With a 30-minute treatment, particles of 0.005-0.1 mm in size are removed to 90%, which is approximated to the refined oil in terms of contamination. The influence of vibration-acoustic action on sunflower oil during its filtration is shown. At the last stage of production, the peroxide index is reduced to 2-3 moles of active oxygen, and after 3 months of storage – from 11.8 to 7.7, which according to GOST corresponds to the highest-grade oil. The regularities of the filtration without pre-treatment of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. Shows the effect of vibroacoustic exposure on sunflower oil when filtering. The obtained data on the change of qualitative parameters of sunflower oil during its filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact.

  6. In vitro mutagenicity assay (Ames test and phytochemical characterization of seeds oil of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma de Mello Silva Oliveira

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the genotoxic potential of the oil of H. annuus L. (sunflower seeds via the Ames test as well as its oxidative properties and lipid composition. The pre-incubation method, system metabolic activation (S9 fraction and five S. typhimurium strains (TA97, TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA102 were employed for the Ames test. The oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were analyzed by standard methods and gas chromatography. A revertant analysis showed no significant differences between the treatment doses (10–200 μl/plate and the negative controls, regardless of S9+ and S9−, and included all of the S. typhimurium strains. Chromatographic analysis showed high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated, saturated and total trans-isomers. Among the polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids predominated. The results suggest that the sunflower oil is not genotoxic as indicated by frameshift mutations and base pair substitutions regardless of the treatment dose, but shows dose-dependent toxicity. The oxidative properties of the sunflower oil were consistent with the requirements of national and international standards. However, its composition could also indicate phytotherapeutic properties. Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., Sunflower oil, Genetic toxicity, Gas chromatography

  7. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  8. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  9. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  10. Dietary Fats and Oxidative Stress: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Coronary Artery Disease Subjects Consuming Coconut Oil/Sunflower Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Vasudevan, D M

    2018-01-01

    Coconut oil has been used by the people of Kerala as a cooking medium for several decades. Due to its alleged hypercholesterolemic activity, general population in recent times is shifting to cooking oils rich in polyunsaturated fats, the most popular being sunflower oil. The effect of long-term consumption of sunflower oil on oxidative stress in humans is not well investigated. We studied oxidative stress among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who were consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as a part of their routine diet. Men, aged 35-70 years, with established CAD, who presented to the hospital for routine cardiac evaluations, were enrolled in this observational study. Group 1 and 2 consisted of 73 and 80 subjects consuming coconut oil and sunflower oil respectively for over a period of 2 years. Lipid profile and parameters for oxidative stress were evaluated among them. Conventional lipid parameters did not differ significantly between the two groups. Mean vitamin C concentration was significantly reduced for subjects on sunflower oil compared to those consuming coconut oil ( P  = 0.044). Malondialdehyde was higher for sunflower oil consumers compared to coconut oil consumers ( P  coconut oil did not induce hypercholesterolemia compared to sunflower oil. On the other hand, sunflower oil group had elevated oxidative stress compared to coconut oil group.

  11. Effect of Sunflower and Marine Oils on Ruminal Microbiota, In vitro Fermentation and Digesta Fatty Acid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Vargas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC investigated the changes in the ruminal microbiota and anaerobic fermentation in response to the addition of different lipid supplements to a ruminant diet. A basal diet with no oil added was the control, and the treatment diets were supplemented with sunflower oil (2% only, or sunflower oil (2% in combination with fish oil (1% or algae oil (1%. Four fermentation units were used per treatment. RUSITEC fermenters were inoculated with rumen digesta. Substrate degradation, fermentation end-products (volatile fatty acids, lactate, gas, methane, and ammonia, and microbial protein synthesis were determined. Fatty acid profiles and microbial community composition were evaluated in digesta samples. Numbers of representative bacterial species and microbial groups were determined using qPCR. Microbial composition and diversity were based on T-RFLP spectra. The addition of oils had no effect on substrate degradation or microbial protein synthesis. Differences among diets in neutral detergent fiber degradation were not significant (P = 0.132, but the contrast comparing oil–supplemented diets with the control was significant (P = 0.039. Methane production was reduced (P < 0.05 with all oil supplements. Propionate production was increased when diets containing oil were fermented. Compared with the control, the addition of algae oil decreased the percentage C18:3 c9c12c15 in rumen digesta, and that of C18:2 c9t11 was increased when the control diet was supplemented with any oil. Marine oils decreased the hydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids. Microbial diversity was not affected by oil supplementation. Cluster analysis showed that diets with additional fish or algae oils formed a group separated from the sunflower oil diet. Supplementation with marine oils decreased the numbers of Butyrivibrio producers of stearic acid, and affected the numbers of protozoa, methanogens, Selenomonas ruminantium

  12. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  13. Analysis and modelling of the factors controlling seed oil concentration in sunflower: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianasolo Fety Nambinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower appears as a potentially highly competitive crop, thanks to the diversification of its market and the richness of its oil. However, seed oil concentration (OC – a commercial criterion for crushing industry – is subjected to genotypic and environmental effects that make it sometimes hardly predictable. It is assumed that more understanding of oil physiology combined with the use of crop models should permit to improve prediction and management of grain quality for various end-users. Main effects of temperature, water, nitrogen, plant density and fungal diseases were reviewed in this paper. Current generic and specific crop models which simulate oil concentration were found to be empirical and to lack of proper evaluation processes. Recently two modeling approaches integrating ecophysiological knowledge were developed by Andrianasolo (2014, Statistical and dynamic modelling of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. grain composition as a function of agronomic and environmental factors, Ph.D. Thesis, INP Toulouse: (i a statistical approach relating OC to a range of explanatory variables (potential OC, temperature, water and nitrogen stress indices, intercepted radiation, plant density which resulted in prediction quality from 1.9 to 2.5 oil points depending on the nature of the models; (ii a dynamic approach, based on “source-sink” relationships involving leaves, stems, receptacles (as sources and hulls, proteins and oil (as sinks and using priority rules for carbon and nitrogen allocation. The latter model reproduced dynamic patterns of all source and sink components faithfully, but tended to overestimate OC. A better description of photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake, as well as genotypic parameters is expected to improve its performance.

  14. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maniyal Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care.

  15. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. In vitro antioxidant activities of extract and oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed against sunflower oil autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Teh, Y N; Tan, C P; Kamariah, L

    2012-08-01

    In order to overcome the stability problems of oils and fats, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) have widespread use as food additives in many countries. Recent reports reveal that these compounds may be implicated in many health risks, including cancer and carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a move towards the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin to replace these synthetic antioxidants. In this study, roselle seed oil (RSO) and extract (RSE) were mixed with sunflower oil, respectively to monitor degradation rate and investigate antioxidant activity during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activity was found to stabilise sunflower oil of various samples and in the order of RSE>RSO>tocopherol>sunflower oil. The total percentage increased after 5 days of storage period in free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). Total oxidation value (TOx) of sunflower oil supplemented with 1500 ppm RSE was 33.3%, 47.7%, 14.5%, and 45.5%, respectively. While the total percentage increased under different analysis methods, sunflower oil supplemented with 5% RSO was 17.2%, 60.4%, 36.2% and 59.0% in the order of FFA, PV, AV and TOTOX. Both RSO and RSE were found to be more effective in stabilisation of sunflower oil compared to tocopherol. Total phenolic content of RSE was 46.40 +/- 1.51 mg GAE/100g of oil while RSO was 12.51 +/- 0.15 mg GAE/ 100g of oil. The data indicates that roselle seed oil and seed extract are rich in phenolics and antioxidant activities and may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  17. [Use of flour from sunflower oil cake in the biosynthesis of antigungal antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharevich, V M; Shvetsova, N N; Prodan, S I; Malkov, M A

    1977-04-01

    The possibility of replacing soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by food wastes of the oilpress industry and the meal of the sunflower oil cake in particular is discussed as applied to the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics, such as levorin, mycoheptin, amphotericin. The studies showed that replacement of soybean meal by sunflower oil cake meal with simultaneous increasing of the amount of carbohydrates in the medium increased the levorin levels by 60--70 per cent as compared to the media used at present. When soybean meal and corn-steep liquor were simultaneously replaced by sunflower oil cake meal in amounts of 3--4 per cent the levels of mycoheptin in the fermentation broth increased by 30--65 per cent respectively. Replacement of soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by 3 per cent of sunflow oil cake meal in the medium used presently increased the amphotericin levels by 27 percent as compared to the control. Therefore, sunflower oil cake meal is a substitute of full value for soybean meal and corn-steep liquor in the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics.

  18. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  19. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  20. The effects of heating temperatures and time on deformation energy and oil yield of sunflower bulk seeds in compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabutey, A.; Herak, D.; Sigalingging, R.; Demirel, C.

    2018-02-01

    The deformation energy (J) and percentage oil yield (%) of sunflower bulk seeds under the influence of heat treatment temperatures and heating time were examined in compression test using the universal compression testing machine and vessel diameter of 60 mm with a plunger. The heat treatment temperatures were between 40 and 100 °C and the heating time at specific temperatures of 40 and 100 °C ranged from 15 to 75 minutes. The bulk sunflower seeds were measured at a pressing height of 60 mm and pressed at a maximum force of 100 kN and speed of 5 mm/min. Based on the compression results, the deformation energy and oil yield increased along with increasing heat treatment temperatures. The results were statistically significant (p 0.05).

  1. Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Milk drinks containing 5% traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) or specific structured lipid (SL) (both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid) were compared with respect to their particle size, viscosity and oxidative stability during storage. Furthermore, the effect...... drink could not be ascribed was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid and to a single factor, differences in the process applied to produce and purify the lipids. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while gallic acid did not exert a distinct antioxidative effect in the milk drink based on SL....... of adding potential antioxidants EDTA or gallic acid to the milk drink based on SL was investigated. The lipid type significantly affected the oxidative stability of the milk drinks: Milk drink based on SL oxidized faster than milk drink based on RL or SO. The reduced oxidative stability in the SL milk...

  2. Antioxidant effcacy of unripe banana (Musa acuminata Colla) peel extracts in sunflower oil during accelerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Stella Sye Chee; Chang, Sui Kiat; Sia, Winne Chiaw Mei; Yim, Hip Seng

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower oil is prone to oxidation during storage time, leading to production of toxic compounds that might affect human health. Synthetic antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation. Spreading interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on fruit and vegetables for new antioxidants. In this study, the efficacy of unripe banana peel extracts (100, 200 and 300 ppm)  in stabilizing sunflower oil was tested under accelerated storage (65°C) for a period of 24 days. BHA and α-tocopherol served as comparative standards besides the control. Established parameters such as peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were used to assess the extent of oil deterioration. After 24 days storage at 65°C, sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm extract of unripe banana peel showed significantly lower PV and TOTOX compared to BHA and α-tocopherol. TBARS, p-AnV and FFA values of sunflower oil containing 200 and 300 ppm of unripe banana peel extract exhibited comparable inhibitory effects with BHA. Unripe banana peel extract at 200 and 300 ppm demonstrated inhibitory effect against both primary and secondary oxidation up to 24 days under accelerated storage conditions. Unripe banana peel extract may be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants in the application of food industry to suppress lipid oxidation.

  3. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Kilic, Murat; Pütün, Ersan; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  4. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  5. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  6. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C A; Collazos, C A; Acuña, H E Castellanos; Fernandez, C P; Martínez, D Blanco; Cuervo, J A

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K 2 CO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 supported in gamma-alumina (K 2 CO 3 /γ Al 2 O 3 y Na 2 CO 3 /γ-Al 2 O 3 ) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated. (paper)

  7. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Zapata, C. A.; Blanco Martínez, D.; Collazos, C. A.; Castellanos Acuña, H. E.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/γ Al2O3 y Na2CO3 /γ-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60°C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.

  8. New formulations of sunflower based bio-lubricants with high oleic acid content – VOSOLUB project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leao J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available VOSOLUB project is a demonstration project supported by Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME that aims at testing under real operating conditions new formulations of sunflower-based biolubricants with high oleic acid content. These biolubricant formulations (including hydraulic fluids, greases, and neat oil metal-working fluids will be tested in three European demonstrating sites. Their technical performance will be evaluated and compared to corresponding mineral lubricants ones. In order to cover the demand for the sunflower base oil, a European SMEs network will be established to ensure the supply of the base at a competitive market price. Results presented concerns the base oil quality confirmed to be in accordance with the specification required, in particular on Free Fatty acid content, Phosphorus content, rancimat induction time and oleic acid content (ITERG. The oil characteristics specific for lubricant application analyzed by BfB Oil Research under normalized methods, match with lubricant specifications requirement such as viscosity, cold & hot properties, surface properties, anti-oxidant properties and thermal stability, anti-wear and EP properties, anti-corrosion properties Performance of the new biolubricant have been assessed by formulators and TEKNIKER First results on the use of new lubricant on real condition for rail Grease (produced by RS CLARE and tested with Sheffield Supertram, Hydraulic oil (produced by BRUGAROLAS and cutting oil (produced by MOTUL TECH and tested with innovative machining, turning are described.

  9. Producing bio-pellets from sunflower oil cake for use as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kato, Hitoshi; Kanai, Genta; Togashi, Tatsushi [National Agricultural Research Center (Japan)], E-mail: kobay@affrc.go.jp

    2008-07-01

    Pellet fuels were produced from ground sunflower oil cake using a pelletizer. The length, hardness, and powder characteristics of dried pellets depend on the initial water content of the oil cake. The appropriate values of water contents were 19.9 - 21.0% w.b. Oil cake pellets were found to contain 6.07% ash and 20.99 MJ/kg caloric value, which are within the standard range of wood pellets. Combustion experiments using a commercial pellet stove demonstrate that oil cake pellets burn as well as wood pellets. Oil cake pellets are useful as a fuel alternative to wood pellets. (author)

  10. Dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels induced by fasting and sunflower oil challenge test in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. C.; de Almeida, I. T.; Jakobs, C.; Poll-The, B. T.; Duran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic changes of plasma acylcarnitine levels in 1- to 7-y-old children during fasting and after the ingestion of sunflower oil were studied. Glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, FFA, and individual plasma acylcarnitine levels were monitored in both conditions. Fasting experiments lasted

  11. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lubrication properties of sunflower oil have been modified by epoxidation in the first step and acetylation of the obtained epoxide in the second step. Epoxidation has been followed in dichloromethane solution in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid as oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The reaction ...

  12. A randomized study of coconut oil versus sunflower oil on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with stable coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Maniyal; Vasudevan, D M; Sundaram, K R; Krishnan, Sajitha; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nandakumar, Sandya; Chandrasekhar, Rajiv; Mathew, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its pathological atherosclerotic process are closely related to lipids. Lipids levels are in turn influenced by dietary oils and fats. Saturated fatty acids increase the risk for atherosclerosis by increasing the cholesterol level. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of cooking oil media (coconut oil and sunflower oil) on lipid profile, antioxidant mechanism, and endothelial function in patients with established CAD. In a single center randomized study in India, patients with stable CAD on standard medical care were assigned to receive coconut oil (Group I) or sunflower oil (Group II) as cooking media for 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, serum, lipids, Lipoprotein a, apo B/A-1 ratio, antioxidants, flow-mediated vasodilation, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Hundred patients in each arm completed 2 years with 98% follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in the anthropometric, biochemical, vascular function, and in cardiovascular events after 2 years. Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Palm Oil Addition on Sunflower Halva Stability and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Muresan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Halva is one of the most popular food products of Middle Eastern and North African countries. Worldwide, the most known halva contains roasted sesame seeds, while usually in Eastern European countries the most appreciated is sunflower halva. However, even if sunflower halva is an appreciated product, it has currently a quality below the expectations of the new generation of consumers. Sunflower halva main issue is caused by the oil which separates at the surface during storage, determining a low commercial aspect of the product. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the influence of palm oil addition on sunflower halva stability and texture. Five samples containing different oil percentages [w/w] (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% were prepared, as well as a control sample prepared using the standard recipe (no palm oil added. The texture of all samples was analyzed by an instrumental method, while the colloidal stability was determined by a gravimetric technique during 40 days of storage at two different temperatures (1-2ºC and 15-20ºC. After the storage test at 1-2oC, there were not significant differences between the samples, for all palm oil containing samples as well as for control the percentages of separated oil being below 0.6%. With respect to the control sample, the halva samples containing 1%, 4% and 5% of palm oil showed a decrease in their stability, while samples containing 2% and 3% showed an improved stability (3.44% and 1.78% of separated oil. During this study it was established that the sample containing 3% palm oil was the most favorable, regarding its textural properties, as well as its colloidal stability. 

  14. Life Cycle Assessment for Evaluating On-farm Energy Production: The Case of Sunflower Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the production of sunflower oil as a source of bioenergy and its use on the farm. Representative farms of the Veneto Region were analyzed in order to evaluate the possibility of using different biofuels. The results showed that there are only a few feasible alternatives at farm level. The conversion of oil to biodiesel appeared unachievable because of the large number of hectares necessary for optimizing use of the transesterification equipment. A life cycle environmental analysis (LCA was applied to eight different farm types simulating the total replacement of diesel oil by pure vegetable oil (sunflower. The results were not uniform because, considering all the LCA impact categories, some of them turned to be worse than the original scenario (use of diesel oil but there was a substantial advantage for all the farm types in terms of reduction of substances with effects on climate change. Some farms, termed horticultural farm large, unspecialized farm large and unspecialized farm small, had a reduction of more than 99% in the substances with effects on climate change by changing from diesel oil to sunflower oil. The biofuel is not yet competitive as no free market exists for it, but it represents a practical way to avoid the shift of economic benefits from agriculture to industry, as happens with biodiesel production.

  15. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  16. Effect of Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Oil Sunflower in Salted Soil of Ningxia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN Yin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Combining field trial with test analysis, a nitrogen(N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O fertilizer experiment of oil sunflowers was set to explore the influence of different ratio of N, P, K fertilizer on dry matter accumulation of oil sunflowers, nutrient absorption and accumulation, the yield and quality, etc in salted soil of the northern Ningxia, in order to provide scientific evidence for regulating and controlling of fertilization in the salted soil and enhancing the yields and quality of oil sunflowers. The results showed that: in the salted soil, the plant which had been disposed by N, P, K fertilizer had more advantages, the 1 000-grain weight, fruit quantity of each oil sunflower and yield per plant and hectare all increased significantly. Treatment of adding the organic fertilizer on the basis of N, P, K fertilizer could also increase the amount of N, P, K absorption significantly. At the same time, the application of N, P, K fertilizer would increase the fat content and reduce the protein, increase the oleic acid and stearic acid, reduce the content of linoleic acid and palmitic acid. The needs of nitrogen (N, phosphorus(P2O5 and potassium(K2O absorption of oil sunflower seeds were averagely 6.1~9.6, 3.2~3.8 kg and 12.3~13.7 kg, about 1:0.40~0.55:1.43~2.09 in ratio, 1:0.49:1.79 averagely in ratio.

  17. A randomized controlled intervention with fish oil versus sunflower oil from 9 to 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders D; Michaelsen, Kim F; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    intake affects adipose tissue growth, we randomly allocated 154 healthy infants to daily supplementation with FO or sunflower oil (SO) from 9 to 18 mo of age and measured z-score changes in various anthropometric assessments of body size and skinfold thicknesses and plasma adipokine concentrations. Among...

  18. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  19. Emission and Performance analysis of hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternate fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hemanandh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted by using the hydrotreated refined sunflower oil as alternative fuel in a 4-stroke, stationary DI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The effects of hydrotreated vegetable oil blends on diesel engine emission and performance were studied. The emission and performance were studied for different proportions such as HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 and at different loading conditions and comparison was made with petrodiesel. The emission and performance results of HTSF B25 and HTSF B100 showed that decrease in CO by 9% and 37%, HC by 42% and 55%, NOx by 10% and 18.18%, BSFC by 25% and 12.5%. The increase in brake thermal efficiency was by 10% and 38%. It was observed from the study that hydrotreatment of refined sunflower oil could be one of the best alternative fuels for the diesel engine.

  20. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON GRAIN YIELD, OIL CONTENT AND OIL YIELD OF NEW OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Mijić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of determining the influence of weather conditions on the yield components of sunflower, the results of three-year field trials are analysed in the paper. In the trials sown in Osijek in 2013, 2014 and 2015, there were 15 sunflower hybrids: two foreign hybrids and 13 hybrid combinations of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. In the period before sowing (January – March, the highest amount of precipitation was in 2013 (213.1 mm, then in 2015 (167.9 mm, and the lowest in 2014 (109.5 mm. In the growing period (April – September, the highest amount of precipitation (487.3 mm was in 2014, 475.7 mm in 2013, and in 2015 it was the lowest (251.6 mm. In 2013, during the growing period, the mean monthly air temperature was 19.1°C, in 2015 19.9°C, and in 2014 18.6°C. Of these years, statistically significant at the P=0.05, the highest value of the analysed traits was recorded in 2013: grain yield of 6.47 t ha-1, oil content 51.69% and oil yield 3.05 t ha-1. Grain yield, oil content and oil yield were lower in 2015, and the lowest in 2014. Matej, a newly recognized sunflower hybrid of the Agricultural Institute Osijek had the highest values of grain and oil yield (6.95 and 3.39 t ha-1, and by its oil content of 53.44%, it was in the third place. For high grain and oil yields of sunflower, in addition to the optimal air temperature, the amount and distribution of precipitation before and also during the growing season are very important.

  1. Antioxidant effect of mono- and dihydroxyphenols in sunflower oil with different levels of naturally present tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrádková, Iveta; Merkl, Roman; Šmidrkal, Jan; Kyselka, Jan; Filip, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mono- and dihydroxyphenolic acids and their alkyl esters were examined, with emphasis on the relationship between their molecular structure and antioxidant activity. Test media with different tocopherol level were used for determining the oxidative stability: original refined sunflower oil (total tocopherols 149.0 mg/kg), partially tocopherol-stripped sunflower oil (total tocopherols 8.7 mg/kg) and distilled fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a tocopherol-free medium. The chemical reaction of tocopherols with diazomethane tested for the purpose to eliminate their antioxidant activity failed due to the negligible degree of methylation of hydroxyl group in the tocopherol molecule. Caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxyphenolic acids) and their alkyl esters were found to be more active antioxidants than monohydroxyphenolic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid), 2,5-dihydroxyphenolic acid (gentisic acid), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolic acids (vanillic and ferulic acids) and their corresponding alkyl esters. Naturally present tocopherols in refined sunflower oil proved to have a synergistic effect on gentisic acid but not on its alkyl esters. In contrast, tocopherols showed an antagonistic effect on alkyl esters of caffeic acid, because their protection factors decreased with increasing level of tocopherols in the test medium. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these alkyl esters decreased with increasing length of their alkyl chain in conformity with the polar paradox hypothesis. Practical applications: Tocopherols as naturally present antioxidants influence considerably the antioxidant activity of other antioxidants added to plant oils used as a test medium. Distilled fatty acid methyl esters prepared from refined sunflower oil may serve as an optimal tocopherol-free test medium. Some alkyl esters of phenolic acids were evaluated to be applicable as natural more lipophilic antioxidants in comparison with phenolic acids. PMID:23997655

  2. Changes on the Solid Fat Content of Palm Oil/ Sunflower Oil Blends via Inter esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suria Ramli; Azwani Mohd Lazim; Siti Aishah Hasbullah

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of binary blends containing refined-deodorized-bleached palm oil (RBDPO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were studied before and after chemical inter esterification at different temperature (110 degree Celsius (CIE1) and 80 degree Celsius (CIE2)) using sodium methoxide as catalyst. Thirty-three samples with different ratios were analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, fatty acid composition (FAC) and solid fat content (SFC) profile. Upon CIE, extensive rearrangements of fatty acids among triacylglycerol (TAG) were seen. Generally, CIE not induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of ratio 8:2 and 5:5 of RBDPO:SFO blends. However, CIE induced enormous changes in the TAG compositions of the 9:1, 7:3, 6:4, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8 and 1:9 blends, which some of the TAGs were increasing while the other decreasing. These changes in TAG profiles resulted in some changes in the physical properties (especially SFC) of the blends. Generally, the SFC of inter esterified blend were decreased after CIE1 and increased after CIE2, except for sample 10:0, 8:2, 7:3, 5:5 and 9:1 which were decreased after CIE1 and CIE2. As a conclusion, CIE1 and CIE2 successfully changed the physicochemical characteristics of the binary blends. (author)

  3. Stabilizing effect of epoxidized sunflower oil as a secondary stabilizer for Ca/Hg stabilized PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsaturated triglyceride oil sunflower was epoxidized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO was used as an organic thermal co-stabilizer for rigid poly(vinyl chloride (PVC in the presence of tricalcium dicitrate (Ca3(C6H5O72 and mercury (II acetate (Hg(CH3COO2. The thermo-oxidative degradation of PVC was studied in the presence of these ternary stabilizer systems at 170, 180, 190 and 200°C in N2 atmosphere. The effects of metal carboxylate combination Ca/Hg in the absence and in the presence of epoxidized sunflower oil on static heat treatment of PVC have been studied. The formation of polyene sequences was investigated by UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and by comparing viscosity data obtained in the presence and in the absence of the additives. It was found that the additives retard the rate of degradation and reduce the extent of polymer chain scission associated with the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride. Synergistic effects were found when stabilizer was blended in 50:50 weight ratios with either. It was found that ESO exerted a stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. The activation energy for degraded PVC in absence of stabilizers was 38.6 kJ•mol–1 and in the presence of Ca/Hg and Ca/Hg/ESO were 53.3 and 64.7 kJ•mol–1 respectively. In order of compare the efficiency of the epoxidized sunflower oil with these metal soap stabilizers, thermal stabilities were evaluated on the basis of evolved hydrogen chloride determined by conductometry technique and degree of discoloration are discussed.

  4. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  5. Temperature and duration of heating of sunflower oil affect ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Privé , Florence; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Farizon, Yves; Enjalbert, Francis; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle

    2010-01-01

    Sunflower oil heated at 110 or 150°C for 1, 3, or 6 h was incubated with ruminal content in order to investigate the effects of temperature and duration of heating of oil on the ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid in vitro. When increased, these 2 parameters acted together to decrease the disappearance of linoleic acid in the media by inhibiting the isomerization of linoleic acid, which led to a decrease in conjugated linoleic acids and trans-C18:1 production. Nevertheless, trans-10 iso...

  6. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Flaxseed Oil-in-Water Emulsions Fabricated from Sunflower Lecithins: Impact of Blending Lecithins with Different Phospholipid Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Chen, Fang; Wang, Xingguo; Jin, Qingzhe; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2017-06-14

    There is great interest in the formulation of plant-based foods enriched with nutrients that promote health, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated the impact of sunflower phospholipid type on the formation and stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsions. Two sunflower lecithins (Sunlipon 50 and 90) with different phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels (59 and 90%, respectively) were used in varying ratios to form emulsions. Emulsion droplet size, charge, appearance, microstructure, and oxidation were measured during storage at 55 °C in the dark. The physical and chemical stability increased as the PC content of the lecithin blends decreased. The oxidative stability of emulsions formulated using Sunlipon 50 was better than emulsions formulated using synthetic surfactants (SDS or Tween 20). The results are interpreted in terms of the impact of emulsifier type on the colloidal interactions between oil droplets and on the molecular interactions between pro-oxidants and oil droplet surfaces.

  7. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  8. Extraction of sunflower oil by twin screw extruder: screw configuration and operating condition effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartika, I.A. [FATETA-IPB, Bogor (Indonesia). Department of Agroindustrial Technology; Pontalier, P.Y.; Rigal, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle, UMR 1010 INRA/INP-ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the screw configuration allowing oil extraction from sunflower seeds with a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Five screw profiles were examined to define the best performance (oil extraction yield, specific mechanical energy and oil quality) by studying the influence of operating conditions, barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate. Generally, the position and spacing between two reversed screw elements affected oil extraction yield. An increase of oil extraction yield was observed as the reversed screw elements were moved with increased spacing between two elements and with smaller pitch elements. In addition, oil extraction yield increased as barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate were decreased. Highest oil extraction yield (85%) with best cake meal quality (residual oil content lower than 13%) was obtained under operating conditions of 120 {sup o}C, 75 rpm and 19 kg/h. Furthermore, the operating parameters influenced energy input. A decrease in barrel temperature and feed rate followed by an increase in screw speed increased energy input, particularly specific mechanical energy input. Effect of the operating parameters on oil quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the oil quality was very good. The acid value was below 2 mg of KOH/g of oil and total phosphorus content was low, below 100 mg/kg. (author)

  9. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Effect of different drip irrigation regimes on yield and oil quality of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Metin SEZEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, oil yield and quality and water use of sunflower (Oleko variety irrigated with a drip system under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at the Alata Horticultural Research Institute, Tarsus Soil and Water Resources area in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Irrigation regimes consisted of three irrigation intervals (A1:= 25 mm; A2:= 50 mm; A3: = 75 mm of cumulative pan evaporation and six irrigation levels (I1=0.50, I2=0.75, I3=1.00 and I4=1.25. In addition, I5=PRD75 and I6=PRD50 treatments were considered. They received 75 and 50% of the full irrigation (I3 treatment from alternative laterals, respectively. Also, rainfed treatment is a control plot in the experiment. Maximum and minimum yields were obtained from the A2I4 and rainfed treatments, respectively in all experimental years. As the irrigation level value decreased the total yields in each irrigation interval also decreased. Seasonal irrigation amounts in the treatments varied from 199 mm to 563 mm in the experimental years. Seasonal evapotranspiration values in the treatments varied from 243 mm to 611 mm in the experimental years. Both irrigation amounts and irrigation frequencies had significantly effects on oil content of sunflower. The saturated (palmitic and stearic acid and unsaturated (oleic and linoleic acid fatty acid contents were significantly affected by water stress. In conclusion, A2I4 irrigation regime is recommended for sunflower production in the Mediterranean region in order to attain higher yields with improved quality. In case of water shortage, A2I13 irrigation regime is recommended to increase sunflower yield and quality.

  11. Combustion analysis of preheated crude sunflower oil in an IDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, Mustafa; Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Turkcan, Ali [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, preheated crude sunflower oil (PCSO) was tested for combustion and emission properties against petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF) in a naturally aspirated, indirect injection (IDI) engine. The cylinder gas pressure and heat release curves for PCSO at 75 C were similar to those of PBDF. The ignition delays for the PCSO were longer and the start of injection timing was earlier than for PBDF. The difference in the average brake torque was a decrease of 1.36% for PCSO though this was statistically insignificant. The brake specific fuel consumption increased by almost 5% more or less in proportion to the difference in calorific value, so that the 1.06% increase in thermal efficiency was again statistically insignificant. The emission test results showed that the decreases in CO{sub 2} emissions and smoke opacity 2.05% and 4.66%, respectively; however, this was not statistically significant, though in line with the apparent increase in thermal efficiency. There was a significant 34% improvement in the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide increased by 1.77% again the result was not statistically significant given the small number of repeat tests. The use of PCSO does not have any negative effects on the engine performance and emissions in short duration engine testing. (author)

  12. INTENSIFICATION OF MICROBIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE ETHAPOLAN BIOSYNTHESIS ON MIXTURE OF MOLASSES AND SUNFLOWER OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Pirog

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to establish Acinetobacter sp. IMB B-7005 cultivation conditions, which provide the maximal synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of molasses and sunflower oil, and to explore the possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for waste one. On the basis of theoretical calculations of energy consumption for the synthesis of ethapolan and biomass, it was determined that the optimal molar ratio of the concentrations of energy-deficient (sucrose and energy-excessive (sunflower oil substrates in the mixture was 1.0:0.9. Experiments have shown that the highest values of exopolysaccharide synthesis were observed at a molar ratio of monosubstrates in mixture 1.0:1.1, which is as close as possible to the theoretically calculated one. It was shown that increasing concentration of molasses and refined oil in mixture from 1.0 to 1.5% was accompanied by increase in amount of synthesized exopolysaccharide and its synthesizing capacity by 1.2 and 1.3 times, respectively. The possibility of replacing refined oil in a mixture with molasses for various types of waste (after frying potatoes, meat, vegetables and mixed was established. The maximum parameters of exopolysaccharide synthesis (concentration 14 g/l, synthesizing capacity 3.5 g exopolysaccharide/g biomass were observed when using mixed waste oil for both inoculum obtaining and EPS biosynthesis. The obtained results testify to the possibility of development of universal technology for obtaining microbal exopolysaccharide ethapolan on a mixture of waste (molasses and waste oil independent of the type and provider of waste oil.

  13. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during the deep frying process; Estudios fisicoquimicos sobre mezclas de aceite de girasol con aceite de chufa prensado en frio durante el proceso de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rehah, F. M.; Anany, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC), color and viscosity) were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade {+-} 5 degree centigrade, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25); while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24). Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W) proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process. (Author) 68 refs.

  14. Promoting Locally Fortified Sunflower Oil Using E-Vouchers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The vouchers, transmitted through cell phone text messages, will deliver subsidies to vulnerable groups. They will target lactating mothers, while jumpstarting demand for fortified oil. Findings to improve health outcomes During the course of the project, subsidies will be systematically withdrawn to observe producers' and ...

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    OpenAIRE

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN; SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA; ANCA DUMBRAVA

    2018-01-01

    We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value) and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index). The best combination for sunflower oil was with coc...

  16. [Suitability of four stomatal conductance models in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China: A case study for potato and oil sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming Xia; Wang, Jing; Tang, Jian Zhao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Xue, Qing Yu; Chang, Qing; Tan, Mei Xiu

    2016-11-18

    The suitability of four popular empirical and semi-empirical stomatal conductance models (Jarvis model, Ball-Berry model, Leuning model and Medlyn model) was evaluated based on para-llel observation data of leaf stomatal conductance, leaf net photosynthetic rate and meteorological factors during the vigorous growing period of potato and oil sunflower at Wuchuan experimental station in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China. It was found that there was a significant linear relationship between leaf stomatal conductance and leaf net photosynthetic rate for potato, whereas the linear relationship appeared weaker for oil sunflower. The results of model evaluation showed that Ball-Berry model performed best in simulating leaf stomatal conductance of potato, followed by Leuning model and Medlyn model, while Jarvis model was the last in the performance rating. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.0331, 0.0371, 0.0456 and 0.0794 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) was 26.8%, 30.0%, 36.9% and 64.3%, and R-squared (R 2 ) was 0.96, 0.61, 0.91 and 0.88 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of potato for Ball-Berry model, Leuning model, Medlyn model and Jarvis model, respectively. For leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower, Jarvis model performed slightly better than Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model. RMSE was 0.2221, 0.2534, 0.2547 and 0.2758 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , NRMSE was 40.3%, 46.0%, 46.2% and 50.1%, and R 2 was 0.38, 0.22, 0.23 and 0.20 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower for Jarvis model, Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model, respectively. The path analysis was conducted to identify effects of specific meteorological factors on leaf stomatal conductance. The diurnal variation of leaf stomatal conductance was principally affected by vapour pressure saturation deficit for both potato and oil sunflower. The model evaluation suggested that the stomatal

  17. Investigation of adulteration of sunflower oil with thermally deteriorated oil using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vilela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy based on attenuated total reflectance sampling technique, combined with multivariate analysis methods was used to monitor the adulteration of pure sunflower oil (SO with thermally deteriorated oil (TDO. Contrary to published research, in this work, SO was thermally deteriorated in the absence of foodstuff. SO samples were exposed to temperatures between 125 and 225°C from 6 to 24 h. Quantification of adulteration of SO with TDO, based on principal components regression (PCR, partial least squares regression (PLS-R, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA applied to mid-infrared spectra and to their first and second derivatives is reported for the first time. Infrared frequencies associated with the biochemical differences between TDO samples deteriorated in different conditions were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA. LDA was effective in the twofold classification presence/absence of TDO in adulterated SO (with 5% V/V of less of TDO. It provided 93.7% correct classification for the calibration set and 91.3% correct classification when cross-validated. A detection limit of 1% V/V of TDO in SO was determined. Investigation of an external set of samples allowed the evaluation of the predictability of the models. The regression coefficient (R2 for prediction was 0.95 and 0.96 and the RMSE was 2.1 and 1.9% V/V when using the PCR or PLS-R models, respectively, and the first derivative of spectra. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation of adulteration of SO with TDO based on PCR, PLS-R, and LDA has been reported so far.

  18. Formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids in thermoxidized olive and sunflower oils and quantitation in used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Joaquín; Marmesat, Susana; Bordeaux, Olivier; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Dobarganes, Carmen

    2004-07-14

    The formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids, arising from oleic and linoleic acids, were investigated in olive oil and conventional sunflower oil, representatives of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils, respectively, during thermoxidation at 180 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 h. Six monoepoxy fatty acids, cis-9,10- and trans-9,10-epoxystearate, arising from oleic acid, and cis-9,10-, trans-9,10-, cis-12,13-, and trans-12,13-epoxyoleate, arising from linoleic acid, were analyzed by gas chromatography after oil derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable amounts, ranging from 4.29 to 14.24 mg/g of oil in olive oil and from 5.10 to 9.44 mg/g of oil in sunflower oil, were found after the heating periods assayed. Results showed that the monoepoxides quantitated constituted a major group among the oxidized fatty acid monomers formed at high temperature. For similar levels of degradation, higher contents of the monoepoxides were found in olive oil than in sunflower oil. Ten used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets in Spain were analyzed to determine the contents of the monoepoxides in real frying oil samples. Levels ranged from 3.37 to 14.42 mg/g of oil. Results show that, for similar degradation levels, the monoepoxides were more abundant in the monounsaturated oils than in the polyunsaturated oils.

  19. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  20. Oxidative stability of structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Traditional sunflower oil (SO), randomized lipid (RL) and specific structured lipid (SL), both produced from SO and tricaprylin/caprylic acid, respectively, were stored for up to 12 wk to compare their oxidative stabilities by chemical and sensory analyses. Furthermore, the effect of adding...... a commercial antioxidant blend Grindox 117 (propyl gallate/citric acid/ascorbyl palmitate) or gallic acid to the SL was investigated. The lipid type affected the oxidative stability: SL was less stable than SO and RL. The reduced stability was most likely caused by both the structure of the lipid...

  1. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on the changes of biologically active complexes of sunflower oil, tard, and butter under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Stamatov, D.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of changes in the biologically active complex of sunflower oil, lard and butter under the influence of gamma rays: The points examined are the effect of small, medium and large doses (10 4 , 10 6 and 10 7 ) of gamma rays (Co 60 ) and the after-effect on the carotenes, tocopherols, sterols and linoleic acid in sunflower oil, lard and butter. Under these conditions, only the carotenes and tocopherols are subjected to changes to the point of destruction. What was found is a good correlative connection between the changes in the tocopherols and the degree of oxidation of the corresponding fats. (orig.) [de

  3. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danby, Simon G; AlEnezi, Tareq; Sultan, Amani; Lavender, Tina; Chittock, John; Brown, Kirsty; Cork, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Natural oils are advocated and used throughout the world as part of neonatal skin care, but there is an absence of evidence to support this practice. The goal of the current study was to ascertain the effect of olive oil and sunflower seed oil on the biophysical properties of the skin. Nineteen adult volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis were recruited into two randomized forearm-controlled mechanistic studies. The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. These findings challenge the unfounded belief that all natural oils are beneficial for the skin and highlight the need for further research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Sunflower oil ozonation. Following of the reaction by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Gomez, Maritza F.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the technique of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance can be used for the pursuit of the reaction between the ozone and the unsaturated fatty acids. It's carried out the sunflower oil ozonization to different applied dose of ozone and the index of peroxides and the concentration of aldehydes are determined. The main reaction products were identified by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR 1 H). The intensities of the signs were used to follow the advance of the reaction between the ozone and the sunflower oil. It is was carried out until obtaining an index of peroxides of 1 202 mmol-equiv/kg. The intensities of the signs of the olefinic protons diminish with a gradual increment in the dose of applied ozone, but without ending up disappearing completely. The ozonides of Criegee obtained to applied dose of ozone of 107,1 mg/g were approximately bigger 7,4 times that those obtained at the beginning from the reaction to applied dose of ozone of 15,3 mg/g. The aldehydes protons were observed as a sign of weak intensity in all the spectra. The signs belonging to the olenifics protons of the hydroperoxides in d = 5,55 ppm increases with the increment of the applied dose of ozone. You concludes that to higher applied dose of ozone, haggler is the advance of the ozonization reaction, what belongs together with a bigger formation of oxygenated compounds

  5. Study of the application of sunflower oil in the process of drilling ABNT 1045 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Robert Pereira Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cutting fluids in machining, when chosen and applied adequately can contemplate in benefits during the manufacturing processes. The selected method should allow the cutting fluid to reach the closest possible of the cutting edge lubricating the chip-tool interface. The properties of the fluid are fundamental so that the same facilitates the machining process. However the fluid can represent a great problem for the environment and health of the operator. For that reason, several scientific and technological studies are constantly developed to investigate the performance and alternative applications of cutting fluids in machining operations. This work studies the effect of sunflower oil in the cutting forces for the drilling process of 1045 ABNT steel. The fluid was applied in the form MQL - Minimum Quantity Lubrication for different cutting conditions. The cutting speed, feed rate and the length of the hole were varied. Each one of the cutting variables two levels were used. The results suggest a good acting sunflower oil in the work accomplished.

  6. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Wembabazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR technique. Acidic sulphonate (–SO3H groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5% than sulphonated saw dust (46.6% during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p=0.05. The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000°C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000°C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8% from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products.

  7. Effect of chemically reduced palladium supported catalyst on sunflower oil hydrogenation conversion and selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Alshaibani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of sunflower oil was studied in order to improve the conversion and to reduce the trans-isomerization selectivity. The hydrogenation was performed using Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst and Pd/Al2O3 commercial catalyst under similar conditions. The Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation and chemical reduction processes. It was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis (BET, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The result of sunflower oil hydrogenation on Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed a 17% higher conversion and a 23% lower trans-isomerization selectivity compared to the commercial Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The chemical reduction of palladium supported catalyst using potassium borohydride (KBH4 has affected the Pd–B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst’s structure and particle size. These most likely influenced its catalytic performance toward higher conversion and lower trans-isomerization selectivity.

  8. Ultrasonication Assisted Production of Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil by Using CuO: Mg Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rintu; Jose, Sony; Joyprabu, H.; Johnson, I.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel is a clean, renewable, biodegradable, eco-friendly and alternative fuel used in the diesel engine. The present work was carried out at constant operational conditions such as methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1, catalyst concentration 0.25%, 30 minute reaction time and the reaction temperature at 60°C. Biodiesel was synthesized by transesterification of sunflower oil (SFO) with methanol, using CuO: Mgas nanocatalyst. This nanocatalyst was prepared by quick precipitation method. The biodiesel yield of 71.78% was achieved under reaction condition. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The FAME conversion yield up to 82.83 % could be obtained under the operating conditions.

  9. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration.

  10. Effects of Watering and Nitrogen Fertilization on Yield and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Cropping Oil Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAN Jian-xin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment with split-plot design was conducted to study the effects of the interaction of water and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of oil sunflower, water and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower. This experiment set three irrigation rate treatments, including high irrigation treatment (5 250 m3·hm-2, middle irrigation treatment (3 750 m3·hm-2, low irrigation treatment (2 250 m3·hm-2, and four nitrogen application rate treatments, covering no nitrogen fertilization treatment (0 kg·hm-2, low nitrogen application treatment (120 kg·hm-2, middle nitrogen application treatment (240 kg·hm-2 and high nitrogen application treatment (360 kg·hm-2. The results showed that the nitrogen absorption and nitrogen use efficiency of cropping oil sunflower increased as the irrigation rate increased. With the nitrogen application rate increased, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was increased when the nitrogen application rate was 0~240 kg·hm-2, but beyond the 240 kg·hm-2, there was no significant increase. With the irrigation rate increased, the water consumption amount of cropping oil sunflower increased all the time, but the water use efficiency increased first, and hen decreased. Besides there was no significant difference between 240 kg·hm-2 and 360 kg·hm-2 treatment. Under our experiment condition, during the cropping oil sunflower growth period, when the irrigation rate was 5 250 m3·hm-2 (high irrigation rate and the nitrogen ertilization was 360 m3·hm-2 (high nitrogen application rate, the yield of cropping oil sunflower was 3 598 kg·hm-2. When the irrigation rate was 3 750 m3·hm-2 (middle irrigation rate and the nitrogen fertilization was 240 m3·hm-2 (middle nitrogen application rate, the yield was 3 518 kg·hm-2, with the yield components similar with the high irrigation rate and high nitrogen application rate treatment. Considering various factors, middle irrigation rate and middle nitrogen

  11. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevc, Tjaša; Levart, Alenka; Cigić, Irena Kralj; Salobir, Janez; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigić, Blaž

    2015-08-13

    The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  12. Rapid Estimation of Tocopherol Content in Linseed and Sunflower Oils-Reactivity and Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Prevc

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of tocopherols with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was studied in model systems in order to establish a method for quantifying vitamin E in plant oils. The method was optimized with respect to solvent composition of the assay medium, which has a large influence on the course of reaction of tocopherols with DPPH. The rate of reaction of α-tocopherol with DPPH is higher than that of γ-tocopherol in both protic and aprotic solvents. In ethyl acetate, routinely applied for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP of plant oils, reactions of tocopherols with DPPH are slower and concentration of tocopherols in the assay has a large influence on their molar reactivity. In 2-propanol, however, two electrons are exchanged for both α- and γ-tocopherols, independent of their concentration. 2-propanol is not toxic and is fully compatible with polypropylene labware. The chromatographically determined content of tocopherols and their molar reactivity in the DPPH assay reveal that only tocopherols contribute to the AOP of sunflower oil, whereas the contribution of tocopherols to the AOP of linseed oil is 75%. The DPPH assay in 2-propanol can be applied for rapid and cheap estimation of vitamin E content in plant oils where tocopherols are major antioxidants.

  13. Physico-chemical attributes of seed oil from drought stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water deficit conditions on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of sunflower seed and seed oils were assessed. Two sunflower cultivars (Gulshan-98 and Suncross were sown in the field. The water stress treatment was applied at the vegetative or the reproductive stage. Analysis of the sunflower seed showed that the oil content decreased (a decline of 10.52% relative to the control significantly (p ≤ 0.05 due to water stress when imposed at either of the growth stages. Both of the sunflower cultivars studied showed differential responses to water stress with respect to oil oleic and linoleic acid contents. A significant negative correlation in oil oleic and linoleic acid was observed in cv. Gulshan-98 under water deficit conditions as compared to Suncross in which no such effect of water stress on oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Water deficit conditions caused a reduction in linolenic acid in Gulshan-98, whereas it remained unaffected in Suncross. The stearic acid content increased in cv. Gulshan-98 due to drought, whereas no effect due to water stress was observed on oil palmitic acid content in either sunflower cultivar. Overall, oil unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged in the drought stressed or normally irrigated plants of both cultivars but saturated fatty acid increased in Gulshan-98. Individual (α, γ, and δ and total tocopherol contents in the seed oil increased significantly with the application of water stress in both cultivars. An assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of the oils of both sunflower cultivars revealed that drought stress caused a marked increase in the content of un-saponifiable matter (18.75% with respect to the control and a decrease in iodine value (5.87% with respect to the control, but saponifcation value, density, specific gravity and refractive index remained unchanged.El efecto de las condiciones de déficit de agua sobre las caracter

  14. Effect of the essential volatile oils isolated from Thymbra capitata (L. Cav. on olive and sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro, L.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile constituents of the oils isolated from different parts of Thymbra capitata collected at different developmental stages were analysed by GC and GC/MS. The antioxidant ability of the oils isolated from T. capitata was evaluated determining the peroxide values, on olive and sunflower oils, stored at 60 ºC. These peroxide values were compared with those obtained when BHT, carvacrol and control (without adding antioxidants were used and subjected to the same conditions. The best yield oil was obtained from the whole aerial part of T. capitata collected during the flowering phase. The major component of the oils was carvacrol. Relative high amounts of p-cymene, γ-terpinene and β-caryophyllene were also found. BHT revealed to be the best antioxidant when the olive oil was used. On sunflower oil, the antioxidant ability of BHT was not so evident, being the carvacrol-rich essential oils of T. capitata or carvacrol more important antioxidants.Se analizaron, mediante GC y GC/MS, los componentes volátiles de aceites aislados de las distintas partes de la Thymbra capitata, recogida en diferentes etapas de desarrollo. Se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de estos aceites de la T. capitata, midiendo el índice de peróxidos, en aceites de oliva y girasol, almacenados a 60 ºC. Estos índices de peróxidos se compararon con los obtenidos cuando no se agregó ningún antioxidante (control y cuando se utilizó BHT o carvacrol, en las mismas condiciones de almacenamiento. El mayor rendimiento en aceite se obtuvo de la parte aérea de T. capitata recogida durante la etapa de floración. El componente mayoritario de los aceites fue el carvacrol. También se encontraron, cantidades relativamente elevadas, de p-cimeno, γ-terpineno y β-cariofileno. El mejor antioxidante para el aceite de oliva resultó ser el BHT. En el aceite del girasol, la actividad antioxidante del BHT no fue tan evidente, mientras que el

  15. Proteomic analysis of oil body membrane proteins accompanying the onset of desiccation phase during sunflower seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2015-01-01

    A noteworthy metabolic signature accompanying oil body (OB) biogenesis during oilseed development is associated with the modulation of the oil body membranes proteins. Present work focuses on 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE)-based analysis of the temporal changes in the OB membrane proteins analyzed by LC-MS/MS accompanying the onset of desiccation (20–30 d after anthesis; DAA) in the developing seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Protein spots unique to 20–30 DAA stages were picked up from 2-D gels for identification and the identified proteins were categorized into 7 functional classes. These include proteins involved in energy metabolism, reactive oxygen scavenging, proteolysis and protein turnover, signaling, oleosin and oil body biogenesis-associated proteins, desiccation and cytoskeleton. At 30 DAA stage, exclusive expressions of enzymes belonging to energy metabolism, desiccation and cytoskeleton were evident which indicated an increase in the metabolic and enzymatic activity in the cells at this stage of seed development (seed filling). Increased expression of cruciferina-like protein and dehydrin at 30 DAA stage marks the onset of desiccation. The data has been analyzed and discussed to highlight desiccation stage-associated metabolic events during oilseed development. PMID:26786011

  16. Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Gabriela N; Borgarello, Ana V; Grosso, Nelson R; Fernandez, Héctor; Pramparo, María C; Gayol, María F

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Assessment of process control parameters in the biochemical methane potential of sunflower oil cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, F.; Borja, R.; Rincon, B.; Jimenez, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory-scale study was conducted on the batch anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake (SuOC), solid waste derived from the extraction process of sunflower oil. A multi-reactor system was used to compare methane production from this waste at inoculum to substrate ratios (ISRs) of 3.0, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.5 (expressed as volatile solids (VS) basis). The tests were carried out at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C) and run against a control of inoculum without substrate. The results obtained in the biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that the ultimate methane yield (Y M,ult ) decreased considerably from 227±23 to 107±11 ml CH 4 at standard temperature and pressure (STP) conditions g -1 VS added when the ISR decreased from 3.0 to 0.5, showing a clear influence of the ISR on the methane yield coefficient. The biodegradability (BD) of the waste also decreased from 86% to 41% when the ISR varied from 3.0 to 0.5. A net total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) yield of 39.2 mg N g -1 VS added was obtained, and this value was not influenced by the ISRs assayed, which demonstrated the appropriate operation of the hydrolytic-acidogenic stage of the overall digestion process. A clear imbalance of the methanogenic process was observed at the lowest ISRs studied (0.5 and 0.8) due to a considerable increase in CODs and TVFA in the digestates. The profile of VFA was also influenced by the ISR, typical of the proteinaceous substrates

  18. Intensification of microbial exopolysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. IМV B-7005 cultivation on sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivahniuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS by the ability of their solutions to change the rheological properties of aqueous systems are widely used in various industries. In recent years, research on the use of industrial waste (including oil-containing to obtain practically valuable microbial metabolites intensified. Materials and methods.Cultivation of Acinetobactersp. IМV B-7005 strain was performed in liquid medium, containing as a carbon source sunflower oil (1−5 %, v/v, a source of nitrogen – ammonium nitrate (0.4−0.8 g/l, a source of pantothenate − multivitamin complex «Complevit» (0.00085 and0.00095 %. EPSconcentration was determined gravimetrically after precipitation with isopropanol, EPS-synthesizing ability − as a ratio of EPS concentration to biomass concentration, wich was expressed as g EPS / g biomass. Results and discussions. It was established that increasing the concentration of sunflower oil in basic medium for Acinetobacter sp. IMV B -7005 cultivation to 4−5% was accompanied by decrease of ethapolan synthesis compared with those in the medium containing lower (2−3 % substrate concentration. Increasing ammonium nitrate content to 0.6 g/l and/or pantothenate concentration to 0.00095% in a medium with 5% sunflower oil allowed to increase the amount of ethapolan synthesized up to 6.6−6.7 g/l, that is in 1.3−1.4 times higher than in the basic medium with the same concentration of the substrate but lower NH4NO3 (0.4 g/l and pantothenate (0.00085 %. Conclusion. The obtained results indicate the possibility of microbial polysaccharide ethapolan synthesis under Acinetobacter sp. ІMV B -7005 cultivation in the medium with a high content of sunflower oil. These data are the basis for the development of ethapolan technology using as a substrate fried oil.

  19. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  20. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  1. Using pre-heated sunflower oil as fuel in a diesel cycle engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delalibera, H.C.; Neto, P.H.W.; Martini, J. [State Univ. of Ponta Grossa (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which 100 per cent sunflower oil was used in a tractor to compare its performance with petroleum diesel. Work trials were carried out for 50 hours on a single cylinder direct injection micro-tractor. In the first trial (E-1), the temperature of the vegetable oil was the same as the air temperature of the engine, while in the second trial (E-2), the oil was heated to a temperature of about 90 degrees C. Only petrodiesel was used in the third (E-3) trial. The head gasket burned in the first test after 50 hours of operation. An increase in compression was noted during trials E-1 and E-2. The carbonized mass in the nozzle of the E-2 trial was 81.5 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The carbonized mass in the intake system of the E-2 trial was 51.7 per cent lower than in the E-1 trial. The exhaust system of the E-2 trial was 33.4 per cent lower than that of the E-1 trial. For the combustion chamber, the carbonization of the E-1 trial was nearly the same as in the E-2 trial. The hourly fuel consumption of the E-1 trial was 2.3 per cent higher than petrodiesel, while E-2 trial was 0.7 per cent higher than petrodiesel. In the first 2 tests, the lubricating oil was contaminated by vegetable oil fuel. In general, results from the first trial were better than results from the second trial.

  2. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Combined fish oil and high oleic sunflower oil supplements neutralize their individual effects on the lipid profile of healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlais, Sani; El-Bistami, Dunia; El Rahi, Berna; Mattar, Mélanie A; Obeid, Omar A

    2013-09-01

    Both n-3 and n-9 fatty acids share a common metabolic pathway and can potentially and individually improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dietary n-6 is known to weaken the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids due to competition for the same enzymes. Still unclear is whether a similar competition exists between n-3 and n-9 fatty acids. Thus, a 12-week intervention study was conducted to investigate the effect of different combinations of fish oil and high-oleic sunflower oil (OSO) on healthy subjects. Included were five groups (98 subjects): three groups received a fixed amount of n-9 (8 g/day) with varying amounts of n-3 (1, 2 or 4 g/day), one group was given n-3 fatty acids only (2 g/day) and another was given n-9 only (8 g/day). We found that fish oil supplement (2 g/day) was able to decrease TAG by about 13 %, this effect was diminished with the co-ingestion of n-9 (OSO). Intake of OSO (8 g/day) reduced both total and LDL cholesterol by about 10 %, this effect was reduced by the addition of fish oil. Both fish oil and OSO failed to have any significant effect on both glycemic and blood pressure parameters. In conclusion; the impact of oleic acid (n-9) on total and LDL cholesterol was altered by the addition fish oil (n-3). These effects may have been the result of enzymatic competition between the two types of fatty acids.

  4. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  5. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, Adrián; Ramírez-Tortosa, César L.; Varela-López, Alfonso; Roche, Enrique; Arribas, María I.; Ramírez-Tortosa, M. Carmen; Giampieri, Francesca; Ochoa, Julio J.; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ) for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources. PMID:26426013

  6. Sunflower Oil but Not Fish Oil Resembles Positive Effects of Virgin Olive Oil on Aged Pancreas after Life-Long Coenzyme Q Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Alonso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An adequate pancreatic structure is necessary for optimal organ function. Structural changes are critical in the development of age-related pancreatic disorders. In this context, it has been reported that different pancreatic compartments from rats were affected according to the fat composition consumed. Since there is a close relationship between mitochondria, oxidative stress and aging, an experimental approach has been developed to gain more insight into this process in the pancreas. A low dosage of coenzyme Q was administered life-long in rats in order to try to prevent pancreatic aging-related alterations associated to some dietary fat sources. According to that, three groups of rats were fed normocaloric diets containing Coenzyme Q (CoQ for two years, where virgin olive, sunflower, or fish oil was included as unique fat source. Pancreatic samples for microscopy and blood samples were collected at the moment of euthanasia. The main finding is that CoQ supplementation gives different results according to fat used in diet. When sunflower oil was the main fat in the diet, CoQ supplementation seems to improve endocrine pancreas structure and in particular β-cell mass resembling positive effects of virgin olive oil. Conversely, CoQ intake does not seem to improve the structural alterations of exocrine compartment previously observed in fish oil fed rats. Therefore CoQ may improve pancreatic alterations associated to the chronic intake of some dietary fat sources.

  7. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  8. Olive oil-diet improves the simvastatin effects with respect to sunflower oil-diet in men with increased cardiovascular risk: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Bastida, S; Gutiérrez-García, O; Carbajal, A

    2009-01-01

    Concomitant intake of statins together with certain foods may affect their therapeutic effects. The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine the modulating effect of two culinary oils on the hypolipemic effect of statins. Twenty-five men with severe hypercholesterolemia and high estimate cardiovascular risk (> 20% according to the Adult Treatment Panel III of USA National Institutes of Health, ATP-III) were enrolled in an observational follow-up study to test lipoprotein profile changes after ix month 20-mg/d Simvastatin treatment. Thirteen volunteers using sunflower oil as the habitual culinary fat, and 12 using olive oil, were selected by non-probabilistic incidental sampling. Volunteers consent in follow their habitual diets and to maintain diet characteristics throughout the study. Diet was evaluated through the study by three 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire. The energy contribution of fat (P = 0.019) and MUFA (P alcohol (P = 0.005) was higher in the sunflower oil-group. TC/HDL-cholesterol and the ATP-III 10-year risk percent decreased more (P alcohol intakes were adjusted. Data suggest that although Simvastatin is a very effective hypolipemic drug, olive oil-diets in preference to sunflower oil-diets must be consumed in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  9. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  10. Food grade microemulsion systems: Sunflower oil/castor oil derivative-ethanol/water. Rheological and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori Cortés, Noelia; Lorenzo, Gabriel; Califano, Alicia N

    2018-05-01

    Microemulsions are thermodynamically stable systems that have attracted considerable attention in the food industry as delivery systems for many hydrophobic nutrients. These spontaneous systems are highly dependent on ingredients and composition. In this work phase diagrams were constructed using two surfactants (Kolliphor RH40 and ELP), water, sunflower oil, and ethanol as cosurfactant, evaluating their physicochemical properties. Stability of the systems was studied at 25 and 60 °C, monitoring turbidity at 550 nm for over a month to identify the microemulsion region. Conductivity was measured to classify between water-in-oil and oil-in-water microemulsions. The phase diagram constructed with Kolliphor RH40 exhibited a larger microemulsion area than that formulated with Kolliphor ELP. All formulations showed a monomodal droplet size distribution with low polydispersity index (<0.30) and a mean droplet size below 20 nm. Systems with higher water content presented a Newtonian behavior; increasing the dispersed phase content produced a weak gel-like structure with pseudoplastic behavior under flow conditions that was satisfactorily modeled to obtain structural parameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Combustion of biodiesel fuel produced from hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture in a Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.; Oeztuerk, E.; Can, Oe.; Conkur, E.S.; Nas, S.; Con, A.H.; Can, A.C.; Topcu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel to Diesel fuel No. 2, which can be generally produced from different kinds of vegetable oils. Since the prices of edible vegetable oils are higher than that of Diesel fuel No. 2, waste vegetable oils and non-edible crude vegetable oils are preferred as potential low priced biodiesel sources. In addition, it is possible to use soapstock, a by-product of edible oil production, for cheap biodiesel production. In this study, a methyl ester biodiesel was produced from a hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil mixture using methanol, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide in a two stage process. The effects of the methyl ester addition to Diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder, turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) Diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that the hazelnut soapstock/waste sunflower oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the Diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of the performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends

  12. Effect of dietary fish oil supplements alone or in combination with sunflower and linseed oil on ruminal lipid metabolism and bacterial populations in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Muetzel, S; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Wallace, R J; Shingfield, K J

    2018-04-01

    Fish oil (FO) alters ruminal biohydrogenation causing trans fatty acid (FA) intermediates to accumulate, but the effects of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA supply on ruminal long-chain FA metabolism and microbial communities in cattle fed FO are not well established. Four cows fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of FO alone or in combination with plant oils high in 18:2n-6 or 18:3n-3 on rumen microbial ecology and flow of FA at the omasum. Treatments comprised a basal grass silage-based diet containing no additional oil (control) or supplements of FO (200 g/d) or FO (200 g/d) plus 500 g/d of sunflower oil (SFO) or linseed oil (LFO). Flow of FA was determined using the omasal sampling technique. The relative abundance of key biohydrogenating bacteria was assessed by quantitative PCR on 16S rRNA genes in omasal digesta. Fish oil-supplemented treatments increased the amounts of trans-18:1, trans-18:2, and 20- to 22-carbon polyunsaturated FA escaping the rumen. Relative to the control, oil supplements had no effect on the amount of 18:0 leaving the rumen, but LFO decreased the flow of 18:0 at the omasum compared with SFO. Both SFO and LFO increased trans-18:1 relative to FO, whereas LFO resulted in the highest trans-18:2 and 20- to 22-carbon FA flow. Supplements of FO plus plant oils shifted biohydrogenation toward trans-10 18:1 formation. Compared with FO alone, the ruminal metabolism of 22:6n-3 in the rumen of lactating cows is more extensive on diets containing higher amounts of 18-carbon polyunsaturated FA. However, the biohydrogenation of 22:5n-3 was less extensive in LFO than SFO, but showed no difference between FO and diets containing plant oils. Ruminal outflow of 20:5n-3 was not altered when plant oils were added to FO. Alterations in the amount of intermediates at the omasum or ruminal biohydrogenation pathways were not accompanied by major changes in analyzed bacterial populations

  13. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    OpenAIRE

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type t...

  14. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  15. Starch plus sunflower oil addition to the diet of dry dairy cows results in a trans-11 to trans-10 shift of biohydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zened, A; Enjalbert, F; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (FA), exhibit different biological properties. Among them, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid has some interesting putative health properties, whereas trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid has negative effects on cow milk fat production and would negatively affect human health. In high-yielding dairy cows, a shift from trans-11 to trans-10 pathway of biohydrogenation (BH) can occur in the rumen of cows receiving high-concentrate diets, especially when the diet is supplemented with unsaturated fat sources. To study this shift, 4 rumen-fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows were assigned to a 4×4 Latin square design with 4 different diets during 4 periods. Cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of 4 diets based on corn silage during 4 successive periods: a control diet (22% starch, diet supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, diet supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% crude fat), and a high-starch plus sunflower oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% crude fat). Five hours after feeding, proportions of trans-11 BH isomers greatly increased in the rumen content with the addition of sunflower oil, without change in ruminal pH compared with the control diet. Addition of starch to the control diet had no effect on BH pathways but decreased ruminal pH. The addition of a large amount of starch in association with sunflower oil increased trans-10 FA at the expense of trans-11 FA in the rumen content, revealing a trans-11 to trans-10 shift. Interestingly, with this latter diet, ruminal pH did not change compared with a single addition of starch. This trans-11 to trans-10 shift occurred progressively, after a decrease in the proportion of trans-11 FA in the rumen, suggesting that this shift could result from a dysbiosis in the rumen in favor of trans-10-producing bacteria at the expense of those producing trans-11 or a modification of bacterial activities. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  16. Detection of sunflower oil in extra virgin olive oil by fast differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Boerrigter-Eenling, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an economically valuable product, due to its high quality and premium price. Therefore it is vulnerable for adulteration by means of the addition of cheaper vegetable oils. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been suggested as a fast technique for the

  17. Incorporation of Sunflower Oil and d-alpha-tocopherol Effect on Mechanical Properties and Permeability of Corn Starch Composite Edible Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramono Putro Utomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn starch-based films are inherently brittle and lack the necessary mechanical integrity for conventional packaging. However, the incorporation of additives can potentially improve the mechanical properties and processability of starch films. In this work sunflower oil (SO and vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol at three levels each (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.15% (w/vtotal and (0.18%, 0.36% and 0.54% (w/vtotal were incorporated into corn starch films using a solution casting method to improve the mechanical and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR properties. The addition of SO and vitamin E increased elongation at break of starch-based film while decreased tensile strength and WVTR of starch-based film. The best edible film obtained on addition of sunflower oil concentration of 0.15% and 0.54%, vitamin E with a value of 0.121 mm thickness, tensile strength of 65.38 kg/cm2, elongation at break 14.17% and WVTR 1144 g/m2 24 hours.

  18. Barium and sodium in sunflower plants cultivated in soil treated with wastes of drilling of oil well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jésus Sampaio Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of two types of oil drilling wastes on the development and absorption of barium (Ba and sodium (Na by sunflower plants. The waste materials were generated during the drilling of the 7-MGP-98D-BA oil well, located in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of: Control – without Ba application, comprising only its natural levels in the soil; Corrected control – with fertilization and without wastes; and the Ba doses of 300, 3000 and 6000 mg kg-1, which were equivalent to the applications of 16.6, 165.9 and 331.8 Mg ha-1 of waste from the dryer, and 2.6, 25.7 and 51.3 Mg ha-1 of waste from the centrifugal. Plants cultivated using the first dose of dryer waste and the second dose of centrifugal waste showed growth and dry matter accumulation equal to those of plants under ideal conditions of cultivation (corrected control. The highest doses of dryer and centrifugal wastes affected the development of the plants. The absorption of Ba by sunflower plants was not affected by the increase in the doses. Na proved to be the most critical element present in the residues, interfering with sunflower development.

  19. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (pcontent (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (pcontent specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  20. Conventional and in situ transesterification of sunflower seed oil for the production of biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgogianni, K.G.; Kontominas, M.G.; Pomonis, P.J. [Section of Industrial and Food Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina 45110-Ioannina (Greece); Avlonitis, D. [Department of Petroleum Technology, TEI of Chalkida, 34600-Kavala (Greece); Gergis, V. [Department of Food Technology, TEI of Athens, 12210-Egaleo (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    In the present work the alkaline transesterification of sunflower seed oil with methanol and ethanol, for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Both conventional and in situ transesterification were investigated using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm). Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with methanol gave high yields of methyl esters (95%) after a short reaction time (20 min) similar to those using mechanical stirring. Use of ultrasonication in conventional transesterification with ethanol gave similar yields to those using mechanical stirring but significantly lower than respective yields using methanol. In the in situ transesterification the use of ultrasonication and mechanical stirring led to similar high yields (95%) of methyl esters after approximately 20 min of reaction time. In the presence of ethanol use of ultrasonication led to high ester yields (98%) in only 40 min of reaction time while use of mechanical stirring gave lower yields (88%) even after 4 h of reaction time. In situ transesterification gave similar ester yields to those obtained by conventional transesterification being an alternative, efficient and economical process. In all cases a concentration of 2.0% NaOH gave higher ester yields. Reaction rate constants were calculated, using first order reaction kinetics, to be equal to 3.1 x 10{sup -} {sup 3} s{sup -} {sup 1} for conventional transesterification using methanol and 2.0% NaOH, and 9.5 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} s{sup -} {sup 1} using ethanol. (author)

  1. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Barbosa Justino, F.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different

  2. Transesterification of Waste Cooking Sunflower Oil by Porcine Pancreas Lipase Using Response Surface Methodology for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Ebrahimi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Biodiesel production from recycled vegetable oils is considered as an economically acceptable alternative for fossil fuels in the recent years. In this work, porcine pancreas lipase as an active catalyst in transesterification reaction of waste cooking sunflower oil with methanol for biodiesel production was used.Material and Methods: In order to define optimum process parameters and predict the best results, response surface methodology and the central composite design was performed. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio, lipase concentration and reaction temperature on transesterification were investigated. Biodiesel production was carried out in 25 ml shake flasks at 180 rpm for 72 h.Results and Conclusion: Under optimal conditions, the biodiesel yield was 75% which was nearly consistent with the predicted yield of 76%. At optimal conditions the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, and lipase percent were determined as 3:1, 44°C and 4.4%, respectively. Due to relatively high obtained yield, biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil has provided a sound environmental and commercial process.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  3. Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil

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    Gamel, T. H.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of methanol extracts of rosemary and olive vegetable water on the stability of olive oil and sunflower oil. Methanol phenolic extracts of dry rosemary leaves and olive vegetable water filtrate, in combination with BHA, were added to olive oil (blend of refined and virgin olive oil, 3 to 1 and to sunflower oil and their antioxidant effects under accelerated conditions were evaluated. Accelerated conditions included the oven test (at 63 °C and the conductivity method (Rancimat at 120 °C. Frying process at 180 °C was also applied. The methanol phenolic extracts and the BHA were added to each oil at the following concentrations: 200 ppm rosemary extract; 200 ppm olive vegetable water extract; 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA; 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA and 200 ppm BHA. In general, antioxidant effect of phenolic additives of rosemary and of BHA was in the following order: 200 ppm rosemary extract > 100 ppm rosemary extract + 100 ppm BHA > and 200 ppm BHA. The addition of 200 ppm vegetable water extract and 100 ppm vegetable water extract + 100 ppm BHA exhibited similar antioxidant effect to that of 200 ppm BHA.

    Extractos metanólicos de fenoles de hojas secas de romero y filtrados de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, en combinación con BHA, se añadieron al aceite de oliva (mezcla de aceite de oliva refinado y virgen, 3 a 1 y al aceite de girasol, evaluándose sus efectos antioxidantes usando condiciones aceleradas. Estas condiciones incluyeron el test del horno de oxidación (a 63 °C y el método de conductividad (Rancimat a 120 °C. También se aplicó al proceso de fritura a 180 °C. Los extractos metanólicos de fenoles y el BHA se añadieron a cada aceite en las siguientes concentraciones: 200 ppm de extracto de romero, 200 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación de la aceituna, 100 ppm de extracto de romero + 100 ppm de BHA, 100 ppm de extracto de agua de vegetación + 100 ppm de BHA y 200 ppm de BHA

  4. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transesterification of canola, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oil with methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol and tert-butanol to biodiesel: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer based on fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likozar, Blaž; Levec, Janez

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer for triglyceride transesterification with different alcohols based on fatty acid composition. - Highlights: • Catalysed transesterification to biodiesel with various oils, alcohols and catalysts. • Analysis of components and reactivity based on fatty acid composition of all species. • Simultaneous modelling of mass transfer, reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium. • Diffusivities, distribution and mass transfer coefficients for individual components. • Correlation of kinetic parameters with molecular structure of reactants and products. - Abstract: Mechanism of alcoholysis (e.g. methanolysis) using different oils, alcohols and homogeneous base catalysts was utilized to devise chemical kinetics and thermodynamics based on fatty acid composition, differentiating among triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and fatty acid alkyl esters (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters, FAME) with bonded gadoleic, linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acid-originating substituents. Their concentrations were measured using an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hydrodynamics and diffusion limitations in emulsion were considered in overall model by determining diffusivities, distribution coefficients, molar volumes, boiling points and viscosities of individual components. Pre-exponential factors and activation energies were related with structure of reactants, intermediates and products acknowledging number of carbons, double bonds and alkyl branches by linear and mixed response surface methodology. Developed model may be used with batch and continuous flow reactors, e.g. for novel micro-structured or industrial-scale process intensification, different vegetable or non-edible oils (waste cooking Jatropha or microalgae lipids)

  6. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

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    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  7. Speciation of Selenium in Selenium-Enriched Sunflower Oil by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry/Electrospray-Orbitrap Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierla, Katarzyna; Flis-Borsuk, Anna; Suchocki, Piotr; Szpunar, Joanna; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2016-06-22

    The reaction of sunflower oil with selenite produces a complex mixture of selenitriglycerides with antioxidant and anticancer properties. To obtain insight into the identity and characteristics of the species formed, an analytical approach based on the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with (78)Se-specific selenium detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) and high-resolution (100 000), high mass accuracy (HPLC-ICP MS for the separation of a complex mixture of selenospecies and a mathematical correction of the background signal was developed. The identical chromatographic conditions served for the sample introduction into electrospray MS. Two types of samples were analyzed: sunflower oil dissolved in isopropanol and methanol extract of the oil containing 65% selenium. HPLC-ICP MS showed 14 peaks, 11 of which could also be detected in the methanol extract. Isotopic patterns corresponding to molecules with one or two selenium atoms could be attributed by Orbitrap MS at the retention times corresponding to the HPLC-ICP MS peak apexes. Structural data for these species were acquired by MS(2) and MS(3) fragmentation of protonated or sodiated ions using high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD). A total of 11 selenium-containing triglycerol derivatives resulting from the oxidation of one or two double bonds of linoleic acid and analogous derivatives of glycerol-mixed linoleate(s)/oleinate(s) have been identified for the first time. The presence of these species was confirmed by the targeted analysis in the total oil isopropanol solution. Their identification corroborated the predicted elution order in reversed-phase chromatography: LLL (glycerol trilinoleate), LLO (glycerol dilinoleate-oleinate), LOO (glycerol linoleate-dioleinate), OOO (glycerol trioleinate), of which the extrapolation allowed for the prediction of the identity [glycerol dioleinate-stearate (OOS) and glycerol oleinate-distearate (OSS)] of the

  8. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies.

  9. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  10. Statistical optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower waste cooking oil using basic heterogeneous biocatalyst prepared from eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A statistical design of experiments DOE was applied to investigate biodiesel fuel BDF production process from sunflower waste cooking oil SWCO using heterogeneous bio-catalyst produced from eggshells ES. It was based on 3 level D-optimal design involving as factors methanol:oil M:O molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%, reaction time (min and mixing rate (rpm. Twenty runs were carried out. A predictive linear interaction model has been correlated finding out how significant the effects of these variables are in practice. LINGO software was used to find out the optimum values of the aforementioned variables for enhancing the process. According to the results obtained, the most dominant positive factor influencing the response variable (% BDF yield was M:O molar ratio followed by catalyst concentration (wt% and mixing rate in a decreasing order while the reaction time showed to have a negative effect on the yield. The maximum BDF yield (98.8% and 97.5%, predicted and experimental, respectively was obtained at M:O 6:1 M ratio, catalyst concentration 3 wt%, reaction time 30 min, mixing rate 350 rpm and 60 °C. Also response surface methodology RSM has been applied to study the interactive effects of independent variables on BDF yield. It was found that, the interaction between M:O and catalyst concentration (wt% has more significant effect than interaction between other variables. The activity of the produced bio-catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. All the physicochemical characteristics of the produced BDF using the prepared bio-catalyst and its blends with petro-diesel fuel PDF are completely acceptable and meet most of the required standard specifications.

  11. Shelf-life of fresh blueberries coated with quinoa protein/chitosan/sunflower oil edible film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian; Tapia, Cristián; Plasencia, Dora; Pastor, Ana; Castro-Mandujano, Olivio; López, Luis; Escalona, Victor H

    2016-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quinoa protein (Q), chitosan (CH) and sunflower oil (SO) as edible film material as well as the influence of this coating in extending the shelf-life of fresh blueberries stored at 4 °C and 75% relative humidity. These conditions were used to simulate the storage conditions in supermarkets and represent adverse conditions for testing the effects of the coating. The mechanical, barrier, and structural properties of the film were measured. The effectiveness of the coating in fresh blueberries (CB) was evaluated by changes in weight loss, firmness, color, molds and yeast count, pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids content. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the edible film were 0.45 ± 0.29 MPa and 117.2% ± 7%, respectively. The water vapor permeability was 3.3 × 10(-12) ± 4.0 × 10(-13) g s(-1) m(-1) Pa(-1). In all of the color parameters CB presented significant differences. CB had slight delayed fruit ripening as evidenced by higher titratable acidity (0.3-0.5 g citric acid 100 g(-1)) and lower pH (3.4-3.6) than control during storage; however, it showed reduced firmness (up to 38%). The use of Q/CH/SO as a coating in fresh blueberries was able to control the growth of molds and yeasts during 32 days of storage, whereas the control showed an increasing of molds and yeast, between 1.8 and 3.1 log cycles (between 20 and 35 days). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Optimization of hydrodynamic cavitations reactor efficiency for biodiesel production by response surface methods (Case study: Sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Javadikia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biofuels are considered as one of the largest sources of renewable fuels or replacement of fossil fuels. Combustion of plant-based fuels is the indirect use of solar energy. Biofuels significantly have less pollution than other fossil fuels and can easily generate from residual plant material. Waste and residues of foods and wastewater can also be a good source for biofuel production. Transesterification method (one of biodiesel production methods is the most common forms to produce mono-alkyl esters from vegetable oil and animal fats. The procedure aims are reduction the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. In this study, the method of transesterification with alkaline catalysts is used that it is the most common and most commercial biodiesel production method. In this study, configurations of made hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were studied to measure biodiesel fuel quality and enhanced device performance with optimum condition. The Design Expert software and response surface methodology were used to get this purpose. Materials and Methods Transesterification method was used in this study. The procedure aims were reduction of the oil viscosity during the reaction between triglycerides and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst or without it. Materials needed in the production of biodiesel transesterification method include: vegetable oil, alcohol and catalysts. The used oil in the production of biodiesel was sunflower oil, which was used 0.6 liters per each test in the production process base on titration method. Methanol with purity of 99.8 percent and the molar ratio of 6:1 to oil was used based on titration equation and according to the results of other researchers. The used catalyst in continuous production process was high-purity sodium hydroxide (99% that it is one of alkaline catalysts. Weight of hydroxide was 1% of the used oil weight in the

  13. Influence of sunflower seed oil or baby lotion on the skin barrier function of newborns: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti, Varvara; Günther, Malise; Stroux, Andrea; Sawatzky, Sabine; Henrich, Wolfgang; Abou-Dakn, Michael; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2017-12-01

    Skin care influences skin barrier function during the first postnatal weeks. Although the use of natural oils in preterms has been investigated, there are currently no data comparing the effect of sunflower oil to an emollient on barrier development in healthy term newborns. In a prospective, randomized clinical study, 50 healthy full-term newborns aged ≤72 h were randomly assigned to two groups: group baby lotion (L, n=22) and sunflower seed oil (SSO, n=24). The skin barrier function was evaluated in three anatomical areas (front, abdomen, and thigh) by noninvasive assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration (SCH), sebum, and skin pH at inclusion and after five weeks. In both groups, skin pH decreased and SCH increased statistically significantly in all measured areas at W5 compared to baseline. TEWL decreased statistically significantly on the forearm in both groups, on the upper leg in group L, and on the abdomen in group SSO. Both skin care regimes did not harm skin barrier function adaptation in healthy term neonates during the first five weeks of life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  15. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, M K K; Silva, C E R; Alvarenga, A V; Costa-Félix, R P B

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment

  16. Monitoring biodiesel reactions of soybean oil and sunflower oil using ultrasonic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M. K. K.; Silva, C. E. R.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Félix, R. P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an innovation that attempts to substitute diesel oil with biomass. The aim of this paper is to show the development of a real-time method to monitor transesterification reactions by using low-power ultrasound and pulse/echo techniques. The results showed that it is possible to identify different events during the transesterification process by using the proposed parameters, showing that the proposed method is a feasible way to monitor the reactions of biodiesel during its fabrication, in real time, and with relatively low- cost equipment.

  17. The effect of sesame and sunflower oils on the plasma disposition of ivermectin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, C; Karademir, U; Boyacioglu, M; McKellar, Q A

    2008-10-01

    The effect of sesame oil (SSO) and sunflower oil (SFO) (the excipients) on the plasma disposition of ivermectin (IVM) following intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) administration at a dosage of 200 microg/kg was investigated in goats. Ten clinically healthy crossbred goats were used in the study. The animals were allocated by weight and sex into two groups of five animals each. Group 1 (n = 5) received the drug and excipient by the i.v. route only and group 2 received drug and excipient by the s.c. route only. The study was designed according to a two-phase crossover design protocol. In the first phase three animals in group 1 were i.v. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. In group 2 during the first phase, three animals were s.c. administered IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SSO (1 mL) and the other two animals were received IVM (0.2 mg/kg) + SFO (1 mL). In the second phase animals were crossed over and received the alternate excipient with IVM at the same dosages. A 4-week washout period was allowed between the two phases. In group 2 significantly increased dermal thickness was observed at the s.c. injection site of the all animals which received IVM during phase I regardless of the excipient. There was almost no change observed at the injection site of any animal during the second phase of the study following s.c. administration. In group 2 the plasma concentrations of IVM in the second phase for both excipient combinations were much higher than the plasma concentrations following first administration and appeared to be related with the dermal changes. The mean plasma disposition of IVM in combination with SSO or SFO was similar following i.v. administration. Longer terminal elimination half-lives and resultant longer mean resident time were observed after s.c. administration of the both

  18. Fatty acid composition and bacterial community changes in the rumen fluid of lactating sheep fed sunflower oil plus incremental levels of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Belenguer, A; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2012-02-01

    Supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils and marine lipids is an effective strategy for lowering saturated fatty acid (FA) content and increasing the concentration of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 FA in ruminant milk. However, changes in populations of ruminal microorganisms associated with altered biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated FA are not well characterized. Twenty-five lactating Assaf ewes were allocated at random to 1 of 5 treatments composed of dehydrated alfalfa hay and concentrates containing no additional lipid (control), or supplemented with 25 g of sunflower oil and 0 (SO), 8 (SOMA(1)), 16 (SOMA(2)), or 24 (SOMA(3)) g of marine algae/kg of diet dry matter. On d 28 on diet, samples of rumen fluid were collected for lipid analysis and microbial DNA extraction. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of FA methyl esters. Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis, and real-time PCR was used to quantify the known Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce trans-11 18:1 or 18:0. Dietary supplements of sunflower oil alone or in combination with marine algae altered the FA profile of rumen fluid, which was associated with changes in populations of specific bacteria. Inclusion of marine algae in diets containing sunflower oil resulted in the accumulation of trans 18:1 and 10-O-18:0 and a marked decrease in 18:0 concentrations in rumen fluid. At the highest levels of supplementation (SOMA(2) and SOMA(3)), marine algae also promoted a shift in ruminal biohydrogenation pathways toward the formation of trans-10 18:1 at the expense of trans-11 18:1. Changes in the concentration of biohydrogenation intermediates were not accompanied by significant variations in the abundance of known cultivated ruminal bacteria capable of hydrogenating unsaturated FA. However, certain

  19. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  20. Mechanochemical synthesis of CaO•ZnO.K2CO3 catalyst: Characterization and activity for methanolysis of sunflower oil

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    Kesić Željka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to prepare CaO.ZnO catalyst which contain small amount of K2CO3 and analyze its activity for biodiesel synthesis. Catalyst was prepared using the following procedure: CaO and ZnO (molar ratio of 1:2, water and K2CO3 (in various amounts were mechanochemically treated and after milling heated at 700 oC in air atmosphere for obtaining mixed CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 oxides (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4; mole of K2CO3 per 10 mole of CaO. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, inductively coupled plasma (ICP, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS, particle size laser diffraction (PSLD distribution, solubility measurement of Ca, Zn and K ions in methanol as well as by determination of their alkalinity (Hammett indicator method. Prepared CaO•ZnO/xK2CO3 composite powders were tested as catalysts for methanolysis of sunflower oil at 70ºC using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 mas% of catalyst based on oil weight. The presence of K2CO3 in prepared samples was found to increase the activity of catalyst, and that such effect is caused by homogeneous-heterogeneous catalysis of biodiesel synthesis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45001

  1. Cardiotoxicity induced by dietary oxidized sunflower oil in rats: pro- and antioxidant effects of α-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouaki, Fayrouz; Mazari, Azzedine; Kanane, Amel; Errahmani, Mohamed Brahim; Ammouche, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study highlighted the pro-oxidative functions of α-tocopherol (αT) on the heart antioxidant system and tissue histopathology of oxidized sunflower oil (OSO)-exposed rats.Four groups of male Wistar rats were fed with different diets: 1) control diet containing FSO (fresh sunflower oil); 2) diet containing 5 % OSO; 3) diet containing 5 % OSO, supplemented with 600 mg αT kg-1; and 4) diet containing 5 % OSO, supplemented with 1200 mg αT kg-1. The hearts were then isolated, and the antioxidant enzymatic activities were assessed. Body weight and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities significantly decreased in groups fed with OSO, while the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level significantly increased. Administration of OSO with αT (600 mg · kg-1) returned the body weight values and LPO levels to similar values as the control group. The CAT and GPx activities increased but remained significantly lower compared to the control group. In the OSO group with αT (1200 mg · kg-1), the CAT and GPx activities also decreased, while LPO significantly increased. Heart tissue sections obtained from the groups revealed the presence of large areas of necrosis. This study suggested that OSO induced oxidative stress and that administration of a moderate dose of αT restored the antioxidant balance, but that high levels of αT supplementation result in a pro-oxidant effect.

  2. Production of biodiesel from sunflower oil using highly catalytic bimetallic gold–silver core–shell nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Dey, Binita; Talukdar, Jayanta; Chandra Kalita, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic Gold–silver core–shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) were synthesized at room temperature, where gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core–shell structure was examined by UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The catalytic activity of these nanoparticles toward biodiesel production from Sunflower oil through transesterification was studied. The confirmation for biofuel synthesis was performed using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Fuel properties are determined by standard ASTM (American society for Testing and Materials) protocols. Our observations show that at certain catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time, highest yield of biodiesel (86.9%) is attained. The fuel properties of the synthesized biofuel are at par with standard biofuel. Further, the catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification. - Highlights: • Gold–silver core–shell NPs were used for biofuel synthesis from sunflower oil. • At the optimized condition, biodiesel yield of 86.9% was achieved. • Fuel properties of the biofuel synthesized are at par with standard biofuel. • The catalyst showed sustained activity for 3 cycles of transesterification

  3. Effects of different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower under water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Heidari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating water stress is well documented. In order to study the effects of water stress and two different mycorrhiza species on grain yield, nutrient uptake and oil content of sunflower, a field experiment as split plot design with three replications was conducted in the Research Field Station, Zabol University, Zabol, Iran in 2011. Water stress treatments included control as 90% of field capacity (W1, 70% field capacity (W2 and 50% field capacity (W3 assigned to the main plots and two different mycorrhiza species, consisting of M1 = control (without any inoculation, M2 = Glumus mossea and M3 = Glumus etanicatum as sub plots. Results showed that by increasing water stress from control (W1 to W3 treatment, grain yield was significantly decreased. The reduction in the level of W3 was 15.05%. The content of potassium in seeds significantly decreased due to water stress but water stress upto W2 treatment increased the content of phosphorus, nitrogen and oil content of seeds. In between two species of mycorrhiza in sunflower plants, Glumus etanicatum had the highest effect on grain yield and these elements in seeds and increased both.

  4. Ridge sowing of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a minimum till system improves the productivity, oil quality, and profitability on a sandy loam soil under an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Ahmad; Suleman, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Sattar, Abdul; Wasaya, Allah; Ijaz, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a major oilseed crop grown for its edible oil across the globe including Pakistan. In Pakistan, the production of edible oil is less than the required quantity; the situation is being worsened with the increasing population. Thus, there is dire need to grow those sunflower genotypes which perform better under a given set of agronomic practices. In this 2-year study, we compared four sunflower genotypes, viz., Armoni, Kundi, Sinji, and S-278 for their yield potential, oil contents, fatty acid composition, and profitability under three sowing methods, viz., bed sowing, line sowing, and ridge sowing and two tillage system, viz., plow till and minimum till. Among the sunflower genotypes, the genotype Armoni produced the highest plant height, number of leaves, head diameter, 1000-achene weight, and achene yield; the oil contents and oleic acid were the highest in genotype Sinji. Among the sowing methods, the highest number of leaves per plant, head diameter, number of achenes per head, achene yield, and oil contents were recorded in ridge sowing. Among the tillage systems, the highest head diameter 16. 2 cm, 1000-achene weight (57.2 g), achene yield (1.8 t ha -1 ), oil contents (35.2%), and oleic acid (15.2%) were recorded in minimum till sunflower. The highest net benefits and benefit to cost ratio were recorded in minimum till ridge sown Armoni genotype. In conclusion, the genotype Armoni should be grown on ridges to achieve the highest achene yield, oil contents, and net profitability.

  5. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  6. Use of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics for the authentication of avocado oil in ternary mixtures with sunflower and soybean oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sotelo, Paola; Hernández-Martínez, Maylet; Osorio-Revilla, Guillermo; Meza-Márquez, Ofelia Gabriela; García-Ochoa, Felipe; Gallardo-Velázquez, Tzayhrí

    2016-07-01

    Avocado oil is a high-value and nutraceutical oil whose authentication is very important since the addition of low-cost oils could lower its beneficial properties. Mid-FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was used to detect and quantify adulteration of avocado oil with sunflower and soybean oils in a ternary mixture. Thirty-seven laboratory-prepared adulterated samples and 20 pure avocado oil samples were evaluated. The adulterated oil amount ranged from 2% to 50% (w/w) in avocado oil. A soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA) model was developed to discriminate between pure and adulterated samples. The model showed recognition and rejection rate of 100% and proper classification in external validation. A partial least square (PLS) algorithm was used to estimate the percentage of adulteration. The PLS model showed values of R(2) > 0.9961, standard errors of calibration (SEC) in the range of 0.3963-0.7881, standard errors of prediction (SEP estimated) between 0.6483 and 0.9707, and good prediction performances in external validation. The results showed that mid-FTIR spectroscopy could be an accurate and reliable technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis of avocado oil in ternary mixtures.

  7. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  8. Analysis of the technology of production of pressed sunflower oil at LLC Chernozemye and recommendations for improving its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of the technological scheme of the stock-preparation shop, press shop and cleaning of worm-press oil at Chernozemye LLC, with an analysis of the main types of technological equipment operation and evaluation of problematic production sites is given. It has been established that during hulling and following separation into fractions in separators and sifts, favorable conditions are created for oiling the husks by contacting it while passing through a sieve together with a high-oiled crushed kernel and oilseed dust. To reduce the oil content of husks in the scheme, it is recommended to use hydrocyclones that direct the husk for the subsequent separation of the particles of the kernel and oil dust carried along with the husk. It was also revealed that the greatest content of waxes and waxlike substances in the oil, which significantly affect the transparency of commercial sunflower oil, is contained in the husks lipids, which partially pass into the oil during the processing of seeds. The content of waxes in oils is the higher, the more husk is contained in the kernel, and the higher the temperature of the pulp entering the pressing. In this case, the ratio of oleic and linoleic acids in low-oil varieties is 1:1, in high-oil varieties is 1:3. The heterogeneity of the grinding of the oil seed meal, resulting from the hulling of seeds, makes it difficult to uniformly moisten, warm and dry the pulp in the conditioner. The structure of the finished pulp is influenced by the primary structure of the oil seed meal, obtained during the process of grinding the seeds. The intensive coloring of the pulp, oil cake and ground oil-cake during the drying of oil seed meal is due to the high temperature (above 100 °C in the conditioner, which leads to an intensive course of the sugar-amino reactions, an increase in the total content of nitrogen and phosphorus. And this changes color and increases raw materials losses.

  9. Kinetic studies on the transesterification of sunflower oil with 1-butanol catalyzed by Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic aqueous-organic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of sunflower oil transesterification with 1-butanol using a homogeneous lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) in an aqueous-organic biphasic system were studied in a stirred batch reactor set-up. An initial screening study was performed to optimize relevant process conditions (enzyme

  10. Determination of free radical scavenger agent efficiency in Syrian consumed sunflower oil using FT-IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A. W.; Al-Zier, A.

    2013-06-01

    Edible oils can be oxidized spontaneously by thermal process in the presence of atmospheric oxygen causing an oxidation to these oils and forming the hydroperoxides; this oxidative process is a major cause of cooking oils deterioration. Many synthetic or natural antioxidants additives have been used as free radical scavenger agent. In this work, Eugenol methylether has been used as free radical scavenger agent at three different concentrations to heated sunflower oil at 160°C for ten hours using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis and evaluations. Before any additives, three characteristic absorption bands were observed at 3544, 3473 and 3290 cm-1 in heated oil. The recorded bands were assigned to 7Tthe unbounded7T, 7Tbounded 7Thydroperoxide or free alcohols 7Tgroups7T and to the O-H stretching alcohol associated group, respectively. After the addition of Eugenol methylether at 0.8 mL/L concentration, the bands intensity of hydroperoxide formation content is reduced. It has been shown that the free radical scavenger agent plays an acceptable role in reducing the hydroperoxide formation content as the result of thermal oxidation. It is proved that FTIR spectroscopy is an effective analytical tool for such investigatio (author).

  11. Optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis for the production of biodiesel and its characterization with spectroscopic techniques (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Ali, S.; Khalid, N.; Naureen, R.; Rafique, U.

    2011-01-01

    Esters from vegetable oils have attracted a great deal of interest as substitute for petrodiesel to reduce dependence on imported petroleum and provide an alternate and sustainable source for fuel with more benign environmental properties. In the present study biodiesel was prepared from sunflower seed oil by transesterification by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. The fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, density, specific gravity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, acid number and colour comparison of sunflower oil biodiesel (SOB) were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 standards for biodiesel. The SOB was chemically characterized with analytical techniques like FT-IR, NMR (/sup 1/H and /sup 13/C). The chemical composition of SOB was determined by GC-MS. Various fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were identified by retention time data and verified by mass fragmentation patterns. The identified FAMEs were methyl dodecanoate (C/sub 12:0/), methyl tetradecanoate(C/sub 14:0/), methyl hexadecanoate (C/sub 16:0/), methyl 8,11-octadecadienoate (C/sub 18:2/), methyl 9-octadecenoate (C/sub 18:1/), methyl octadecanoate (C/sub 18:0/), methyl 11-eicosenoate (C/sub 20:1/), methyl eicosanoate (C/sub 20:0/), methyl 13-docosenoate(C/sub 22:1/), methyl docosenoate(C/sub 22:0/) and methyl tetracosanoate (C/sub 24:0/). The percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl esters determined by /sup 1/H-NMR was 87.33 % which was quite in good agreement with the practically observed yield of 85.1 %. (author)

  12. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to the study of the modification of epoxidized sunflower oil by acrylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinislimane, Ratiba; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima

    2012-12-01

    Commercial sunflower oil was epoxidized at the laboratory-scale. The epoxidized sunflower oil (ESFO) was modified following the acrylation reaction. Modification was carried out simultaneously using acrylic acid (AA) and triethylamine (TEA). To optimize the reaction conditions, the effects of four temperatures (40, 60, 80, and 100 °C), the ESFO:AA (100:100) ratio, and 0.2% TEA were investigated. The rate of conversion was analyzed with both FT-IR and titration of the oxirane ring. After that, the temperature with the highest conversion was selected and used throughout for all modification reactions. Then, four ratios (100:100, 100:90, 100:80, and 100:75) of ESFO:AA were analyzed at four different concentrations of TEA (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5%) to determine the best estimate for both the ESFO:AA ratio and the catalyst concentration. Conversion rate was analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy by measuring the concentrations of ester, carbonyl, and alcohol groups. Moreover, oxirane-ring concentration was estimated using the titration method (with gentian violet as indicator) and FT-IR spectroscopy (epoxy ring absorptions at 1270 cm(-1) and 877 cm(-1)). Based on conversion yield, the optimum ESFO:AA ratio corresponds to 100:80; the best temperature reaction was at 60 °C, and the best TEA concentration was 0.2%. The critical amounts of reactants needed to reach maximum conversion were established. The final acid value of the acrylated ESFO after washing (pH = 7) was 2.1 mg potassium hydroxide (KOH)·g(-1). All results show that FT-IR spectroscopy is a simple, low-cost, rapid method for investigating the kinetics of a reaction.

  13. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Walter Duarte de Araujo; Schneider, Fábio Kurt; Morales, Rigoberto E M

    2012-09-20

    Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical applications even when regular air is used as the gas phase. Improved

  14. Evaluation of stability and size distribution of sunflower oil-coated micro bubbles for localized drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho WalterDuartedeAraujo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro bubbles were initially introduced as contrast agents for ultrasound examinations as they are able to modify the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging, thus improving the assessment of clinical information on human tissue. Recent developments have demonstrated the feasibility of using these bubbles as drug carriers in localized delivery. In micro fluidics devices for generation of micro bubbles, the bubbles are formed at interface of liquid gas through a strangulation process. A device that uses these features can produce micro bubbles with small size dispersion in a single step. Methods A T-junction micro fluidic device constructed using 3D prototyping was made for the production of mono dispersed micro bubbles. These micro bubbles use sunflower oil as a lipid layer. Stability studies for micro bubbles with diameters different generated from a liquid phase of the same viscosity were conducted to evaluate whether micro bubbles can be used as drug carriers. The biocompatibility of coating layer, the ability to withstand environmental pressure variations combined with echogenicity, are key factors that they can safely play the role of drug transporters. Results The normal distribution curve with small dispersion of the diameter of bubbles validates the process of generating micro bubbles with low value of variation coefficient, i.e., 0.381 at 1.90%. The results also showed the feasibility of using sunflower oil as the lipid matrix with stable population of bubbles over 217 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 313.04 μm and 121 minutes for micro bubbles with an average diameter of 73.74 μm, considering bubbles with air as gaseous phase. Conclusion The results indicate that the micro fluidic device designed can be used for producing micro bubbles with low variation coefficient using sunflower oil as a coating of micro bubbles. These carriers were stable for periods of time that are long enough for clinical

  15. Modeling and optimization of sunflower oil methanolysis over quicklime bits in a packed bed tubular reactor using the response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miladinović, Marija R.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Banković, Predrag T.; Milutinović-Nikolić, Aleksandra D.; Jovanović, Dušan M.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sunflower oil methanolysis in a continuous packed bed reactor was optimized. • Thermally-activated, low-cost quicklime bits were used as a catalyst. • Process was optimized by 3"3 full factorial design and Box-Behnken design. • Box-Behnken design is recommended for optimizing biodiesel production processes. • FAME content in the ester phase obtained under the optimum conditions was >98%. - Abstract: The effect of the residence time (i.e. liquid flow rate through the reactor), methanol-to-oil molar ratio and reaction temperature on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content at the output of a continuous packed bed tubular reactor was modeled by the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the 3"3 full factorial design (FFD) with replication or the Box-Behnken design (BBD) with five center points. The methanolysis of sunflower oil was carried out at the residence time of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h, the methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 6:1, 12:1 and 18:1 and the reaction temperature of 40, 50 and 60 °C under the atmospheric pressure. Based on the used experimental designs, the model equations containing only linear and two-factor interaction terms were developed for predicting the FAME content, which were validated through the use of the unseen data. Applying the analysis of variance (ANOVA), all three factors were shown to have a significant influence on the FAME content. Acceptable statistical predictability and accuracy resulted from both designs since the values of the coefficient of determination were close to unity while the values of the mean relative percentage deviation were relatively low (<±10%). In addition, both designs predicted the maximum FAME content of above 99%, which agreed closely with the actual FAME content (98.8%). The same optimal reaction temperature (60 °C) and residence time (2.0 h) were determined by both designs while the BBD model suggested a slightly lower methanol-to-oil molar ratio (12.2:1) than the 3"3 FFD

  16. Thermal and UV stability of β-carotene dissolved in peppermint oil microemulsified by sunflower lecithin and Tween 20 blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-05-01

    Microemulsions are suitable for simultaneous delivery of flavour oils and lipophilic bioactive compounds in transparent beverages. In the present study, the feasibility of delivering β-carotene in microemulsions formulated with peppermint oil and a blend of Tween® 20 and various amounts of sunflower lecithin was investigated. The poorly water- and oil-soluble β-carotene was dissolved in the transparent microemulsions that had particles smaller than 10nm and were stable during ambient storage for 65 d. The inclusion of β-carotene did not change the flow-behaviour and Newtonian viscosity. The degradation of β-carotene in microemulsions during ambient storage, ultraviolet radiation, and thermal treatments at 60 and 80 °C followed first order kinetics and was greatly suppressed when compared to the solution control. The antioxidant potential of peppermint oil and a greater content of lecithin in microemulsions enabled the better protection of β-carotene. The studied microemulsions may find various applications in manufacturing transparent beverages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative stability of lard and sunflower oil supplemented with coffee extracts under storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budryn, Grażyna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stability of sunflower oil and lard supplemented with water extracts of green and roasted, Arabica and Robusta coffee beans was estimated. A decrease in the rate of fat oxidation reactions during the storage of samples for 12 weeks at ambient temperature which resulted from the addition of coffee extracts was evaluated using standard chemical methods such as the determination of peroxide and p-anisidine value and the assays of conjugated dienes and trienes as well as physical methods such as the determination of thermal profile by DSC. The sensory properties of all fat samples were also determined. These measurements showed that 0.1% water coffee extracts in fats decreased (p < 0.05 the quantities assayed by the chemical methods as compared to the control samples and approximately halved the rate of fat oxidation. In addition, the thermal profile analysis revealed that supplementing with coffee extracts reduced the extent of negative changes in the thermal properties of fats. The effectiveness of the tested coffee extracts decreased in the order: green Robusta > green Arabica > roasted Robusta > roasted Arabica.

    La estabilidad oxidativa de manteca y aceite de girasol suplementados con extractos acuosos de granos de café verde o tostado Arábica y Robusta fue estimada. Un descenso en la velocidad de las reacciones de oxidación de la grasa durante el almacenamiento de las muestras durante 12 semana a temperatura ambiente, que resulto de la adición de los extractos de café, fue evaluada usando métodos químicos estándares tales como la determinación de peróxidos y el índice de paranisidina y ensayos de dienos y trienos conjugados, así como métodos físicos tales como la determinación del perfil térmico por DSC. También las propiedades sensoriales de todas las grasas fueron estimadas. Estas medidas mostraron que extractos acuosos de café al 0.1% en la grasa decrecieron (p < 0.05 los valores obtenidos por los m

  18. The effects of antioxidants and shelf life conditions on oxidation markers in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Jeanine; Grypa, Roman; Ellingworth, John; Duodu, Kwaku G; De Kock, Henriëtta L

    2016-12-15

    The effects of levels of antioxidant [gallic acid or ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA)] in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE) and shelf life affecting conditions on aroma, anisidine values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) were determined. Aroma differences between products with different concentrations of antioxidants were more apparent for ambient than accelerated stored SOSDEs. Aroma differences were more noted between SOSDEs with different antioxidants than antioxidant concentrations per se. PV differences between accelerated stored SOSDEs with high and low EDTA concentrations were found. AV differences existed between SOSDEs with different gallic acid concentrations for both storage conditions, and for accelerated stored SOSDEs with different EDTA concentrations. The accelerated storage model is more suitable for SOSDEs with metal chelator antioxidants e.g. EDTA, than free radical scavenging antioxidants e.g. gallic acid. PV, AV and aroma of accelerated stored SOSDEs do not clearly predict ambient shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structurally modified pectin for targeted lipid antioxidant capacity in linseed/sunflower oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celus, Miete; Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Kyomugasho, Clare; Maes, Ine; Van Loey, Ann M; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc E

    2018-02-15

    The present work explored the lipid antioxidant capacity of citrus pectin addition to 5%(w/v) linseed/sunflower oil emulsions stabilized with 0.5%(w/v) Tween 80, as affected by pectin molecular characteristics. The peroxide formation in the emulsions, containing tailored pectin structures, was studied during two weeks of storage at 35°C. Low demethylesterified pectin (≤33%) exhibited a higher antioxidant capacity than high demethylesterified pectin (≥58%), probably due to its higher chelating capacity of pro-oxidative metal ions (Fe 2+ ), whereas the distribution pattern of methylesters along the pectin chain only slightly affected the antioxidant capacity. Nevertheless, pectin addition to the emulsions caused emulsion destabilization probably due to depletion or bridging effect, independent of the pectin structural characteristics. These results evidence the potential of structurally modified citrus pectin as a natural antioxidant in emulsions. However, optimal conditions for emulsion stability should be carefully selected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipoprotein profiles and serum peroxide levels of aged women consuming palmolein or oleic acid-rich sunflower oil diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, C; Ródenas, S; Merinero, M C; Rodríguez-Gil, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the hypercholesterolemic effects of a dietary exchange between 16:0 and 18:1 while 18:2 was at relatively lower level (approximately 4%) in aged women with initially high total serum cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and with high intakes of dietary cholesterol. Subjects were assigned to two consecutive 28 d periods. In the first period all subjects followed an oleic acid-rich diet in the form of oleic acid-rich sunflower oil. This was followed by a second period rich in palmitic acid in the form of palmolein. Nutrient intakes, serum lipids, lipoproteins, antioxidant vitamins, peroxides and LDL-peroxides were measured at two dietary periods. Instituto de Nutrición y Bromatología (CSIC), Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición) and Sección Departamental de Quimica Analítica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. The palmolein period led to an increase in TC (P or = 6.21 mmol/L or with TC 6.21 mmol/L than in women with TC < 6.21 mmol/L, but palmolein decreased serum and LDL-peroxide in hypercholesterolemics more than in the normocholesterolemics, resulting in serum and LDL-peroxide levels which theoretically are more adequate. Though palmolein increased LDL-C concentrations, it better protected LDL particles, mainly in women with high TC, against peroxidation than did oleic acid-rich sunflower oil.

  1. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  2. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  3. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  4. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  5. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil on rumen fermentation characteristics and fatty acid composition of digesta in ewes fed a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Shingfield, K J; Hervás, G; Toivonen, V; Frutos, P

    2010-10-01

    Studies in ruminants have shown that supplementing the diet with a mixture of fish oil (FO) and sunflower oil (SO) enhances the concentration of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3 in milk because of alterations in ruminal biohydrogenation, but the intermediates formed under these conditions are not well characterized. Five ewes fitted with rumen cannula and fed a high concentrate diet were used to examine the effect of a mixture (30 g/kg of DM) of FO and SO (1:2, wt/wt) on temporal changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and the relative abundance of biohydrogenation intermediates in ruminal digesta collected after 0, 3, and 10 d on diet. Appearance and identification of biohydrogenation intermediates was determined based on complementary gas-liquid chromatography and Ag+-HPLC analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. Inclusion of FO and SO in the diet had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, or nutrient digestion, but altered the fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta, changes that were characterized by time-dependent decreases in 18:0 and 18:2 n-6 and the accumulation of trans 16:1, trans 18:1, 10-O-18:0, and trans 18:2. Lipid supplements enhanced the proportion of 20:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 in digesta and resulted in numerical increases in cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid concentrations, but decreased the relative abundance of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Furthermore, detailed analysis revealed the appearance of several unique 20:1, 20:2, 22:1, 22:3, and 22:4 products in ruminal digesta that accumulated over time, providing the first indications of 20 and 22 carbon fatty acid intermediates formed during the biohydrogenation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in sheep. In conclusion, FO and SO in a high concentrate diet caused a time-dependent inhibition of the complete

  6. Preparation, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts for biodiesel production from sunflower oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Nahid; Yaghobi, Nakisa; Ezzati, Rohollah

    2017-06-01

    A series of MgO-La2O3 nanocatalysts were prepared via a co-precipitation method and used for biodiesel production from sunflower oil. The results showed that with increasing Mg/La weight percent the catalytic activity increases obviously. Also the results showed that the catalyst with Mg/La = 60 wt.% (based on weight of La) is an optimal nanocatalyst. The best operational conditions were the CH3OH/oil = 18/1 at 338 K with mechanical stirring 700 rpm for 5 h. Furthermore, the optimal nanocatalyst showed high catalytic activity for biodiesel production and the biodiesel yield reached 97.7% under the optimal conditions. Furthermore, this nanocatalyst was used for 4 runs in biodiesel production without significant decrease of catalytic performance. Also kinetic and thermodynamic of reaction has been studied in the presence of optimal nanocatalyst. From the kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Ea = 77.6 kJ·mol-1, A = 3.5 × 107 l·mol-1 s-1, ΔrHθ = 162 kJ·mol-1 K-1, ΔrSθ = 0.54 kJ·mol-1 K-1 were obtained. Characterization of catalysts was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurement methods.

  7. Influence of High Temperature and Duration of Heating on the Sunflower Seed Oil Properties for Food Use and Bio-diesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Poiana, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Two important problems for the food industry are oil oxidation and oil waste after frying. Sunflower seed oil is one of the vegetable oils most commonly used in the food industry. Two variables were applied to the low oleic sunflower seed oil in this work i.e. heating temperature (180-210-240°C) and time of heating (15-30-60-120 minutes), to study from the edible point of view the variations of its physico-chemical properties. After 120 minutes heating at 240°C the following was found: refractive index (1.476), free acidity (0.35%), K232 (2.87), K270 (3.71), antiradical activity (45.90% inhibition), total phenols (523 mg kg -1 ), peroxide value (17.00 meq kg -1 ), p-anisidine value (256.8) and Totox (271.7), all of which showed a constant deterioration. In relation to the use as a feedstock for bio-diesel production, after 120 minutes heating at 240℃ the following was found: acid value 0.70 mg KOH g -1 oil, iodine value 117.83 g I 2 100 g -1 oil, oil stability index 0.67 h, kinematic viscosity (at 40°C) 77.85 mm 2 s -1 , higher heating value 39.86 MJ kg -1 , density 933.34 kg/m 3 and cetane number 67.04. The parameters studied in this work were influenced, in different ways, by the applied variables. Heating temperature between 180 and 210°C and 120 min heating duration were found to be the most appropriate conditions for sunflower seed oil both from the deep frying point of view and from a subsequent use as feedstock for bio-diesel production. In light of the vegetable oils' International standards for an edible use and for a bio-diesel production, findings of this work can be used to set heating temperature and heating duration to preserve as long possible the physico-chemical properties of a low oleic sunflower seed oil for both its edible use as a fat during cooking and for its re-use after frying.

  8. Multivariate optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and ascorbyl palmitate to stabilize sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2016-04-01

    The simultaneous optimization of a synergistic blend of oleoresin sage (SAG) and ascorbyl palmitate (AP) in sunflower oil (SO) was performed using central composite and rotatable design coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) and response surface methodology (RSM). The physicochemical parameters viz., peroxide value, anisidine value, free fatty acids, induction period, total polar matter, antioxidant capacity and conjugated diene value were considered as response variables. PCA reduced the original set of correlated responses to few uncorrelated principal components (PC). The PC1 (eigen value, 5.78; data variance explained, 82.53 %) was selected for optimization using RSM. The quadratic model adequately described the data (R (2) = 0. 91, p  0.05). The contour plot of PC 1 score indicated the optimal synergistic combination of 1289.19 and 218.06 ppm for SAG and AP, respectively. This combination of SAG and AP resulted in shelf life of 320 days at 25 °C estimated using linear shelf life prediction model. In conclusion, the versatility of PCA-RSM approach has resulted in an easy interpretation in multiple response optimizations. This approach can be considered as a useful guide to develop new oil blends stabilized with food additives from natural sources.

  9. Thermal oxidation process accelerates degradation of the olive oil mixed with sunflower oil and enables its discrimination using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and chemometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Boqué, Ricard; Folcarelli, Rita; Busto, Olga; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hussain, Javid

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of thermal treatment on the discrimination of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) samples from EVOO samples adulterated with sunflower oil. Two groups of samples were used. One group was analyzed at room temperature (25 °C) and the other group was thermally treated in a thermostatic water bath at 75 °C for 8 h, in contact with air and with light exposure, to favor oxidation. All samples were then measured with synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectra were acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region from 250 to 720 nm. In order to optimize the differences between excitation and emission wavelengths, four constant differential wavelengths, i.e., 20 nm, 40 nm, 60 nm and 80 nm, were tried. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to discriminate between pure and adulterated oils. It was found that the 20 nm difference was the optimal, at which the discrimination models showed the best results. The best PLS-DA models were those built with the difference spectra (75-25 °C), which were able to discriminate pure from adulterated oils at a 2% level of adulteration. Furthermore, PLS regression models were built to quantify the level of adulteration. Again, the best model was the one built with the difference spectra, with a prediction error of 1.75% of adulteration.

  10. Quality of pies obtained of the extraction of sunflower and crambe oil for biodiesel under different temperatures; Qualidade das tortas obtidas na extracao do oleo de girassol e crambe para biodiesel sob diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Tabata Zingano; Prado, Naimara Vieira do; Coelho, Silvia Renata Machado; Bischoff, Teodato Zingano [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), PR (Brazil)], emails: tabatazbi@yahoo.com.br, nai_mara@hotmail.com, srmcoelho@unioeste.br, teodato_zb@hotmail.com; Figueiredo, Paulo Roberto Abreu de [Instituto Agronomico do Parana (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Sunflower and crambe are viable alternatives to ethanol. Used in food production, the sunflower crop has economic, rustic and does not require specialized machinery. The crambe oil is concentrated enough, it is feasible to farm and is not edible. The extraction efficiencies of these oils gives to the heating and moisture content of grain. The aim of this study was to evaluate temperatures of oil extraction in sunflower and crambe as pies obtained. For oil extraction and acquisition of pies, we used a high pressure extruder press. The sunflower seed and crambe were extruded without heating and at temperatures of 50 and 70 deg C with three replicates for each treatment, estimated to be the pie, the amount of fat, protein and moisture. Increasing the temperature, we observed a reduction of moisture in sunflower cake, but this did not occur in seeds of crambe. For sunflower, the higher levels of lipids occurred for pie without heating, and for crambe, the higher levels of lipids occurred at 50 deg C. As for the protein, was found in both cultures, the highest level at 70 deg C. It is concluded that the extraction temperature alters the composition of oilseed cakes. (author)

  11. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  12. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  13. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  15. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  16. The Effect of Massage Therapy by Sunflower Oil on Neonates for Length of Hospital Stay from the Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Alizadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants are the most sensitive and injury of people in society that will make the feature of our country so they are needed special attention to take care of their physical &mental health. According to many studies one of the intervention for decrease of length of stay (LOS in Intensive Care Unit (NICU is massage therapy by oil because of rapidly recovery & early discharge. The aim of this study was to the effect of massage on neonates in Nicu ward for decreasing of LOS. Materials & Methods:. This one- blinded clinical trial was conducted on 44 infants who were born within 30-37weeks gestational age with 1000-2500gr in Nicu of Arash & Shariati hospitals. The infants were assigned randomly into two group of sunflower oil massage &without massage. The massage is done one hour after milk when the infants were stable (heart rate-respiratory rate and color of their skin become control. Each massage was 15minute 3 times in every 2 hours in the afternoon for 5 days. Observation was tools of collecting data by researcher which done before &after every intervention by respiratory heart rate monitoring & pulse oximetry. Data were analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA. Results: Within 5 days of following increasing pattern of infant weight in study group was significant (P=0.001 and comparison growth head circumference in 2 groups was not significant (P=0.01 about LOS variable within 5days massage was significant (P=0.04. Conclusion: Fortunately there were statistical significant difference between the infants weight and decreasing length of hospitalization in 2 groups , but difference between head circumference between 2 group was not significant.

  17. Influence of dietary replacement of sunflower oil with milk thistle (Silybum marianum oil on chicken meat quality and antioxidant status of liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research focused on the effects of dietary replacement of 3% sunflower oil (SO group with 3% milk thistle oil (MTO group on the technological quality of meat, such as pH value, colour (CIE L*, CIE a*, CIE b*, drip loss (%, shear force (N, and cooking loss (%, as well as on the content of fatty acid lipids in broiler breast and thigh muscles. Significant difference (P < 0.05 was determined for pHi, pHu, CIE a*, CIE b* values between groups, although the values for the stated indicators were within the standard range. Lipids of breast meat of the MTO group contained more arachidic acid (P < 0.001, octadecenoic acid isomer B (P = 0.047 and eicosatrienoic acid (P = 0.041, and less α-linolenic acid (P < 0.001 and Σn-3PUFA. Lipids of thigh meat of the MTO group contained more ΣSFA, myristoleic acid, eicosatrienoic acid (P < 0.05 and eicosenoic acid (P < 0.001, and less α-linolenic acid, and had narrower Σn-3/n-6 PUFA ratio than the SO group. According to the antioxidant status of broiler liver, there was significantly higher catalase activity determined in the MTO group.

  18. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  19. Direct acetylation of sunflower oil in the presence of boron trioxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The separation was performed by washing with Ca(OH)2, filtering and heating for two hours. ... of 35 mg of the oil at 170 °C, for 50 min and in the air flow of 20 cm3 min-1 is equal to 65 ..... diluents used for biodegradable lubricants. JAOCS ...

  20. Sunflowers. Cultivation, processing, economic aspects. Sonnenblumen. Anbau, Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, K [Landwirtschaftsschule, Alzey (Germany, F.R.); Hunger, A [Landes-, Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau, Neustadt (Germany, F.R.); Weickel, J [Landespflanzenschutzamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.)

    1988-01-01

    Sunflowers are cultivated throughout the world, primarily for oil extraction but also as a birdseed, for eating, or for backing. Although some attempts have been made, they are hardly ever used as green fodder. Sunflowers grown for oil extraction usually have thin-shelled, black seeds. They have an oil fraction of 40 to 50% and a protein fraction of more than 20%. Sunflowers for other uses have large seeds with thick, striped shells. Their oil fraction is between 25 and 30%. (orig.).

  1. Studies on changes in patterns of fatty acids, sterols and tocopherols of oil during seed maturation of oil crops. Part I. Sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The variation of lipid constituents in maturing sunflower oil seeds has been investigated with the aim of determination of the proper harvesting time as well as the oil quality. Marked variations in fatty acid, sterol and tocopherol constituents of the oil were observed. Capillary gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analysis which enabled the determination of major as well as minor constituents in the oil. In addition, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to confirm the structure of cycloartenol sterol. Postulations on the key compounds of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols were proposed in the frame of the main biosynthetic pathways. The proper harvesting time was found to be 118 days after plantation since the oil content was high and the constituents of the oil were balanced.

    Se ha investigado la variación de los constituyentes lipídicos en aceites de semillas de girasol en distintos estados de maduración, con el objetivo de determinar el tiempo de recolección apropiado así como la calidad del aceite. Se observaron variaciones apreciables en los ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles del aceite. La cromatografía gaseosa capilar y la cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia se usó en el análisis que permitió la determinación tanto de los componentes mayoritarios como minoritarios en el aceite. Además, se utilizó la cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a la espectrometría de masas para confirmar la estructura del esterol cicloartenol. Se han propuesto en el marco de la ruta biosintética principal postulados sobre los compuestos clave de ácidos grasos, esteroles y tocoferoles. Se encontró como tiempo de recolección apropiado el de 118 días después de la plantación, ya que el contenido de aceite fue elevado y los constituyentes fueron equilibrados.

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation with olive and sunflower oils on lipid profile and liver histology in rats fed high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duavy, Sandra Mara Pimentel; Salazar, Gerson Javier Torres; Leite, Gerlânia de Oliveira; Ecker, Assis; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2017-06-01

    To compare the effects of high-monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against the metabolic disorders elicited by a high-cholesterol diet (HC) in rats. Using in vivo dietary manipulation, rats were fed with different diets containing 4% soybean oil (cholesterol free diet) and 1% HC containing 12% olive oil (HC + OO) enriched with MUFA and 12% sunflower oil (HC + SO) enriched with PUFA for 60 d. Serum lipid levels and hepatic steatosis were evaluated after the treatment period. Comparatively, rats treated with HC + OO diet experienced a decrease in the serum LDL-C, VLDL-C and CT levels compared to those fed with HC + SO diet (P blood. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  4. Analysis of oil content in sunflower seeds with nuclear magnetic ressonance and `SOXHLET` methods; Determinacao do teor de oleo em sementes de girassol pelos metodos de ressonancia magnetica nuclear e soxhlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Oleaginosas; Toledo, Nilva Maria Prestes de [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao Tecnica Experimental e Calculo; Teixeira, Joao Paulo Feijao [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fitoquimica; Suassuna Filho, Jose [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept.de Fisica

    1993-12-31

    Individual and group of seeds of some sunflower populations were utilized in order to evaluate the feasibility of oil content evaluations by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance method (NMR). Correlation analysis with the extractive method (Soxhlet) was performed. The results showed that: the oil in the seeds behaved like a liquid in the NMR analysis; there was a high and positive correlation (r = 0,93) between NMR and Soxhlet; there was no correlation between seed weight and oil content; the observed variability in oil content among seeds of a plant were higher than between plants of a population; these values indicate the importance of making individual analysis of oil content by the NMR method for the sunflower breeding for oil content. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  6. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE USE OF LOVAGE LEAVES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS AND OIL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEIDA SEVDAGUL SULIMAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied four edible vegetable oils and nine oil blends based on refined sunflower oil, in order to improve the quality characteristics of sunflower oil. The oils used for blends were linseed oil, grapeseed oil, and coconut oil. The physico-chemical properties demonstrated the superior features for oil blends, like lower acidity (measured by acid value and higher stability to autoxidation (measured by peroxide value and refractive index. The best combination for sunflower oil was with coconut oil (lower acidity, higher stability to autoxidation. For a supplementary improvement of properties, especially for the preservation of oils and oil blends, we tested the lovage (Levisticum officinale extract as additive. The obtained additivated mixtures demonstrated better quality characteristics, which recommend them for the human consumption.

  8. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  9. Field-based experimental water footprint study of sunflower growth in a semi-arid region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lijie; Jin, Yinghua; Duan, Peili; He, Hongshi

    2016-07-01

    Field-scale changes in the water footprint during crop growth play an important role in formulating sustainable water utilisation strategies. This study aimed to explore field-scale variation in the water footprint of growing sunflowers in the western Jilin Province, China, during a 3-year field experiment. The goals of this study were to (1) determine the components of the 'blue' and 'green' water footprints for sunflowers sown with water, and (2) analyse variations in water footprints and soil water balance under different combinations of temperature and precipitation. Specific actions could be adopted to maintain sustainable agricultural water utilisation in the semi-arid region based on this study. The green, blue, and grey water footprints accounted for 93.7-94.7%, 0.4-0.5%, and 4.9-5.8%, respectively, of the water footprint of growing sunflowers. The green water footprint for effective precipitation during the growing season accounted for 58.8% in a normal drought year but 48.2% in an extreme drought year. When the effective precipitation during the growing season could not meet the green water use, a moisture deficit arose. This increase in the moisture deficit can have a significant impact on soil water balance. Green water was the primary water source for sunflower growth in the study area, where a scarcity of irrigation water during sunflower growth damaged the soil water balance, particularly in years with continuous drought. The combination of temperature and precipitation effected the growing environment, leading to differences in yield and water footprint. The field experiments in this area may benefit from further water footprint studies at the global, national and regional scale. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of

  10. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, T. P. V. B.; Mielke Neto, P.; Ansolin, M.; Follegatti-Romero, L. A.; Batista, E. A. C.; Meirelles, A. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements...

  11. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL): EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    OpenAIRE

    T. P. V. B. Dias; P. Mielke Neto; L. A. Follegatti-Romero; E. A. C. Batista; A. J. A. Meirelles

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol) and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters) up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements ...

  12. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  13. Fatty acid composition of soybean/sunflower mix oil, fish oil and butterfat applying the AOCS Ce 1j-07 method with a modified temperature program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC methods such as AOAC Fat in foods 966.06 (2005, AOCS Official Methods Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007, allow for analyzing the fatty acids (FAs in dietary fats using highly polar liquid phase capillary columns. However, there are still difficulties in completely separating butiric acid from solvent, FA critical pairs with similar polarity, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, and long chainpolyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs. Therefore, the selection of the temperature program to be employed is important. This work aimed to improve the AOCS Ce 1j-07 Method for the FA composition of a mixture of soybean and sunflower oil, fish oil, and butterfat, using a modified temperature program, tested among five laboratories. It takes more time, but it allows to completely separate butyric acid from the solvent, trans-18:1 from cis-18:1, 20:1 isomers from 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 from 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3 from 24:0 and the main CLA isomers, thus permitting FA quantification in fats and oils for different purposes such as nutritional labeling, quality control and research.Métodos por cromatografía gas-líquido, AOAC 966.06 (2005, AOCS Ce 1h-05 (2005, Ce 1j-07 (2007 permiten determinar ácidos grasos (AG en matrices grasas usando columnas capilares altamente polares y distintos programas de temperatura. No obstante, aún existen dificultades para separar ácido butírico del solvente, pares críticos de AG con polaridades similares, isómeros del ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA, AG de cadena larga poliinsaturados (LC-PUFAs. El objetivo fue mejorar el Método AOCS Ce 1j-07 aplicándolo a la composición en AG de mezcla de aceite soja/girasol, aceite de pescado, mantequilla, usando un programa de temperatura modificado, entre cinco laboratorios. El programa de temperatura elegido, si bien emplea más tiempo, permite separar completamente ácido butírico del solvente, trans-18:1 de cis-18:1, isómeros 20:1 de 18:3 n-3, 22:1 n-9 de 20:4 n-6

  14. A Simplified Model of an Offset Ram Press for Sunflower Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a simplified model of a ram press. The design of the ram press is based on the classical slider-crank mechanism. A force analysis of the press was performed for several successive positions of the driving lever (handle) and for a range of values of certain dimensionless ...

  15. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  16. Soybean and sunflower oil-induced insulin resistance correlates with impaired GLUT4 protein expression and translocation specifically in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Ana Cláudia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Eichler, Paula; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Furuya, Daniela Tomie; Okamoto, Maristela Mitiko; Curi, Rui; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2010-03-01

    Free fatty acids are known for playing a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. High fat intake is known for impairing insulin sensitivity; however, the effect of vegetable-oil injections have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of daily subcutaneous injections (100 microL) of soybean (SB) and sunflower (SF) oils, during 7 days. Both treated groups developed insulin resistance as assessed by insulin tolerance test. The mechanism underlying the SB- and SF-induced insulin resistance was shown to involve GLUT4. In SB- and SF-treated animals, the GLUT4 protein expression was reduced approximately 20% and 10 min after an acute in vivo stimulus with insulin, the plasma membrane GLUT4 content was approximately 60% lower in white adipose tissue (WAT). No effects were observed in skeletal muscle. Additionally, both oil treatments increased mainly the content of palmitic acid ( approximately 150%) in WAT, which can contribute to explain the GLUT4 regulations. Altogether, the present study collects evidence that those oil treatments might generate insulin resistance by targeting GLUT4 expression and translocation specifically in WAT. These alterations are likely to be caused due to the specific local increase in saturated fatty acids that occurred as a consequence of oil daily injections. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Fate of 14C-Chlorpyrifos Insecticide in Sunflower Seeds and Oil and the Effect of Processing According to Industrial Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad, H.; Khatab, M.S.; Hegazi, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ethyl -1- 14 C-chlorpyrifos and some of its degradation products have been prepared for the present investigation. Sunflower plants were treated with 14 C-chlorpyrifos under conditions simulating local agricultural practice. 14 C-residue in seeds were determined at different time intervals. At harvest time about 8 % of 14 C-activity was associated with oil. The methanol soluble 14 C-residues accounted for 0.8 % of the total seed residues, while the cake contained about 80 % of the total residues. About 46 % of the 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be eliminated by simulated commercial processes locally used for oil refining. The refined oil had a 14 C- residue level of about 21 ppm. Chromatographic analysis of crude and refined oil revealed the presence of the parent compound together with three metabolites which were identified as chlorpyrifos oxon, desethyl chlorpyrifos, and desethyl chlorpyrifos oxon in addition to an unknown compound. Methanol extract of the cake revealed the presence of the parent compound and its oxon as free compounds. Acid hydrolysis of the conjugated metabolites in the methanol extract yielded desethyl chlorpyrifos and 3, 5, 6- trichloro-2-hydroxypyridine

  18. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  19. The effects of agricultural subsidies on sunflower cultivation and farmers income: evidence from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of both premium support application on sunflower cultivation area, production amount and support payments on producer income are investigated. In this study it is concluded that premium supports are inefficient on increasing sunflower cultivation area and production whereas it is concluded that it has an important role on producer income and in the determination of the market price. In fact, from a survey that we have carried out, it emerges that the area-based support (diesel oil, fertilizer etc. support) together with premium support increase the revenue of sunflower up to 27.74% per unit area and the gross profit in the proportion of 98.87%. This study indicates that in order to increase the sunflower production in Turkey the amounts of sunflower premium support, diesel oil and fertilizer should be rearranged in compliance with current market conditions. Moreover, for other agricultural products, the use of certified seed should also be included into agricultural support programmes. Production on well irrigated areas should be widened and the use of oil crops varieties with high oil ratio should be extended. (author)

  20. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  1. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  2. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contaminated site by successive methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and sunflower oil enhanced soil washing - Portulaca oleracea L. cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Hu, Feng; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Jiang, Xin; Luo, Yongming; Yang, Xinlun

    2014-06-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)-contaminated site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) combined with ultrasonication (35 kHz, 30 min) at 25 g L(-1) methyl-β-cyclodextrin and 100 mL L(-1) sunflower oil were effective in extracting OCPs from the soil. After four successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency for total OCPs, DDTs, endosulfans, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexanes, heptachlors, and chlordanes were all about 99%. The 4th washed soil with 3 months cultivation of Portulaca oleracea L. and nutrient addition significantly increase (p<0.05) the number, biomass carbon, nitrogen, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms. This implied that the microbiological functioning of the soil was at least partially restored. This combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmental friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of the soil pH on 134Cs transfer factors for soybean and sunflower plants; 134Cs fate in the extracted seed-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, C.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Arapis, G.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of soil pH on 134 Cs TFs as well as the fate of 134 Cs in the extracted oil was studied in a greenhouse experiment with soybean and sunflower plants. A soil with pH 4.2 was used as a basis and its pH value has increased to 5.7, 6.5 and 7.6 (by the addition of different amounts of Ca(OH) 2 ). The lowest TF value was observed in the calcareous soil (pH 7.6), while the highest in the lowest pH (4.2) for the vegetative part and in the pH 6.5 for the edible part for both studied plants. TFs were practically the same for soya plants grown on the three lowest soil pH and reduced significantly only at pH 7.6 for either pods or other plant material. However, the lowest/highest TF was ∼ 4 for pods and ∼ 6 for the other plant material. For the sunflower plants while TFs for other plant material reduced from lowest to highest soil pH by only a factor of 2, for the seeds TFs remained rather constant. The difference in TF between the two studied species in each soil pH was in some cases higher than the difference due to pH effect. When an oil fraction (∼ 20 %) was extracted from seeds of both plants, no 134 Cs was detected. Refs. 4 (author)

  5. Changes in the rumen bacterial community in response to sunflower oil and fish oil supplements in the diet of dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenguer, A; Toral, P G; Frutos, P; Hervás, G

    2010-07-01

    Rumen microbial biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids has a major effect on the process of developing healthier dairy products. This study aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of diet supplementation with sunflower (SO) and fish (FO) oils on the rumen bacterial community in dairy sheep. First, 32 lactating ewes, divided in 8 lots of 4 animals each (2 lots per treatment), were fed a high-concentrate total mixed ration supplemented with 0, 2% SO, 1% FO, or 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 21 d, rumen fluid samples were taken from each lot for DNA extraction and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. In a second experiment, 5 cannulated ewes were first fed the same TMR, with the exception of a higher forage level, and then changed to the same diet supplemented with 2% SO plus 1% FO. After 0, 3, and 10 d, rumen content samples were taken for DNA extraction and FISH analysis (fluid). Total bacteria and the Butyrivibrio group were studied in microbial DNA by terminal RFLP analysis (T-RFLP), and real-time PCR was used to quantify Butyrivibrio bacteria that produce vaccenic acid or stearic acid. In rumen fluid samples, total bacteria and clostridial clusters IX and XIV were analyzed by FISH. Dietary supplementation with SO plus FO seemed to induce important changes in the total bacteria and Butyrivibrio populations, and a high interindividual variation was observed, and the speed of the effect of the lipid supplementation depended on the individual microbial composition. Analysis by T-RFLP and FISH showed increases in cluster IX bacteria with SO plus FO supplementation, presumably Quinella-like microorganisms. The abundances of vaccenic acid- and stearic acid-producing Butyrivibrio relative to total bacteria, estimated by real time PCR, were low (0.28 and 0.18%, respectively, in rumen fluid, and 0.86 and 0.81% in rumen contents) and only that of SA-producing bacteria seemed to be reduced by diets containing FO, although differences were only

  6. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  7. Response of sunflower to different planting dates in cotton based cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.; Shakoor, A.; Rana, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A field study on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) was conducted for three. years (1991-1993) on different planting dates. Two hybrids (Hysun-33 and PI-6480) were sown on five different dates with 15 days interval from January 15 to March 15 at Cotton Research Station, Multan. Significant higher seed yield of 1880 and 2097 kg ha-1 was obtained when the crop was planted on February 1 and 15 than other treatments. The yield significantly decreased when sunflower was planted on January 15 (1264 kg ha-l), March 1 (1382 kg ha-l) and March 15 (927 kg hall. Maturity period was longest (128 days) of early sown (January 15) and shortest of late sown (March 15) sunflower hybrids. Therefore, it can be concluded that sunflower planted on February 1 to 15 gave higher seed yield as well as allowed enough time for land preparation and thereby, planting of cotton crop in the same field during its regular planting time. (author)

  8. Effects of the Soil Incorporation of Increasing Amounts of Non-Fermented Wet Pomace on the Oil Yield and Acid Profile of Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of olive processing waste is a strategic resource in the integrated management of the agricultural system as it satisfies the two objectives of evacuating the olive-processing residue and using it beneficially for agricultural purposes. For such aims, a research was conducted in Bari (South of Italy to study the effects of the incorporation into the soil of increasing amounts of non-fermented wet pomace (WP (0, 17.5, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210 Mg ha-1 on the oil yield and acid profile of sunflower seeds. The results obtained point out that the seed yield was negatively affected by the application of WP starting from 70 Mg ha-1; an opposite trend was observed for the seed oil yield. The incorporation of WP has also affected the oil fatty acids’ composition. Oleic and linoleic acids, the principal fatty acids (beyond 90% of total fatty acids, showed significant variations: from the control treatment to the one receiving the maximum application of waste, oleic acid decreased (-5.4%, linoleic acid increased (+ 6.6%, and the saturated fatty acids fraction decreased (-7.6%.

  9. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  10. Production, characterization and anticancer activity of Candida bombicola sophorolipids by means of solid state fermentation of sunflower oil cake and soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of sophorolipids by Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 grown in a mixture of sunflower oil cake and crude soybean oil as economic substrates with different fermentation techniques was studied. The highest yield (49.5 g·100 g−1 substrates was obtained from solid state fermentation after employing a new concept for extraction by methanol (E I followed by ethyl acetate (E II, then partially purified with hexane (E III. The course of time of fermentation was also studied, and E I extracted of the 12th day showed the minimum surface tension (45 mN·m−1 at a critical micelle dilution (CMD of 10% concentration. The produced sophorolipids were characterized and confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anticancer activity of the produced compounds was assessed against MCF-7, HepG2, A549, HCT116 cancer cell lines and the results revealed that E III and E IV (a mixture of E I & E III act as promising anticancer agents in HepG2 and A549 by inhibiting urokinase and histone deacetylase activities.Se estudió la producción de soforolípidos por Candida bombicola NRRL Y- 17069 cultiva con diferentes técnicas de fermentación en una mezcla de torta de girasol y aceite de soja crudo, como sustratos económicos. El rendimiento más alto (49,5 g·100 g−1 de sustrato se obtuvo por fermentación en estado sólido después de extraer con metanol (IE seguido de acetato de etilo (EII, y de purificación parcial con hexano (EIII. También se estudió el tiempo de fermentación, considerando que el extracto IE de 12 días mostró una tensión superficial mínima (45 mN·m−1 a una dilución micelar crítica (CMD de concentración 10 %. Los soforolípidos producidos se caracterizaron y se confirmaron mediante espectroscopia FTIR y RMN de 1H. La actividad anticancerígena de los compuestos producidos se evaluó en células MCF-7, HepG2, A549, líneas celulares de cáncer de HCT116 y los resultados revelaron que EIII y EIV (una mezcla de EI y EIII

  11. Comparison of the effects of flaxseed oil and sunflower seed oil consumption on serum glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, and lipid peroxidation in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Atefeh; Nikaein, Farzad; Babajafari, Siavash; Faghih, Shiva; Yarmohammadi, Hassan

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) increases the risk of type II diabetes and morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Flaxseed oil (FO), as a functional food, is one of the major vegetal sources of essential omega-3 fatty acids. This study aimed to compare the effects of consumption of FO and sunflower seed oil (SO) on lipid peroxidation and other symptoms of MetSyn. This randomized controlled interventional trial was conducted on 60 volunteers aged 30 to 60 years who were diagnosed with MetSyn in Shiraz, Iran. The participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to SO (n = 30, receiving 25 mL/d SO) and FO (n = 30, receiving 25 ml/d FO) groups using block randomization. The diets were identical for all the participants. Blood pressure (BP), serum lipid, fasting blood sugar, and malondialdehyde were measured at baseline and at the end of week 7. The results showed no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding blood lipid levels and fasting blood sugar at the end of the study. However, significant reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.6% in FO and 10.8% in SO), and triglyceride levels were seen within each group after treatment with FO and SO (P < .05). Nonetheless, between-group changes were significant (<0.05) for systolic BP (mean [±standard deviation {SD}] changes were -14.0 ± 22.41 in the FO group [P = .004] and 0.92 ± 8.70 in the SO group [P = .594]) and diastolic BP (mean [±SD] changes were -4.26 ± 7.44 in the FO group [P = .007] and 1.30 ± 6.91 in the SO group [P = .344]), but marginally significant (P = .053) for malondialdehyde level (mean [±SD] changes were -1.29 ± 1.48 in the FO group [P < .001] and -0.52 ± 1.34 in the SO group [P = .52]). A significant decrease in weight was also found in both groups. However, waist circumference decreased significantly only in the FO group at the end of the study (P < .05). Our results indicated

  12. Biofuel potential production from the Orbetello lagoon macroalgae: A comparison with sunflower feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Coppola, Fazio; Tiezzi, Enzo [Department of Chemical and Biosystems Sciences, Siena University, via della Diana, 2A, 53100 Siena (Italy); Colacevich, Andrea; Borghini, Francesca; Focardi, Silvano [Department of Environmental Sciences, Siena University, via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The diversification of different types and sources of biofuels has become an important energy issue in recent times. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of two kinds of renewable feedstocks in order to produce biodiesel. We have analyzed the potential production of oil from two species of macroalgae considered as waste coming out from a lagoon system involved in eutrophication and from sunflower seeds. We have tested oil extraction yields of both feedstock. Furthermore, a comparison has been carried out based on the emergy approach, in order to evaluate the sustainability and environmental performance of both processes. The results show that, under present conditions, considering oil extraction yields, the production of oil from sunflower seeds is feasible, because of the lower value of transformity of the final product with respect to macroalgae. On the other hand, the results demonstrate that with improvements of oil extraction methodology, macroalgae could be considered a good residual biomass usable for biofuel production. (author)

  13. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  14. Oxidative stability of refined olive and sunflower oils supplemented with lycopene-rich oleoresin from tomato peels industrial by-product, during accelerated shelf-life storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehili, Mouna; Choura, Sirine; Zammel, Ayachi; Allouche, Noureddine; Sayadi, Sami

    2018-04-25

    Tomato peels by-product from a Tunisian industry was used for the extraction of lycopene-rich oleoresin using hexane solvent maceration. Tomato peels oleoresin, TPO, exhibited competitive free radicals scavenging activity with synthetic antioxidants. The efficacy of TPO in stabilizing refined olive (ROO) and sunflower (RSO) oils was investigated for five months, under accelerated shelf-life, compared to the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). TPO was added to ROO and RSO at four different concentrations, namely 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 µg/g and BHT standard at 200 µg/g. Lipid oxidation was tracked by measuring the peroxide value, acidity, conjugated dienes and trienes. Results suggested the highest efficiency of 250 µg/g and 2000 µg/g of TPO, referring to 5 µg/g and 40 µg/g of lycopene, for the oxidative stabilization of ROO and RSO, respectively. The protective effect of TPO against the primary oxidation of these refined oils was significantly correlated to their lycopene contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic

  16. Urea-nitrate combustion synthesis of MgO/MgAl2O4 nanocatalyst used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio on catalytic properties and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani Vahid, Behgam; Haghighi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: As a base catalyst for biodiesel production, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel was successfully synthesized by combustion method with MgO, as the active phase, dispersed on the catalyst surface. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. Analyzing the effect of fuel ratio on the combustion synthesized MgAl 2 O 4 , it was revealed that the synthesized base catalyst with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was of the best specifications for biodiesel production process. Future researches may investigate the catalyst reusability and mild reaction conditions, so as to achieve more economical production of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Efficient synthesis of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel by solution combustion method. • Improvement of catalytic activity and stability by optimum ratio fuel. • Enhanced dispersion of MgO over MgAl 2 O 4 spinel. • Production of biodiesel over MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 at relatively mild reaction conditions. - Abstract: MgO/MgAl 2 O 4 nanocatalyst was synthesized by a simple, cost-effective and rapid method and used in biodiesel production from sunflower oil. MgAl 2 O 4 was synthesized by combustion method at different fuel ratios and then active phase of MgO was dispersed on the samples by impregnation method. The nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET-BJH, TGA and FTIR analyses, so as to optimize the concentration of urea (as fuel) in the combustion synthesis. The physicochemical properties of the nanocatalyst confirmed the sample synthesized with fuel ratio of 1.5 has high surface area, effective morphology and texture properties. Finally, in order to evaluate catalytic activity of the samples in biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was performed. The results indicated the catalyst prepared by combustion synthesis with a fuel ratio of 1.5 was optimum specifications for biodiesel production. Using this

  17. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coe cient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using di erent vegetable oils as base oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Benkai; Li Changhe; Zhang Yanbin; Wang Yaogang; Jia Dongzhou; Yang Min

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL). This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grind-ing temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven veg-etable oil types. Results revealed that (1) castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(2) palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient;(3) MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil;(4) viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding tem-perature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils;(5) although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less vis-cous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature;(6) saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid;and (7) a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7%energy ratio coefficient

  18. Grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient in MQL grinding of high-temperature nickel-base alloy by using different vegetable oils as base oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Benkai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oil can be used as a base oil in minimal quantity of lubrication (MQL. This study compared the performances of MQL grinding by using castor oil, soybean oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, and palm oil as base oils. A K-P36 numerical-control precision surface grinder was used to perform plain grinding on a workpiece material with a high-temperature nickel base alloy. A YDM–III 99 three-dimensional dynamometer was used to measure grinding force, and a clip-type thermocouple was used to determine grinding temperature. The grinding force, grinding temperature, and energy ratio coefficient of MQL grinding were compared among the seven vegetable oil types. Results revealed that (1 castor oil-based MQL grinding yields the lowest grinding force but exhibits the highest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (2 palm oil-based MQL grinding generates the second lowest grinding force but shows the lowest grinding temperature and energy ratio coefficient; (3 MQL grinding based on the five other vegetable oils produces similar grinding forces, grinding temperatures, and energy ratio coefficients, with values ranging between those of castor oil and palm oil; (4 viscosity significantly influences grinding force and grinding temperature to a greater extent than fatty acid varieties and contents in vegetable oils; (5 although more viscous vegetable oil exhibits greater lubrication and significantly lower grinding force than less viscous vegetable oil, high viscosity reduces the heat exchange capability of vegetable oil and thus yields a high grinding temperature; (6 saturated fatty acid is a more efficient lubricant than unsaturated fatty acid; and (7 a short carbon chain transfers heat more effectively than a long carbon chain. Palm oil is the optimum base oil of MQL grinding, and this base oil yields 26.98 N tangential grinding force, 87.10 N normal grinding force, 119.6 °C grinding temperature, and 42.7% energy

  19. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  1. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  2. Bovine Mammary Nutrigenomics and Changes in the Milk Composition due to Rapeseed or Sunflower Oil Supplementation of High-Forage or High-Concentrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christine; Bernard, Laurence; Faulconnier, Yannick; Rouel, Jacques; de la Foye, Anne; Domagalski, Jordann; Chilliard, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition plays a crucial role in milk nutritional quality. Despite the known nutritional regulation of ruminant milk composition, the overall mammary mechanisms underlying this regulation are far from being understood. The aim of our study was to determine nutritional regulation of mammary transcriptomes in relation to the cow milk composition. Twelve cows received diets differing in the forage-to-concentrate ratio [high forage (HF) and low forage (LF)] supplemented or not with lipids [HF with whole intact rapeseeds (RS) and LF sunflower oil (SO)] in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk production and FA composition were determined. The gene expression profile was studied using RT-qPCR and a bovine microarray. Our results showed a higher amplitude of milk composition and mammary transcriptome responses to lipid supplementation with the LF-SO compared with the LF diet than with the HF-RS compared with the HF diet. Forty-nine differentially expressed genes, including genes involved in lipid metabolism, were identified with LF-SO versus LF, whereas RS supplementation to the HF diet did not affect the mammary transcriptome. This study highlights different responses to lipid supplementation of milk production and composition and mammary transcriptomes depending on the nature of lipid supplementation and the percentage of dietary concentrate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  4. Fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of low-fat cooked sausages made with beef and chicken meat, tomato juice and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Í; Simşek, O; Işıklı, M

    2002-10-01

    Low-fat (5.9-10.3% fat) cooked sausages were produced with seven different formulations. Sausages produced with total replacement of fat with sunflower oil had significantly lower oleic acid (C18:1) and higher linoleic (C18:2) and behenic (C22:0) fatty acid contents. Their ratio of TUFA/TS was 3.65 compared to 0.95-1.14 for the other sausages. Also these sausages had the lowest moisture content, highest overall palatability and were less firm. Sausages with tomato juice had the lowest pH value, total aerobic count and nitrite content, but were firmer. Sausages produced with reduced beef contents had lower fat contents, lower stearic (C18:0) and higher oleic (C18:1) fatty acid contents than sausages of high beef content, their texture was very soft and had the lowest score for juiciness. Finally the sausages with chicken meat had the lowest fat and highest salt contents, and lower stearic (C18:0) and higher linoleic (C18:3) fatty acid contents than those made with beef . Also their colour was lighter, less red and more yellow and they had the lowest flavor intensity and overall acceptability.

  5. Phytobenthos and phytoplankton community changes upon exposure to a sunflower oil spill in a South African protected freshwater wetland

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available a large area will hamper its recovery (Groenewold 1982). Since 70 vegetable oils and animal fats usually have few volatile fractions, and therefore 71 usually do not decrease in volume through evaporation as do many of the lighter 72 factions... of petroleum oils, most of the quantity of spilled vegetable oil and animal fats 73 remain in the environment (Rigger 1997). When this happens, there is a potential for 74 adverse impacts to environmentally sensitive areas. Factors that affect the 75...

  6. iTRAQ-based proteomics of sunflower cultivars differing in resistance to parasitic weed Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chong; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Na; Islam, Faisal; Song, Wenjian; Hu, Luyang; Liu, Dan; Xie, Xiaonan; Zhou, Weijun

    2017-07-01

    Orobanche cumana is an obligate root parasite causing severe damage to many economically important crops, including sunflowers worldwide. For efficient control measures, it is necessary to understand the resistant mechanism during interaction at molecular level. The present study emphasizes on comparative proteomics to investigate the mechanistic basis of compatible and incompatible interaction of O. cumana with resistant (JY207) and susceptible (TK0409) sunflowers. More than 3500 proteins were identified from two cultivars by iTRAQ analysis. Identified proteins associated with general functions, posttranslational modification, energy production and conversion, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and signal transduction mechanisms were the most represented category of induced proteins in both cultivars. The resistant interaction was characterized by alteration of defense-related proteins involved in recognition of parasites, accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins, biosynthesis of lignin, and detoxification of toxic metabolites in JY207 after inoculation. The susceptible interaction was characterized by decreased abundance of proteins involved in biosynthesis and signaling of plant growth regulators including auxin, gibberellin, brassinosteroid, and ethylene in TK0409 after inoculation. The present study provides comprehensive details of proteins and differential modulation of pathways regulated under compatible and incompatible interaction, allowing the identification of important molecular components for development of sustainable resistance against this parasite. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Gill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  8. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence. PMID:24833511

  9. Purified phenolics from hydrothermal treatments of biomass: ability to protect sunflower bulk oil and model food emulsions from oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Gordon, Michael H; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2011-09-14

    The phenolic fractions released during hydrothermal treatment of selected feedstocks (corn cobs, eucalypt wood chips, almond shells, chestnut burs, and white grape pomace) were selectively recovered by extraction with ethyl acetate and washed with ethanol/water solutions. The crude extracts were purified by a relatively simple adsorption technique using a commercial polymeric, nonionic resin. Utilization of 96% ethanol as eluting agent resulted in 47.0-72.6% phenolic desorption, yielding refined products containing 49-60% w/w phenolics (corresponding to 30-58% enrichment with respect to the crude extracts). The refined extracts produced from grape pomace and from chestnut burs were suitable for protecting bulk oil and oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions. A synergistic action with bovine serum albumin in the emulsions was observed.

  10. Variability in oil tocopherol concentration and composition of traditional and high oleic sunflower hybrids (Helianthus annuus L. in the Pampean region (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocopherols are natural antioxidants that increase the stability of food fat and fulfill an important biological requirement in humans. There are no previous studies on the variability of tocopherol concentration and composition in the oil of sunflower traditional hybrids (TH and high oleic sunflower hybrids (HOH from different environments in Argentina. The objective of this work was to detect and  examine that variability. Seed samples were obtained from i seven TH grown in four locations (Experiment I and, ii five hybrids (three HOH and two traditional ones grown in three locations (Experiment II. Concentrations of total tocopherol in oil ranged from 634 to 1054 μg g oil–1. α-tocopherol accounted for 90.8 to 97% of the total tocopherols. Total and α-tocopherol concentrations were highly genetically determined (more than 80%. In Experiment I, a significant, although low in value, interaction between hybrid and location was found for total and α-tocopherol concentrations. In Experiment II, mean values for total tocopherol concentration in HOH and in each environment were larger than in TH. Significant differences for total and α-tocopherol concentration were not found among HOH and environments. The variation of tocopherol concentration for each hybrid across environments was higher than the variation among hybrids in the same environment. To obtain oil with high tocopherol concentration, both hybrid and environment must be selected.Los tocoferoles son antioxidantes naturales que aumentan la estabilidad de los aceites y cumplen una importante actividad biológica en humanos. No son conocidos estudios sobre la variabilidad del contenido y composición de tocoferoles en el aceite de híbridos de girasol tradicionales (HT y “alto oleico” (HAO sembrados en diferentes ambientes en Argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar y examinar esa variabilidad. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de a 7 HT sembrados en 4 localidades

  11. Genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah

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    Ellen Grippi Lira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an annual crop that stands out for its production of high quality oil and for an efficient selection, being necessary to estimate the components of genetic and phenotypic variance. This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations and genetic variability on sunflower in the Brazilian Savannah, evaluating the characters grain yield (YIELD, days to start flowering (DFL based on flowering date in R5, chapter length (CL, weight of a thousand achenes (WTA, plant height (H and oil content (OilC of 16 sunflower genotypes. The experiment was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, situated at 15º 35’ 30”S latitude, 47º 42’ 30”W longitude and 1.007m above sea level, in soil classified as dystroferric Oxisol. The experimental design used was a complete randomized block with four replicates. The nature for the effects of genotypes and blocks was fixed. Except for the character chapter length, genetic variance was the main component of the phenotypic variance among the genotypes, indicating high genetic variability and experimental efficiency with proper environmental control. In absolute terms, the genetic correlations were superior to phenotypic and environmental. The high values reported for heritability and selective accuracy indicated efficiency of phenotypic selection. Results showed high genetic variability among genotypes, which may contribute to the genetic improvement of sunflower.

  12. MEASURING SUNFLOWER NITROGEN STATUS FROM AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE-BASED SYSTEM AND AN ON THE GROUND DEVICE

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    F. Agüera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV, with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The

  13. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  14. A comparison of the European renewable energy directive default emission values with actual values from operating biodiesel facilities for sunflower, rape and soya oil seeds in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The European Union (EU) set a binding greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for transportation biofuels and other bioliquids. In this study, the GHG emissions of biodiesel chain from sunflower, rapeseed and soybean were calculated in compliance with the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). Input data used for the agricultural step were referred to the Umbrian region for sunflower and rapeseed and to the Veneto region for soybean, while data obtained from the main Italian biodiesel plants were employed for the processing step. Results showed that GHG emissions were higher than default values reported in the RED for sunflower and rapeseed and lower for soybean. Only sunflower biodiesel does not reach the minimum value of GHG saving (35%). The main differences with data used in the RED concern cultivation step, while the processing step has overall the same values of GHG emissions. Finally, three case studies were examined in order to identify possible improvements to make the analyzed supply chains more sustainable. -- Highlights: ► GHG balance of biodiesel from sunflower, rapeseed and soya was analyzed. ► Cultivation has the highest environmental impact for sunflower and rapeseed chains. ► Typical Italian data were adopted for cultivation and processing steps. ► GHG emissions were lower than RED default values for soya biodiesel. ► Cogeneration for the processing plant can greatly increase GHG saving.

  15. Transcriptomic identification of candidate genes involved in sunflower responses to chilling and salt stresses based on cDNA microarray analysis

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    Paniego Norma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that sunflower production is expanding to arid regions, tolerance to abiotic stresses as drought, low temperatures and salinity arises as one of the main constrains nowadays. Differential organ-specific sunflower ESTs (expressed sequence tags were previously generated by a subtractive hybridization method that included a considerable number of putative abiotic stress associated sequences. The objective of this work is to analyze concerted gene expression profiles of organ-specific ESTs by fluorescence microarray assay, in response to high sodium chloride concentration and chilling treatments with the aim to identify and follow up candidate genes for early responses to abiotic stress in sunflower. Results Abiotic-related expressed genes were the target of this characterization through a gene expression analysis using an organ-specific cDNA fluorescence microarray approach in response to high salinity and low temperatures. The experiment included three independent replicates from leaf samples. We analyzed 317 unigenes previously isolated from differential organ-specific cDNA libraries from leaf, stem and flower at R1 and R4 developmental stage. A statistical analysis based on mean comparison by ANOVA and ordination by Principal Component Analysis allowed the detection of 80 candidate genes for either salinity and/or chilling stresses. Out of them, 50 genes were up or down regulated under both stresses, supporting common regulatory mechanisms and general responses to chilling and salinity. Interestingly 15 and 12 sequences were up regulated or down regulated specifically in one stress but not in the other, respectively. These genes are potentially involved in different regulatory mechanisms including transcription/translation/protein degradation/protein folding/ROS production or ROS-scavenging. Differential gene expression patterns were confirmed by qRT-PCR for 12.5% of the microarray candidate sequences. Conclusion

  16. Portable detection system of vegetable oils based on laser induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Mu, Taotao

    2015-11-01

    Food safety, especially edible oils, has attracted more and more attention recently. Many methods and instruments have emerged to detect the edible oils, which include oils classification and adulteration. It is well known than the adulteration is based on classification. Then, in this paper, a portable detection system, based on laser induced fluorescence, is proposed and designed to classify the various edible oils, including (olive, rapeseed, walnut, peanut, linseed, sunflower, corn oils). 532 nm laser modules are used in this equipment. Then, all the components are assembled into a module (100*100*25mm). A total of 700 sets of fluorescence data (100 sets of each type oil) are collected. In order to classify different edible oils, principle components analysis and support vector machine have been employed in the data analysis. The training set consisted of 560 sets of data (80 sets of each oil) and the test set consisted of 140 sets of data (20 sets of each oil). The recognition rate is up to 99%, which demonstrates the reliability of this potable system. With nonintrusive and no sample preparation characteristic, the potable system can be effectively applied for food detection.

  17. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  18. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

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    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  19. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  20. Characterization of some sunflower genotypes using ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrani, L.; Nabulsi, I.; MirAli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is grown mostly as a source of vegetable oil of high quality and is especially used in food industry. It is generally produced by multinationals and sold as hybrids. Our research, based on two techniques (ISSR and RAPD), is considered as the first one to be interested in molecular characterization of sunflower genotypes in Syria. We used 25 ISSR primers and 13 RAPD primers to study 29 sunflower genotypes and two reference controls belonging to the same family (Calendula officinalis L. and Targets erecta L.). ISSR results revealed a low polymorphism when compared to other studies. We noticed also 11 genotypes genetically related where percent disagreement values (PDV) didn't exceed 1%, they are 7189 - 7191 - 7184 - 7183 - 443 - 441 - Ghab1 -Ghab2 - Ghab3 - Ghab4 - Ghab5 - Madakh halab - Sarghaya4 -Tarkibi knitra. Sarghaya4 and Tarkibi knitra have indeed the lowest yield and some common morphological characters. At the opposite, the genotype Hysum33 has the highest yield and is genetically distant from the other genotypes. All the genotypes could be used in QTL detection as we didn't notice any similarity between them. (author)

  1. Characterization of calcium oxide catalysts from natural sources and their application in the transesterification of sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Leandro Marques; Saboya, Rosana Maria Alves; Campelo, Natália de Sousa; Cecilia, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Cavalcante, Célio Loureiro; Vieira, Rodrigo Silveira

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic activities of calcium oxide obtained from natural sources (crab shell and eggshell) were characterized and evaluated in the transesterification of vegetable oil. These catalysts are mainly composed of calcium carbonate, which is partially converted into CaO after calcination (900°C for 2h). The catalysts have some advantages, such as abundant occurrence, low cost, porous structure, and nontoxic. The materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTG, CO2-TPD, XPS, SEM, and BET methods. The thermal treatment produces small particles of CaCO3 and CaO that are responsible for the catalytic activity. The conversion from triglycerides to methyl ester was not observed in transesterification carried out using natural crab shell and eggshell. Under optimized reaction conditions, the conversions to YFAME using the calcined catalysts were: crab shell (83.10±0.27 wt.%) and eggshell (97.75±0.02 wt.%). These results, showed that these materials have promising viability in transesterification for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of FAME and FAEE via Alcoholysis of Sunflower Oil by Eversa Lipases Immobilized on Hydrophobic Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remonatto, Daniela; de Oliveira, J Vladimir; Manuel Guisan, J; de Oliveira, Débora; Ninow, Jorge; Fernandez-Lorente, Gloria

    2018-01-03

    The performance of two new commercial low-cost lipases Eversa® Transform and Eversa® Transform 2.0 immobilized in different supports was investigated. The two lipases were adsorbed on four different hydrophobic supports. Interesting results were obtained for both lipases and for the four supports. However, the most active derivative was prepared by immobilization of Eversa® Transform 2.0 on Sepabeads C-18. Ninety-nine percent of fatty acid ethyl ester was obtained, in 3 h at 40 °C, by using hexane as solvent, a molar ratio of 4:1 (ethanol/oil), and 10 wt% of immobilized biocatalyst. The final reaction mixture contained traces of monoacylglycerols but was completely free of diacylglycerols. After four reaction cycles, the immobilized biocatalyst preserved 75% of activity. Both lipases immobilized in Sepabeads C-18 were very active with ethanol and methanol as acceptors, but they were much more stable in the presence of ethanol.

  3. Response surface modeling of acid activation of raw diatomite using in sunflower oil bleaching by: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouci, M; Safa, M; Meddah, B; Aoues, A; Sonnet, P

    2015-03-01

    The optimum conditions for acid activation of diatomite for maximizing bleaching efficiency of the diatomite in sun flower oil treatment were studied. Box-Behnken experimental design combining with response surface modeling (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) was employed to obtain the optimum conditions of three independent variables (acid concentration, activation time and solid to liquid) for acid activation of diatomite. The significance of independent variables and their interactions were tested by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95 % confidence limits (α = 0.05). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained by solving the quadratic regression model, as well as by analyzing the response surface contour plots. The experimental conditions at this global point were determined to be acid concentration = 8.963 N, activation time = 11.9878 h, and solid to liquid ratio = 221.2113 g/l, the corresponding bleaching efficiency was found to be about 99 %.

  4. Development of a Lipid Particle for β-Carotene Encapsulation Using a Blend of Tristearin and Sunflower Oil: Choice of Lipid Matrix and Evaluation of Shelf Life of Dispersions

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    Graziela V. L. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid lipid particles are colloidal carriers that have been studied for almost 20 years in the pharmaceutical field and recently have been investigated by food researchers due to their capacity to enhance the incorporation of lipophilic bioactives and their bioavailability in aqueous formulations. The aims of this study are to choose a suitable lipid matrix to produce solid lipid particles, which would be used to encapsulate β-carotene, and to evaluate the capacity of dispersions to protect the incorporated carotenoid. Bulk lipid mixtures of tristearin and sunflower oil were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, and the mixture with the highest degree of structural disorganisation was chosen. β-Carotene was then encapsulated in solid lipid particles produced with this mixture, composed of 70 % tristearin and 30 % sunflower oil (6 % total lipid and stabilised with hydrogenated soy lecithin and Tween 80 (3 % total surfactant by hot pressure homogenisation. Two types of particles were produced, using one or two passages in the homogenisation step. Average particle size, zeta potential, thermal behaviour, crystallinity and β-carotene concentration were monitored over 4 months of storage (under refrigerated conditions. The results showed minor differences between the systems in terms of size distribution, although the particles produced with one passage through the homogeniser were slightly more efficient at protecting the β-carotene from degradation and also suffered few microstructural alterations after 4 months.

  5. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

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    Jorge, N.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  6. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

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    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  7. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

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    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  8. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

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    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  9. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

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    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  10. Genetic analysis of agro-morphological traits in promising hybrids of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam GOLABADI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective underlying sunflower breeding programs is to develop high-yielding productive F1 hybrid cultivars. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic control of some agro-morphological traits of new sunflower F1 hybrids. For this purpose, fourteen inbred lines of sunflower were crossed with three male sterile inbred lines. Their hybrids (14 hybrids were then evaluated against three control cultivars. The data thus obtained were analyzed using the nested model (North Carolina Design І as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the hybrids were significantly different in all the traits studied, except for head and stem diameters. From among the hybrids evaluated, Cms19 × Rn1-81 was found to have the highest seed yield and oil content. Cluster analysis classified the hybrids into four different groups. Genetic analysis showed that days to maturity, seed weight, and oil content (% were under the additive gene action. Breeding strategies based on selection could be suggested for the improvement of these traits. Head angle, head diameter, seed yield, and oil yield were under the dominance gene action; breeding based on hybridization methods is, therefore, proposed for these traits. Finally, both additive and dominance gene actions were observed to play important roles in the genetic control of plant height and stem diameter.

  11. Commercial cuts and chemical and sensory attributes of meat from crossbred Boer goats fed sunflower cake-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Palmieri, Adriana Dantas; Carvalho, Silvana Teixeira; Leão, André Gustavo; de Abreu, Claudilene Lima; Ribeiro, Claudio Vaz Di Mambro; Pereira, Elzania Sales; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sunflower cake feed in commercial cut yields and chemical and sensory attributes of goat meat. Thirty-two castrated male goats were distributed in four levels (0, 8, 16 and 24%) of sunflower cake supplementation. The animals were slaughtered and the carcasses were placed in a cold chamber and sectioned into five anatomical regions corresponding to commercial cuts. Samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle were analyzed for chemical composition and sensory quality. The chemical composition and pH were not affected by the treatments. The smell, taste and 'goatiness' of the aroma and flavor of the meat were also unaffected by the treatments. The appearance, tenderness and juiciness of the meat differed by treatment. The highest level (24%) of sunflower cake increased meat tenderness; however, according to the tasters there was reduced softness, although none of the samples were rejected by the tasters. Sunflower cake can be added to the diet at a level of up to 16% without altering the quantitative and qualitative attributes of the meat. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  13. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  14. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR), yield components and oil contents to planting ... be fairly stable (Monteith, 1977; Gallagher and Biscoe, ... oil quality of sunflower under irrigated arid environmental ... tically for the analysis of variance (ANOVA). ..... in this study confirm the findings of many scientists.

  15. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  16. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  17. 1H NMR and SPME-GC/MS study of hydrolysis, oxidation and other reactions occurring during in vitro digestion of non-oxidized and oxidized sunflower oil. Formation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva-Echevarría, Bárbara; Goicoechea, Encarnación; Manzanos, María J; Guillén, María D

    2017-01-01

    Both fresh and slightly oxidized sunflower oils, as models of omega-6 rich lipids, were submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and studied by 1 H NMR and SPME-GC/MS. Changes in lipolysis degree, lipid composition and oxidative level were studied by 1 H NMR. Three quantitative approaches were used and several equations were newly developed. In oxidized oil digestates slightly lower hydrolysis and a higher advance of oxidation took place during digestion. This latter was evidenced by a greater decrease of lipid unsaturation degree and enhanced generation of oxidation products (cis,trans-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoates, cis,trans- and trans,trans-hydroxy-octadecadienoates). For the first time, the generation of hydroxy-octadecadienoates during in vitro digestion is reported. Furthermore, SPME-GC/MS study of non-digested and digested samples headspaces confirmed that lipid oxidation occurred: abundances of volatile markers increased (including potentially toxic alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes), especially in oxidized oils digestates. Markers of Maillard-type and esterification reactions were also detected in the digestates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  20. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  1. The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all

  2. Analysis of performance and emissions of diesel engine using sunflower biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutunea, Dragos; Dumitru, Ilie

    2017-10-01

    The world consumption of fossil fuels is increasing rapidly and it affects the environment by green house gases causing health hazards. Biodiesel is emerging as an important promising alternative energy resource which can be used to reduce or even replace the usage of petroleum. Since is mainly derived from vegetable oil or animal fats can be produce for large scale by local farmers offering a great choice. However the extensive utilization of the biofuels can lead to shortages in the food chain. This paper analyzed the sunflower methyl ester (SFME) and its blends as an alternate source of fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel was prepared from sunflower oil in laboratory in a small biodiesel installation (30L) by base transesterification. A 4 cylinder Deutz F4L912 diesel engine was used to perform the tests on various blends of sunflower biodiesel. The emissions of CO, HC were lower than diesel fuel for all blends tested. The NOx emissions were higher due to the high volatility and high viscosity of biodiesel.

  3. Thermal and electrical properties of polymers produced from methyl oleate and bio diesel of sunflower and linseed oils; Propriedades termicas e eletricas de polimeros produzidos a partir do oleato de metila e amostras de biodiesel do oleo de girassol e oleo de linhaca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, Aline; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Martini, Denise D.; Samios, Dimitrios [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, RS (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polyesters were prepared from epoxidized biodiesel with different unsaturation degrees. The polymerisation was performed using epoxidized methyl esters of oleic acid (EPOAME), sunflower oil (EPSOME) and linseed oil (EPLOME) with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride and triethylamine. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) demonstrated that reaction enthalpy was proportional to the unsaturation degree of each methyl ester. With an increase in unsaturation degree, the activation energy linearly decreased. The intermediate structures and the polyesters were characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. The molecular weight of the polymers synthesised with EPOAME, EPSOME and EPLOME were, respectively, 2.5x103, 5.3x103 and 14x103 g/mol. The glass transition of the product obtained from EPOAME was -59 degree C. The polymers based on EPSOME and EPLOME exhibited higher Tg values, which were -11 and -6 degree C, respectively. Electric impedance measurements of the polyesters showed that an increase in unsaturation degree resulted in an increase in resistivity and a decrease in capacitance. (author)

  4. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Basu, Arijit; Haim Zada, Moran; Domb, Abraham J

    2015-09-14

    This Review compiles the synthesis, physical properties, and biomedical applications for the polyesters based on castor oil and ricinoleic acid. Castor oil has been known for its medicinal value since ancient times. It contains ∼90% ricinoleic acid, which enables direct chemical transformation into polyesters without interference of other fatty acids. The presence of ricinoleic acid (hydroxyl containing fatty acid) enables synthesis of various polyester/anhydrides. In addition, castor oil contains a cis-double bond that can be hydrogenated, oxidized, halogenated, and polymerized. Castor oil is obtained pure in large quantities from natural sources; it is safe and biocompatible.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Polyurethanes Based on Vegetable Oils Amide and Ester Polyols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir YAKUSHIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amide and ester type polyols were synthesized from rapeseed, sunflower and castor oils, and two types of ethanolamine (diethanolamine and triethanolamine at different molar ratio. Poly(urethane amides and polyester urethanes based on the synthesized polyols were prepared. The effect of the chemical structure of the obtained polyurethanes on density, glass transition temperature, thermal stability and mechanical properties was investigated. The influence of the content of OH groups in the synthesized polyols on the specified characteristics was estimated. It has been found that poly(urethane amides have better mechanical characteristics, but their thermal stability is lower than that of polyester urethanes. The chemical structure of the synthesized polyols and polyurethanes is qualitatively confirmed by IR-spectroscopy data. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4532

  6. Wavelet-based prediction of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Shahriar; Weinreich, Ilona; Reinarz, Dominik

    2005-01-01

    This paper illustrates an application of wavelets as a possible vehicle for investigating the issue of market efficiency in futures markets for oil. The paper provides a short introduction to the wavelets and a few interesting wavelet-based contributions in economics and finance are briefly reviewed. A wavelet-based prediction procedure is introduced and market data on crude oil is used to provide forecasts over different forecasting horizons. The results are compared with data from futures markets for oil and the relative performance of this procedure is used to investigate whether futures markets are efficiently priced

  7. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ...

  8. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.), etc. The total edible oil ... hybrids with high fertilizer requirements. The farmers are applying ... Crop growth and productivity can be discussed in terms of biomass ... the interactive effects of hybrids, planting geometries and nitrogen rates on ...

  9. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  10. Influence of micronutrients and their method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraich, A.A.K.; Gandahi, A.W.

    2016-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been recognized as a crop with high potentials that can successfully meet future oil requirements of the country. Formulation of micronutrients (MN) based fertilizer, in terms of application rate and method, and uptake of MN by sunflower has the ability not only to ensure nutrients availability to plants particularly in MN-limiting environments but also can manipulate the environmental hazards associated with over inorganic fertilization. To support this view, clear experimental evidence is still lacking. In addition, the current experiments aimed to evaluate the influence of MN and its method of application on yield and yield components of sunflower cultivars/hybrids. Three sunflower cultivars (HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausigold-62) along with three MN (Z, B and Fe) and two application methods (soil and foliar) were used in the experiment. Three Zn application rate (3, 5 and 8 kg ha-1) along with 0.75 kg ha-1 B and 0.30 kg Fe ha-1 were used in four combinations such as 0-0-0, 0-0.75-0.30, 0-0.75-0.30, 3-0.75-0.30, 5-0.75-0.30, 8-0.75-0.30 kg Z, B and Fe ha-1, respectively. A control (no MN) treatment was also included for comparison. Two year averaged study exhibited that foliar application of Zn, B and Fe at rate of 8-0.30-0.75 kg ha-1 increased stem girth, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, seed weight head-1, seed index, oil content and seed yield by 21%, 27%, 13%, 34%, 19%, 24 and 31%, respectively over control. Among cultivars/hybrids, the hybrids HO-1 and Hysun-39 had taller plants, seed weight head-1, seeds head-1 and earlier in flowering and maturity. Flowering and maturity was delayed in Ausi Gold-62 with higher seed index and oil content. It is concluded that foliar application of micronutrients at the rate of 8+0.75+0.30 Zn, B and Fe kg ha-1 had substantially improved yield and yield related traits of sunflower cultivars HO-1, Hysun-39 and Ausi gold-62. (author)

  11. Volatile Compounds and Sensory Evaluation of Spreadable Creams Based on Roasted Sunflower Kernels and Cocoa or Carob Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Racolța

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The known confectionery spreadable cream product category includes well-known cocoa - hazelnut pastes as well as peanut butter, products that became very popular in the last decades due to their pleasant taste and ease of eating. However, health constraints appeared both hazelnut and peanut are food allergens, while cocoa excites central nervous system (CNS and on everyday consumption causes dependence. The aim of this work was to characterize the aroma and sensory of an innovative product that belongs to the same confectionery spreadable cream product category. Six spreadable cream prototypes were produced by using sugar, roasted sunflower kernel, carob or cocoa powder, palm or coconut fat and, lecithin. The obtained samples were firstly analyzed by using the nine point hedonic scale test. The volatile compounds profile analysis (“In Tube Extraction”- GC-MS was performed on the best samples (in terms of sensory containing cocoa or carob powder, as well as a control. The main volatile compound of all three samples was pinene (42-51% which is a characteristic flavor of turpentine, wood. Acetophenone instead (20-25% gives flavors of almond, floral, sweetish. Benzaldehyde (8.11-9.73% is characteristic for almond flavor with hints of caramel. The study revealed that the analyzed spreadable creams have similar volatile profiles, even if carob and cocoa powder showed different volatile compounds profiles, with the major compound for both being Propanoic acid, 2-methyl. Thus, with similar taste to cocoa sample, carob-sunflower spreadable cream is an alternative that not include ingredients with allergic potential or CNS stimulants. 

  12. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  13. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  14. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  15. Copper phytoextraction in tandem with oilseed production using commercial cultivars and mutant lines of sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbas, A; Mench, M; Herzig, R; Nehnevajova, E; Bes, C M

    2011-01-01

    Use of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Cu phytoextraction and oilseed production on Cu-contaminated topsoils was investigated in afield trial at a former wood preservation site. Six commercial cultivars and two mutant lines were cultivated in plots with and without the addition of compost (5% w/w) and dolomitic limestone (0.2% w/w). Total soil Cu ranged from 163 to 1170 mg kg(-1). In soil solutions, Cu concentration varied between 0.16-0.93 mg L(-1). The amendment increased soil pH, reduced Cu exposure and promoted sunflower growth. Stem length, shoot and capitulum biomasses, seed yield, and shoot and leaf Cu concentrations were measured. At low total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass was higher in commercial cultivars, Le., Salut, Energic, and Countri, whereas competition and shading affected morphological traits of mutants. Based on shoot yield (7 Mg DW ha(-1)) and Cu concentration, the highest removal was 59 g Cu ha(-1). At high total soil Cu, shoot Cu mineralomass peaked for mutants (e.g., 52 g Cu ha(-1) for Mutant 1 line) and cultivars Energic and Countri. Energic seed yield (3.9 Mg air-DW ha(-1)) would be sufficient to produce oil Phenotype traits and shoot Cu removal depended on sunflower types and Cu exposure.

  16. Screening of sunflower cultivars for metal phytoextraction in a contaminated field prior to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower can be used for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Its high biomass production makes this plant species interestingfor phytoextraction and using sunflower oil for a technical purpose may improve the economic balance of phytoremediation. The aim of the present field study was to screen 15 commercial cultivars of Helianthus annuus L. grown on metal-contaminated soil, to find out the variety with the highest metal extraction, which can be further improved by mutation or in vitro breeding procedures. Two different fertilizers (ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate) were also used to enhance the bioavailability of metals in soil Highly significant differences were observed within tested varieties for metal accumulation and extraction efficiency. Furthermore, ammonium nitrate increased cadmium extraction, whereas ammonium sulphate enhanced zinc and lead uptake in most tested cultivars. In this field-based sunflower screening, we found enhanced cumulative Cd, Zn, and Pb extraction efficiency by a factor 4.4 for Salut cultivar. We therefore emphasize that prior to any classical breeding or genetic engineering enhancing metal uptake potential, a careful screening of various genotypes should be done to select the cultivar with the naturally highest metal uptake and to start the genetic improvement with the best available plant material.

  17. The thermo-mechano-chemical twin-screw reactor, a new perspective for the biorefinery of sunflower whole plant: aqueous extraction of oil and other biopolymers, and production of biodegradable fiberboards from cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biorefinery of sunflower whole plant was performed successfully using a thermo-mechano-chemical twin-screw reactor. This led to the aqueous extraction of oil and other biopolymers like proteins, pectins and non pectic sugars. It resulted in the overall fractionation of biomass, thus allowing a complete valorization of the input. This biorefinery process was not only efficient but it was also environment-friendly. In addition, it contributed to the production of different end products for various industrial applications. Firstly, the hydrophilic phase will be recycled to the process. Secondly, the densest oil-in-water emulsion is a promising candidate for the formulation of cosmetic creams. Thirdly, the upper hydrophobic phase will be usable for the waterproofing treatment of the surface of agromaterials by coating. Its demixing will also lead to the production of proteins with tensioactive properties. These will serve for the food industry. Lastly, the cake was a mixture of plasticized proteins and lignocellulosic fibers. It was thus considered as a natural composite. Its molding into cohesive fiberboards was conducted successfully using both thermopressing and compression molding processes. The self-bonded boards with high density will be suitable for use as load bearing boards in dry conditions (floor underlayers, interior partitions, furniture, etc.. Positioned in walls and ceilings, boards with medium and low density will contribute to the heat insulation of buildings. In addition, the bulk cake will be also usable as a loose fill insulation material. As proposed, this flow chart thus allows a valorization for all fractions originating from the twin-screw reactor.

  18. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  19. Modeling oil production based on symbolic regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Xianneng; Wang, Jianliang; Lian, Lian; Ma, Tieju

    2015-01-01

    Numerous models have been proposed to forecast the future trends of oil production and almost all of them are based on some predefined assumptions with various uncertainties. In this study, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses symbolic regression to model oil production. We validate our approach on both synthetic and real data, and the results prove that symbolic regression could effectively identify the true models beneath the oil production data and also make reliable predictions. Symbolic regression indicates that world oil production will peak in 2021, which broadly agrees with other techniques used by researchers. Our results also show that the rate of decline after the peak is almost half the rate of increase before the peak, and it takes nearly 12 years to drop 4% from the peak. These predictions are more optimistic than those in several other reports, and the smoother decline will provide the world, especially the developing countries, with more time to orchestrate mitigation plans. -- Highlights: •A data-driven approach has been shown to be effective at modeling the oil production. •The Hubbert model could be discovered automatically from data. •The peak of world oil production is predicted to appear in 2021. •The decline rate after peak is half of the increase rate before peak. •Oil production projected to decline 4% post-peak

  20. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  1. Computer based training for oil spill management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.

    1993-01-01

    Large oil spills are infrequent occurrences, which poses a particular problem for training oil spill response staff and for maintaining a high level of response readiness. Conventional training methods involve table-top simulations to develop tactical and strategic response skills and boom-deployment exercises to maintain operational readiness. Both forms of training are quite effective, but they are very time-consuming to organize, are expensive to conduct, and tend to become repetitious. To provide a variety of response experiences, a computer-based system of oil spill response training has been developed which can supplement a table-top training program. Using a graphic interface, a realistic and challenging computerized oil spill response simulation has been produced. Integral to the system is a program editing tool which allows the teacher to develop a custom training exercise for the area of interest to the student. 1 ref

  2. Enhanced oil recovery projects data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, J.F.; Sellers, C.A.; Nautiyal, C.; Allison, E.

    1992-04-01

    A comprehensive enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project data base is maintained and updated at the Bartlesville Project Office of the Department of Energy. This data base provides an information resource that is used to analyze the advancement and application of EOR technology. The data base has extensive information on 1,388 EOR projects in 569 different oil fields from 1949 until the present, and over 90% of that information is contained in tables and graphs of this report. The projects are presented by EOR process, and an index by location is provided.

  3. From oil-based mud to water-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, C.

    1991-01-01

    Maersk Olie og Gas AS has used low toxic oil-based muds extensively since 1982 for drilling development wells and later in the development of horizontal well drilling techniques. However, in view of the strong drive towards a reduction in the amount of oil discharged to the North Sea from the oil industry, Maersk Olie og Gas AS initiated trials with new or improved types of water-based mud, first in deviated wells (1989) and then in horizontal wells (1990). The paper reviews Maersk Olie og Gas As experience with oil-based mud since the drilling of the first horizontal well in 1987, specifically with respect to cuttings washing equipment, oil retention on cuttings, and the procedure for monitoring of this parameter. It describes the circumstances leading to the decision to revert to water-based mud systems. Finally, it reviews the experience gained so far with the new improved types of water-based mud systems, mainly glycol and KCl/polymer mud systems. Comparison of operational data, such as rate of penetration, torque and drag, etc., is made between wells drilled with oil-based mud and water-based mud. The trials with the new improved types of water-based mud systems have been positive, i.e. horizontal wells can be drilled successfully with water-based mud. As a result, Maersk Olie og and Gas AS has decided to discontinue the use of low toxic oil-based muds in the Danish sector of the North Sea

  4. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  5. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  6. Cultivation of sunflower and its utilization in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    The sunflower is valuable from economic, as well as ornamental point of view. Every part of the plant may be utilized for some economic purpose. The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The seed is rich in oil, which is said to be more near to olive oil, than any other vegetable oil known, and to be largely used as a substitute. In prewar days, sunflower seed was sometimes grown in this country, especially on sewage farms, as an economical crop for pheasants, as well as poultry. The flowers contain a yellow dye. The oil extracted from the seeds is of citron yellow colour and sweet in taste. Sunflower seeds have a high feedings value the analysis in round figures in 16 per cent albumen and 21 per cent fat. Being so rich in oil, they are too stimulating to use alone and should only be used in combination with other feeding stuffs. Mixed with oats in equal quantities, they make a perfectly balanced ration. (author)

  7. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  8. RXLR and CRN effectors from the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii induce hypersensitive-like responses in resistant sunflower lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Gascuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g. plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analysed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and these six effectors were selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances.

  9. Polyalhpaolefins and VHVI base oils - base oils for high performance lubricants; Polyalfaolefine und VHVI-Grundoele - Grundoele fuer hochwertige Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmus, M.; Nissfolk, F.; Kulmala, K. [Fortum Oil and Gas Oyj / Base Oils, Fortum (Finland)

    2002-01-01

    Next to polyalphaolefines (PAOs base oils of the API/ATIEL Group IV), VHVI base oils (belonging to API/ATIEL Group III) are being increasingly used in high-performance automotive and industrial lubricants. A comparative study of the properties of VHVI base oils and polyalphaolefins shows that high-quality VHVI base oils have comparable volatility, oxidation stability and viscosity indices to polyalphaolefins, whereas the most pronounced differences are viscometric properties in the low-temperature range. However, there are noticeable differences between different market-typical VHVI base oils, depending primarily on the manufacturing process. The differences in the physicochemical properties of PAOs and various VHVI base oils are attributable to differences in the typical molecular composition. This is illustrated by a compositional analysis of several VHVI base oils, in which the (iso)paraffin content and the content of different naphthenic and aromatic compounds is analyzed. The base oil influence on specific properties of formulated lubricants is discussed on the basis of several examples, and studies conducted with passenger car engine oils (PCMOs), heavy-duty engine oils (HDEOs) and gear oils are described in detail. As a result of extremely low CCS viscosities, PAOs are optimally suited for use in 0W-X PCMOs whereas 5W-X PCMOs meeting highest performance requirements can also be formulated with high-quality VHVI base oils. Emission measurements with HDEOs formulated with either SN mineral base oil or VHVI base oil demonstrated that the base oil type affects tailpipe particle emissions in the particle size range <5 {mu}m as replacement of SN mineral base oil with VHVI base oil resulted in lower particle emissions. Test stand measurements with gear oils formulated with either VHVI base oils or PAOs yielded comparable results in terms of power transfer ratio and oil temperature increase. (orig.)

  10. Comportamento dos óleos de girassol, soja e milho em frituras de produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização crescente de alimentos rápidos determinou a expansão de uma indústria de produtos fritos e pré-fritos. A compreensão das mudanças que o óleo sofre durante os processos de fritura é importante, pois pode levar à otimização destes processos, e a melhoria da qualidade do óleo de fritura e do produto final. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar os níveis de alteração de diferentes óleos vegetais, girassol, soja e milho, no processo de fritura dos snacks produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado. As frituras foram conduzidas em temperatura de 180°C, relação superfície/volume (S/V de 0,3 cm-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 horas. Nos snacks procederam-se as análises de teor de umidade e lipídios; nos óleos as determinações de compostos polares totais, ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos. Nenhuma análise apresentou alteração acima dos limites recomendados por alguns países. Desta forma, concluiu-se que as condições estabelecidas no processo de fritura são seguras, indicando que todos os óleos foram adequados à fritura, sendo o óleo de milho de maior estabilidade oxidativa.The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alteration levels of different vegetable oils, sunflower, soybean and corn, in the frying process of snacks frozen pre-fried meat coated product. The frying sessions were carried out at 180ºC temperature, 0.3 cm-1surface/volume ratio and 12 hours overall heating time. As for the snacks, the moisture rate and lipids analyses were performed; for the oils, total polar compounds, free fatty acids and peroxide

  11. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pproducts (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pmeat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  12. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  13. Lipídios modificados obtidos a partir de gordura do leite, óleo de girassol e ésteres de fitosteróis para aplicação em spreads Modified lipids obtained from milk fat, sunflower oil, and phytosterol esters for application in tablespreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Neves Rodrigues Ract

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to evaluate the modifications in milkfat properties with the addition of sunflower oil (SO and phytosterol esters (PE and chemical interesterification. Fatty acid composition, softening point and consistency were determined. The saturation degree of milkfat decreased with the addition of SO and PE. Consequently, milkfat presented lower softening point and consistency. Chemical interesterification caused an increase in softening point due to the formation of higher amounts of trissaturated triacylglycerols with rearrangement. The incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids from SO and PE by milkfat triacylglycerols after chemical reaction caused linearization of consistency curves.

  14. Mutation induction in oil palm cultures using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohani Othman; Rajinder Singh; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2002-01-01

    Induced mutations have played an important role in the improvement of wide range of food crops, ornamental plants and oil crops such as sesame and sunflower. Based on these successes an attempt was made to employ the mutagenesis techniques to broaden the genetic variation in breeding materials of oil palm. Traits of interest are high yield, dwarfness and disease resistance. Embryogenic callus initiated from several high yielding clones were exposed to gamma irradiation for optimum dose determination. (Author)

  15. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Based on Melon Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Melon oil and cow fat were extracted by standard methods and used in the formulation of SNEDDS based on either melon oil alone, or its admixture with cow fat by utilizing varying ratios of oil(s), surfactants and co-surfactants, with or without carbosil, a glidant. The formulations were encapsulated in hard gelatin ...

  16. HFRR investigation of biobased and petroleum based oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased oils come in a wide range of chemical structures as do petroleum based oils. In addition, a distinct structural difference exists between these two broad categories of oils. Previous work has shown that, in spite of the structural differences, these two categories of oils display similar pr...

  17. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  18. China to Establish Strategic Oil Stockpile Bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Based on the reports from China's State Development and Reform Committee, a new department of the State Council recently put into operation, the relevant departments have located a number of places as the country's strategic oil stockpile bases, such as Zhoushan and Zhenghai in Zhejiang Province, Huangdao in Shandong Province and Daya Bay in Guangdong Province. However, the plan still needs to be examined and approved by the State Council.

  19. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  20. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the use of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and ...

  1. Synthesis and refining of sunflower biodiesel in a cascade of continuous centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik; Teddy, T; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from sunflower oil and methanol was studied in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like oil and methanol flow rate, rotational speed and catalyst

  2. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (psunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  3. Development of sunflower germplasm with high delta-tocopherol content

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco L.; Pérez-Vich B.; Fernández-Martínez J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherols are the main compounds with antioxidant activity in oilseeds Sunflower seeds contain predominantly alpha-tocopherol, which accounts for more than 90% of the total tocopherols in the seeds. This tocopherol derivative possesses a maximum vitamin E or in vivo antioxidant activity, but it exerts a minimum in vitro protective action in oils and food containing them. Other tocopherol derivatives such as beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol are more powerful antioxidants than alpha-tocoph...

  4. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  5. Research on resistance to sunflower broomrape: an integrated vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. parasitization on sunflower was first observed at the end of the 19th century and has continued since then jeopardizing sunflower cultivation in many areas of Europe and Asia. A distinctive characteristic of the O. cumana-sunflower parasitic system is that it is mainly governed by a gene-for-gene interaction. This determines complete resistance in the host controlled by dominant alleles at a single locus, which facilitates the management of the resistance for hybrid seed production. But on the other hand avirulence in the parasite is also controlled by dominant alleles at a single gene. Monogenic, dominant resistance exerts a strong selection pressure on the parasite that maximizes the probability of overcoming resistance mechanisms in a short period of time. This has in fact resulted in a number of physiological races that periodically surpass all the available resistance sources. The spread of populations to new areas and the subsequent hybridization between populations is another mechanism creating genetic diversity in sunflower broomrape and allegedly recombination of avirulences genes. After more than one century of coexistence, genetic resistance to broomrape in sunflower has to be focused under an integrated approach that considers not only the characterization of resistance mechanisms in the host, but also the genetic and physiological bases of avirulence in the parasite. From the perspective of genetic resistance in sunflower, most important is not relying only on single dominant genes, but following instead pyramiding strategies. These should give priority to combining complementary mechanisms of resistance under both qualitative (vertical and quantitative (horizontal genetic control. These aspects are discussed in the paper.

  6. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabin, Roman M., E-mail: balabin@org.chem.ethz.ch [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Safieva, Ravilya Z. [Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm{sup -1}) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  7. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabin, Roman M.; Safieva, Ravilya Z.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000 cm -1 ) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E = 6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification.

  8. Effects of drought stress and different densities on oil yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For evaluation of water deficit stress and planting density effects on the oil and biological yield attributes of sunflower, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) based split plot factorial design in three replications in the research field of Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan, in 2009.

  9. Site Selection and Resource Allocation of Oil Spill Emergency Base for Offshore Oil Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunbin; Liu, Jingxian; Wei, Lei; Wu, Weihuang

    2018-02-01

    Based on the analysis of the historical data about oil spill accidents in the Bohai Sea, this paper discretizes oil spilled source into a limited number of spill points. According to the probability of oil spill risk, the demand for salvage forces at each oil spill point is evaluated. Aiming at the specific location of the rescue base around the Bohai Sea, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted to determine the total cost of disasters for each rescue base. Based on the relationship between the oil spill point and the rescue site, a multi-objective optimization location model for the oil spill rescue base in the Bohai Sea region is established. And the genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem, and determine the emergency rescue base optimization program and emergency resources allocation ratio.

  10. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  11. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M 2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M 3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  12. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  13. Drilling fluid base oil biodegradation potential of a soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcus sp. isolated from oil-contaminated soil was grown in 1% drilling fluid base oil, HDF- 2000, as a sole source of carbon and energy. The organism has strong affinity for the substrate, growing at the rate of 0.16 h-1. It uses adherence and emulsification as mechanisms for oil uptake. In a nutrient-rich marine ...

  14. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  15. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  16. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  17. Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalino, AD; Salen, VA; Reyes, LQ

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyurethanes based on castor oil and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) were synthesized with varying weight ratio of the castor oil and HMDI. The formation of urethane linkages was verified through the use of a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hydrophilicity of the films was evaluated through the use of a contact angle meter and it was found that the contact angle of all the films were below 90 degrees which confirms their hydrophilicity. The thermal stability of the PU films were studies through the use of a thermal gravimetric analyzer and found that all of the polyurethane films exhibited two weight loss events at elevated temperatures wherein the first weight loss event was observed to occur at 285°C to 384°C while the second weight loss event was observed at around 521°C to 551°C. The hardness, elastic modulus, and tensile elongation of the PU films were determined by using a universal testing machine (UTM) where it was found out that the hardness and the elastic modulus of the film is directly proportional with HMDI loading while the tensile elongation is inversely proportional to it. Lastly, it was known through the swelling studies of the PU films that it does not swell, this is due to the presence of unreacted triglycerides in the material, which prevents water from permeating to the films.

  18. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  19. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor oil, the DC conduction current increased approximately linearly with the applied DC voltage. In nanomodified linseed oil, the characteristic curve showed two distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage and a saturation region (at slightly higher voltage. Conversely, in nanomodified castor oil, the characteristic curve showed three distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage, a saturation region (at intermediate applied voltage and an exponential growth region (at higher applied voltage. The nanomodified linseed oil exhibited a better dielectric performance than the nanomodified castor oil. Overall, the addition of nanodielectrics to vegetable oils decreased the dielectric performance of the vegetable oils. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the pre-breakdown phenomenon in liquid nanocomposite dielectrics.

  20. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  1. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying; Seguimiento de las características fisicoquímicas de aceite de girasol y patatas durante frituras repetidas mediante microondas y freidora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [Spanish] Se estudia los efectos de frituras repetidas mediante microondas a diferentes niveles de potencia (360W, 600W, 900W) y frituras en freidora sobre la estabilidad del aceite de girasol y la calidad de las patatas fritas. El ciclo de fritura intermitente se repitió 15 veces al día durante cinco días consecutivos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y las propiedades fisicoquímicas incluyendo ácidos grasos libre (FFA), coeficiente de extinción (K270

  2. Natural Oils for Skin-Barrier Repair: Ancient Compounds Now Backed by Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K; Shi, Vivian Y

    2018-02-01

    Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care. Differing ratios of essential fatty acids are major determinants of the barrier repair benefits of natural oils. Oils with a higher linoleic acid to oleic acid ratio have better barrier repair potential, whereas oils with higher amounts of irritating oleic acid may be detrimental to skin-barrier function. Various extraction methods for oils exist, including cold pressing to make unrefined oils, heat and chemical distillation to make essential oils, and the addition of various chemicals to simulate a specific scent to make fragranced oils. The method of oil processing and refinement is an important component of selecting oil for skin care, and cold pressing is the preferred method of oil extraction as the heat- and chemical-free process preserves beneficial lipids and limits irritating byproducts. This review summarizes evidence on utility of natural plant-based oils in dermatology, particularly in repairing the natural skin-barrier function, with the focus on natural oils, including Olea europaea (olive oil), Helianthus annus (sunflower seed oil), Cocos nucifera (coconut oil), Simmondsia chinesis (jojoba oil), Avena sativa (oat oil), and Argania spinosa (argan oil).

  3. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusari Corina M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20 %, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P  Conclusions These results suggest that AM will be useful in dissecting other complex traits in sunflower, thus providing a valuable tool to assist in crop breeding.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyurethane (PU) based on polyol, derived from castor oil has been synthesized and characterized for potential use as a base material for electrolytes. Transesterification process of castor oil formed a polyol with hydroxyl value of 190 mg KOH g–1 and molecular weight of 2786 g mol–1. The polyols together with 4 ...

  5. The condensed mutation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three inbred lines of sunflower were treated with gamma rays. In the progeny of one of these lines, the desired dwarf mutation appeared with a high frequency (23%). The dwarfing was accompanied by various undesirable characteristics (lateness, poor seed production, etc.), for which correction through genetic diversification and selection is in progress. The ratio capitulum diameter/stem height has increased from 1/8 up to 1/3 [fr

  6. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  7. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  8. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  9. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  10. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gasrelated firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  11. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E.; Marek, Laura F.; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval. PMID:23555290

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  13. Whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prestes Lessa Fernandes Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to prepare whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil at different concentrations, and evaluate their properties and antimicrobial activity. Films were more flexible with increasing the concentration of oregano oil and water vapor permeability was higher in the films with oregano oil. Increasing the concentration of essential oil decreased the water solubility. The solubility of control film and film with 1.5% oregano oil was 20.2 and 14.0%, respectively. The addition of 1% of oregano oil improved the resistance of the films. The tensile strength for the control film was 66.0 MPa, while for the film with 1% of oregano oil was 108.7 MPa. Films containing 1.5% oregano oil showed higher antimicrobial activity. The zone of inhibition ranged from 0 to 1.7 cm. The results showed that the whey protein-based films incorporated with oregano essential oil has potential application as active packaging.

  14. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylo- nitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol ...

  16. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  17. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  18. Adulteration detection in olive oil using dielectric technique and data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rashvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is one of the most important agricultural crops due to its digestive properties and economic status. However, olive oil production is a costly process which causes an expensive price of the final product. The most jobbery ways during olive oil production consist of mixing other oils such as maize, sunflower and soya oil into the olive oil. So, the aim of this study was to develop a dielectric-based system to detect adulteration in olive oil using cylindrical capacitive sensor. For categorizing of fake olive oil by using frequency specification, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA was developed. A set of 15 samples of olive oil, sunflower oil and canola oil which mixed with different ratio of adulteration, were used for calibration and evaluation of developed system. For each sample, 25 iterations were performed. Regarding results, the highest error rate was for a sample containing 60% olive oil-40% canola oil. In general, 7 iterations failed to be properly recognized. Regarding to accuracy indexes, specificity and sensitivity, the system had the minimum error for a mixed sample (60% olive oil-40% canola oil, specificity and sensitivity were obtained as 98% and 100%, respectively and accuracy was obtained as 72%, which was the weakest value. Finally, regarding mean value table for all sample, accuracy reached to 97%. Results showed the developed technique has a good capability of detecting impurities in olive oil. It is concluded from obtained results that the developed system revealed an acceptable adulterated detection in oil production. Keywords: Olive oil, Adulteration, Dielectric properties, LDA

  19. Effect of some Evaporation Matters on Storability of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saidy, Aml E A; El-Hai, K M Abd

    This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability

  20. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Structure- and oil type-based efficacy of emulsion adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Theo; Hofmans, Marij P M; Theelen, Marc J G; Manders, Frans; Schijns, Virgil E J C

    2006-06-29

    Oil-based emulsions are well-known immunopotentiators for inactivated, "killed" vaccines. We addressed the relationship between emulsion structure and levels of in vivo antibody formation to inactivated New Castle Disease virus (NDV) and Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) as antigens in 3-week-old chickens. The use of a polymeric emulsifier allowed for direct comparison of three types of emulsions, water-in-oil (W/O), oil-in-water (O/W) and W/O-in-water (W/O/W), while maintaining an identical content of components for each vehicle. They were prepared with either non-metabolizable, mineral oil or metabolizable, Miglyol 840. In addition, we assessed the inherent release capacity of each emulsion variant in vitro. Remarkably, we noted that W/O-type emulsions induced the best immune responses, while they released no antigen during 3 weeks. In general, mineral oil vaccines showed superior efficacy compared to Miglyol 840-based vaccines.

  2. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  3. Friction Theory Prediction of Crude Oil Viscosity at Reservoir Conditions Based on Dead Oil Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Zeberg-Mikkelsen, Claus Kjær; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2003-01-01

    The general one-parameter friction theory (f-theory) models have been further extended to the prediction of the viscosity of real "live" reservoir fluids based on viscosity measurements of the "dead" oil and the compositional information of the live fluid. This work representation of the viscosity...... of real fluids is obtained by a simple one-parameter tuning of a linear equation derived from a general one-parameter f-theory model. Further, this is achieved using simple cubic equations of state (EOS), such as the Peng-Robinson (PR) EOS or the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EOS, which are commonly used...... within the oil industry. In sake of completeness, this work also presents a simple characterization procedure which is based on compositional information of an oil sample. This procedure provides a method for characterizing an oil into a number of compound groups along with the critical constants...

  4. The investigation of multi-channel splitters and big-bend waveguides based on 2D sunflower-typed photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Sun, XiaoHong; Fan, QingBin; Wang, Shuai; Qi, YongLe

    2016-12-01

    Different kinds of multi-channel splitters and big-bend waveguides have been designed and investigated by using sunflower-typed photonic crystals. By comparing the transmission spectra of two kinds of 4-channels beam splitters, we find that "C" type splitter has a relative uniform splitting ratio for different channels in a certain wavelength range. Furthermore three types of waveguides with different bending degrees have been investigated. Except for a little loss in the short wavelength with the increase of the bending degrees, they have almost the same transmission spectra structures. The result can be extended to big-bend waveguides with arbitrary bending degrees. This research is valuable for developing new-typed integrated optical communication devices.

  5. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  6. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  7. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  9. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  10. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  11. Electrical Properties of Sunflower Achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Ján

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the results of measuring the electrical properties of sunflower achenes. The interest in electrical properties of biological materials resulted in engineering research in this field. The results of measurements are used for determining the moisture content, the surface level of liquid and grainy materials, for controlling the presence of pests in grain storage, for the quantitative determination of mechanical damage, in the application of dielectric heating, and in many other areas. Electrical measurements of these materials are of fundamental importance in relation to the analysis of quantity of absorbed water and dielectric heating characteristics. It is a well-known fact that electrical properties of materials, namely dielectric constant and conductivity, are affected by the moisture content of material. This fact is important for the design of many commercial moisturetesting instruments for agricultural products. The knowledge of dielectric properties of materials is necessary for the application of dielectric heating. The aim of this work was to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent on samples of sunflower achenes, the electrical properties of which had not been sufficiently measured. Measurements were performed under variable moisture content and the frequency of electric field ranging from 1 MHz to 16 MHz, using a Q meter with coaxial probe. It was concluded that conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent increased with increasing moisture content, and dielectric constant and loss tangent decreased as the frequency of electric field increased.

  12. New sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvejić Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl enabled the use of wider palette of herbicides to control effectively weeds during the growing season. Moreover, thanks to this tolerance, chemical control of broad-leaves weeds in sunflower, especially Cirsium arvense, is more efficient. The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops offers four new hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl: NS SUMO SUN, NS SUMO STAR, NS SUMO SjAj and NS SUMO SOL, released in 2016. Hybrids belong to early and medium-early maturity groups; have high yield potential and high oil content. They are adapted for cultivation in different environmental conditions. All hybrids are resistant to broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr races from A-E and have a high level of tolerance to Phomopsis, white rot (Sclerotinia sclorotiorum, rust (Puccinia helianthi and others. The paper presents the results of seed and oil yield from the official trials of the Department of variety registration within the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia.

  13. Viscous Flow Behaviour of Karanja Oil Based Bio-lubricant Base Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh Chandra; Sachan, Sadhana; Trivedi, Rakesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Karanja oil (KO) is widely used for synthesis of bio-fuel karanja oil methyl ester (KOME) due to its competitive price, good energy values and environmentally friendly combustion properties. Bio-lubricant is another value added product that can be synthesized from KO via chemical modification. In this work karanja oil trimethylolpropane ester (KOTMPE) bio-lubricant was synthesized and evaluated for its viscous flow behaviour. A comparison of viscous flow behaviours of natural KO and synthesized bio-fuel KOME and bio-lubricant KOTMPE was also made. The aim of this comparison was to validate the superiority of KOTMPE bio-lubricant over its precursors KO and KOME in terms of stable viscous flow at high temperature and high shear rate conditions usually encountered in engine operations and industrial processes. The free fatty acid (FFA) content of KO was 5.76%. KOME was synthesized from KO in a two-step, acid catalyzed esterification followed by base catalyzed transesterification, process at 65°C for 5 hours with oil-methanol ratio 1:6, catalysts H 2 SO 4 and KOH (1 and 1.25% w/w KO, respectively). In the final step, KOTMPE was prepared from KOME via transesterification with trimethylolpropane (TMP) at 150°C for 3 hours with KOME-TMP ratio 4:1 and H 2 SO 4 (2% w/w KOME) as catalyst. The viscosity versus temperature studies were made at 0-80°C temperatures in shear rate ranges of 10-1000 s -1 using a Discovery Hybrid Rheometer, model HR-3 (TA instruments, USA). The study found that viscosities of all three samples decreased with increase in temperature, though KOTMPE was able to maintain a good enough viscosity at elevated temperatures due to chemical modifications in its molecular structure. The viscosity index (VI) value for KOTMPE was 206.72. The study confirmed that the synthesized bio-lubricant KOTMPE can be used at high temperatures as a good lubricant, though some additives may be required to improve properties other than viscosity.

  14. Allelopathic Effects of Four Chickpea Cultivars on Vegetative Growth of Sunflower and Corn under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of four chickpea cultivar (Cicer arietinum L. on vegetative growth of sunflower (Helianthus annus and corn (Zea mays, two separate experiments was conducted at Research Greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2005. Experiments were done in a factorial arrangement of treatments with two factors based on completely randomized design with 4 replications. Factors included chickpea cultivars (Karag12-60-31, Filip 84-482, Gam, ILC 482, and no residue control and planting date of corn and sunflowers within root residues of chick pea (seeds planted simultaneously, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after harvesting of chickpea shoots. Seeds of corn and sunflower were planted within root residues of chickpea. Results showed that root residues of chickpea cultivars influenced height and shoot weight of sunflower significantly. The lowest sunflower height was obtained when they were planted within root residues of Flip and ILC cultivars, which decreased 13.7 and 11.1% relative to control, respectively. Planting date of sunflower within root residues of chick pea cultivars had a significant effect on sunflower leaf area, shoot weight, and its root/shoot ratio. So that, lowest leaf area, shoot weight, and also highest root/shoot ratio was obtained in third planting date. Results showed that lowest plant height, leaf area, root weight, shoot weight, and also highest root/shoot ratio of corn (6 weeks after planting was obtained after planting within chickpea cultivars, Gam and ILC. Also the effect of corn planting date was significant. The lowest root and shoot weight, and root/shoot ratio of corn was obtained in the earliest corn planting date. Therefore, corn plants showed more sensitive than sunflower after planting within chickpea cultivars, and the highest inhibitory effects resulted in the earliest corn planting date. Keywords: Pea cultivars, Integrated management, Crop rotation

  15. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as

  16. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13 C -NMR and FTIR spectra

  17. Effect of two different plant growth regulators on production traits of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid ERNST

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant growth regulators (PGR are an organic compounds that modify plant physiological processes. PGR applied to the field crops promotes photosynthesis, stimulates plant growth, improves flowering and protects plants against unfavourable year weather conditions. Listed is an assumption to the yield of high quality. The effects of year weather conditions, biological material (hybrids and foliar application of two different PGR (Terra-Sorb® Foliar – containing free amino acids and Unicum® – containing Abiestins® on the yield-forming parameters, seed yield and the oil content in seeds of three selected hybrids of sunflower (NK Brio, NK Neoma, NK Ferti were studied in this paper. The field poly-factorial experiments were realized during two growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The experimental area is situated in the maize-growing region (climatic region: warm; climatic sub-region: mild dry or dry; climatic zone: warm and dry, with mild winter and long sunshine and soil is silt loam Haplic Luvisol. The climatic conditions in chosen experimental years were different in quantities and distribution of precipitation at main growth period of sunflower plants (June to August and allows evaluating the yield stability between used hybrids and foliar treatments. The results showed that the application of selected PGR has contributed to an increase of sunflower seed yield, mainly through increase the weight of thousand seeds (rp = 0.761; P < 0.001. Similarly, oil content in seeds was significantly higher in treatments with PGR, especially with preparation Terra-Sorb® Foliar containing free amino acids. The study describes the relationship between quality (oil content in seeds and quantity (seed yield of sunflower production (rp = ‒0.41; P < 0.01. Results showed that PGR can be an important rationalization tool of the sunflower cultivation technology.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) leaves and roots under drought stress by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunbo; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Li, Cen; Zhou, Fei; Zhang, Shuquan; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Liguo; Li, Weizhong; Huang, Xutang

    2017-10-25

    Sunflower is recognized as one of the most important oil plants with strong tolerance to drought in the world. In order to study the response mechanisms of sunflower plants to drought stress, gene expression profiling using high throughput sequencing was performed for seedling leaves and roots (sunflower inbred line R5) after 24 h of drought stress (15% PEG 6000). The transcriptome assembled using sequences of 12 samples was used as a reference. 805 and 198 genes were identified that were differentially expressed in leaves and roots, respectively. Another 71 genes were differentially expressed in both organs, in which more genes were up-regulated than down-regulated. In agreement with results obtained for other crops or from previous sunflower studies, we also observed that nine genes may be associated with the response of sunflower to drought. The results of this study may provide new information regarding the sunflower drought response, as well as add to the number of known genes associated with drought tolerance.

  19. Quality assessment of biodiesels obtained from pure cooking oils of some feedstocks and their waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ansari, T.M.; Manzoor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils. (author)

  20. Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Daniel Gomes Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some people are born with the wish of being different: some want to be politicians to mark the History in their country, others want to be football players, others want to have an “ability” that makes them special, like flying, reading people’s minds, mind control, etc, but aren’t we perfect as we are? Normality is the only perfection in our lives, but the thirst for power prevents us from doing the right thing. Even if we have a good heart, we are always prone to corruption, so as to fulfill our thirst for power.  We have the example of some politicians and other people in charge of enterprises who had power but used it for their own good, even if that meant harming people others. The short story that I present is completely original, but it’s a criticism of the corruptive influence of power. We can say that “If you want to know a man, give him power”.

  1. Response and utilization of phosphorus by sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, P.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.; Prasad Rao, A.; Sultana, Fatima

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to find the response and utilization of applied P by sunflower at different levels of N, in the light soils of Andhra Pradesh using 32 P labelled fertilizer. The results of the experiment clearly brought out the significant effects of N and P application on the dry matter yield, per cent Pdff and P utilization of sunflower at flowering and seed yield at harvest

  2. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  3. Determination of Commercials Cooking Oils and Fats Using Chemometrics Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azwan Mat Lazim; Mohd Zuli Jaafar; Phang Wei Shong, P.W.; Suzereen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, chemometric method has been used in determining the oil quality. The samples used were olive oil, sunflower oil and butter from two different brands. Two different conditions were applied, either it was fresh or fried. Titratio, a conventional method was used to determine free fatty acids content (FFA), iodine value (IV), and peroxide value (PV). Twelve samples were then used for analysis and their FTIR spectra were measured at 4000-400 cm -1 . The computer stimulation was used to process the data based on their pattern recognition which optimized by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). PCA model was used to distinguish the properties between fresh and fried oil. The PLS model was used to predict the value for validation test in comparison with conventional results. Results showed the validation value for fresh oil was 0.90. This indicated the chemometric method was in agreement with conventional method. (author)

  4. physical, chemical, technological and biological properties of some mutant oil seeds induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluated sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds induced by gamma rays, as plant breeding unit, plant research department, radioisotope application division, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority Inshas. the obtained results indicate the following : chemical composition of mutant seeds: the radiation mutation caused a significant increase in both oil and ash content total carbohydrates showed a significant decreased in sesame seeds. radiation mutation induced significant increase in oil and protein content of sunflower and safflower seeds. while the total carbohydrate showed a significant decrease. physiochemical properties of oils extracted mutant seeds: the radiation mutation had no real effect on the refractive index and A.V of oils extracted from control and mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds. while it caused a slight increase in red color and P.V. of sesame oil, the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of mutant sesame oil was not alter upon radiation mutation, but it induced a slight decrease in TBA of mutant sunflower and safflower oils. the unsaponifiable matter percentage of oils extracted from mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds were slightly increased by radiation mutation .radiation mutation of seeds had no real effect on the total SFA and USFA of sesame oil. however, radiation mutation induced a remarkable changes in fatty acid profiles of sunflower and safflower oil as total SFA decreased, while USFA increased. Uric acid was only detected in oil extracted from mutant sunflower seeds

  5. Base Oils Biodegradability Prediction with Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Trabelsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply various data mining techniques including continuous numeric and discrete classification prediction models of base oils biodegradability, with emphasis on improving prediction accuracy. The results show that highly biodegradable oils can be better predicted through numeric models. In contrast, classification models did not uncover a similar dichotomy. With the exception of Memory Based Reasoning and Decision Trees, tested classification techniques achieved high classification prediction. However, the technique of Decision Trees helped uncover the most significant predictors. A simple classification rule derived based on this predictor resulted in good classification accuracy. The application of this rule enables efficient classification of base oils into either low or high biodegradability classes with high accuracy. For the latter, a higher precision biodegradability prediction can be obtained using continuous modeling techniques.

  6. Trace element and nutrient accumulation in sunflower plants two years after the Aznalcóllar mine spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejón, P; Murillo, J M; Marañón, T; Cabrera, F; Soriano, M A

    2003-05-20

    The failure of a tailing pond dam at the Aznalcóllar pyrite mine (SW Spain) in April 1998 released a toxic spill affecting approximately 4300 ha along the Agrio and Guadiamar valleys. Two years later, we have studied yield and concentration of mineral nutrients and trace elements in sunflower plants grown in the spill-affected soil, and in an adjacent unaffected soil as comparison. The study has been carried out in plants at seedling (V4) and mature (R8) stages. Shoot and root biomass of sunflower seedlings was significantly smaller in the affected soil than in the unaffected soil, but there was no significant difference at the mature stage. Oil production was greater in the spill-affected plants. We have not detected any 'fertilising' effect caused by the acid waters of the spill on the main nutrient (N, P and Ca) acquisition, as documented in 1998 for sunflower plants flooded by the spill. Sunflower plants growing in the spill-affected soil reached adequate levels of nutrients. None of the trace elements measured-As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Tl-reached levels either phytotoxic or toxic for humans or animals in seeds and the above-ground part of the spill-affected plants. We evaluate the potential use of sunflower plants for phytoremediation. The potential for phytoextraction is very low; however, it may be used for soil conservation. The production of oil (usable for industrial purposes) may add some value to this crop.

  7. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R.

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Scope and Methods Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East–West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light–response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Conclusions. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the ‘photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis’ as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. PMID:26420201

  8. Interaction between rancidity and organoleptic parameters of anchovy marinade (Engraulis encrasicolus L. 1758) include essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Hülya; Kocatepe, Demet; Keskin, İrfan; Altan, Can Okan; Köstekli, Bayram; Candan, Canan; Ceylan, Asuman

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the lipid oxidation and sensory attributes of anchovy marinated with 10% NaCl+4% alcohol vinegar+0.2% citric acid solution and 0.1% different essential oils. Group A Control: only sunflower seed oil, Group B: sunflower seed oil+0.1% rosemary oil, Group C: sunflower seed oil+0.1% coriander oil, Group D: sunflower seed oil+0.1% laurel oil and Group E: sunflower seed oil+0.1% garlic oil. During storage, lipid oxidation as indicated by the 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values of the control group were significantly higher than the other groups containing essential oils. The results showed that the essential oils have retarding effect on lipids oxidation. This effect was the highest in laurel oil during initial 3 months; and it was similar to laurel oil and rosemary oil in the fourth month; in all the essential oil added groups in 6 month. L*(brightness) values were similar for all groups in first fourth months but, at the last 2 months, group using laurel oil was found better. Yellowness (b*) was similar in all groups during the intial 3 months whereas, after that lower values in the groups that used laurel and rosemary oils were detected. The study concluded that marination with 0.1% laurel oil of anchovy can retard lipid oxidation and improve the sensory attributes of the product during refrigerated storage.

  9. Magnetorheological fluid based on thixotropic PTFE-oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hansong; Yan, Hua; Hu, Zhide; Yang, Jianjian; Niu, Fanghao

    2018-04-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micropowders were employed in this work to fabricate PTFE-oil organogel, then carbonyl iron particles were dispersed in this thixotropic organogel to prepare magnetorheological fluids without any other additives. By performing a comparative investigation of MRFs' performances, enhanced magnetorheological response, suspension stability and tribological performance were obtained contrast to pure silicon oil based MRFs. The experimental results revealed a changeable viscosity of organogel, considerable increases in thixotropy also can be observed with the increase of PTFE content. Sedimentation tests demonstrated a much better suspension stability of MRFs based on organogel, suggesting that the internal network microstructures formed by hydrogen bonds between PTFE microparticles and oil molecular chains are likely to impose the gaps among magnetic particles thus hinder the particle aggregation and sedimentation. Moreover, a critical PTFE volume fraction about 4.7 vol% was recognized in this study, lower content organogels tended to display enhanced yield stresses contrast to pure silicon oil based MRFs while high content organogels showed slightly lower ones. It may suggest a compromise between nonmagnetic particle adsorption and the reinforcement effect of network microstructures. The adsorption is likely to decrease the saturation magnetization of carbonyl iron particles and to hinder the formation of field-induced chains, however, the reinforcement effect tends to strengthen these magnetic chains. Besides, the tribological tests confirmed the lubricant effects of PTFE-oil organogel by acquiring rather sharp decreases in friction coefficients of organogel based MRFs especially in the presence of magnetic field.

  10. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2006-01-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13 C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  11. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: aba.mortley@rmc.ca

    2006-07-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing {sup 13}C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  12. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  13. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  15. A modified commercial gas chromatograph for the continuous monitoring of the thermal degradation of sunflower oil and off-line solid phase extraction gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry characterization of released volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontañon, I; Sanz, J; Escudero, A; de Marcos, S; Ferreira, V; Galbán, J

    2015-04-03

    A homemade flow cell attached to a commercial Gas Chromatograph equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) has been designed for the continuous monitoring of volatile compounds released during heating edible oils. Analytical parameters such as mass of sample, temperature and flow rates have been optimized and the obtained results have been compared with the corresponding thermographs from standard TG systems. Results show that under optimum conditions, the profiles of volatiles released upon heating are comparable to the profiles of TG curves, suggesting that the FID based system could be an alternative to TGA. Additionally, volatiles have been retained in a Lichrolut EN(®) resin, eluted and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In this case, forty five compounds have been identified (acids, alcohols, alkanes, aldehydes, ketones and furans) and compared with the FID signals, working both in air or nitrogen atmosphere. It has been concluded that the oxidative thermal degradation is prevented in the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of sunflower soap stocks on light lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, J F; Morán, L; Mateo, J; Villalobos-Delgado, L H; Andrés, S; Bodas, R

    2017-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were used to study the effect of sunflower soap stocks (SS), a by-product from the vegetable oil refinery industry, on meat chemical composition, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and consumer acceptability. Lambs were finished (average length of fattening period 35 ± 7.3 d, 26.8 ± 0.09 kg final BW) on a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) with no SS (00SS) or including 15, 30 or 60 g SS/kg (15SS, 30SS, and 60SS, respectively). Sunflower soap stocks decreased the percentage of SFA, increased the proportion of -MUFA ( 0.05). Atherogenicity and saturation indexes decreased by 31% and 27%, respectively, in SS groups compared to control (linear 0.05). However, certain volatile compounds (benzene and toluene) and 10-18:1 fatty acid, known potential hazards for human health, were increased in meat from lambs fed TMR with SS. For this reason, only inclusion rates up to 15 g SS/kg TMR seem to sustain a satisfactory balance between beneficial and detrimental effects on lamb meat composition and quality.

  17. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  18. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L.

    2003-01-01

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials

  19. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  20. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  1. Whole Plant Utilization of Sunflowers as a Renewable Source of Strategic Materials (Rubber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-14

    make an excellent hybrid. They are highly self-sterile, and are hybridized by hymenopterous pollinators, principally honey bees . The numerous species...composed largely of triglycerides) (Beard, 1981). There is currently considerable interest in the direct use of sunflower oil as a diesel fuel substitute ...to contain 11% crude protein , 33.5% crude fiber, 7% ether extract, and 9.5% ash, of which 0.83% was calcium and 0.32% phosphorus. In feeding trials

  2. Exogenous application of abscisic acid may improve the growth and yield of sunflower hybrids under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Iqbal, J.; Ibrahim, M.; Atta, S.; Ahmed, T.; Saleem, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower genotypes perform differently under different water regimes. Drought stress at various growth stages drastically reduces the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids. However, exogenous application of abscisic acid helps in mitigating drought stress by improving growth, development and yield of sunflower. In the present study, three sunflower hybrids viz. DK-4040 (large stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were exposed to varied irrigation regimes and abscisic acid application schedule i.e. T1: four irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud, flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray,T/sub 2/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 3/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu MABA spray at bud initiation, T/sub 4/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 5/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu M ABA spray at flower initiation. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Design with factorial arrangement having three replications. ABA application at bud or at flower initiation under drought stress helped in mitigating the detrimental effects by improving growth and yield of sunflower hybrids. Enhancement in drought tolerance of sunflower genotypes was better when ABA was applied at bud initiation stage than that of at flower initiation stage under drought. Improvements in head diameter, achenes per head, 1000-achene weight, achene yield, oil yield, biological yield, harvest index, leaf area index and crop growth rate was recorded. Sunflower hybrid DK-4040 showed more improvement in drought tolerance byfoliar application of ABA under water deficit stress than that of the SF-187 and S-278. It is suggested that sunflower hybrid DK 4040

  3. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  4. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  5. Fuel properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils and oil mixtures. Influence of methyl esters distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, G.; Sánchez, N.; Encinar, J.M.; González, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the quality of biodiesel produced by basic transesterification from several vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, high oleic sunflower, Cynara Cardunculus L., Brassica Carinata and Jatropha Curca) cultivated in Extremadura has been studied in detail. The influence of raw material composition on properties such as density, viscosity, cetane number, higher heating value, iodine and saponification values and cold filter plugging point has been verified. Other biodiesel properties such as acid value, water content and flash and combustion points were more dependent on characteristics of production process. Biodiesel produced by rapeseed, sunflower and high oleic sunflower oils transesterification have been biofuels with better properties according to Norm EN 14214. Finally, it has been tested that it is possible to use oils mixtures in biodiesel production in order to improve the biodiesel quality. In addition, with the same process conditions and knowing properties of biodiesel from pure oils; for biodiesel from oils mixtures, its methyl esters content, and therefore properties dependent this content can be predicted from a simple mathematical equation proposed in this work. - Highlights: • Biodiesel quality produced by basic transesterification from vegetable oils. • We examine influences of methyl esters distribution on biodiesel properties. • Biofuels from soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils were with better properties. • Oils mixtures improve biodiesel quality to fulfill Norm EN 14214. • An equation to predict properties of biodiesel from oil mixtures is proposed

  6. A laboratory simulation of the carbonization of sunflower achenes and seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braadbaart, F. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Earth Sciences-Geochemistry, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80021, 3058 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Wright, P.J. [Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Horst, J. van der; Boon, J.J. [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    The current project describes physical and chemical alterations that result from the thermal exposure of sunflower achenes and seeds. Specifically, achenes and seeds were heated at temperatures ranging from 130 to 600 C under anoxic conditions for 60 min. Changes were measured in mass, relative percentages of C and N, internal and external morphology, molecular composition by direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry (DTMS) under EI conditions, and the reflectance on polished specimens. The main constituents of sunflower seeds are lipids and protein, while the pericarps or hulls enclosing the seeds have a ligno-cellulosic structure. The morphology of achenes and seeds remains intact following exposure which makes the identification of the residues possible. The results of the sunflower experiments were compared to previous experiments conducted with peas and wheat grains. Up to approximately 340 C, the molecular conversion of polysaccharide and protein rich peas and wheat grains follow similar pathways, while the lignin present in sunflower achenes follows its own unique pathway, resulting in a different molecular composition. At higher temperatures the molecular composition of the three propagules becomes identical. In addition the reflectance of the three propagules is identical confirming the similarity in molecular composition. Lipids show a different behaviour compared to the other three biopolymers; from 370 C no oils are observed in the heated specimens and the DTMS-EI measurements show no lipid markers. Apart from evaporation of the triacylglycerides it is suggested that steroids have a high resistance against thermal degradation and are converted into aromatic moieties. (author)

  7. Authentication and Quantitation of Fraud in Extra Virgin Olive Oils Based on HPLC-UV Fingerprinting and Multivariate Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranco, Núria; Farrés-Cebrián, Mireia; Saurina, Javier

    2018-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography method with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) fingerprinting was applied for the analysis and characterization of olive oils, and was performed using a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 reversed-phase column under gradient elution, employing 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as mobile phase. More than 130 edible oils, including monovarietal extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) and other vegetable oils, were analyzed. Principal component analysis results showed a noticeable discrimination between olive oils and other vegetable oils using raw HPLC-UV chromatographic profiles as data descriptors. However, selected HPLC-UV chromatographic time-window segments were necessary to achieve discrimination among monovarietal EVOOs. Partial least square (PLS) regression was employed to tackle olive oil authentication of Arbequina EVOO adulterated with Picual EVOO, a refined olive oil, and sunflower oil. Highly satisfactory results were obtained after PLS analysis, with overall errors in the quantitation of adulteration in the Arbequina EVOO (minimum 2.5% adulterant) below 2.9%. PMID:29561820

  8. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  9. Registration of the sunflower oilseed maintainer genetic stocks HOLS1, HOLS2, HOLS3, and HOLS4, possessing genes for high oleic and low saturated fatty acids, and tolerance to imidazolinone herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary goals for the oilseed sunflower industry is to provide novel oil products for human consumption. One oil profile of particular interest is high oleic/ low saturated fat, because it combines high oxidative stability of the oil with a reduction in the fatty acids that are detriment...

  10. Performances of cutting fluids in turning. Vegetable based oil - RV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos Aurelian; Belluco, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Scope of the present measurement campaign is the evaluation of the cutting fluid performance. The report presents the standard routine and the results obtained when turning stainless steel and brass with a commercial vegetable based oil called RV. The methods were developed to be applicable...

  11. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent or...

  12. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  13. Design of Oil Viscosity Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad; Arifin, A.

    2018-03-01

    A research of plastic optical fiber based sensors have been studied for measurement of oil viscosity. This sensor was made with straight configuration, U configuration, and gamma configuration have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. Viscosity sensor was made, dipped into an oil sample with a concentration of viscosity percentage about 270 mPa.s - 350 mPa.s. The light from the LED propagated into the optical fiber, then it was received by the photodetector converted to output power. When plastic optical fiber dipped into an oil sample, viscosity of oil affect increase of refractive index on optical fiber resulting in a bigger loss of power so the light intensity will be smaller, consequences the measured output power will be smaller. Sensitivity and resolution viscosity sensor without cladding peel showed the best result rather than viscosity sensor with cladding peel. The best result in the measurement showed in gamma configuration with 3 cm length of cladding peel and the diameter of bending 0,25 cm is the range 103,090 nWatt, sensitivity 1,289 nWatt/mPa.s, and resolution 0,776 mPa.s. This method is effectively and efficiently used as an oil viscosity sensor with high sensitivity and resolution.

  14. OSIS: A PC-based oil spill information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, M.V.; Tyler, A.; Wiltshire, M.

    1993-01-01

    Warren Spring Laboratory and BMT Ceemaid Ltd. are cooperating to produce an Oil Spill Information System (OSIS) that will have worldwide application. OSIS is based on EUROSPILL, a spill simulation model originally developed under programs sponsored by the European Commission and the Marine Pollution Control Unit of the United Kingdom government's Department of Transport. OSIS is implemented in the Microsoft Windows 3.x graphical environment on a personal computer. A variety of options enables the user to input information on continuous or instantaneous spills of different types of oil under variable environmental conditions, to simulate the fate of oil and the trajectory of a spill. Model results are presented in the forms of maps, charts, graphs, and tables, displayed in multiple windows on a color monitor. Color hard copy can be produced, and OSIS can be linked to other Windows software packages, providing the opportunity to create a suite of spill incident management tools

  15. Preparation and physicochemical of microemulsion based on macadamia nut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xinghao; Chen, Hong; Du, Liqing

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the preparation, optimization and characteristic of nanostructured lipid carriers(NLCs) based on macadamia nut oil. NLC with various macadamia nut oil content were successfully prepared by an optimized microfluidization method using stearic acid as solid lipid and pluronic F68 as surfactant. As a result, NLC with particle size about 286nm were obtained, and the polydispersity index(PI) of all developed NLC were below 0.2 which indicate a narrow size distribution. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capability were investigated as well. Physical stability of NLC demonstrated that particles of system were stable at room temperature and low temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) investigation show that the inner structure and recrystallinity of lipid matrix within NLC were greatly influenced by the content of macadamia nut oil.

  16. The Influence and Compatibility of Vegetable Oils and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABC_2

    castor oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil and cottonseed oil respectively in different concentrations (10%, 20% and 30% w/w of drug) as permeation enhancers. The films were prepared by incorporating them along with plasticizer [2]. In all cases, 30% w/w concentration of permeation enhancer showed good release and this ...

  17. Water footprint and carbon footprint of the energy consumption in sunflower agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the energy requirements, carbon footprint, and water footprint of sunflower production in Kermanshah province, western Iran. Data were collected from 70 sunflower production agroecosystems which were selected based on random sampling method in summer 2012. Results indicated that total input and output energy in sunflower production were 26,973.87 and 64,833.92 MJha -1 , respectively. The highest share of total input energy in sunflower agroecosystems was recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 35, 19, and 17%, respectively. Also, energy use efficiency, water footprint, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and carbon footprint were calculated as 2.40, 3.41 m 3  kg -1 , 2042.091 kg CO 2eq ha -1 , and 0.875 kg CO 2eq kg -1 , respectively. 0.18 of sunflower water footprint was related to green water footprint and the remaining 82% was related to blue water footprint. Also, the highest share of carbon footprint was related to electricity power (nearby 80%). Due to the results of this study, reducing use of fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resource and application of sufficient irrigation systems by efficient use of water resource are essential in order to achieve low carbon footprint, environmental challenges, and also sustainability of agricultural production systems.

  18. Theoretical growth of framboidal and sunflower pyrite using the R-package frambgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinero, Raul; Cárdenes, Víctor

    2017-12-01

    Framboids and sunflowers are the most ubiquitous shapes of sedimentary pyrite. Framboids are spherical aggregates of nanocrystals, while sunflowers are formed by overgrowth of framboids and represent intermediate stages in the transformation of framboids into euhedrae. The characterization of the size populations of these shapes provides critical information about the paleoredox conditions at time of formation and the subsequent changes in these conditions. This paper describes in detail an algorithm designed to model the growth and generate significant populations of both framboids and sunflowers, using functions of the statistical software R. The source code is provided as supplementary material to this paper. The algorithm uses several growth mechanisms based on dependence on or independence of the number of nanocrystals for framboids and the external diameter for sunflowers. Variability in the generated size populations depends on several parameters of the algorithm, such as the diameter of the nanocrystals, the initial diameter of the framboids and the maximum value of the random numbers. The resulting populations of framboids and sunflowers can be compared with data obtained from analysis of real samples in order to understand and model the genetic paleo-processes.

  19. Determining the Time of Flight and Speed of Sound on Different types of Edible Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, N. A.; Hamid, S. B. Abd

    2017-11-01

    Edible oil is most often plant-based oils that have been extracted from various seeds. There are cases where the fully virgin edible oil was found to be a fraud. The adulterated edible oil indicates the intentional, fraudulent addition of extraneous, improper or cheaper ingredients puts into the oil or the dilution or removal of some valuable ingredient of the oil in order to increase profits. Hence, decrease the reliability of the Malaysian food product quality. This research was done by using the method of time of flight obtained using the Texas Instrument board, TDC1000-TDC7200 EVM connected to an ultrasonic transducer with 1 MHz frequency. The authors measured the time of flight and temperatures controlled from 20°C to 40°C of five vegetable oils (olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, coconut oil, and mustard oil). The value is observed and compared with other research from the literature review. From the study, time of flight values decreases exponentially while speed of sound value increases. This relationship will be useful in spectrum unfolding method to investigate the adulteration in different type of edible oil.This research outcome is to investigate the quality value of the different type of edible oil while eliminates the issues where the quality of Malaysian food product is not reliable.

  20. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases expressed at high levels in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas Calerón, Mónica; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Mullen, Robert; Gidda, Satinder K; Salas, Joaquín J

    2014-03-01

    Long chain fatty acid synthetases (LACSs) activate the fatty acid chains produced by plastidial de novo biosynthesis to generate acyl-CoA derivatives, important intermediates in lipid metabolism. Oilseeds, like sunflower, accumulate high levels of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in their seeds to nourish the embryo during germination. This requires that sunflower seed endosperm supports very active glycerolipid synthesis during development. Sunflower seed plastids produce large amounts of fatty acids, which must be activated through the action of LACSs, in order to be incorporated into TAGs. We cloned two different LACS genes from developing sunflower endosperm, HaLACS1 and HaLACS2, which displayed sequence homology with Arabidopsis LACS9 and LACS8 genes, respectively. These genes were expressed at high levels in developing seeds and exhibited distinct subcellular distributions. We generated constructs in which these proteins were fused to green fluorescent protein and performed transient expression experiments in tobacco cells. The HaLACS1 protein associated with the external envelope of tobacco chloroplasts, whereas HaLACS2 was strongly bound to the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, both proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and recovered as active enzymes in the bacterial membranes. Both enzymes displayed similar substrate specificities, with a very high preference for oleic acid and weaker activity toward stearic acid. On the basis of our findings, we discuss the role of these enzymes in sunflower oil synthesis. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  1. Effect of Replacement of Marine Ingredients with Vegetable Oil and Protein on Oxidative Changes during Ice Storage of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Eymard, Sylvie; Timm Heinrich, Maike

    Recently, fish meal and fish oil have increasingly been replaced with proteins and oils from vegetable sources in the diets of farmed salmonids, but the consequences for the oxidative stability of the resulting fish products have only been investigated to a limited extent. This presentation...... will discuss results from two recent studies from our laboratory on this topic. In the first study, rainbow trout were fed six different diets, which differed in the ratio between marine oil and proteins vs. vegetable oil and protein. Rapeseed oil was used as the oil source and the vegetable proteins were...... a mix based on pea, wheat, sunflower and beans. In the second study, one group of rainbow trout was fed a traditional diet based on fish meal and fish oil, whereas the other five groups were fed diets in which 40 % of the fish meal was replaced with plant proteins from peas, horse bean and rapeseed...

  2. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  3. Offshore disposal of oil-based drilling fluid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malachosky, E.; Shannon, B.E.; Jackson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Offshore drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico may use oil-based drilling fluids to mitigate drilling problems. The result is the generation of a significant quantity of oily cuttings and mud. The transportation of this waste for onshore disposal is a concern from a standpoint of both personnel safety and potential environmental impact. A process for preparing a slurry of this waste and the subsequent disposal of the slurry through annular pumping has been put into use by ARCO Oil and Gas Company. The disposal technique has been approved by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The slurried waste is displaced down a casing annulus into a permeable zone at a depth below the surface casing setting depth. The annular disposal includes all cuttings and waste oil mud generated during drilling with oil-based fluids. This disposal technique negates the need for cuttings storage on the platform, transportation to shore, and the environmental effects of onshore surface disposal. The paper describes the environmental and safety concerns with onshore disposal, the benefits of annular disposal, and the equipment and process used for the preparation and pumping of the slurry

  4. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  5. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, R; Vaca, M; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Morales, J; Flores, J; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product

  6. The Effect of Dietary Oils on Growth Performance of Broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    chicks/group) and fed diets supplemented with 0.5% sunflower oil (Group A), ... improve performance and to decrease indices of inflammatory response in the ... protein synthesis and accretion in the skeletal muscle (Hentges et al., 1984).

  7. Response of sunflower hybrids to different nitrogen levels for physiological and agronomical traits under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, D.; Abbasi, F.M.; Ahmed, H.; Qamar, M.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower occupies main position among oil seed crops in Pakistan. Mostly indigenous sunflower hybrids are cultivated which give low achene and fodder yields. The issue related with these hybrids ascribed to lack of information about use of inputs and cultural practices. Judicious nitrogen use and suitable high yielding hybrid play key role in increasing sunflower productivity. Protein is the basic requirement of the metabolic processes for the vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to evaluate the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N = 0 kgha , N = 60 kgha , N = 0 1 2 -1 -1 -1 -1 80 kgha , N3 = 120 kgha , N4 = 180 kgha and N5 = 240 kgha ) on two sunflower hybrids, SMH-0907 and SMH-0917 to optimize the N levels for obtaining maximum yield on sustainable basis. Both hybrids were kept in the main plot while N levels in the sub plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. -1 The results showed that the number of achene head , 100-achene weight and achene yield increased with increased N application. The increased levels of N -1 also enhanced the achene yield. The maximum achene yield (3170.8 kg ha ) was -1 -1 recorded at 180 kg N ha followed by 240 kg N ha . Minimum achene yield (2115 kg -1 ha ) was observed in control treatment (N ). Polynomial regression line showed 0-1 that the rate of yield increase was higher up to 180 kg N ha and become slow-1 thereafter. The hybrid SMH-0907 produced more achene (2736 kg ha ) as compared -1 to the hybrid SMH-0917 (2694 kg ha ). Results revealed that economized application of different doses of N can boost up the yield in both sunflower hybrids SMH-0907 and SMH-0917. These findings could be helpful in rationalizing most valuable inputs

  8. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oil inventories should be based on margins, supply reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waguespack, K.; Cantor, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    US oil inventories have plummeted to their lowest recorded levels this year, leading industry observers to conclude that refiners have adopted new just-in-time (JIT) inventory policies. Total crude oil inventories are about 300 million bbl -- 8% below the 10-year average. Distillate inventories posted similar declines this year because of unusually cold winter temperatures and refiners' reluctance to build sufficient stocks in the autumn months. Gasoline stocks are 20% below the 10-year average at 200 million bbl, despite forecasts of record-high gasoline demand this summer. The sudden drop in crude and product inventories this year is widely considered a sign that refiners have implemented JIT, signaling a permanent shift to reduced stocks. The authors submit that the shift towards reduced oil inventories is not related to a concerted adoption of JIT by US refiners, and that oil inventory management decisions should instead be based on refining margins and supply reliability. The paper discusses the JIT revolution and the optimal-inventory model

  10. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (~100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources.

  11. Process for hydroprocessing heavy oils utilizing sepiolite-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auden, C.A.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1986-04-15

    A process is described for demetallizing and desulfurizing a hydrocarbon oil comprising contacting the hydrocarbon oil in the presence of hydrogen and a sepiolite-based catalyst composition under conditions of pressure and temperature sufficient to effect demetallization and desulfurization. The sepiolite-based catalyst composition has been prepared by first contacting the sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a first metal salt, then contacting the resultant metal ion-exchanged sepiolite with an aqueous solution of a compound of a second metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium, and finally contacting the resultant metal-exchanged sepiolite product with an aqueous solution of a magnesium compound, thereby effecting a magnesium ion-exchange with the metal-exchanged sepiolite product and neutralizing acid sites on the sepiolite product.

  12. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  13. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  14. Valorization of sunflower meal through the production of ethanol from the hemicellulosic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Tavares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sunflower is among the major oil seeds crop grown in the world and the by-products generated during the seeds processing represent an attractive source of lignocellulosic biomass for bioprocesses. The conversion of lignocellulosic fibers into fermentable sugars has been considered as a promising alternative to increase the demand for ethanol. The present study aimed to establish the fermentation conditions for ethanol production by Scheffersomyces stipitis ATCC 58376 in sunflower meal hemicellulosic hydrolysate, through a 23 CCRD (Central Composite Rotational Design factorial design. Under the selected conditions (pH 5.25, 29 ºC and 198 rpm the final ethanol concentration was 13.92 g L-1 and the ethanol yield was 0.49 g g-1.

  15. Exploitation of genetic resources for improvement of unsaturated fatty acid in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, U.A.; Mehmood, K.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five inbred lines (Cytoplasmic male sterile and 12 fertility restorer) annuus synthesized at the oilseeds research institute Faisalabad. Pakistan were analyzed on gas chromatograph for their fatty acid status. The palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid ranged form 5.62-11.02% 1.09-3.08%, 21.40-50.70% and 40.60-69.10% respectively. The saturate fatty acid may increase the cholesterol level in the blood. This deposition of cholestrol in the blood vesels is a major cause of heart attack. By screening our germplasm on the basis of fatty acid profile, we can use their inbred lines having low percentage of saturated high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids which may benefit sunflower industry through increased consumer performance for a low saturated fatty acid sunflower products. RL-58, RL-52, ORI-85 and ORI-2 are recommended for the development of commercial hybrids with quality edible oil. (author)

  16. The allelopatic effects of aqueous extracts and decay durations of sunflower on germination and growth of dodder (Cuscuta compestris Yuncker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Seyedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the allelopathic potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. organs on germination and growth of dodder (Cuscuta compestris L., series studies were conducted in three separate experiments; as factorial based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications for each experiments. First experiment was conducted in petri dishes and consisted of sunflower organs at four levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and their aqueous extract concentrations at 11 levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10%. Second experiment was conducted in pots and factors were include of sunflower organs at four levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and their aqueous extract concentrations at five levels (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%. Third experiment was sunflower organs at four levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and decay durations at 8 levels (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days decay and control. In three experiments, dry weight and length of seedling, number of abnormal seedlings, percentage and rate of dodder germination were examined. Results of three experiments showed that leaf and stem in comparison with other sunflower organs had more allelopatic effects on mentioned traits of dodder. In addition, sunflower organs had more allelopatic effects on percentage and rate of germination and percentage and rate of emergence in compared with other studied traits.

  17. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Harekrishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  18. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

    2009-04-25

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 degrees C of melting point, and 111 degrees C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  19. Sunflower petals: Some physical properties and modeling distribution of their number, dimensions, and mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirzabe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower petal is one of the parts of the sunflower which has drawn attention and has several applications these days. These applications justify getting information about physical properties, mechanical properties, drying trends, etc. in order to design new machines and use new methods to harvest or dry the sunflower petals. For three varieties of sunflower, picking force of petals was measured; number of petals of each head was counted; unit mass and 1000-unit mass of fresh petals were measured and length, width, and projected area of fresh petals were calculated based on image processing technique; frequency distributions of these parameters were modeled using statistical distribution models namely Gamma, Generalized Extreme Value (G. E. V, Lognormal, and Weibull. Results of picking force showed that with increasing number of days after appearing the first petal on each head from 5 to 14 and decreasing loading rate from 150 g min−1 to 50 g min−1 values of picking force were decreased for three varieties, but diameter of sunflower head had different effects on picking force for each variety. Length, width, and number of petals of Dorsefid variety ranged from 38.52 to 95.44 mm, 3.80 to 9.28 mm and 29 to 89, respectively. The corresponding values ranged from 34.19 to 88.18 mm, 4.28 to 10.60 mm and 21 to 89, respectively for Shamshiri variety and ranged from 44.47 to 114.63 mm, 7.03 to 20.31 mm and 29 to 89 for Sirena variety. Results of frequency distribution modeling indicated that in most cases, G. E. V and Weibull distributions had better performance than other distributions. Keywords: Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. petal, Picking force, Image processing, Fibonacci sequence, Lucas sequence

  20. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  1. Green ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids from pomegranate wastes using vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Athanasia M; Ververi, Maria; Adamopoulou, Anna; Kaderides, Kyriakos

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new process for pomegranate peels application in food industries based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of carotenoids using different vegetable oils as solvents. In this way, an oil enriched with antioxidants is produced. Sunflower oil and soy oil were used as alternative solvents and the effects of various parameters on extraction yield were studied. Extraction temperature, solid/oil ratio, amplitude level, and extraction time were the factors investigated with respect to extraction yield. Comparative studies between ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction were carried out in terms of processing procedure and total carotenoids content. The efficient extraction period for achieving maximum yield of pomegranate peel carotenoids was about 30min. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: extraction temperature, 51.5°C; peels/solvent ratio, 0.10; amplitude level, 58.8%; solvent, sunflower oil. A second-order kinetic model was successfully developed for describing the mechanism of ultrasound extraction under different processing parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sunflower: A potential fructan-bearing crop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle eMartinez-Noel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain filling in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. mainly depends on actual photosynthesis, being the contribution of stored reserves in stems (sucrose, hexoses and starch rather low. Drought periods during grain filling often reduce yield. Increasing the capacity of stem to store reserves could help to increase grain filling and yield stability in dry years. Fructans improve water uptake in soils at low water potential, and allow the storage of large amount of assimilates per unit tissue volume that can be readily remobilized to grains. Sunflower is a close relative to Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L., which accumulates large amounts of fructan (inulin in tubers and true stems. The reason why sunflower does not accumulate fructans is obscure. Through a bioinformatics analysis of a sunflower transcriptome database, we found sequences that are homologous to dicotyledon and monocotyledon fructan synthesis genes. A HPLC analysis of stem sugar composition revealed the presence of low amounts of 1-kestose, while a drastic enhancement of endogenous sucrose levels by capitulum removal did not promote 1-kestose accumulation. This suggests that the regulation of fructan synthesis in this species may differ from the currently best known model, mainly derived from research on Poaceae, where sucrose acts as both a signaling molecule and substrate, in the induction of fructan synthesis. Thus, sunflower might potentially constitute a fructan-bearing species, which could result in an improvement of its performance as a grain crop. However, a large effort is needed to elucidate how this up to now unsuspected potential could be effectively

  3. Study of fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Junaid; Yusup, Suzana; Bokhari, Awais; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This article presents the comparative studies of the fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel. • The design expert has been adopted for the optimization of the process variables. • The FTIR, cold flow properties and oxidation stability are the findings of present study. • All the fuel properties met the standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. • Present study reveals that rubber seed oil as a non-edible source potentially contributes for esters production. - Abstract: The scarcity of the fossil fuel, environmental pollution and food crisis are the world’s major issues in current era. Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel fuel, environment friendly and biodegradable and is produced from either edible or non-edible oils. In this study, a non-edible rubber seed oil (RSO) with high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 45% were used for the production of biodiesel. The process comprises of two steps. The first step is the acid esterification to reduce the FFA value and the second step is the base transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used for parametric optimization of the two stage processes i.e. acid esterification and base transesterification. The yield of biodiesel was analyzed using gas chromatography. The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectrum was also determined to confirm the conversion of fatty acid to methyl esters. The fuel properties were analyzed according to the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 and were compared with the previous finding of researchers. All analyzed properties fulfilled the biodiesel standard criteria

  4. High-throughput authentication of edible oils with benchtop Ultrafast 2D NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouilleux, B; Marchand, J; Charrier, B; Remaud, G S; Giraudeau, P

    2018-04-01

    We report the use of an Ultrafast 2D NMR approach applied on a benchtop NMR system (43 MHz) for the authentication of edible oils. Our results demonstrate that a profiling strategy based on fast 2D NMR spectra recorded in 2.4 min is more efficient than the standard 1D experiments to classify oils from different botanical origins, since 1D spectra on the same samples suffer from strong peak overlaps. Six edible oils with different botanical origins (olive, hazelnut, sesame, rapeseed, corn and sunflower) have been clearly discriminated by PCA analysis. Furthermore, we show how this approach combined with a PLS model can detect adulteration processes such as the addition of hazelnut oil into olive oil, a common fraud in food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizers on sole maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations on the yield of sole maize and cassava crops. Two de-oiled palm kernel cake based fertilizer formulations A and B were compounded from different proportions of de-oiled palm kernel cake, urea, muriate of potash and ...

  6. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  7. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two

  8. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  9. Genetic architecture of capitate glandular trichome density in florets of domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. Capitate glandular trichomes can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resist...

  10. Formulation and Stabilization of Concentrated Edible Oil-in-Water Emulsions Based on Electrostatic Complexes of a Food-Grade Cationic Surfactant (Ethyl Lauroyl Arginate) and Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Long; Xiang, Wenchao; Huan, Siqi; Rojas, Orlando J

    2018-05-14

    We report on high-internal-phase, oil-in-water Pickering emulsions that are stable against coalescence during storage. Viscous, edible oil (sunflower) was emulsified by combining naturally derived cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and a food-grade, biobased cationic surfactant obtained from lauric acid and L-arginine (ethyl lauroyl arginate, LAE). The interactions between CNC and LAE were elucidated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and supplementary techniques. LAE adsorption on CNC surfaces and its effect on nanoparticle electrostatic stabilization, aggregation state, and emulsifying ability was studied and related to the properties of resultant oil-in-water emulsions. Pickering systems with tunable droplet diameter and stability against oil coalescence during long-term storage were controllably achieved depending on LAE loading. The underlying stabilization mechanism was found to depend on the type of complex formed, the LAE structures adsorbed on the cellulose nanoparticles (as unimer or as adsorbed admicelles), the presence of free LAE in the aqueous phase, and the equivalent alkane number of the oil phase (sunflower and dodecane oils were compared). The results extend the potential of CNC in the formulation of high-quality and edible Pickering emulsions. The functional properties imparted by LAE, a highly effective molecule against food pathogens and spoilage organisms, open new opportunities in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical applications, where the presence of CNC plays a critical role in achieving synergistic effects with LAE.

  11. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Jespersen, J.; Marckmann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...... with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...

  12. Solid biofuels production from agricultural residues and processing by-products by means of torrefaction treatment: the case of sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Duca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use. Their standardisation is going to be a key aspect to get good quality biofuels from those residues. Torrefaction is an interesting process to improve the physical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks, husks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of these materials has been studied at first by thermogravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Afterwards, different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been tested in a bench top torrefaction reactor. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the treatment. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range reduces making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60%, 80% and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64%, 85% and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by the results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks due to their different original characteristics. Untreated oil press cake and husks, in fact, already show a good high heating value and, for this reason, their torrefaction should be mild to avoid an excessive ash concentration. On the contrary, for sunflower stalks the treatment is more useful and could be more severe.

  13. A green deep eutectic solvent dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DES-DLLME) for the UHPLC-PDA determination of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids in olive, soy, peanuts, corn, and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Vincenzo; Genovese, Salvatore; Carlucci, Maura; Tiecco, Matteo; Germani, Raimondo; Preziuso, Francesca; Epifano, Francesco; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro

    2018-04-15

    A green dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as the extracting solvent has been developed and applied for the simultaneous quantification of ferulic acid, umbelliferone, boropinic acid, 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin, 4'-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), and auraptene in some vegetable oils using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with photodiode array detection (PDA). All parameters in the extraction step, including selection and loading of both extracting and dispersing solvents, amount of both extractant and disperser solvent were investigated and optimized. PhAA/TMG DES achieved higher recovery and enrichment factor compared to other DESs. The validated method showed good linearity with correlation coefficients, r 2 >0.9990 for all the analytes. Furthermore, this is the first time that eco-friendly solvents are used for the extraction of oxyprenylated phenylpropanoids and the corresponding extract analyzed with ultra high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Light response of sunflower and canola as affected by plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, A

    2017-08-01

    Crop response to light is an important parameter determining crop growth. Three field (split plots) experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of plant density, plant genotype and N fertilization on the light absorption and light extinction of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.). A detailed set of plant growth, light absorption and crop yield and oil related parameters were determined. Light was measured at noon during the sunny days with clear sky. In experiment I, although the plant density (PD) of 14 resulted in the highest rate of sunflower light absorption (31.37%) and light extinction (0.756), the highest rate of grain yield and grain oil yield was resulted at PD12 at 3639 and 1457.9kg/ha, respectively; as well as by genotype SUP.A. In experiment II (canola), PD80 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (13.13%), light extinction (0.63), grain yield (2189.4kg/ha) and grain oil yield (556.54kg/ha). This was also the case for Genotype H. In experiment III (canola), although N150 resulted in the highest rate of light absorption (10.74%) and light extinction (0.48), the highest rate of grain yield (3413.6kg/ha) and grain oil yield (891.86kg/ha) was resulted at N100 as well as by Genotype H401. Results indicate how light properties, crop growth and yield of sunflower and canola can be affected by plant and environmental parameters, which are also of practical use by farmers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Designing a suitable alternative to oil-based mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgate, M.; Irwin, G.; Cousins, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on wireline logging problems which have plagued the reservoir section of development wells in Welton oil field in the East Midlands area of England. And resulting incomplete or poor-quality logging data spurred a look at ways of improving hole conditions. Oil-based muds often are seen as the ideal solution, but they are expensive. Their use also commits the operator to additional costs from safeguarding personnel and limiting environmental impact. Such expense was initiated to develop a cheaper, more environmentally friendly, water-based alternative. A wide-ranging review was carried out to determine the most cost-effective options to obtain reservoir information. This included an examination of lithology, casing design, bit selection, hydraulics, logging requirements and techniques, and development of a suitable water-based mud. This holistic approach was seen as the most effective method of avoiding use of oil-based mud. After successful experimentation, a water-based mud was used in subsequent wells at Welton. A high-salt mud system and the drilling principles discussed here produced significant improvement in hole conditions. Application of a holistic approach led to many operational improvements. For instance, the casing shoe was deepened to case off the most troublesome zone in the local Edlington formation. There also was a better awareness of alternative logging techniques, the commercial factors that influenced their use and their operational and technical limitations. Logging problems were reduced but not eliminated. Where there were problems, application of improved techniques minimized their impact. Last, but not least, there was an unexpected spin-off in that the bit chosen to reduce hole erosion also reduced the time taken to drill the section

  16. SOLID BIOFUEL UTILIZATION IN VEGETABLE OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slusarenko V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with questions of creating at JSC “Alimentarmash "in the last 20 years the technological equipment for the production of vegetable oils from oilseeds: from the press for the final spin to mini oilfactory, using as an energy source for heating the liquid coolant (Thermal oil "Arian" of solid biofuels - husk of sunflower seeds.

  17. Effects of a fish oil-based emulsion on rat hepatoma cell invasion in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition containing a lipid emulsion is often employed after surgical tumor resection. This study investigated the effects of a fish oil-based infusion on rat hepatoma cell invasion. Rat ascites hepatoma cell line AH109A was precultured with a fish oil-based or safflower oil-based emulsion for 48 h. Changes in membranous fatty acid composition were evaluated by gas chromatography. The invasiveness of hepatoma cells was assessed by coculturing with mesentery-derived mesothelial cells. To examine ex vivo effects of the fish oil-based infusion on hepatoma invasion, sera were prepared from rats infused with fish oil- or safflower oil-based emulsion and the effects of these sera were assessed. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition of invasion by the fish oil-based emulsion, the effects of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGE(3) on invasion were examined. Pretreatment with the fish oil-based emulsion reduced invasiveness without affecting growth compared with the safflower oil-based emulsion. Pretreatment with the sera from rats infused with the fish oil-based emulsion also reduced invasiveness compared with the sera from rats infused with the safflower oil-based emulsion. The addition of PGE(2) eliminated the inhibitory effect of the fish oil-based emulsion, and the addition of PGE(3) reduced the invasiveness of hepatoma cells pretreated with the safflower oil-based emulsion. These results suggest that the fish oil-based emulsion may have anti-invasive effects. Changes in the membranous fatty acid composition and consequent changes in the prostaglandins produced may be involved in this inhibitory effect.

  18. Evaluation Yield of Sunflower (Farrokh cultivar under Effects of Conventional Deficit Irrigation and Partial Root Zone Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezaei Estakhroeih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is the most important factors on crop production in the world. Several methods of deficit irrigation are solutions for reduction of irrigation water. To understand the effects of conventional deficit irrigation and partial root zone drying treatments on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of sunflower (Farrokh cultivar, one study was carried out. The research was conducted on Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in the spring of 2011. A factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with one control (full irrigation and 18 deficit irrigation treatments in three replications was considered. Deficit irrigation treatments were: conventional deficit irrigation (irrigation with %80, %60 and %40 ETP and partial root zone drying (irrigation with %80, %60 and %40 ETP. Every deficit irrigation treatment was conducted in three growth stage of sunflower (all periods of growth, vegetative growth stage and reproductive growth stage.The results showed that the conventional deficit irrigation treatments (irrigation with 80% ETP in vegetative growth had the highest plant height, leaf area, leaf area index and head diameter. Also, the maximum biological yield equal to49054, maximum grain yield is equal to 9934/3 and maximum oil yield is equal to 2441/2 kg per hectare in the conventional deficit irrigation treatments (irrigation with 80% ETP in vegetative growth occurred.The highest water use efficiency for grain yield is equal to 1/46,forbiological yield equal to7/21 and for dry forage yield is equal 5/7 kilograms per cubic meter of water. According to results,conventional deficit irrigation (irrigation with %80, %60 and %40 ETP is recommended on based.

  19. High oleic sunflower bio diesel: quality control and different purification methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighlinelli, A. L. M. T.; Ferrari, R. A.; Miguel, A. M. R. O.; Park, K. J.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to evaluate the production of bio diesel using ethanol and sunflower oil. The extraction of the sunflower oil was evaluated first. An experimental design was used to estimate the influence of the independent variables grain temperature (25 degree centigrade to 110 degree centigrade) and expelled rotation (85 to 119rpm) on the crude oil. The best result obtained was 68.38%, achieved with a rotation from 100 to 115rpm, grain temperature ranging from 25 degree centigrade to 30 degree centigrade and moisture content of around 7%. The next study consisted of transesterification, evaluating the influence of the ethanol, oil molar ratio and the catalyst concentration (sodium methylate) on the ester-rich phase yield. The highest yield was 98.39% obtained with a molar ratio of 9:1 and 3% catalyst. An experiment was then carried out on a small reactor and the bio diesel produced was purified by three different methods: acidified water, silica and distillation. The quality aspects of the purified bio diesel samples were evaluated according to the Brazilian specifications for bio diesel, and distillation was shown to be the best method of purification. (Author) 28 refs.

  20. The new challenges for oil-based sovereign wealth funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire; Boulanger, Quentin

    2015-02-01

    Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) are often presented as an effective instrument for managing hydrocarbon rents, reducing the impact of the volatility of oil or gas revenues on the economy, separating expenditure from income, and promoting a more transparent management of the rent. The asset allocation strategy has become more complex with the rapid rise in oil prices between 2007 and 2014, and the substantial financial reserves accumulated in hydrocarbon-producing countries, switching from an approach of wealth management to an approach of investment and financial optimisation. Hence, these funds have become major players on the international financial and industrial scene. Moreover, with the discovery of new hydrocarbon resources in recent years, particularly in Africa, the strategies of new funds appear to be moving towards a new goal of local economic development. But the unforeseen collapse of crude oil prices in recent months poses a new risk for some SWFs based on hydrocarbon revenues, which has to come to the aid of their economies and focus on their main principle of macro-economic stabilisation. (author)

  1. Hydrotreatment of bio-oil over Ni-based catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive non-sulfided Ni-based catalysts were evaluated for hydrotreatments using phenol as model compound. HZSM-5, a zeolite with different ratio of Si/Al and γ-Al(2)O(3) were impregnated with Ni(NO(3))(2) · 6H(2)O and calcined at 450 °C. Conversion rates and product distribution for treatment of phenol at 160-240 °C in the presence of catalysts with nickel loads of 6, 10, 14 and 17 wt.% were determined. Phenol conversion was highest (91.8%) at 240 °C in the presence of HZSM-5(Si/Al = 38) loaded with 10% Ni. When hydrotreatment was carried out with bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of pine sawdust under the optimal conditions determined for phenol, the pH of bio-oil increased from 2.27 to 4.07, and the hydrogen content increased from 6.28 to 7.01 wt.%. The decrease in acidity is desirable for the use of upgraded bio-oil. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Characterization of oil based nanofluid for quench medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiswara, E. P.; Harjanto, S.; Putra, W. N.; Ramahdita, G.; Yahya, S. S.; Kresnodrianto

    2018-01-01

    The choice of quench medium depends on the hardenability of the metal alloy, the thickness of the component, and the geometry of the component. Some of these will determine the cooling rate required to obtain the desired microstructure and material properties. Improper quench media will cause the material to become brittle, suffers from geometric distortion, or having a high undesirable residual stresses in the components. In heat treatment industries, oil and water are frequently used as the quench media. Recently, nanofluid as a quench medium has also been studied using several different fluids as the solvent. Examples of frequently used solvents include polymers, vegetable oils, and mineral oil. In this research, laboratory-grade carbon powder were used as nanoparticle. Oil was used as the fluid base in this research as the main observation focus. To obtain nanoscale carbon particles, planetary ball mill was used to ground laboratory grade carbon powder to decrease the particle size. This method was used to lower the cost for nanoparticle synthesis. Milling speed and duration were set at 500 rpm and 15 hours. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) measurement were carried out to determine the particle size, material identification, particle morphology, and surface change of samples. The carbon nanoparticle content in nanofluid quench mediums for this research were varied at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4, and 0.5 % volume. Furthermore, these mediums were used to quench JIS S45C or AISI 1045 carbon steel samples which annealed at 1000°C. Hardness testing and metallography observation were then conducted to further examine the effect of different quench medium in steel samples.

  3. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  4. Stability of traditionally processed vegetable oils and their blends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the stability of traditionally processed palm oil (PO), sunflower oil (SO) and sesame oil (SSO) and their blends as function of storage conditions by analysing their physicochemical properties which included acid value, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value and ...

  5. Chemical, physical and tribological investigation of polymercaptanized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized soybean oil (PMSO) was investigated for its chemical, physical and tribological properties relative to soybean oil (SO) and also as a potential multi-functional lubricant additive in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO). Analytical investigations showed that PMSO is obtained by convers...

  6. Molecular evolution of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R; McAssey, Edward V; Nambeesan, Savithri; Garcia-Navarro, Elena; Burke, John M

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analyses aimed at detecting the molecular signature of selection during crop domestication and/or improvement can be used to identify genes or genomic regions of likely agronomic importance. Here, we describe the DNA sequence-based characterization of a pool of candidate genes for crop-related traits in sunflower. These genes, which were identified based on homology to genes of known effect in other study systems, were initially sequenced from a panel of improved lines. All genes that exhibited a paucity of sequence diversity, consistent with the possible effects of selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower, were then sequenced from a panel of wild sunflower accessions an outgroup. These data enabled formal tests for the effects of selection in shaping sequence diversity at these loci. When selection was detected, we further sequenced these genes from a panel of primitive landraces, thereby allowing us to investigate the likely timing of selection (i.e., domestication vs. improvement). We ultimately identified seven genes that exhibited the signature of positive selection during either domestication or improvement. Genetic mapping of a subset of these genes revealed co-localization between candidates for genes involved in the determination of flowering time, seed germination, plant growth/development, and branching and QTL that were previously identified for these traits in cultivated × wild sunflower mapping populations.

  7. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  8. Sunflower (Helinathus annuus L.): A potential crop for environmental industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad M.N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower applications in phytotechnologies for the clean-up of inorganic and organic contaminants and pollutants are reviewed in this compilation. There have been several apprehensions on the application of phytoremediation technology. High bioproductivity and biomass yield are a must for the success of this strategy. The phytoextraction coefficient of sunflowers is high compared with many other species. Sunflower is a proven laboratory and field example for the emerging environmental indust...

  9. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  10. Analysis of various quality attributes of sunflower and soybean plants by near infra-red reflectance spectroscopy: Development and validation of calibration models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean and sunflower are summer annuals that can be grown as an alternative to corn and may be particularly useful in organic production systems for forage in addition to their traditional use as protein and/or oil yielding crops. Rapid and low cost methods of analyzing plant quality would be helpf...

  11. Voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and its combination with chemometrics for the detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Konstantopoulos, Dimitris; Kakoulidou, Anna Tsantili

    2018-07-26

    In the present work, two approaches for the voltammetric fingerprinting of oils and their combination with chemometrics were investigated in order to detect the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with olive pomace oil as well as the most common seed oils, namely sunflower, soybean and corn oil. In particular, cyclic voltammograms of diluted extra virgin olive oils, regular (pure) olive oils (blends of refined olive oils with virgin olive oils), olive pomace oils and seed oils in presence of dichloromethane and 0.1 M of LiClO 4 in EtOH as electrolyte were recorded at a glassy carbon working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry was also employed in methanolic extracts of olive and seed oils. Datapoints of cyclic voltammograms were exported and submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square- Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). In diluted oils, PLS-DA provided a clear discrimination between olive oils (extra virgin and regular) and olive pomace/seed oils, while SIMCA showed a clear discrimination of extra virgin olive oil in regard to all other samples. Using methanolic extracts and considering datapoints recorded between 0.6 and 1.3 V, PLS-DA provided more information, resulting in three clusters-extra virgin olive oils, regular olive oils and seed/olive pomace oils-while SIMCA showed inferior performance. For the quantification of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with olive pomace oil or seed oils, a model based on Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis was developed. Detection limit of adulteration in olive oil was found to be 2% (v/v) and the linearity range up to 33% (v/v). Validation and applicability of all models was proved using a suitable test set. In the case of PLS, synthetic oil mixtures with 4 known adulteration levels in the range of 4-26% were also employed as a blind test set. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  13. The potential use of Khaya senegalensis oil as base in paracetamol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of the oil from Khaya senegalensis seed as a suppository base was investigated. Some physicochemical properties of the oil like the physical appearance, saponification value, iodine value, acid value and refractive index were evaluated. The oil was used to prepare paracetamol suppositories either as the ...

  14. Ni-Based Catalysts for the Hydrotreatment of Fast Pyrolysis Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, A. R.; Bykova, M. V.; Khromova, S. A.; Yin, W.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Heeres, Hero

    Catalytic hydrotreatment is an attractive technology to convert fast pyrolysis oil to stabilized oil products for co processing in conventional crude oil refinery units. We report here the use of novel bimetallic NiCu- and NiPd-based (Picula) catalysts characterized by a high Ni content (29-58 wt %)

  15. Genetic analysis of sunflower chlorophyll mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkina, E.V.; Guskov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    The method of getting the chlorophyll mutations in sunflower was developed by Y.D. Beletskii in 1969 with the use of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH). Certain concentrations of NMH are known to induce plastid mutations in growing seeds, and their yield depends on the duration of the exposure. The given work presented studies on the influence of rifampicin (R) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on the genetic activity NMH, as an inductor of plastid and nuclear mutations

  16. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  17. Effect of Presence and Concentration of Plasticizers, Vegetable Oils, and Surfactants on the Properties of Sodium-Alginate-Based Edible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Senturk Parreidt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high quality of a coated food product is mostly dependent on the characteristics of the food material to be coated, the properties of the components in the coating solution, and the obtained coating material. In the present study, usability and effectiveness of various components as well as their concentrations were assessed to produce an effective coating material. For this purpose, different concentrations of gelling agent (sodium alginate 0–3.5%, w/w, plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol (0–20%, w/w, surfactants (tween 40, tween 80, span 60, span 80, lecithin (0–5%, w/w, and vegetable oils (sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil (0–5%, w/w were used to prepare edible coating solutions. Formulations were built gradually, and characteristics of coatings were evaluated by analyzing surface tension values and its polar and dispersive components, emulsion droplet size, and optical appearance in microscopic scale. The results obtained showed that 1.25% sodium alginate, 2% glycerol, 0.2% sunflower oil, 1% span 80, and 0.2% tween 40 or tween 80 can be used in formulation to obtain an effective coating for hydrophobic food surfaces. Three formulations were designed, and their stability (emulsion droplet size, optical characteristics, and creaming index and wettability tests on strawberry showed that they could be successfully used in coating applications.

  18. Effect of Presence and Concentration of Plasticizers, Vegetable