WorldWideScience

Sample records for sunflower moth lepidoptera

  1. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  2. Using banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg density to estimate damage and economic distance in oilseed sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundal, Kirk D; Brewer, Gary J

    2008-06-01

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is an important economic pest of sunflower in the Upper Great Plains of North America. Economic losses due to reductions in seed number, weight, and quality can be significant. Previously, the potential for economic losses were estimated by sampling for adult moths. However, sampling for moths can be difficult and inaccurate. An alternative is to sample for banded sunflower moth eggs, which can be accurately counted in the field by using a binocular 3.5 headband magnifier. The egg counts are used to calculate the economic injury level (EIL) (EIL = C/VWPK), where C is the cost of treatment per unit area, V is the crop market value per unit of weight, W is the slope of the regression between banded sunflower moth egg densities and weight loss per plant, P is a term for plant population per unit area, and K is the control treatment efficacy. Estimates of populations of banded sunflower moth eggs are taken from the center of 400-m spans along all field sides. From these samples and the calculated EIL, a map of the extent of the economically damaging banded sunflower moth population throughout the field is made using economic distance; ED = e ( ( (EIL/E)-1.458)/-0.262). Economic distance estimates the distance an economic population extends into the field interior along a transect from the sampling site. By using egg samples to calculate the EIL and mapping the distribution of economic populations throughout a field, producers can then make more effective pest management decisions.

  3. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  4. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...... are excited by sound stimuli. Those two cells differ in threshold by approximately 19 dB. The morphology of the ear suggests that the two larger scolopidia function as auditory sensilla; the two smaller scolopidia, located near the tympanal frame, were not excited by sound. We present a biophysical model...

  5. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  6. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  7. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  8. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  9. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  10. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  11. Geographic Distribution and Conservation of Cyanopepla griseldis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Ctenuchina) an Endemic Wasp Moth of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fernando Hernández-Baz; Jorge M. González; John B. Heppner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mexico contains a large diversity of Lepidoptera (14,385 spp.), but it is a contradiction that only two species of butterflies are officially protected and moths are not even contemplated for protection...

  12. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  13. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  14. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  15. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  16. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and phylogenetic analysis of advanced moths and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Here we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of a notorious pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae). The mitochondrial genome contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, but different from the ancestral gene arrangement in the non-ditrysian Hepialidae of Lepidoptera. The start codon of the cox1 gene is CGA, which is dissimilar to its homologs in most other insects. In Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2 have low nucleotide diversities, while the nad6, nad2, and nad3 genes are highly variable. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered the reciprocal monophyly of Ditrysia, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera, and the placement of the Hesperiidae within Papilionoidea. Our analyses suggest that the complete mitochondrial genome sequences are a promising marker toward fully resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  18. Conservation genetics of the protected moth "Graellsia isabellae" (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Evolutionary and molecular genetics provides valuable information for the efficient conservation of endangered species. In this thesis, I have used a combination of newly generated genetic and ecological data to assess the conservation status of the protected moth Graellsia isabellae. Firstly, I reconstructed the evolutionary history of this iconic insect by using genetic data obtained from samples obtained across the whole known distribution area: Iberia Peninsula and French Alps....

  19. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  20. Morphology and biology of the fruit piercing moth, Ophiusa corona (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permkam, S.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and biology of the fruit-piercing moth Ophiusa coronata (Fabricious (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae were studied in laboratory. Eggs were spherical and colored grayish green with an average diameter of 1.03±0.01 mm (mean±SEM. The larvae were looper caterpillars, possessing 2 white bands on the black head. The body was brown to blackish, marked with black spots and red longitudinal streaks. The pupa was black-brown. The adult moth had rufous and fuscous forewings tinged with a black spot in the middle. The hind wings were bright yellow in ground color with a dark band at the anterior and the posterior borders. Time required for egg to adult development averaged 40.35±0.59 days (mean±SEM. The average duration for egg, larval and pupal developments were 4.0±0.0, 23.20±0.49 and 13.15±0.22 days, respectively. Sexual maturity for female took 10.67±1.05 days. The average duration of egg laying, number of eggs and longevity of adult moths were 7.33±1.28 days, 333.0±171.82 egg/female and 22.83±2.45 days, respectively. Feeding preference and phototaxis of adult studies showed that adults likely preferred to feed ranking from slices of pineapple, banana, papaya and citrus, whereas sapodilla and rose apple were rarely fed on. Blue light and mercury vapor light were highly attractive, whereas violet light and fluorescent light were less attractive to this adult moth species.

  1. Development and reproductive performance of rice moth Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae in different rearing media

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    N. Chaudhuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate different rearing media for mass production of rice moth Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae an important host of several bio-control agents. The development and reproductive performance of Corcyra was evaluated to twelve (12 different combinations of food containing maize, wheat, Italian millet and scented rice-alone and fortified with 3% dextrose and yeast. Results showed that the net reproductive rate; innate capacity for increase; number of hypothetical females; daily finite rate of increase; weekly multiplication; and potential fecundity were highest and true generation time and doubling time were shortest in Italian millet (alone/fortified. The performance was better in wheat alone (second to Italian millet than its fortification with dextrose and yeast and also superior to maize and scented rice. Hence, Italian millet alone or fortified with 3% dextrose and yeast was the most suitable rearing media for mass production of Corcyra.

  2. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of an aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) belongs to the subfamily Nymphulinae, nearly all of which are aquatic in their entire larval and pupal stages. The 15,351-bp long complete mitogenome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in the majority of Lepidoptera. One of the unusual features of the E. interruptalis mitogenome is the presence of a tRNA(Phe)-like sequence beyond the A+T-rich region. The sequence is encoded in the minor strand of the genome overlapping with the reversely encoded regular tRNA(Glu) by 65 bp. The sequence divergence of the tRNA(Phe)-like sequence to that of regular E. interruptalis tRNA(Phe) and other within-familial species was as low as 59% ∼ 71%, but has a proper folding structure with well-matched stems and identical anticodon sequences to the regular copy.

  4. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  5. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  6. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.D., E-mail: weliton.silva@usp.b [Department of Entomology and Acarology, Laboratory of Chemical Ecology and Insect Behavior, University of Sao Paulo, ' Luiz de Queiroz' College of Agriculture, Padua Dias Avenue, 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba (Brazil); Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T. [Food Irradiation and Radioentomology Laboratory, Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), Centenario Avenue 303, 13400-970 Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD{sub 90} and LD{sub 99} were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  7. Box Tree Moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae, New Invasive Insect Pest in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinka Matošević

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Alien invasive species have been described as an outstanding global problem. Hundreds of species are intentionally and unintentionally moved worldwide and and numbers of introductions to new habitats have been accelerated all over the world due to the increasing mobility of people and goods over the past decades. Numerous alien insect species, many of them introduced only in the last 20 years, have become successfully established in various ecosystems in Croatia. Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis, Lepidoptera; Crambidae is an invasive pest recently introduced to Europe causing serious damage to ornamental box (Buxus sp. shrubs and trees. The aim of this paper is to describe the biology of box tree moth with prognosis of its future spread and damages in Croatia. Material and Methods: Young larvae (first and second larval stage and adults of box tree moth were collected in August and September 2013 in Arboretum Opeka and in Varaždin. They were brought to the entomological laboratory of Croatian Forest Research Institute where they were reared to pupae and then to moths. Results and Conclusions: The box tree moth was recorded for the first time in North Croatia in August 2013. Larvae were found defoliating box plants (B. sempervirens in Arboretum Opeka, Vinica and they have been identified as C. prespectalis. According to damages it can be assumed that the pest has been introduced to the region earlier (in 2011 or 2012 and that the primary infection has not been detected. At least two generations per year could be assumed in Croatia in 2013. The damage done to box tree plants on the locality of study is serious. The plants have been defoliated, particularly in the lower parts. The defoliation reduced the amenity value of plants. This is the first record of this pest and its damages in Northern Croatia and it can be expected that the pest will rapidly spread to other parts of Croatia seriously damaging box plants

  8. Comprehensive molecular sampling yields a robust phylogeny for geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae.

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    Pasi Sihvonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers, with approximately 23,000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic.

  9. Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a species native to North America. It is a relatively new crop in the USA with commercialization starting around 1970. The high oil content sunflower seed changed the economics of producing and crushing sunflower seed for oil, making it attractive for growers. A n...

  10. Plant odour processing in the antennal lobe of male and female grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masante-Roca, I; Gadenne, C; Anton, S

    2002-12-01

    Moths of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are confronted with different volatiles emitted from the host plant during the different seasons. To test the hypothesis of plasticity of central plant odour processing in moths of different generations in the future, we first investigated the responses of antennal lobe (AL) interneurons of laboratory-reared virgin and mated males and females. We used intracellular recording and staining techniques while stimulating the antenna with a range of host and non-host plant odours. The AL structure of L. botrana is similar to that found in other Lepidoptera species studied. The most frequent physiological responses for all types of moths were obtained with (E)-2-hexenal, and with thujyl alcohol and beta-thujone, components of tansy, a behaviourally attractive non-host plant. Some broadly responding neurons were capable of distinguishing between different compounds through different response patterns (excitation/inhibition) and/or different dose-response characteristics. Response characteristics (response spectra, threshold and specificity) of neurons were similar, independent of sex or mating status of the moths. Significant differences between the groups were, however, found in the proportion of responding neurons for a few tested components.

  11. Development of a binomial sampling plan for the carob moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a pest of California dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Joon; Perring, Thomas M

    2010-08-01

    The seasonal density fluctuations of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were determined in a commercial date, Phoenix dactylifera L. garden. Four fruit categories (axil, ground, abscised green, and abscised brown) were sampled, and two carob moth life stages, eggs and immatures (larvae and pupae combined), were evaluated on these fruits. Based on the relative consistency of these eight sampling units (four fruit categories and two carob moth stages), four were used for the development of a binomial sampling plan. The average number of carob moth eggs and immatures on ground and abscised brown fruit was estimated from the proportion of infested fruit, and these binomial models were evaluated for model fitness and precision. These analyses suggested that the best sampling plan should consist of abscised brown dates and carob moth immatures by using a sample size of 100 dates. The performance of this binomial plan was evaluated further using a resampling protocol with 25 independent data sets at action thresholds of 7, 10, and 15% to represent light, medium and severe infestations, respectively. Results from the resampling program suggested that increasing sample size from 100 to 150 dates improved the precision of the binomial sampling plan. Use of this sampling plan will be the cornerstone of an integrated pest management program for carob moth in dates.

  12. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations.

  13. Molecular identification of the light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in California using a polymerase chain reaction assay of the internal transcribed spacer 2 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Vasquez, J D; Epstein, M; Kerr, P H; Kinnee, S; Sage, O; Gilligan, T M

    2009-12-01

    A molecular protocol using a hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) is reported for the diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. This protocol distinguishes the light brown apple moth from other moths in California based on size differences of PCR amplicons that are visualized on agarose gels. The molecular diagnostic tool generated no false negatives based on analysis of 337 light brown apple moths collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 424 moths representing other tortricid species generated correct identification for >95% of the samples and only two false positives. Of the 761 moths tested only fourteen produced no PCR amplicons and five generated inconclusive data.

  14. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

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    Zhengyu Huang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations. Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on pupae of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A S.; Modolo, Deborah M.; Leandro, Rodrigo Sebastiao Rossi, E-mail: lsasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: dmmodolo@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    As insects increase in radio tolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of pest may present in fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radio tolerance of pupae of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidade), to gamma radiation. This specie is considered as on of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Pupae of 3 days old were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300 and 350 Gy of gamma radiation of source Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220 at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. Each treatment had 4 repetitions with 10 pupae in the total 40 pupae per treatment. Surviving pupae allowed to feed on an artificial diet. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 {+-}5 deg C and 70 {+-}5% RH. The results showed that the sterilizing dose to adults was 200Gy and that the dose of 350Gy was not sufficient to kill all pupae of insects. (author)

  16. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  17. Female moths of cotton bollworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) captured by waterbasin traps baited with synthetic female sex pheromone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-WEI SU; HONG-TUO WANG; FENG GE

    2006-01-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most important pest insects in cotton fields in China. Female moths were captured by waterbasin traps with a synthetic female sex pheromone blend in cotton fields over three Each pheromone dispenser was impregnated with 2.0 mg of pheromone blend and 0.2 mg of antioxidant dissolved with 0.1 mL of hexane, and there was a control dispenser with a similar amount of antioxidant and solvent only. Waterbasin traps were deployed in three female catch was 1.5, and more females were captured by centrally located pheromone traps.average weekly female catches of control traps was significantly lower than that in pheromone-baited traps. (iii) There were significant linear relationships between the average of the interval of traps, average weekly female catches per trap increased but average weekly female catches per hectare decreased. (v) Among the female moths captured by pheromone traps, 88.3% were mated female moths which each containing 1.46 spermatophores, while in control traps 86.9% of the mated female moths had 0.90 spermatophores. There was a significant difference between the average numbers of spermatophores of mated females in pheromone traps and in controls.

  18. The allergenic protein Tha p 2 of processionary moths of the genus Thaumetopoea (Thaumetopoeinae, Notodontidae, Lepidoptera): Characterization and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Laura; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2015-12-15

    The allergenic Tha p 2 protein has been extracted recently from the urticating setae of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa. In the present paper, we test for the occurrence of this protein in other Thaumetopoeinae, with a particular focus on members of the genus Thaumetopoea, as well as unrelated moth species, to better understand the physicochemical properties of the protein, the nature of encoding genes and their evolutionary history. Tha p 2 is encoded by the intronless gene Tha p 2 that is restricted to the processionary moths (Thaumetopoeinae, Notodontidae, Lepidoptera). Most of the species present two isoforms of Tha p 2 that can be interpreted as the result of heterozygosity in the single gene. The only exception is represented by Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni, in which 20 different isoforms occur in a single specimen, leading to the conclusion that, at least in this species, multiple copies of Tha p 2 exist. Serine, glycine, cysteine and leucine are abundant in Tha p 2, a protein well conserved among processionary moths. The predicted secondary structures of Tha p 2 indicate the presence of 3 α-helices and six β-barrels. Finally, the evolution of the gene and the protein was characterized by a combination of positive and negative selection, with the latter being more evident.

  19. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  20. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.; Althoff, David M.; Littlefield, Rik J.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as a junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA

  1. Toward reconstructing the evolution of advanced moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera: Ditrysia: an initial molecular study

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    Hausmann Axel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 described species, deeper relationships are little understood within the clade Ditrysia, to which 98% of the species belong. To begin addressing this problem, we tested the ability of five protein-coding nuclear genes (6.7 kb total, and character subsets therein, to resolve relationships among 123 species representing 27 (of 33 superfamilies and 55 (of 100 families of Ditrysia under maximum likelihood analysis. Results Our trees show broad concordance with previous morphological hypotheses of ditrysian phylogeny, although most relationships among superfamilies are weakly supported. There are also notable surprises, such as a consistently closer relationship of Pyraloidea than of butterflies to most Macrolepidoptera. Monophyly is significantly rejected by one or more character sets for the putative clades Macrolepidoptera as currently defined (P P ≤ 0.005, and nearly so for the superfamily Drepanoidea as currently defined (P Separate analyses of mostly synonymous versus non-synonymous character sets revealed notable differences (though not strong conflict, including a marked influence of compositional heterogeneity on apparent signal in the third codon position (nt3. As available model partitioning methods cannot correct for this variation, we assessed overall phylogeny resolution through separate examination of trees from each character set. Exploration of "tree space" with GARLI, using grid computing, showed that hundreds of searches are typically needed to find the best-feasible phylogeny estimate for these data. Conclusion Our results (a corroborate the broad outlines of the current working phylogenetic hypothesis for Ditrysia, (b demonstrate that some prominent features of that hypothesis, including the position of the butterflies, need revision, and (c resolve the majority of family and subfamily relationships within superfamilies as thus far

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  3. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  4. Toxicity of thiamethoxam and mixtures of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam to neonates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Moneen M; Robertson, Jacqueline L; Weinzierl, Richard A

    2012-08-01

    To assess the toxicity ofthiamethoxam and three mixtures of insecticides to oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), we added the insecticides to diet and fed it to neonates of two laboratory colonies; mortality was assessed after 96 h. Thiamethoxam was much less toxic than insecticides previously tested. Five of six analyses of the joint action of chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, esfenvalerate, or thiamethoxam indicated that toxicity was not independent and not correlated. For chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid, mortality was slightly lower than expected at low concentrations and greater than expected at high concentrations. For chlorantraniliprole plus esfenvalerate, mortality was less than expected at nearly all concentrations, suggesting antagonism despite the two compounds' different modes of action. For chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam, observed mortality exceeded expected mortality at low concentrations, but this trend did not continue at higher concentrations. Although the null hypothesis of independent and uncorrelated toxicity was rejected for chlorantraniliprole plus acetamiprid and chlorantraniliprole plus thiamethoxam in three of four analyses, differences between observed and expected mortality were minor and inconsistent over the range of concentrations tested. We do not expect these mixtures to exhibit significant synergism or antagonism in the field. Apparent antagonism between chlorantraniliprole and esfenvalerate is particularly relevant because these insecticides (or chlorantraniliprole plus a different pyrethroid) may be used together in apples or peaches for control of oriental fruit moth and hemipteran pests. The effectiveness of each insecticide against oriental fruit moth might be reduced in such applications.

  5. Forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae mate-finding behavior is greatest at intermediate population densities: Implications for interpretation of moth capture in pheromone-baited traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L. Evenden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is a native forest defoliator with a broad geographic range in North America. Forest tent caterpillars experience cyclical population changes and at high densities, repeated defoliation can cause reduced tree growth and tree mortality. Pheromone-based monitoring of forest tent caterpillar moths can provide information on spatial and temporal patterns of incipient outbreaks. Pheromone-baited trap capture of male moths correlates to the number of eggs and pupae in a population but this relationship breaks down at high population densities, when moth trap capture declines. The objective of the current study is to understand the mechanisms that reduce trap capture at high population densities. We tested two different hypotheses: 1 at high population densities, male moth orientation to pheromone sources is reduced due to competition for pheromone plumes; and 2 moths from high density populations will be in poor condition and less likely to conduct mate-finding behaviors than moths from low density populations. A field study showed non-linear effects of density on male moth capture in female-baited traps. The number of males captured increased up to an intermediate density level and declined at the highest densities. Field cage studies showed that female moth density affected male moth orientation to female-baited traps, as more males were recaptured at low than high female densities. There was no effect of male density on the proportion of males that oriented to female-baited traps. Moth condition was manipulated by varying larval food quantity. Although feeding regimes affected the moth condition (size, there was no evidence of an effect of condition on mate finding or close range mating behavior. In the field, it is likely that competition for pheromone plumes at high female densities during population outbreaks reduces the efficacy of pheromone-baited monitoring

  6. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  7. Phylogenetic relationship of seven Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) species based on the ultrastructure of male moths' antennae and antennal sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiong; Yan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Jun-Bao; Li, Zhen-Yu

    2012-12-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and antennal sensilla of seven male Dendrolimus species and a male Trabala vishnou gigantina (Yang) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) were examined by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Six morphological types of antennal sensilla were identified: Sensilla trichodea, Sensilla chaetica, Sensilla styloconica, Sensilla coeloconica, Böhm bristles, and foot-like sensilla. Six of the Dendrolimus moths and Trabala vishnou gigantina Yang share the same antennal sensilla type, as do various geographic populations of the same species. The exception, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler, has foot-like sensilla. However, the antennal sensilla subtypes were significantly different among species and/or populations. There were no remarkable differences in the width of the scape, pedicel, subflagellum, and the side-branches between the eight male species studied. However, we observed significant differences in the number of flagellomere and the length of scape, pedicel, subflagellums, and side-branches. The length and basal diameter of various types of antennal sensilla did not vary significantly among Dendrolimus moths. Beyond that, there were no differences among populations of the same kind of species. Hierarchical cluster analysis found two clusters: the first contained D. punctata punctata (Walker), D. punctata wenshanensis (Tsai et Liu), D. tabulaeformis (Tsai et Liu), and D. spectabilis and D. superans (Butler), and the second contained D. grisea (Moore) and D. kikuchii kikuchii (Matsumura). Trabala vishnou gigantina was placed separately from the two clusters. We conclude that D. punctata wenshanensis,D. tabulaeformis, and D. spectabilis are geographic subspecies of D. punctata punctata.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the atlas moth, Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and the phylogenetic relationship of Saturniidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Miao; Li, Yan; Chen, Mo; Wang, Huan; Li, Qun; Xia, Run-Xi; Zeng, Cai-Yun; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yan-Qun; Qin, Li

    2014-07-15

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. In this study, we present the complete mitogenome of the atlas moth, Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), a well-known silk-producing and ornamental insect with the largest wing surface area of all moths. The mitogenome of A. atlas is a circular molecule of 15,282 bp long, and its nucleotide composition shows heavily biased towards As and Ts, accounting for 79.30%. This genome comprises 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and an A+T-rich region. It is of note that this genome exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is different from the other known Saturniidae species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI with CGA instead. Only six PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining seven use an incomplete termination codon T or TA. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A. atlas A+T-rich region contains non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Bombycoidea insects. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method provide a well-supported outline of Saturniidae, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works.

  9. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

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    Andreas Lang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating

  10. Morphological Characteristics of P. xylostella Granulovirus and Effects on Its Larval Host Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae

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    A. Dezianian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae is the most destructive insect pest of cruciferous plants throughout the world which become resistant to wide range of chemical pesticides. PxGV is known as an effective factor on diamondback moth larval mortality. Approach: Some morphological characteristics, viral DNA isolation and Restriction Endonuclease (REN analysis of P. xylostella granulovirus and its effects of different concentrations on its larval host Diamondback Moth P. xylostella, were studied. Results: Taiwanian isolate confirmed due to restriction pattern and genome size of PxGV Taiwanian isolate which was compared with PxGV isolates reported earlier. PxGV originally isolated in Taiwan has capsules that are ovocylindrical with a mean size of 272.84±12 by 148.27±19 nm. The virions are 168.44±16±29.57±12 nm. Results from pathogenicity test of the granulovirus to DBM using the leaf disc method shows that first, second and third instars of P. xylostella were significantly susceptible to infection by PxGV. Older larvae were less susceptible to PxGV than younger larvae with the same virus concentration. The LC50 for second instar larvae was 1.39±106 granules mL-1. The LT50 values ranged between 3.813-6.946, 4.965-9.743 and 5145-9.407 days for first to third instars in three different concentrations, respectively. Conclusion: Its high specificity and pathogenicity to its larval host indicate that PxGV is a good candidate as an alternative biopesticide to chemical insecticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM of P. xylostella.

  11. Behaviour Patterns of the Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams; Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae

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    Ahmad Houri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni is a serious pest of pine trees, especially the wide-spread Pinus brutia. This infestation has a significant economic impact both in the loss of forest wood growth and in medical expenses for treating related human diseases. This paper presents a detailed study of the behaviour patterns of the moth stage in an attempt to identify best control methods. Several key observations are made towards the moth emergence timing and period of nocturnal activity. Specifically, 92% of the moths were found to be most active between midnight and 6:00 a.m. Effects of light traps vs. pheromone traps are analyzed and light traps were found to be 15 times more efficient. In addition, 84% of the captured moths were males and only 16% were females. Several attempts were made to lure females into traps but were mostly unsuccessful. Finally, moth emergence in relevance to various weather conditions was analyzed and a clear relationship was established where rain appeared to motivate moth emergence. This work has been done over the span of two consecutive years. A clear mode of action is deduced for the best methods of moth control.

  12. An overview on the most outstanding Italian endemic moth, Brahmaea (Acanthobrahmaea europaea (Lepidoptera: Brahmaeidae

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    Fabio Mosconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state of knowledge about the European Bramea, Brahmaea (Acanthobrahmaea europaea Hartig, 1963, is briefly summarized in relation to growing concern about the conservation status of the most outstanding Italian endemic moth species.

  13. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  14. A New Family of Moths from the Middle Jurassic(Insecta:Lepidoptera)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Diying; André NEL; Jo(e)l MINET

    2010-01-01

    Three lepidopteran species,from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou beds(inner Mongolia,China),are described in a new family,Mesokristeuseniidae,and new genus,Mesokristensenia,which could represent the sister group of the Micropterigidae.Mesokristensenia differs from all extant Lepidoptera,but one genus(Agathiphaga,Agathiphagidae),in retaining four median veins in the forewing,a plesiomorphy also present in many Trichoptera.Evidence for placing Mesokristensenia in the Lepidoptera includes four traits,notably a previously unrecorded autapomorphy of this insect order:beyond stem M1+2,vein M1 is bent and connected to cross-vein r-m(in both wing pairs).Among 24 characters taken into account to assess the systematic position of Mesokristensenia,12 are considered informative for a cladistic analysis involving this fossil taxon and the four suborders recognized in present-day Lepidoptera(Zeugloptera,Aglossata,Heterobathmiina,and Glossata).

  15. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  16. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs.

  17. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  18. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth.

  19. Pink bollworm moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) catches in the Imperial Valley, California from 1989 to 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG-CHI CHU; ERIC T.NATWICK; RAUL LE(O)N L(O)PEZ; JOLENE R.DESSERT; THOMAS J.HENNEBERRY

    2006-01-01

    We examined the patterns of male pink bollworm (PBW),Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders),moth catches in gossyplure-baited traps over a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003 in the Imperial Valley,California,USA. Monitoring was conducted during periods when different pink bollworm areawide control strategies were being used. Numbers of male pink bollworm moths caught in gossyplure-baited traps progressively decreased each year from 1990 to 1994 during short-season cotton production. High numbers of male moths caught in traps from 1995 to 1997 may have been related to moth migrations from the large cotton acreages grown in the Mexicali Valley bordering the Imperial Valley. Transgenic Bollgard(R) (Bt) cotton was planted in 3% of the cotton area in 1996 and thereafter in 80%-94% of the cotton area from 1997 to 2003. Pink bollworm moth trap catches were significantly lower from 1998 to 2003 than catches in 1995 to 1997,except for 1999. The trapping results suggested that Bt cotton had significant input on reduction of pink bollworm populations,confirming results of other investigators and providing additional documentation on the benefits of the Bt cotton culture.

  20. Timing and patterns in the taxonomic diversification of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Wahlberg

    Full Text Available The macroevolutionary history of the megadiverse insect order Lepidoptera remains little-known, yet coevolutionary dynamics with their angiospermous host plants are thought to have influenced their diversification significantly. We estimate the divergence times of all higher-level lineages of Lepidoptera, including most extant families. We find that the diversification of major lineages in Lepidoptera are approximately equal in age to the crown group of angiosperms and that there appear to have been three significant increases in diversification rates among Lepidoptera over evolutionary time: 1 at the origin of the crown group of Ditrysia about 150 million years ago (mya, 2 at the origin of the stem group of Apoditrysia about 120 mya and finally 3 a spectacular increase at the origin of the stem group of the quadrifid noctuoids about 70 mya. In addition, there appears to be a significant increase in diversification rate in multiple lineages around 90 mya, which is concordant with the radiation of angiosperms. Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya.

  1. Toward a global barcode library for Lymantria (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) tussock moths of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detecting and controlling the movements of invasive species, such as insect pests, relies upon rapid and accurate species identification in order to initiate containment procedures by the appropriate authorities. Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., introduced from Europe in the 19th century, has become ...

  2. Haruchlora maesi, a new emerald moth genus and species from Mesoamerica (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viidalepp, Jaan; Lindt, Aare

    2014-09-30

    A new genus and species of Neotropical emerald geometrid moths, Haruchlora Viidalepp & Lindt, gen. nov., and Haruchlora maesi Viidalepp & Lindt, sp. nov. are described. The new genus differs from all other New World Geometrinae genera in having a bifid uncus, in characters of the pregenital segments of the male abdomen, and in the male genitalia. 

  3. The Lepidoptera Odorant Binding Protein gene family: Gene gain and loss within the GOBP/PBP complex of moths and butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Richard G; Große-Wilde, Ewald; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Butterflies and moths differ significantly in their daily activities: butterflies are diurnal while moths are largely nocturnal or crepuscular. This life history difference is presumably reflected in their sensory biology, and especially the balance between the use of chemical versus visual signals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBP) are a class of insect proteins, at least some of which are thought to orchestrate the transfer of odor molecules within an olfactory sensillum (olfactory organ), between the air and odor receptor proteins (ORs) on the olfactory neurons. A Lepidoptera specific subclass of OBPs are the GOBPs and PBPs; these were the first OBPs studied and have well documented associations with olfactory sensilla. We have used the available genomes of two moths, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, and two butterflies, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene, to characterize the GOBP/PBP genes, attempting to identify gene orthologs and document specific gene gain and loss. First, we identified the full repertoire of OBPs in the M. sexta genome, and compared these with the full repertoire of OBPs from the other three lepidopteran genomes, the OBPs of Drosophila melanogaster and select OBPs from other Lepidoptera. We also evaluated the tissue specific expression of the M. sexta OBPs using an available RNAseq databases. In the four lepidopteran species, GOBP2 and all PBPs reside in single gene clusters; in two species GOBP1 is documented to be nearby, about 100 kb from the cluster; all GOBP/PBP genes share a common gene structure indicating a common origin. As such, the GOBP/PBP genes form a gene complex. Our findings suggest that (1) the lepidopteran GOBP/PBP complex is a monophyletic lineage with origins deep within Lepidoptera phylogeny, (2) within this lineage PBP gene evolution is much more dynamic than GOBP gene evolution, and (3) butterflies may have lost a PBP gene that plays an important role in moth pheromone detection, correlating with a shift from

  4. Efficacy of several insecticides alone and with horticultural mineral oils on light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Peter D; Sutton, Clay; Cunningham, Nancy M; Dyson, Chris; Lucas, Nola; Myers, Scott W

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify efficacious and less environmentally harmful treatments than the standard chlorpyrifos sprays used for the control light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on nursery stock. A series of dip experiments showed a range of responses when comparing the efficacy of insecticides on egg hatch of E. postvittana. The insecticides that compared most favorably with chlorpyrifos were lamda-cyhalothrin and gamma-cyhalothrin, and thiacloprid. Indoxacarb, novaluron, and spinosad caused significant mortality only when combined with All Seasons mineral oil. All Seasons, showed ovicidal properties when evaluated alone and demonstrated adjuvant properties when combined with the above-mentioned insecticides, except gamma-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid. Several other horticultural mineral oils performed similarly, except the efficacy of spinosad varied with the oil product used, suggesting that the oil type selected is important for some insecticide and oil combinations. Several insecticides evaluated in this study are likely candidates for further work to develop treatments against E. postvittana eggs on nursery plants. Mineral oils are ovicidal and combinations with insecticides are likely to be advantageous.

  5. Immature Stages and Life Cycle of the Wasp Moth, Cosmosoma auge (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnary León-Finalé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmosoma auge (Linnaeus 1767 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae is a Neotropical arctiid moth common in Cuban mountainous areas; however, its life cycle remains unknown. In this work, C. auge life cycle is described for the first time; also, immature stages are described using a Cuban population. Larvae were obtained from gravid wild females caught in Viñales National Park and were fed with fresh leaves of its host plant, the climbing hempweed Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asterales: Asteraceae, which is a new host plant record. Eggs are hemispherical and hatching occurred five days after laying. Larval period had six instars and lasted between 20 and 22 days. First and last larval stages are easily distinguishable from others. First stage has body covered by chalazae and last stage has body covered by verrucae as other stages but has a tuft on each side of A1 and A7. Eggs and larvae features agree with Arctiinae pattern. Pupal stage lasted eight days, and, in general, females emerge before males as a result of pupal stage duration differences between sexes.

  6. Postharvest treatment of fresh fruit from California with methyl bromide for control of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W; Liu, Yong-Biao; Bellamy, David E; Obenland, David; Simmons, Greg S; Tebbets, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in fresh fruit destined for export from California. To simulate external feeding, larvae were contained in gas-permeable cages and distributed throughout loads of peaches, plums, nectarines (all Prunus spp.), apples (Malus spp.), raspberries (Rubus spp.), or grapes (Vitis spp.). Varying the applied MB dose and the differential sorption of MB by the loads resulted in a range of exposures, expressed as concentration x time cross products (CTs) that were verified by gas-chromatographic quantification of MB in chamber headspace over the course of each fumigation. CTs > or = 60 and > or = 72 mg liter(-1) h at 10.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.6 +/- 0.5 degrees C (x +/- s, average +/- SD), respectively, yielded complete mortality of approximately 6,200 larvae at each temperature. These confirmatory fumigations corroborate E. postvittana mortality data for the first time in relation to measured MB exposures and collectively comprise the largest number of larval specimens tested to date. In addition, akinetic model of MB sorption was developed for the quarantine fumigation of fresh fruit based on the measurement of exposures and how they varied across the fumigation trials. The model describes how to manipulate the applied MB dose, the load factor, and the load geometry for different types of packaged fresh fruit so that the resultant exposure is adequate for insect control.

  7. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  8. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera; Gelichiidae) to plant volatiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P D Das; R Raina; A R Prasad; A Sen

    2007-03-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from males and females of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella in response to a broad range of plant volatile compounds belonging to diverse chemical classes. The responses to 27 compounds were evaluated, which indicated significant differences in EAGs between chemicals as well as between sexes. The fatty acid derivatives comprising essentially green leaf volatile components elicited significantly greater responses in females. The response profile of males was, in general, lower than that of females. EAG responses to the oxygenated and hydrocarbon monoterpenes were lower in both males and females. Dose–response studies indicate differences in response between the sexes and concentrations, suggesting the existence of sexual dimorphism. Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in this species.

  9. Moth Fauna of Gageodo Island in the Southwestern Sea, Korean Peninsula, including Seven Unrecorded Species (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed moths on Gageodo island in the southwestern sea of the Korean Peninsula over three years (2009, 2012, 2013 and found a total of 253 species in 18 families. Geometridae had the greatest species richness, with 63 species, followed by Noctuidae, Erebidae, Crambidae and Sphingidae. The annual changes in species richness and abundance were not different and seasonal occurrence of species showed a unimodal pattern in which the numbers of species and individuals increased from April and May, peaked in June and decreased to September and October. Seven moth species (Pyralidae: Herculia drabicilialis Yamanaka, Didia striatella (Inoue; Crambidae: Clupeosoma pryeri (Butler, Demobotys pervulgalis (Hampson, Yezobotys dissimilis (Yamanaka, Syllepte cissalis Yamanaka; Erebidae: Hypena sinuosa (Wileman are reported for the first time in Korea.

  10. Management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) by mating disruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qino-Jun Wu; Shu-Fa Zhang; Jin-Liang Yao; Bao-Yun Xu; Shao-Li Wang; You-Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in China in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of mating disruption (MD) on diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella,in cabbage,Brassica oleracea var.capitata.Effectiveness was positively correlated with the MD dispenser density in the field.A density of 167 MD dispensers per ha produced an average population decrease of about 50% compared to the conventional-practice field.Significant fewer males were captured in pheromone-treated and conventional-practice fields than in the blank control field,but the difference was not significant between the pheromone-treated and conventional-practice fields.In addition,fewer eggs and larvae were observed in pheromone-treated fields.Our results suggest mating disruption coupled with minimal insecticidal supplements is a promising solution for resistance management and control of diamondback moth infestation.

  11. Insecticidal activities of garlic substances against adults of grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Lian Yang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The angoumois grain moth,Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier),is one of the most serious stored grain pests around the world.In attempts to reduce the losses caused by the moth and to suppress its populations,the fumigant activities,behavioral influence and ovipositional inhibition of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil and its two major components,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,were investigated against the adult grain moth.Their effects on reduction in survival of first instar larvae to adult emergence were also evaluated.Results showed that these three materials (garlic essential oil,diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide) had significant fumigant activity with 50% lethal concentration values at 1.33,0.99,and 1.02μL/L air space,respectively; meanwhile,the three materials possessed high behavioral deterrent activities against adults in the Y-tube olfactometer.When applied to rice grains,these materials reduced adult longevity and inhibited oviposition,with ovipositional inhibition above 70% at a concentration of 1.5 tL/25 g in either no-choice or two-choice tests.In short,the study showed that both diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide,like garlic essential oil,acted as fumigants,produced behavioral deterfence and inhibited oviposition against angoumois grain moth.Our work here indicates that diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide may serve as potential alternatives for grain protectants since both of them can be prepared easily from readily available chemicals.

  12. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  13. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31...... species are recorded from Madeira for the first time, and exact data and locality are given for these in the notes. 32 species, which had previously been recorded from Madeira, are removed from the list of Lepidoptera found in the Madeira Islands being misidentifications, doubtful and unconfirmed records......, undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  14. Phylogeny and evolution of pharmacophagy in tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Zaspel

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was to reconstruct a phylogenetic hypothesis for the moth subfamily Arctiinae (tiger moths, woolly bears to investigate the evolution of larval and adult pharmacophagy of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and the pathway to PA chemical specialization in Arctiinae. Pharmacophagy, collection of chemicals for non-nutritive purposes, is well documented in many species, including the model species Utetheisa ornatrix L. A total of 86 exemplar ingroup species representing tiger moth tribes and subtribes (68 genera and nine outgroup species were selected. Ingroup species included the most species-rich generic groups to represent the diversity of host-plant associations and pharmacophagous behaviors found throughout Arctiinae. Up to nine genetic markers were sequenced: one mitochondrial (COI barcode region, one nuclear rRNA (D2 region, 28S rRNA, and seven nuclear protein-coding gene fragments: elongation factor 1-α protein, wingless, ribosomal protein subunit S5, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain regions, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. A total of 6984 bp was obtained for most species. These data were analyzed using model-based phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI. Ancestral pharmacophagous behaviors and obligate PA associations were reconstructed using the resulting Bayes topology and Reconstructing Ancestral States in Phylogenies (RASP software. Our results corroborate earlier studies on the evolution of adult pharmacophagous behaviors, suggesting that this behavior arose multiple times and is concentrated in the phaegopterine-euchromiine-ctenuchine clade (PEC. Our results suggest that PA specialization may have arisen early in the phylogeny of the subfamily and that facultative larval pharmacophagous behaviors are the derived condition.

  15. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    , Madeira and Azores) 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. Th e route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confi ned to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks...

  16. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    for hundreds of years, 74% have established during the 20th century and arrivals are accelerating, with an average of 1.9 alien Lepidoptera newly established per year between 2000–2007. For 78 aliens with a known area of origin, Asia has contributed 28.9%, Africa (including Macaronesian islands, Canaries...

  17. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

    , undetermined species requiring further study and accidentally introduced species which have not established themselves in Madeira. No genus of Lepidoptera is endemic to Madeira, but 81 species are endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, and a further 36 species are considered Macaronesian endemics. One species...

  18. Cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Isaacs, Rufus

    2007-02-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial grape farms to evaluate cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control strategy for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens). At each farm, wild grapevines were cut in the woods adjacent to one vineyard for control of P. viteana, whereas the comparison vineyard received no such cutting. Both vineyards received a standard broad-spectrum insecticide program for control of P. viteana and other vineyard insect pests. Monitoring with pheromone traps showed no differences between treatments in the total number of male moths trapped in both woods and vineyards. Egglaying by P. viteana was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments in all 3 yr. During weekly samples of crop infestation by P. viteana, no differences were observed between programs in the percent of clusters infested by P. viteana larvae. Berries infested by P. viteana were collected from vineyard borders during the second and third P. viteana generations and held under controlled conditions. In all but one sample, survival of P. viteana larvae was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments, parasitism of P. viteana larvae within vineyards was similar between the two wild grape cutting treatments on all sample dates, and similar captures of natural enemies were found on yellow sticky traps in the two treatments throughout the study. The opportunities and benefits of cutting wild grapevines as a cultural control in grape integrated pest management programs in eastern North America are discussed.

  19. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar, one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling, revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001 was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern.

  20. Can RNA-Seq Resolve the Rapid Radiation of Advanced Moths and Butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia)? An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazinet, Adam L.; Cummings, Michael P.; Mitter, Kim T.; Mitter, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the insect order Lepidoptera have robustly resolved family-level divergences within most superfamilies, and most divergences among the relatively species-poor early-arising superfamilies. In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp.) remain mostly poorly supported. This uncertainty, in turn, limits our ability to discern the origins, ages and evolutionary consequences of traits hypothesized to promote the spectacular diversification of Apoditrysia. Low support along the apoditrysian “backbone” probably reflects rapid diversification. If so, it may be feasible to strengthen resolution by radically increasing the gene sample, but case studies have been few. We explored the potential of next-generation sequencing to conclusively resolve apoditrysian relationships. We used transcriptome RNA-Seq to generate 1579 putatively orthologous gene sequences across a broad sample of 40 apoditrysians plus four outgroups, to which we added two taxa from previously published data. Phylogenetic analysis of a 46-taxon, 741-gene matrix, resulting from a strict filter that eliminated ortholog groups containing any apparent paralogs, yielded dramatic overall increase in bootstrap support for deeper nodes within Apoditrysia as compared to results from previous and concurrent 19-gene analyses. High support was restricted mainly to the huge subclade Obtectomera broadly defined, in which 11 of 12 nodes subtending multiple superfamilies had bootstrap support of 100%. The strongly supported nodes showed little conflict with groupings from previous studies, and were little affected by changes in taxon sampling, suggesting that they reflect true signal rather than artifacts of massive gene sampling. In contrast, strong support was seen at only 2 of 11 deeper nodes among the “lower”, non-obtectomeran apoditrysians. These represent

  1. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Oviposition

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    Neelendra K Joshi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007 and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, ten apple cultivars viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  2. Can deliberately incomplete gene sample augmentation improve a phylogeny estimate for the advanced moths and butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soowon; Zwick, Andreas; Regier, Jerome C; Mitter, Charles; Cummings, Michael P; Yao, Jianxiu; Du, Zaile; Zhao, Hong; Kawahara, Akito Y; Weller, Susan; Davis, Donald R; Baixeras, Joaquin; Brown, John W; Parr, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether one can economically improve the robustness of a molecular phylogeny estimate by increasing gene sampling in only a subset of taxa, without having the analysis invalidated by artifacts arising from large blocks of missing data. Our case study stems from an ongoing effort to resolve poorly understood deeper relationships in the large clade Ditrysia ( > 150,000 species) of the insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Seeking to remedy the overall weak support for deeper divergences in an initial study based on five nuclear genes (6.6 kb) in 123 exemplars, we nearly tripled the total gene sample (to 26 genes, 18.4 kb) but only in a third (41) of the taxa. The resulting partially augmented data matrix (45% intentionally missing data) consistently increased bootstrap support for groupings previously identified in the five-gene (nearly) complete matrix, while introducing no contradictory groupings of the kind that missing data have been predicted to produce. Our results add to growing evidence that data sets differing substantially in gene and taxon sampling can often be safely and profitably combined. The strongest overall support for nodes above the family level came from including all nucleotide changes, while partitioning sites into sets undergoing mostly nonsynonymous versus mostly synonymous change. In contrast, support for the deepest node for which any persuasive molecular evidence has yet emerged (78-85% bootstrap) was weak or nonexistent unless synonymous change was entirely excluded, a result plausibly attributed to compositional heterogeneity. This node (Gelechioidea + Apoditrysia), tentatively proposed by previous authors on the basis of four morphological synapomorphies, is the first major subset of ditrysian superfamilies to receive strong statistical support in any phylogenetic study. A "more-genes-only" data set (41 taxa×26 genes) also gave strong signal for a second deep grouping (Macrolepidoptera

  3. Conserved Patterns of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Lepidoptera (WZ/ZZ): Insights from a Moth Neo-Z Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James R.; Knipple, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared with autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, that is Z ≈ ZZ sex chromosome dosage compensation. Moreover, conflicting results linger due to discrepancies in data analyses and tissues sampled among lepidopterans. To address these issues, we performed RNA-seq to analyze sex chromosome dosage compensation in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, which is a species from the earliest diverging lepidopteran lineage yet examined for dosage compensation and has a neo-Z chromosome resulting from an ancient Z:autosome fusion. While supported by intraspecific analyses, the Z ≈ ZZ sex chromosome dosage compensation and the emerging view of the association of dosage compensation with sexual heterogamety. PMID:28338816

  4. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  5. Incipient allochronic speciation in the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, H; Burban, C; Rousselet, J; Rossi, J-P; Branco, M; Kerdelhué, C

    2011-01-01

    A plausible case of allochronic differentiation, where barrier to gene flow is primarily attributable to a phenological shift, was recently discovered in Portugal for the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa. Previous results suggested that the observed 'summer population' (SP) originated from the sympatric winter population (WP). Our objectives were to finely analyse these patterns and test their stability in time, through field monitoring and genetic analyses of larvae and adults across different years. Reproductive activity never overlapped between SP and WP. Microsatellites showed a clear differentiation of the SP, consistent with a strong reduction in gene flow owing to the phenological shift. Assignment tests suggested that some individuals shift from the SP to the WP phenology, causing some hybridization. We discuss these patterns and their maintenance over time. This could be a first stage of allochronic speciation, and SP should be considered as a distinct phenological race.

  6. Key to the Species of Ukrainian Notodontid Moths (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae On the Egg Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolinskaya I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A key for identification of 39 species from 20 genera of Ukrainian notodontid moths based on the the eggs is provided. Reliable diagnostic characters, which do not disappear with the injury of eggs or eggs preserved for a long time in alcohol were used. The characters as egg shape, egg and chorion colour, shape of gnawed holes in eggs before setting out of caterpillars, the type of oviposition and the chorionic sculpture are applied. Clear characters that are typical for the live eggs, which vary in the process of egg development are revealed. These are characters of egg colour and pattern. In the key such characters are kept by stable signs that do not disappear aft er eggs traumatizing. The key is illustrated in details with photographs made using a digital camera and scanning electron microscope.

  7. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  8. Controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system to disinfest fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) on apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yerim; Chon, Ikjo; Neven, Lisa; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-10-01

    Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is a serious pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. Because of its limited distribution, C. sasakii has been identified as a quarantine pest in several countries. The Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) was tested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control C. sasakii in apples. The fifth instar was the most tolerant immature stage to a heat treatment of 44 degrees C for 20 min. When the apples infested with different stages of C. sasakii were treated under CATTS conditions (heating rate of 16 degrees C/h, chamber temperature of 46 degrees C, final core temperature of 44 degrees C under 1% O2/15% CO2 atmosphere), young larvae (first-fourth instars) did not survive after 40 min exposure, but the fifth instars required an exposure of at least 60 min to attain 100% mortality. A partial heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) was cloned and showed inducible expression in response to heat shock at 44 degrees C. CATTS suppressed transcription of the hsp90 gene. Apples did not show any appreciable loss of quality in relation to fruit firmness, sweetness, and decay after a 60 min CATTS treatment. These results suggest that CATTS can be applicable to control C. sasakii in apples.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moon moth, Actias aliena (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the Actias aliena belonging to the lepidopteran family Saturniidae in terms of general genomic features and composition. The 15,243 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region. The A. aliena mitogenome harbored the gene order tRNA(Met), tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Gln) between the A+T-rich region and ND2, as shown in most lepidopteran species. The COI gene possessed the CGA initiator, which is found in nearly all lepidopterans lacking a canonical ATN initiator. Twenty-one tRNAs formed the cloverleaf secondary structures but tRNA(Ser)(AGN) formed a simple loop in the DHU arm. The 328 bp long A+T-rich region, which was located between the S rRNA and tRNA(Met) genes, contained several Lepidoptera-specific sequences, such as the ATAGA motif, a poly-T stretch, an AT repeat, and a poly-A stretch, along with an unusual tRNA(Phe)-like structure.

  10. Temperature-dependent development of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on two brassicaceous host plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI GOLIZADEH; KARIM KAMALI; YAGHOUB FATHIPOUR; HABIB ABBASIPOUR

    2007-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of the Plutella xylostella(Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), was evaluated at eight constant temperatures (10, 15,20, 25, 28, 30, 32.5 and 35℃), with relative humidity of 65% and a photoperiod of 14:10(L: D) hours on two host plants, cauliflower, Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and cabbage,Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The low temperature threshold was estimated to be 7.06℃and 7.84℃ and the thermal constant was 263.74 and 261.58 degree-days for P. xylostella on cauliflower and cabbage, respectively, using the linear model. Data were fitted to various nonlinear temperature-dependent models, and the low and high temperature thresholds, as well as the optimum temperature for development, has been estimated. Criteria of choice from the literature were used to evaluate models and to select the most suitable equation for P. xylostella development on each host plant. Conclusively, linear and Briere-2 models are recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of P. xylostella on two host plants.

  11. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-05-22

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group.

  12. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. FAUCHEUX

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede considerarse una autapomorfía de Neopseustidae. S. andesae posee otras características originales: sensilios tricodeos aporosos tanto cortos como largos en el labro, numerosos sensilios campaniformes en el primer segmento del palpo labial; así como también aquellas previamente descritas: la configuración en doble tubo de la proboscis y los sensilios basicónicos compuestos y polimórficos sobre las antenas. Además, se describen otros sensilios cefálicos: sensilios tricodeos aporosos bifurcados en el clípeo, sensilios aporosos campaniformes por encima de las mandíbulas y sobre la chaetosemata.

  13. Mating Disruption of a Carpenter Moth, Cossus insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Apple Orchards with Synthetic Sex Pheromone, and Registration of the Pheromone as an Agrochemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Hirotsuna; Takabe, Masanori; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Mating disruption of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), with a synthetic version of its sex pheromone, a mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate, was tested for three successive years in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. Pheromone trap catches, percentage mating of tethered females and females enclosed with males in a mating cage, and tree damage were measured in both the pheromone-treated and untreated control orchards. The attraction of male moths to pheromone traps at heights of 1.5, 3, and 5 m was strongly disrupted when the pheromone dispensers were placed at 1.5 m height. Mating of tethered females placed at 1 m was completely inhibited, and the mating of tethered females at a height of 3 m was significantly reduced by the treatment in comparison to matings in an untreated control orchard. Similarly, mating of pairs of moths enclosed in mating cages was significantly reduced by the synthetic pheromone treatment in comparison to controls. The percentage of damaged trees in the pheromone-treated orchard also decreased significantly over the course of the experiment. These results suggest that mating disruption with the synthetic sex pheromone appears promising for reducing damage caused by C. insularis in apple orchards in Japan, and a commercial mating disruption product has been developed and registered.

  14. The "windows", scales, and bristles of the tropical moth Rothschildia lebeau (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco; Hernández, Alejandro; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-12-01

    The common Spanish name of the moth Rothschildia lebeau (Saturniidae) is cuatro ventanas (four 'windows'), because it exhibits a transparent oval path in each wing. The scales of the colored areas and the bristles from the "window" were analyzed. We developed a simple device to measure transmittance across the "windows" with an spectrophotometer. A square section of "window" was mounted onto a flat black card and placed onto a clamp that hung in the path of the light - beam of the spectrophotometer. Absorbance was measured at 350 and 550 nm, with the "window" positioned perpendicular to the light beam (incidence of 90 degrees); then the measurements were repeated with the "window" moved at an angle of 45 degrees. Each measurement was replicated 5 times. Wing color spots were analyzed with a light dissection microscope (stereoscope) and with scanning electron microscopy. The scales have a minimum of 4 morphological types, 3 of them showed the typical appearance of unspecialized scales described for other butterflies; whereas the fourth has features particular to this species. On the "window" the scales are transformed in hair-like bristles that do not interfere with light, conferring the transparency that characterizes the "windows". However, if the wing is illuminated at an almost grazing-incidence, they reflect the light as a mirror. Two hypothetical functional explanation for the windows are mimicry and interspecies communication.

  15. Molecular characterization and virulence of Beauveria spp. from the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, Ali; Demir, Ismail; Demirbağ, Zihni

    2010-10-01

    The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Den. & Schiff.) is one of the most harmful pests to pine species in Mediterranean countries including Turkey. Caterpillars of T. pityocampa are not only significantly harmful to forest trees but also responsible for various allergic reactions in humans and animals. In this study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against T. pityocampa, we investigated fungal pathogens of T. pityocampa in the Black Sea Region of Turkey and tested their pathogenicity on it. Five different fungi were isolated and identified based on their morphological and molecular characteristics including ITS and partial sequence of EF1-[alpha]. Based on these characteristics, four isolates were identified as Beauveria bassiana cf. Clade C (Rehner and Buckley in Mycologia 97:84-98, 2005) and one isolate was identified as Beauveria bassiana. Among these isolates, B. bassiana KTU-24, B. bassiana cf. Clade C KTU-66 and KTU-67 showed the highest virulence with 100% mortality within 10 days after application. B. bassiana isolate KTU-24 produced the highest mycosis value with %100. Consequently, B. bassiana KTU-24 seems to be good candidate for further investigation as a possible biological control agent against this pest.

  16. Different emergence phenology of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on six varieties of grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiéry, D; Monceau, K; Moreau, J

    2014-06-01

    The phenology of insect emergence affects reproductive success and is especially critical in short-lived species. An increasing number of studies have documented the effects of thermal and other climatic variations and of unpredictable habitats on the timing of adult insect emergence within and between populations and years. Numerous interacting factors may affect the phenology of adult emergence. Host-plant quality and availability is a key factor that has been largely neglected in studies of the phenology of phytophagous insects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of host plant characteristics on the rate of larval growth and the pattern of emergence in a wild population of Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth), a significant pest in European vineyards. The phenology of emergence differed significantly among the six tested varieties of grapes. The percentage of bunches harboring pupae was similar among the different grape varieties, and the total number of pupae collected was similar to the number of emerging adults per bunch. Among the six varieties of grapes, 0-25 pupae were produced on each bunch. Each of the grape varieties had a single wave of emergence, in which males emerged before females, but their emergence phenology differed significantly in Chardonnay, Chasselas, and Pinot grapes. Both genders had extended durations of emergence in Merlot grapes. Together, the present results show that the characteristics of the grape host plant affect the emergence phenology of L. botrana.

  17. Manipulating the attractiveness and suitability of hosts for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2005-06-01

    Ovipositional preference and larval survival of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), were compared among cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata; glossy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata in different treatments of planting density, host plant age, intercropping, and water stress in 2003 and 2004. P. xylostella laid nearly twice as many eggs per plant in the high planting densities of glossy collards and yellow rocket than in the standard planting densities. Ovipositional preference was positively correlated with plant age in cabbage, glossy collards, and yellow rocket. Larval survival on cabbage was 1.9 times higher on 6-wk than on 12-wk-old plants, whereas larval survival on collards was 12.1 times higher on the younger plants. No larvae survived on either 6- or 12-wk-old yellow rocket plants. Intercropping cabbage with either tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or fava bean, Vicia fava L., did not reduce the number of eggs laid on cabbage. No significant differences in oviposition were found between water-stressed and well-irrigated host plants treatments. Yet, P. xylostella larval survival on water-stressed cabbage was 2.1 times lower than on well-irrigated cabbage plants. Based on our findings, the effectiveness of trap crops of glossy collards and yellow rocket could be enhanced by integrating the use of higher planting densities in the trap crop than in the main crop and seeding of the trap crop earlier than the main crop.

  18. Sublethal effects of hexaflumuron on development and reproduction of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand; Habib Abbasipour; Aziz Sheikhi Garian; Ali Reza Bandani

    2011-01-01

    Effects of hexaflumuron at 10% lethal concentration (LC10) and LC25 on development and reproduction parameters of the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus,1753) (Lep.:Yponomeutidae) were investigated.Estimated LC50,LC10 and LC25 values of leaf dip bioassay of hexaflumuron on the third instar larvae of the P.xylostella were 1.48,0.59 and 0.91 mg/L,respectively.Hexaflumuron decreased pupal weight in the parent generation at sublethal concentrations but in the offspring generation,this effect was not observed.Sublethal concentrations increased egg,first and second larval instar and pupa developmental time and shortened life span of adults,but did not change the third and fourth larval instars and pre-pupa developmental period.Also fecundity of females reduced significantly but hatchability of treatments and control were similar.Survival rate of pre-adult stages declined significantly at LC25 concentration.Reproduction parameters such as reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of increase in sublethal concentrations were significantly lower compared with control,but gross reproduction rate (GRR) at the LC10 concentration was increased and it could be hormoligosis.Also hexaflumuron significantly increased doubling time (Dt).We conclude that the sublethal effects of hexaflumuron might exhibit significant effects on the population dynamics of P.xylostella.

  19. False codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera,Tortricidae) larvae are chill-susceptible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leigh Boardman; Tim G.Grout; John S.Terblanche

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the low temperature tolerance and cold hardiness of larvae of false codling moth,Thaumatotibia leucotreta.We found that larvae have mean critical thermal minima (lower limits of activity) of 6.7℃ which was influenced by feeding status.The effects of low temperature exposure and duration of exposure on larval survival were assessed and showed that the temperature at which 50% of the population survives is -11.5 ± 0.3℃ after 2 h exposure.The supercooling point (SCP,i.e.,freezing temperature) was investigated using a range of cooling rates and under different conditions (feeding and hydration status) and using inoculative freezing treatments (in contact with water or orange juice).The SCP decreased significantly from - 15.6 ℃ to - 17.4℃ after larvae were fasted for 24 h.Twenty-four hour treatments at either high or low relative humidity (95.9% or 2.4%) also significantly decreased SCP to -17.2℃ and -18.2℃ respectively.Inoculative freezing (by water contact) raised SCP from - 15.6℃ to -6.8℃which could have important implications for post-harvest sterilization.Cooling rates did not affect SCP which suggests that there is limited phenotypic plasticity of SCP during the larval life-stage,at least over the short time-scales investigated here.In conclusion,larvae of T.leucotreta are chill-susceptible and die upon freezing.These results are important in understanding this pest's response to temperature variation,understanding pest risk status and improving post-harvest sterilization efficacy.

  20. Relevance of reproductive correlates in response of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae to plant quality

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    M. Soufbaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the relationships between leaf nitrogen and the reproductive potential of diamondback moth, all reproductive parameters of this pest raised on two canola cultivars were evaluated. A standardized regression coefficient (β was used as an index for nitrogen-reproduction relationship strength. The only difference between net fecundity rate and net fertility rate is hx’s effect, but the difference in their standardized regression coefficients was not significant [β=+0.934 (R2=0.87, F1,4=27.34, P=0.006 and β=+0.922 (R2=0.85, F1,4=22.825, P=0.009]. Accordingly, gross fecundity rate and gross fertility rate differ only in hx’s effect, but the difference in standardized regression coefficients again was not significant [β=0.895 (R2=0.8, F1,4=16.159, P=0.016-0.890 (R2=0.79, F1,4=15.266, P=0.017=0.005]. As gross fecundity rate differs from net fecundity rate only in midpoint survivorship (Lx’s effect, it is understood that survivorship could affect the plant nitrogen–fecundity relation considerably (standardized coefficients difference=0.044 and could be a critical parameter in insectplant interactions. But, the terms of reproductive parameters, i.e. Lx and hx, showed the same effect on the strength of nitrogen-fecundity regression statistically, even though Lx has been selected frequently by many researchers as an important fitness correlate. Measuring the hatch rate could be recommended in trophic interactions studies due to its being easier to apply, more robust, and quicker to accomplish than measurement of survivorship; however, it is important as an indicator in combination with brood size for determining the initial population size of an insect herbivore.

  1. Assessment of insecticide resistance after the outbreak of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in California in 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, A M; Sances, F V; Hawley, J; Tang, J D; Boune, M; Jungers, D; Collins, H L; Farias, J

    2000-06-01

    During an outbreak of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in California in 1997, nine populations were collected from the major broccoli areas throughout the state. Populations were assayed for their susceptibility to currently used materials (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, permethrin, and methomyl) and to newer materials that had not yet been commercially used in California (spinosad, emamectin benzoate, and chlorfenapyr). For the currently used insecticides, elevated levels of resistance were seen only with permethrin and seven of the nine populations had tolerance ratios (TR) of > 100. With the newer chemistries, TR values were all < 15. To compare potential cross-tolerance, TR values of the currently used insecticides were compared with TR values of the newer insecticides. There were significant relationships found between: methomyl and emamectin benzoate, methomyl and spinosad, and permethrin and spinosad. Further biochemical studies are needed to confirm the actual mechanisms that lead to these relationships and field tests are needed to determine what impact, if any, such TR levels would have on control in the field. These data indicate that resistance to at least one of the commonly used insecticides (permethrin) may have played a role in the outbreak during 1997. However, other factors may have been at least equally important. The winter of 1996-1997 was warmer than normal, and during the period from February through August of 1997 the amount of rainfall was < 50% of normal. Hot and dry conditions are known to be conducive to outbreaks of P. xylostella. These data add to an overall knowledge about the geographic variation of resistance in P. xylostella populations within the United States. They also serve as a baseline for monitoring changes in susceptibility to these newer insecticides and can also help explain the occurrence of outbreaks caused by factors other than insecticide resistance.

  2. Effect of bunch sanitation on spatial distributions of abscised fruit and phycitine moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California date gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Park, Yong-Lak; Perring, Thomas M

    2007-12-01

    Phycitine moths are an economic impediment to California date, Phoenix dactylifera L., production. Summer populations build to damaging levels on abscised dates that get trapped in fruit bunches. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between abscised fruit and moth infestation, and to evaluate changes in the spatial distribution of abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit after a bunch-sanitation treatment. Over the 9 wk of this study, there was a 69.9% reduction in the number of moth-infested fruit after a single sanitation treatment. Linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between abscised fruit and phycitine moth-infested fruit; 42 and 76.6% of the variation in the number of infested fruit was explained by the number of abscised fruit in noncleaned and cleaned plots, respectively. The pattern of reinfestation by moths over the 9 wk posttreatment period was analyzed with spatial analysis with distance indices. Significant spatial associations were found between abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit, supporting the regression analysis. The sanitation treatments caused significant gaps in both abscised fruit and moth-infested fruit. Over time, gap sizes became smaller, indicating a nonrandom pattern of reinfestation that likely was caused by the movement of moths from nontreated areas into treated areas. This study, the first spatial analysis conducted in dates, suggests that in-season bunch sanitation could be effective at reducing summer moth densities if applied on a large regional scale.

  3. Water ferns Azolla spp. (Azollaceae as new host plants for the small China-mark moth, Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Acentropinae

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    Atousa Farahpour-Haghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water ferns (Azolla spp., Azollaceae are reported for the first time as host plants for the larvae of the small China-mark moth Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Acentropinae in rice fields and waterways of northern Iran. Cataclysta lemnata is a semi-aquatic species that has been recorded to feed on Lemnaceae and a few other aquatic plants. However, it has not been reported before on Azolla spp. Larvae use water fern as food source and shelter and, at high population density in the laboratory, they completely wiped water fern from the water surface. Feeding was confirmed after rearing more than eight continual generations of C. lemnata on water fern in the laboratory. Adults obtained this way are darker and have darker fuscous markings in both sexes compared with specimens previously reported and the pattern remains unchanged after several generations.

  4. First record of folivory on a newly documented host plant for the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in northern Chile

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The native tree Schinus molle (Anacardiacae is reported for the first time as a host plant for larvae of the little known geometrid moth Eupithecia yubitzae Vargas & Parra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, based on morphology and DNA barcodes. This discovery importantly expands the host range of E. yubitzae, as previous records were restricted to Fabaceae trees. Larvae were previously known as florivorous, while these were found to be folivorous on S. molle. Furthermore, host-associated cryptic larval polychromatism was detected, as larvae collected on S. molle were found to be mostly pale green, contrasting with the dark yellow ground color of the larvae typically collected on fabaceous host plants.

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Light Intensity and Time Interval After the Start of Scotophase on the Female Flight Propensity of Asian Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Keena, Melody

    2016-04-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one from Korea) were compared under all combinations of three light intensities (0.05, 0.10, and 0.40 lux) and during three time intervals after the start of scotophase. A total of 567 females were flight tested. Female flight propensity, time to initiate walking, fanning, and flying, and duration of fanning differed significantly among geographic populations. Females were less likely to voluntarily fly during the 0-1-h time interval after the start of scotophase than during the later time intervals (1-2 and 2-3 h), suggesting that the light intensity cue has to occur at the correct time after the expected start of scotophase for flight initiation. Light intensity did not significantly affect the proportion of females that voluntarily flew, but did impact the timing of the walking and fanning preflight behaviors. The interaction between light intensity and time interval after the start of scotophase had a significant effect on the proportion of females that fanned. The proportion of females with sustained flight capability varied among the populations evaluated. These results may aid in determining the risk of Asian gypsy moth dispersal, but further work is needed to assess other factors that play a role in flight propensity.

  6. Impact of irrigation on larval density of stem-infesting pests of cultivated sunflower in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-10-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers, chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in Kansas during 2000-2001 to investigate the effect of irrigation timing and intensity on densities of C. adspersus, D. texanus, and P. womonana larvae within cultivated sunflower stalks. Supplemental soil moisture provided by irrigation during the growing season increased both seed yield and oil content, and it reduced insect densities of the sunflower stem weevil and P. womonana in the sunflower stalk. Results showed that ensuring adequate moisture during the growing season can assist in reducing stem-infesting insect densities, revealing an additional advantage of crop irrigation beyond improved sunflower productivity.

  7. Diversity and composition of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in an area of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil: is the fauna more diverse in the grassland or in the forest?

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    Viviane Gianluppi Ferro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation, because its fauna and flora are highly endemic and suffer from loss of natural habitats. This study assessed the composition and diversity of tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae in two floristic formations of the southern Atlantic Forest (grassland and Araucaria forest and in a transition zone (forest edge. The moths were attracted to UV light reflected onto a white sheet. A total of 3,574 tiger moths were collected, representing 121 species. The rarefaction curves showed that the tiger-moth assemblage collected in the grassland was more diverse than the assemblages from the Araucaria forest and the transition zone. The assemblages in the forest and forest edge resembled each other, whereas the grassland assemblage was distinct. The composition of the tiger-moth assemblages was related to the environmental characteristics [habitat type (grassland, edge, or forest, altitude, temperature, air relative humidity] and the location of the sites. The faunal similarity decreased in response to increasing environmental and geographical distances between the sites. The responsiveness of tiger moths to small-scale variation in environmental and geographical parameters indicates their good potential as environmental indicators.

  8. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  9. Preliminary assessment of the moth (Lepidoptera: Heterocera) fauna of Rincon de Guadalupe, Sierra de Bacadehuachi, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Palting

    2013-01-01

    The Sierra de Bacadéhuachi is a poorly sampled extension of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) located in east-central Sonora near the town of Bacadéhuachi. Sampling of moths using mercury vapor and ultraviolet lights occurred in summer and fall 2011, and spring 2012 at Rincón de Guadalupe, located in pine-oak forest at 1680 m elevation. Approximately 400 taxa of moths...

  10. Ultramorphology of sensilla on the proboscis in three noctuid moths ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)%三种夜蛾成虫口器感器的超微形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 魏劲松; 党露; 王建波; 花保祯

    2012-01-01

    为确定不同种类夜蛾口器及其感器在超微结构上的差异,采用扫描电子显微镜对棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera( Hübner)、烟夜蛾H.assulta( Guenée)和银纹夜蛾Argyrogramma agnata (Staudinger)3种鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)夜蛾科(Noctuidae)重要农业害虫雌、雄成虫口器感器的超微形态进行了观察和比较.结果表明:3种夜蛾雌、雄成虫口器感器类型均无明显差异.棉铃虫和烟夜蛾口器感器在类型和形状上十分类似,均具有毛形、锥形和栓锥形感器;喙管末端的栓锥感器粗、密,棱纹明显.银纹夜蛾 口器感器与两种铃夜蛾区别明显,除上述3类感器外,还具有腔锥形感器;其喙管末端的栓锥感器细、疏,棱纹不明显.结果显示口器感器可用于夜蛾的分类及亲缘关系研究.%The ultramorphology of sensilla on the proboscis in three pest noctuid moths of agricultural significance, the cotton boUworm Helicoverpa armigera ( H(u)bner) , the Oriental tobacco budworm moth H. assulta ( Guenee) , and the silver looper moth Argyrogramma agnata ( Staudinger) , were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and compared to reveal the ultramorphological differences of the proboscis sensilla among these noctuid moths. The results showed that sexual dimorphism is not found in types of the proboscis sensilla in these species. The proboscises in H. armigera and H. assulta are similar in sensillum types and morphology, sharing similar sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica, and sensilla styloconica. Sensilla styloconica bear prominent ridges and are densely borne on the distal part of the proboscis. The proboscis in A. agnata, however, bears sensilla coeloconica in addition to the three types of sensilla mentioned above; sensilla styloconica are slender, lack prominent ridges, and are sparsely distributed on the distal part of the proboscis. The results suggest that the proboscis sensilla can be used in the classification and phylogenetic

  11. Evaluation of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) resistance in tubers of Bt-cry5 transgenic potato lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A; Douches, D S; Pett, W; Grafius, E; Coombs, J; Liswidowati; Li, W; Madkour, M A

    2000-04-01

    The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), in tropical and subtropical countries, is the most destructive pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L. The larvae attack foliage and tubers in the field and in storage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a Bt-cry5 transgene to control the potato tuber moth in tuber tissues. Tuber bioassays using stored (11-12 mo old) and newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Lemhi Russet and Bt-cry5-Atlantic potato lines showed up to 100% mortality of 1st instars. Mortality was lowest in the newly harvested tubers of Bt-cry5-Atlantic lines (47.1-67.6%). Potato tuber moth mortality was 100% in the Bt-cry5-Spunta lines that were transformed with Bt-cry5 gene controlled by the CaMV 35S promoter (pBIML5 vector) and in 2 of 3 lines transformed with Bt-cry5 gene controlled by the Gelvin super promoter (pBIML1 vector). The transgenic Spunta lines expressing Bt-cry5 controlled by the patatin promoter (pBMIL2 vector) showed the lowest tuber moth mortality (25.6 and 31.1%). The Bt-cry5 transgenic lines with high tuber expression of B. thuringiensis have value in an integrated pest management system to control potato tuber moth.

  12. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  13. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  14. European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Totricidae – occurence and management in Istrian vineyards

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    Renata Bažok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to identify European grapevine moths (Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiff. flight dynamics, larvae occurrence and degree-day accumulations (DDA for each moth generation in two Istrian vineyards with different pest management practices. The moth has developed three generations. During the third generation there was a significant flight peak in the vineyard without pest management. Predictions about larvae number and possible damage must be based on both, visual monitoring of grapevine and weekly adults catch. Developmental time with lower thermal threshold of 7 °C was calculated. The flight of the first generation was between 217.9 and 406.6 °C, second generation between 786.3 and 1329.8 °C, third generation between 1452.8 and 2108.2 °C.

  15. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

  16. The Impact of Variation in Foliar Constituents of Sunflower on Development and Reproduction of Diacrisia casignetum Kollar (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae

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    Nayan Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of feeding on young, mature, and senescent sunflower leaves were studied under laboratory conditions (27 ± 0.5°C, 12L : 12D, 65±5% RH to evaluate the impact of variation of nutrients on larval food utilization efficiency, larval and pupal development and survival, longevity, and fecundity of Diacrisia casignetum Kollar. The growth rate, which is the ratio between the dry weight gain of insect and duration of experimental period, of D. casignetum was in the order of mature leaf > young leaf > senescent leaf of sunflower. This was correlated with nutrient constituents of three kinds of sunflower leaves, which was measured by various biochemical analyses described elsewhere in the text. Total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nitrogen, amino acids, and water content are in greater amount in mature leaves when compared to young and senescent leaves, whereas phenol content was highest in young leaves than mature leaves. Hence, higher amount of total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nitrogen, amino acids including water and lower amount of total phenol content in mature leaves have influenced higher growth rate, less developmental time, and higher fecundity of D. casignetum.

  17. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on cut-flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2500 ppm ...

  18. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  19. Interaction between a Nosema sp. (Microspora: Nosematidae) and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus Infecting the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Joseph V. Maddox; Michael L. McManus

    1998-01-01

    Simultaneous and sequential per os inoculations of gypsy moth larvae with the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) and a Nosema sp. from Portugal demonstrated that the interaction of two pathogens during coinfection was variable, ranging from synergistic to antagonistic. Susceptibility of gypsy...

  20. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  1. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  2. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  3. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  4. Novel microsatellite markers for the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Cao, L-J; Wang, Y-Z; Li, B-Y; Wei, S-J

    2016-11-07

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important economic pest of stone and pome fruits worldwide. We sequenced the OFM genome using next-generation sequencing and characterized the microsatellite distribution. In total, 56,674 microsatellites were identified, with 11,584 loci suitable for primer design. Twenty-seven polymorphic microsatellites, including 24 loci with trinucleotide repeat and three with pentanucleotide repeat, were validated in 95 individuals from four natural populations. The allele numbers ranged from 4 to 40, with an average value of 13.7 per locus. A high frequency of null alleles was observed in most loci developed for the OFM. Three marker panels, all of the loci, nine loci with the lowest null allele frequencies, and nine loci with the highest null allele frequencies, were established for population genetics analyses. The null allele influenced estimations of genetic diversity parameters but not the OFM's genetic structure. Both a STRUCTURE analysis and a discriminant analysis of principal components, using the three marker panels, divided the four natural populations into three groups. However, more individuals were incorrectly assigned by the STRUCTURE analysis when the marker panel with the highest null allele frequency was used compared with the other two panels. Our study provides empirical research on the effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses. The microsatellites developed will be valuable markers for genetic studies of the OFM.

  5. Diversidade dos noctuídeos (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Diversity of owlet-moth (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Specht

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of owlet-moth (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Noctuidae community in Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul. Light traps captured the insects of this research. The quantitative data were collected through weekly sampling, during one year (1994-1995; the qualitative data were collected through non-systematic sampling, during four consecutive years. The community characterization was based on the richness, abundance, specific constancy, diversity indices and abundance distribution; also total richness estimates were calculated, by nonparametric statistical procedures. In the systematized collecting there were captured 4017 noctuids of 108 species, distributed in 14 subfamilies; in the non-systematized, another 189 additional species and two subfamilies. Amphipyrinae, Hadeninae and Ophiderinae had the largest species richness. The more constant species were noctuids of great economic importance; the accessories were related to specific vegetable groups; the accidentals have their host unknown. The accessories and accidental species were captured more in spring and summer; also in these periods were measured the highest values of richness, abundance and diversity. There was no fit between observed/calculated log normal and log series distribution models. The 2nd order Jackknife and Michaelis-Menten equation procedures estimated that the total richness values were close to the total number of the species in the studied area.

  6. Phenology of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), male flight and the effect of moth dispersal in heterogeneous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Régnière, J.; Sharov, Alexei

    A model of Lymantria dispar development was assembled from the published literature and used to predict the period of male moth flight in the United States. Model predictions were compared with observations made with pheromone traps in several locations throughout the United States but especially in Virginia, West Virginia and North Carolina between 1995 and 1996. The model was found to provide accurate and unbiased forecasts of the dates of 5%, 50% and 95% cumulative trap catch, particularly at lower elevations. In areas of high topographic diversity (such as West Virginia), deviations between model output and observations were minimized by basing predictions of 5% and 50% cumulative catch on minimum elevation within neighborhoods of 25-81 km2. This model of L. dispar male flight phenology can be used to time the deployment and retrieval of pheromone traps in intensive or extensive monitoring programs. However, a better understanding of moth movement is needed to fully explain the patterns of local trap catch.

  7. Characterization of three transcripts encoding small heat shock proteins expressed in the codling moth, Cydia pomone//a (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen F. Garczynski; Thomas R. Unruh; Christelle Guédot; Lisa G. Neven

    2011-01-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of apples and pears worldwide. Increasing knowledge of how this insect responds to environmental stress will improve field and postharvest control measures used against it. The small heat shock proteins (sHsps) play a major role in cellular responses to environmental stressors. A degenerate oligonucleotide primer,designed against the conserved α-crystallin domain, was used in 3′ rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends reactions to amplify transcripts encoding sHsps expressed in the codling moth cell line, Cp169, subjected to heat shock. Three full-length cDNAs were cloned from Cp169 cells that contained open reading frames encoding sHsps.The cDNA for CpHsp 19.8 was 795 bp encoding 177 amino acids. The cDNA for CpHsp 19.9 was 749 bp encoding 175 amino acids. The cDNA for CpHsp22.2 was 737 bp encoding 192 amino acids. Analysis of the protein sequences of the three CpHsps indicated the presence of 83 amino acids with homology to the α-crystallin domain. For each of the CpHsps, the α-crystallin domain was surrounded by divergent N- and C-terminal regions, consistent with the conserved structural features of sHsps. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, used to determine the expression patterns of each of the sHsps in different developmental stages of codling moth revealed the presence of transcripts in all stages tested. Consistent with characteristics of other sHsps, expression of CpHsp transcripts were greatly enhanced when insects were subjected to heat shock. The results of this research can be used as a guide to study the roles of sHsps in codling moth control using various post-harvest treatments.

  8. Modeling codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae phenology and predicting egg hatch in apple orchards of the Maule Region, Chile

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    Wilson Barros-Parada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in the Maule Region to characterize the phenology of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L. The Predictive Extension Timing Estimator (PETE and a logistic phenological model were validated with eight data sets of cumulative moth catches in sex pheromone (PH and kairomone-baited traps and the cumulative occurrence of fruit injuries from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards during the 2009-2011 seasons. Second, the start of egg hatch was predicted from the first sustained male and female moth catches (biofix in traps baited with pear ester (PE, PE+acetic acid (AA, PE+PH, and PH alone. Both phenological models fit data well except that the logistic provided a better fit than the PETE model of the phenology of egg hatch of the codling moth in the first generation, with a difference of 11 d between models in the prediction of 50% egg hatch. No significant difference was found between biofix dates established for males using either PH or PE+PH lures or for the biofix date based on female catches with PE+AA or PH+PE. The biofix established with the sustained female catch occurred nearly 11 d later than the male-based biofix. The use of a female biofix provided on average a 4-d improvement in the prediction of first egg hatch compared with the traditional use of a male biofix, but this difference was not significant. The use of PE+AA lures increased the proportion of cases when a female-based biofix could be established compared with the use of the PH+PE lure.

  9. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species.

  10. Árctidos nocturnos (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae del Bosque Serrano de Córdoba, Argentina Arctiid moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae of the Serrano Forest, Córdoba, Argentina

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    Hernán M. Beccacece

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los árctidos son macrolepidópteros de tamaño variado y de hábitos generalmente nocturnos. En Argentina en general y en Córdoba en particular, la riqueza de este grupo es poco conocida. El Bosque Serrano es uno de los ambientes naturales de mayor biodiversidad en la provincia de Córdoba. El objetivo del presente estudio fue actualizar el conocimiento sobre la riqueza de árctidos de actividad nocturna, del Bosque Serrano. Se realizaron 38 muestreos con trampa de luz entre diciembre de 2006 y abril de 2011, en 10 puntos de Sierras Chicas, con una frecuencia desigual entre los diferentes sitios. Se encontraron un total de 26 especies pertenecientes a las tribus Arctiini y Lithosiini. El género Agylla Walker es una cita nueva para Argentina y 21 especies constituyen nuevos registros para este ambiente. El presente estudio aumenta a 28 las especies de árctidos atraídos por trampas de luz que habitan en el Bosque Serrano.The arctiid moths are macrolepidopteran of different sizes and nocturnal habits mostly. The richness of this group is poorly known in Argentina, particularly in Cordoba. The Serrano Forest is one of the highest biodiversity areas in Cordoba province. The aim of this study was to update the richness of arctiid moths in the Serrano Forest. Thirty-eight samplings were performed in different areas of Sierras Chicas using light traps, from December 2006 to April 2011, with an unequal frequency between the different sampling sites. A total of 26 species, belonging to the tribes Arctiini and Lithosiini, were found. The genus Agylla Walker is a new citation for Argentina and 21 species are new records for this environment. This study increased to 28 the arctiid species attracted by light traps that live in the Serrano Forest.

  11. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P < 0.001) and reduced the occurrence of mating by 93%, compared with three equivalent untreated control plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications.

  12. New method for testing solar sensitivity of commercial formulations of the granulovirus of codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae: Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Arthurs, Steven P

    2005-10-01

    A method for screening codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) formulation sensitivity to sunlight using specially prepared half apples and a solar simulator is described. The half apple preparation allows an even coverage of virus over the surface of the fruit that would not be possible using whole apples. Leaves and artificial medium were not usable for extended periods of exposure in the solar simulator due to excess drying. Fruit was sprayed with 10(-3) and 10(-5) dilutions of three commercial formulations of CpGV (Carpovirusine, Cyd-X, and Virosoft) and infested with codling moth neonates. Half of the sprayed fruit was exposed to 650 W/m2 for 4 h in an Atlas Suntest CPS solar simulator resulting in an accumulated radiant energy of 9.36x10(6) J/m2 before they were infested with neonate codling moth larvae. Spraying non-irradiated fruit with the 10(-3) dilution of Cyd-X and Virosoft resulted in nearly 100% mortality of neonate larvae. Irradiation reduced viral activity by 71-98% at the 10(-3) dilution and by up to 32% at the 10(-5) dilution relative to non-irradiated fruit. The procedures utilized enabled good preservation of the fruit throughout the incubation period and minimized invasion of the fruit by plant pathogens and saprophytic organisms. This laboratory method for screening candidate formulations and potential UV protectants could conserve time and resources by eliminating adjuvants with less potential in laboratory tests and field testing only the most promising candidates. It also enables year-round testing.

  13. Characterization and cross-amplification of 13 microsatellite loci in the northern pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pinivora (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna; Ronnås, Cecilia; Frauenfelder, Nathalie

    2009-05-01

    Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for the northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora) and tested for cross-amplification in seven other species within the Thaumetopoea family. Number of alleles ranged from two to 10 when at least 28 individuals from one population were screened and one locus, Thapin06, appears to be sex linked. Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.094 to 0.856 and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.806. Amplification success varied between sister species, with two up to seven loci being successfully amplified. The described loci will be valuable for studying the population genetic structure and dispersal behaviour of this forest pest.

  14. Effectiveness of a naturally derived insecticide, spinosad, against the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Gurkan; Cetin, Huseyin; Isik, Kani; Yanikoglu, Atila

    2006-05-01

    The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams is a serious pest on pine trees in southwestern Turkey. The efficacy of a naturally derived insecticide, spinosad, on fourth-fifth instar larvae of T. wilkinsoni was studied under laboratory conditions. The product exhibited strong larvicidal activity and at doses above 5 mg litre(-1) caused > 90% mortality in the fourth-fifth larval stages of the species after 72 h. At 72 h the LD50 and LD90 values were 3.26 and 5.69 mg litre(-1) respectively. The results showed that spinosad is highly effective on T. wilkinsoni larvae.

  15. Sex-Pheromone-Mediated Mating Disruption Technology for the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Overview and Prospects

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    Wei N. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of progress has been made over the last three decades in research on pheromone-mediated mating disruption technology for the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck. Pheromones can interrupt normal orientation, and the most likely mechanism of pheromone disruption, competitive-attraction (false-plume following, invokes competition between point sources of pheromone formulation and females for males. This technology, performed by broadcasting pheromones into orchards to disrupt mate finding, has been successfully implemented in oriental fruit moth control. Reservoir-style dispensers made of polyethylene tubes, which release pheromone throughout the full growing season, are the current industry standard. Although reasonably effective, they require labor-intensive hand application. Recently, a new formulation, paraffin wax, which maximizes competition between point sources of synthetic pheromone and feral females for males, was shown to have high disruption performance. As this formulation is highly effective, inexpensive, and easy to produce, further study and development are advisable. Increased understanding of the principles of mating disruption will aid in the design of more effective dispensers. Continued research is needed to meet grower concerns with regard to risk, efficacy, and cost and to identify other semiochemicals that can be applied to this delivery system. Greater knowledge of the integration of different biological control methods is therefore essential.

  16. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Basoalto, Esteban; Franck, Pierre; Lavandero, Blas; Knight, Alan L; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-04-01

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control.

  17. Identity of the ailanthus webworm moth (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae, a complex of two species: evidence from DNA barcoding, morphology and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wilson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During extensive ongoing campaigns to inventory moths of North America and Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG, northwestern Costa Rica, we discovered that morphologically similar yponomeutid moths were assigned two different names, Atteva ergatica Walsingham in Costa Rica and A. punctella (Stoll in North America, but had identical DNA barcodes. Combining DNA barcoding, morphology and food plant records also revealed a complex of two sympatric species that are diagnosable by their DNA barcodes and their facies in Costa Rica. However, neither of the names could be correctly applied to either species, as A. ergatica is a junior synonym and A. punctella a junior homonym. By linking our specimens to type material through morphology and DNA barcoding, we determined that the ACG dry forest species, distributed from Costa Rica to southern Quebec and Ontario, should be called A. aurea, whereas the similar and marginally sympatric ACG rain forest species found in Central America should be called A. pustulella. Neotypes are designated for Phalaena Tinea punctella Stoll, 1781 and Deiopeia aurea Fitch, 1857. Atteva floridana has identical barcodes to A. aurea and provisionally maintained as a synonym.

  18. Male flight phenology of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in different wine-growing regions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-López, V; Amo-Salas, M; Ortiz-Barredo, A; Díez-Navajas, A M

    2014-10-01

    Lobesia botrana is the most significant pest of grape berries in Spain. Further knowledge of its phenology would enable wine growers to decide on an optimal treatment schedule. The aim of this study is, therefore, to predict the flight peaks of L. botrana in seven wine-growing regions of Spain. The main goal is to provide a prediction model based on meteorological data records. A logistic function model, based on temperature and humidity records, together with an exhaustive statistical analysis, were used to compare the wine-growing regions in which the male flight phenology of L. botrana displays similar patterns and to sort them into groups. By doing so, a joint study of the dynamics of the moth is possible in the regions within each group. A comparison of the prediction errors before and after applying the Touzeau model confirmed that the fit of the latter model is not sufficiently accurate for the regions under study. Moth flight predictions with the logistic function model are good, but accuracy may still be improved by evaluating other non-biotic and biotic factors.

  19. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Studies of Physiological Responses in the Ghost Moth, Thitarodes armoricanus (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae.

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    Guiqing Liu

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is the sensitive method to quantify the expression levels of target genes on the basis of endogenous control. An appropriate reference gene set for normalization is essential for reliable results. The ghost moth, Thitarodes armoricanus, a host species of a medicinal fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is an economically important member of the Lepidoptera. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism of adaptation of this species to its high-altitude environment and host immune response to O. sinensis infection and RT-qPCR is commonly used in these studies to decipher the genetic basis of physiological functions. However, a thorough assessment of candidate reference genes in the genus Thitarodes is lacking. Here, the expression levels of eight candidate reference genes (ACT, EF, EIF4A, GAPDH, G6PDH, RPL13A, TUB and 18S in T. armoricanus at different developmental stages and in different body parts of the seventh instar larvae were analyzed, along with larvae kept under low temperatures, larvae exposed to two fungal infections and larvae fed different diets. Three established software programs-Bestkeeper, geNorm and NormFinder-were employed to calculate variation among the treatments. The results revealed that the best-suited reference genes differed across the treatments, with EF, EIF4A and GAPDH found to be the best suited for the different developmental stages and larvae body parts; EF, EIF4A and RPL13A found to be the best suited for low-temperature challenge; and EF, EIF4A and TUB found to be the best suited for the fungal infections and dietary treatments. This study thus further contributes to the establishment of an accurate method for normalizing RT-qPCR results for T. armoricanus and serves as a reference for gene expression studies of related insect species.

  20. Temporal Patterns in the Abundance and Species Composition of Spiders on Host Plants of the Invasive Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Brian N; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2017-06-01

    Generalist predators such as spiders may help mitigate the spread and impact of exotic herbivores. The lack of prey specificity and long generation times of spiders may allow them to persist when pests are scarce, and to limit the growth of pest populations before they reach damaging levels. We examined whether resident spiders are likely to play a role in maintaining populations of the invasive light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), below outbreak levels in California. We surveyed the spider community on two E. postvittana host plants, the ornamental Australian tea tree, Leptospermum laevigatum, and the weed French broom, Genista monspessulana, to characterize spider and larval E. postvittana abundance and spider species composition throughout the year. Spider densities and species composition showed slight seasonal changes. Spiders were present during periods of high and low E. postvittana abundance. Anyphaenid hunting spiders, Anyphaena aperta Banks in Australian tea tree and Anyphaena pacifica Banks in French broom, dominated spider species composition at four of five sampled sites, and underwent only slight seasonal variation in abundance. Adult A. aperta were rare at all times of the year, suggesting that high mortality among juvenile A. aperta limits the potential of this species as a predator of E. postvittana. Nevertheless, the continued presence of spiders throughout the year indicates that the resident spider community is likely to play a key role in reducing E. postvittana populations in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Honeydew Moth Cryptoblabes gnidiella (MILLIÈRE, 1867 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: an adventive species frequently imported with fruit to Poland

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    Dawidowicz Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptoblabes gnidiella is an opportunistic species native to the Mediterranean region. This species has been reported from several dozen host plants, including many cultivated plants, especially fruit (e.g. grapes, lemons or pomegranates. It is considered a serious pest together with accompanying insects such as mealybugs. It is also suspected of being a vector of certain pathogens. The Honeydew Moth constitutes a threat not only to crops in the Mediterranean basin but is also becoming a problem in other parts of the world with a suitable climate, where this species has been accidentally imported. The records given here are from the time of year when pomegranates are commonly available on supermarket shelves. These data show that the import of this species is quite common and that the lack of such information hitherto may be due to its having been overlooked. This paper presents the first records of Cryptoblabes gnidiella in Poland.

  2. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Mehmet; Alma, M Hakki

    2004-02-01

    Along with sulfate turpentine, the essential oils obtained by steam distillation from nine plant species naturally grown in Turkish forests were tested at three different concentrations to evaluate their effectiveness against the larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff). The results indicated that the essential oils from the nine species and sulfate turpentine were effective against the larvae of T pityocampa. The most effective essential oil in the control of the larvae was steam-distilled wood turpentine, followed by thyme herb oil, juniper berry oil, laurel leaf oil, lavender flower oil, eucalyptus leaf oil, lavender leaf oil, cypress berry oil, essential oil of styrax and sulfate turpentine, respectively, in terms of mean mortality time. It is therefore feasible to use these essential oils as environment-friendly insecticides in the control of T pityocampa.

  3. Improving the Performance of the Granulosis Virus of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Adding the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Alan L; Basoalto, Esteban; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Studies were conducted with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV) to evaluate whether adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E. C. Hansen with brown cane sugar could improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.). Larval mortalities in dipped-apple bioassays with S. cerevisiae or sugar alone were not significantly different from the water control. The addition of S. cerevisiae but not sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV alone. The combination of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV plus either additive alone. The addition of S. cerevisiae improved the efficacy of CpGV similarly to the use of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima (isolated from field-collected larvae). The proportion of uninjured fruit in field trials was significantly increased with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar to CpGV compared with CpGV alone only in year 1, and from the controls in both years. In comparison, larval mortality was significantly increased in both years with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV compared with CpGV alone or from the controls. The numbers of overwintering larvae on trees was significantly reduced from the control following a seasonal program of CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. The addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester did not improve the performance of CpGV or CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. These data suggest that yeasts can enhance the effectiveness of the biological control agent CpGV, in managing and maintaining codling moth at low densities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. História natural da mariposa Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, Stenomatinae Natural history of the moth Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Elachistidae, Stenomatinae

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    Helena C. Morais

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Chlamydastis Meyrick, 1916 (Elachistidae, Stenomatinae possui 82 espécies descritas da região Neotropical. Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick, 1915 tem local tipo o Estado de Amazonas, Brasil. No cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, as lagartas de C. smodicopa são folívoras externas restritas à planta hospedeira Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart. (Styracaceae. De junho de 2000 a junho de 2001, foram vistoriados 243 indivíduos de S. ferrugineus, e encontradas 38 espécies de lagartas de Lepidoptera em 26% das plantas examinadas. C. smodicopa foi a espécie mais comum em S. ferrugineus mas, apesar disso, ocorreu somente em 7% das plantas. As lagartas apresentam no último ínstar cabeça castanho escuro, placa protorácica marron com faixa amarela na sua margem anterior, tegumento cinza com faixas dorsais e subdorsais marron e amarela, e atingem 30 mm de comprimento. Lagartas são solitárias e constróem abrigos ovóides com duas folhas unidas com fios de seda e com as duas extremidades abertas: uma utilizada para alimentação e a outra para deposição de fezes. Um novo abrigo é construído, à medida que as lagartas crescem ou quando as folhas tornam-se senescentes. No último instar a lagarta constrói um casulo no interior do abrigo foliar, onde ocorre o desenvolvimento da pupa que, em condições de laboratório, teve uma média de 18 dias. As lagartas tiveram a maior freqüência de agosto a setembro, no final da estação seca no cerrado.The genus Chlamydastis Meyrick, 1916 (Elachistidae, Stenomatinae contains 82 described species from Neotropical region, including Chlamydastis smodicopa (Meyrick, 1915, with the local type in Amazonas State, Brazil. In the cerrado (savanna woodland area of Brasilia, Federal District, their larvae are external folivorous and restricted to the host plant Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart. (Styracaceae. Over the study period from June 2000 to June 2001, we inspected 243 S. ferrugineus individuals

  5. Efficacy of eco-smart insecticides against certain biological stages of jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb.(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

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    Mahmoud Farag Mahmoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of six eco-smart insecticides, Dipel 2x 6.4% WP (Bacillus thuringensis AI, Biofly 100% WP (Beauvaria bessiana AI, Radiant 12% SC (Saccharopolyspora spinosa AI, Mectin 1.8% EC (Streptomyces avermitilis AI, Nimbecidine 0.03% EC (Azadirachtin AI and Bio-Power 50% EC (Beauvaria bessiana AI, were tested against eggs, larvae and pupae of the jasmine moth, Palpita unionalis Hb. and its parasitoid Apanteles syleptae under laboratory conditions. Data indicated that all tested insecticides had ovicidal activity against P. unionalis. Mectin was the most toxic among the tested insecticides against the egg stage, followed by Radiant or Dipel 2x, and their respective values of LC50 were 0.005 cm/l, 0.006 cm/l and 0.055 g/l. Dipel 2x was the most toxic insecticide to the 1st instar larvae of P. unionalis, whereas Mectin was the most toxic to both the 3rd and 5th instar larvae. Also, the results revealed that Mectin was the most effective against the pupal stage, followed descendingly by Radiant and Dipel 2x. The toxicity index values showed a superior efficiency of Mectin at LC50 (100% against eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupal stage, whereas Dipel 2x showed such superior efficiency at LC50 (100% only against 1st instar larvae. The results showed that the percents of pupation and emergence of moths were significantly different in all treatments compared to control, while deformed pupae and malformed adults were insignificantly different when fifth instar larvae were treated with the tested insecticides. Moreover, the rate of P. unionalis adult emergence from treated pupae was concentration-dependent and significant differences were found between insecticide treatments and control. Generally, Mectin, Radiant and Dipel 2x caused the highest impacts on adult emergence and malformed adults percentages. Regarding the toxicity of insecticides to the endoparasitoid A. syleptae, the treated cocoons developed to adult stages with no significant

  6. Evidence for oil-induced oxidative stress to larvae of the lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverner, Peter D; Bailey, Peter T; Roush, Richard T

    2002-04-01

    For the purpose of understanding better the mode of action of alkanes on insects, the relationship between mortality, weight loss in oxygen enriched atmospheres and dietary antioxidants was examined using an alkane, C15 Ampol CPD and a spray oil, C23 DC-Tron NR, on lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana Walker, (LBAM). The results showed that the surfactant blend used in CPD was an insignificant contributor to the overall toxicity of dilute oil/water emulsions. Higher weight loss occurred in CPD-dipped larvae than C23 DC-Tron NR-dipped larvae, which suggests that alkanes disrupt tracheal waxes and render insects more prone to desiccation. High levels of oxygen increased the toxicity of CPD to LBAM larvae. In addition, dietary supplements of anti-oxidant, alpha-tocopherol, fed to LBAM larvae were successful in reducing the toxicity of CPD. These results suggest that the alkane may contribute to oxidative injury. The potential role of oil-induced oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxicity in insects is discussed.

  7. The remarkable endemism of moths at White Sands National Monument in New Mexico, USA, with special emphasis on Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Metzler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The white sands formation, a snow-white gypsum dunes system, is the world's largest gypsum dune field. White Sands National Monument protects about 40% of the dunes; the dunes formation as it is known today was formed ca. 8,000 years BP. Prior to 8,000 years BP, the area covered by the dunes was a wet cool forest of the last glacial maximum in North America. The dunes were formed as a result of the hypsithermal, a warming and drying period which followed the most recent glacial maximum. The white sands formation is located in south central New Mexico in the Tularosa Basin of southwestern United States. A 10-year study of moths at the dunes was commissioned by the U. S. National Park Service in 2006. Almost immediately species new to science were detected. In the period of 6 years, 30 new species were discovered in the dunes. Several of the new species are white or very pale in color, and are endemic to the dunes. The focus of the 10 year project was modified to emphasize naming the undescribed species which helps the National Park Service catalog and manage the habitats. The data should encourage other researchers to explore the interactions of the animals with the plants and the harsh desert environment, to study DNA and evolution, and to study the rapid adaptation which seems to be occurring.

  8. Countergradient vs. cogradient variation in growth and diapause in a lichen-feeding moth, Eilema depressum (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöykkö, Heikki; Tammaru, T

    2010-06-01

    Separating genetic and environmental causes of the latitudinal differences among populations is crucial when evaluating the potential for microevolutionary responses to the changing environment. We studied among-population and environmental components of variation in several life-history traits of a lichen-feeding moth Eilema depressum when offspring of replicate Swiss and Finnish females were reared in a common-garden factorial experiment. A partial second generation was produced only among Swiss larvae, more likely so at higher temperature regime and higher host quality, and more frequently among the offspring of particular females. Growth rates of larvae that chose the diapause development were higher in northern individuals. Our results thus reveal adaptive differences between latitudinal populations in studied life-history traits, allowing to expect rapid adaptation of the species to further environmental changes. In contrast, invariable responses of the growth rates of the larvae to temperature and host quality support the idea that some basic parameters of insect growth show a high degree of evolutionary conservatism.

  9. Utilization of blueberry by the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae): survival, development, and larval performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D; Molina, J Ma

    2004-06-01

    The lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner [1820] (Lasiocampidae), is a common species found in blueberry, Vaccinium spp. (Ericaceae) fields of Western Andalusia. The biology of this species as well as the extent to which its larvae can use and survive on blueberry is unknown. In this study, the suitability to larvae of several blueberry cultivars was studied. Larvae were grown under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage of six blueberry cultivars. Survival, development, and food use were determined for first and fifth instars. According to our results, blueberry has become an alternative host plant for S. panda in southwestern Andalusia. Low growth rates and efficiencies of use of food were observed. Lower gross efficiency of growth was found for larvae fed blueberry 'Sharpblue', despite a higher apparent digestibility of this cultivar. Larvae reared on this cultivar had the highest mortality, increased developmental time, and used a greater part of metabolism for maintenance. Herbivore pressure may be increased with the widespread planting of the most suitable cultivars 'Misty' and 'O'Neal', whereas 'Sharpblue' and'Climax' seem to be the least suitable host plants. These data provide useful information for planning and managing blueberry orchards in the presence of S. panda populations.

  10. Insecticide resistance in populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V C; de Siqueira, H A A; da Silva, J E; de Farias, M J D C

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) has a great economic importance in Brassicaceae crops in many parts of the world. Recurrent infestations of this pest in growing areas of Pernambuco state, Brazil, have led farmers to frequently spray their crops with insecticides. However, control failures by several insecticides have been alleged by farmers. The objective of this study was to check whether resistance to insecticides could explain these control failures in P. xylostella. Populations of P. xylostella from Pernambuco were collected between January and April 2009. The resistance ratios of P. xylostella populations were compared among five different active ingredients: abamectin, methomyl, lufenuron, indoxacarb, and diafenthiuron by leaf dipping bioassays using foliar discs of kale leaves. Mortality data were submitted to probit analysis. The P. xylostella populations showed variable response and significant resistance to one or more insecticides. The population from Bezerros County exhibited the highest resistance ratios to indoxacarb (25.3 times), abamectin (61.7 times), and lufenuron (705.2 times), when compared to the reference population. The populations from Bonito and Jupi Counties were 33.0 and 12.0 times more resistant to lufenuron and abamectin, respectively, when compared with the reference population. Resistance to methomyl was the least common, but not less important, in at least four populations. These results indicated that control failures were associated with resistance by some of the evaluated insecticides, reinforcing the need for resistance management in areas of the state of Pernambuco.

  11. Grape variety affects larval performance and also female reproductive performance of the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J; Benrey, B; Thiéry, D

    2006-04-01

    For insect herbivores, the quality of the larval host plant is a key determinant of fitness. Therefore, insect populations are supposed to be positively correlated with the nutritional quality of their host plant. This study aimed to determine if and how different varieties of grapes (including the wild grape Lambrusque) affect both larval and adult performance of the polyphagous European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Significant differences were found in larval development time, but not in pupal mass, adult emergence rate, or sex ratio. Although the fecundity of females is not different among varieties, females fed on some varieties produced eggs of different sizes which are correlated to their fertility. Thus, females adapt resource allocation to eggs depending on their diet as larvae. Using a fitness index, the average reproductive output was found to be highest for females reared on cv. Chardonnay. Females reared on wild grape produced a fitness index identical to the cultivated grapes. However, Lambrusque and Gewurztraminer separate themselves from the cultivated varieties according to our discriminant analyses. It is emphasized, through this study, that cultivars fed on by larvae should be considered in the population dynamics of L. botrana and that egg number is insufficient to determine host plant quality.

  12. A model for the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Baumgärtner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development, parametrization and validation of a phenology model of the overwintering process of European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller populations in northern latitudes. The model is built on diapause and poikilothermic population development theories and represents the phenological events of entries into and emergence from pre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause phases. The rate sum models for pre-diapause and post-diapause development are based on published non-linear temperature dependent rate functions. The rate sum model for diapause, however, is negatively affected by the photoperiod during diapause and positively influenced by the photoperiod at the time of diapause entry. The diapause model is parametrized with 3-year data from 25 locations in Europe and Cyprus, and validated with 1-3 year observations from 18 locations in Europe and California. Despite restrictive assumptions and limitations imposed by weather data recorded at variable distances from the observation sites, and the variable qualities of observation data, the model’s predictive and explanatory capabilities are useful for adaptive pest management and assessments of the invasive potential. The need for controlled experiments is recognized and suggestions are made for improving the model.

  13. The principal structure of male genital sclerites and muscles of bombycoid moths, with special reference to Anthelidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Male genital structures and muscles of bombycoid moths have repeatedly been misidentified in the literature. Furthermore, the genital structures of some bombycoid families, such as the poorly known Australo-New Guinean Anthelidae, have essentially remained unstudied. Based on comparative morphology, this study details the principal arrangements of male genital sclerites and muscles in all bombycoid families, with particular focus on basic structures and their modifications in Anthelidae. Emphasis is placed on the homology of and fusions between these structures and their function, providing a basis for the interpretation of modifications in future phylogenetic and taxonomic studies. This includes the unique fusion of gnathos and valvae in several bombycoid families, the arrangement and extent of the fused tegumen and vinculum, as well as the homology of the "transtilla". Further, a modification of the valve adductor muscle (the segment IX sternum to valva muscle, m4) widely regarded as a synapomorphy of Bombycoidea is demonstrated to be non-existent, as is the presumed presence of the valve abductor muscle (the segment IX tergum to valva muscle, m2) in Saturniidae.

  14. A Global Phylogeny of Leafmining Ectoedemia Moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Exploring Host Plant Family Shifts and Allopatry as Drivers of Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Methodology Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. Significance We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different

  15. Identification and RNA Interference of the Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) in the Common Cutworm Moth Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Huang, Ling-Yan; Chen, Peng; Yu, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jin; Deng, Jian-Yu; Ye, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Spodoptera litura F. is one of the most destructive insect pests of many agricultural crops and notorious for developing insecticide resistance. Developing environmental friendly control methods such as novel pheromone and RNAi-related control strategies is imperative to control this pest. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding the diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) was identified and characterized in S. litura. This 809-bp transcript contains a 573-nucleotide ORF encoding a 191-amino acid protein, from which five putative neuropeptides, including PBAN, DH, and α-, β-, and γ-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptides, were derived. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both the whole protein and each of the five neuropeptides have high similarities to those of DH-PBANs from other insect orders particularly Lepidoptera. Females treated with TKYFSPRLamide (the active core fragment of PBAN) produced significantly more four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. RNA interference by injection of PBAN dsRNA significantly reduced the relative expression levels of this gene in adult females (approximately reduced by 60%). As a consequence, females treated with PBAN dsRNA produced significantly less four types of pheromone compounds (A; B; C; D) than controls. These results suggest that PBAN function in activating sex pheromone biosynthesis and the RNAi of DH-PBAN gene can be induced by the injection of dsRNA into the body cavity in S. litura. This study suggests the possibility of novel pheromone-related pest control strategies based on RNAi techniques.

  16. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies.483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity.Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also shows that some nodes get strong support only when

  17. Host Plants Affect the Foraging Success of Two Parasitoids that Attack Light Brown Apple Moth Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wratten, Steve; Sandhu, Harpinder; Keller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana is a key pest of wine grapes in Australia. Two parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica and Therophilus unimaculatus, attack the larval stage of this pest. D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus is mainly active in native vegetation. We sought to understand why they differ in their use of habitats. Plants are a major component of habitats of parasitoids, and herbivore-infested plants influence parasitoid foraging efficiency by their architecture and emission of volatile chemicals. We investigated how different plant species infested by E. postvittana could affect the foraging success of the two parasitoid species in both laboratory and field experiments. Four common host-plant species were selected for this study. In paired-choice experiments to determine the innate foraging preferences for plants, both parasitoid species showed differences in innate search preferences among plant species. The plant preference of D. tasmanica was altered by oviposition experience with hosts that were feeding on other plant species. In a behavioral assay, the two parasitoid species allocated their times engaged in various types of behavior differently when foraging on different plant species. For both parasitoids, parasitism on Hardenbergia violacea was the highest of the four plant species. Significantly more larvae dropped from Myoporum insulare when attacked than from the other three host-plant species, which indicates that parasitism is also affected by interactions between plants and host insects. In vineyards, parasitism by D. tasmanica was significantly lower on M. insulare than on the other three host-plant species, but the parasitism rates were similar among the other three plant species. Our results indicate that plants play a role in the habitat preferences of these two parasitoid species by influencing their foraging behavior, and are likely to contribute to their distributions among habitats.

  18. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Screening Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in the United States for Evidence of an Asian Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Barr, N B; Braswell, W E; Martinez, M; Ledezma, L A; Molongoski, J; Mastro, V; Schuenzel, E L

    2015-10-01

    European gypsy moth populations (Lymantria dispar L.) are well established and a proven destructive force in hardwood trees throughout the United States and Canada. Introduction of the exotic Asian gypsy moth into North America would be even more impactful, as Asian gypsy moth populations have wider host ranges, and are capable of naturally dispersing more rapidly due to female flight ability. To support early detection and exclusion of Asian gypsy moth, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) uses molecular techniques to screen moths trapped in North America for evidence of common Asian genotype. In order to strengthen U.S. domestic capacity to screen moths quickly and efficiently, we report a real-time PCR assay for this pest. A probe system using TaqMan 5' nuclease chemistry is reported for detection of an allele associated with common Asian gypsy moth genotypes. The targeted allele is located at the nuclear FS1 locus currently used by the USDA in conventional PCR tests to screen for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introductions or introgression. The diagnostic probe is successfully multiplexed with a conserved 18S probe system to detect reaction failure due to poor sample quality or quantity. The specificity, sensitivity, and repeatability of the FS1-18S multiplex real-time PCR assay were tested on laboratory-reared and field-collected moths to demonstrate diagnostic utility. Implications of the new assay as a screening tool for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introgression and introduction are discussed.

  19. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  20. Binding Properties of General Odorant Binding Proteins from the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Li

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is a host-switching pest species. The adults highly depend on olfactory cues in locating optimal host plants and oviposition sites. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs are thought to be responsible for recognizing and transporting hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillum lymph to stimulate the odorant receptors (ORs within the antennal sensilla and activate the olfactory signal transduction pathway. Exploring the physiological function of these OBPs could facilitate understanding insect chemical communications.Two antennae-specific general OBPs (GOBPs of G. molesta were expressed and purified in vitro. The binding affinities of G. molesta GOBP1 and 2 (GmolGOBP1 and 2 for sex pheromone components and host plant volatiles were measured by fluorescence ligand-binding assays. The distribution of GmolGOBP1 and 2 in the antennal sensillum were defined by whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC experiments. The binding sites of GmolGOBP2 were predicted using homology modeling, molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis. Both GmolGOBP1 and 2 are housing in sensilla basiconica and with no differences in male and female antennae. Recombinant GmolGOBP1 (rGmolGOBP1 exhibited broad binding properties towards host plant volatiles and sex pheromone components; rGmolGOBP2 could not effectively bind host plant volatiles but showed specific binding affinity with a minor sex pheromone component dodecanol. We chose GmolGOBP2 and dodecanol for further homology modeling, molecular docking, and site-directed mutagenesis. Binding affinities of mutants demonstrated that Thr9 was the key binding site and confirmed dodecanol bonding to protein involves a hydrogen bond. Combined with the pH effect on binding affinities of rGmolGOBP2, ligand binding and release of GmolGOBP2 were related to a pH-dependent conformational transition.Two rGmolGOBPs exhibit different binding characteristics for tested ligands. r

  1. Resistance among cultivated sunflower germplasm to stem-infesting pests in the central Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Miller, Jerry F; Seiler, Gerald J

    2009-06-01

    A 7-yr field study evaluated 61 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions and 31 interspecific crosses for resistance to attack by naturally occurring populations of three stem-infesting pests, the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); a longhorned beetle, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae); and a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), at two locations in the central Great Plains. Germplasm with potential sources of resistance to attack from all three stem-infesting species were revealed. Accessions PI 650558, PI 386230, and PI 431516 were consistent in averaging low densities of stem weevil larvae per stalk among lines tested, and PI 497939 exceeded 25 weevil larvae per stalk in only 1 yr of 5 yr of trials. Several interspecific crosses also had consistently low densities of C. adspersus larvae per stalk. Populations of both D. texanus and P. womonana were variable over years, but differences among the lines tested were evident in many trials, revealing potential for developing resistant germplasm. Four accessions (PI 386230, PI 431542, PI 650497, and PI 650558) had low larval densities of C. adspersus and P. womonana in addition to reduced percentage infestation by D. texanus. Results showed potential for developing resistant genotypes for these pests. The prospect of adding host plant resistance as an integrated pest management (IPM) tactic would provide another tool for reducing economic losses from stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower in the central Great Plains.

  2. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...... in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our...

  3. Lepidoptera (Moth) Inventory: Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Wildlife Refuges protect important habitats for many plant and animal species. Refuge inventories have frequently included plants, birds and mammals, but...

  4. Methoxyfenozide, a reliable IPM compatible compound against Lepidoptera in pome fruit and vegetables with sterilising, ovicidal and larvicidal efficacy on codling moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylemans, D; De Maeyer, L; Auwerkerken, A; De Craen, H; Wijsmuller, J W; Peeters, D

    2003-01-01

    Methoxyfenozide (Runner 240 SC), a Moulting Accelerating Compound (MAC) currently submitted for registration in Belgium, is an IPM (Integrated Pest Management) compatible compound with strong, broad spectrum activity against lepidopterous pests in pome frunit and vegetables. Field trials have confirmed reliable efficacy against larvae of winter moth O. brumata , both the overwintering and summer generation of the summer fruit tortrix moth, Adoxophyes orana and also the tomato looper, Chrysodeixes chalcites. Methoxyfenozide can be applied in pome fruit from green cluster onwards, and due to its bee safety it can be used also during flowering. The high consistency obtained with methoxyfenozide on the overwintering caterpillars of fruit tortrix moth relates in part to its minimal temperature dependence, to its high rain fastness and to the high intrinsic activity (low EC50) and to the ability to control all larval feeding stages. The effects of a treatment of the hibernating generation of A. orana on the subsequent summer generations is discussed. By special caged trials (semi-field) the pest- stage specificity against codling moth Cydia pomonella was investigated. Applications of methoxyfenozide were made just prior to egg deposition, at peak of egg laying and at the black head capsule stage of the embryo of codling moth. Results revealed evidence of reduced fecundity of female moths and confirmed the outstanding larvicidal and ovicidal properties of the compound (Charmillot, 2001). Application from just before egg deposition to the black head stage in the eggs is recommended and the additional sterilising effect completes the activity profile of methoxyfenozide. Treated females show reduced egg deposition whereas treated males increase the percentage of sterile eggs. Reduced field performance of methoxyfenozide in orchards showing resistance to diflubenzuron (chitin synthesis inhibitor), supports the findings of other authors on the cross-resistance of MACs and

  5. First record of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana Meyrick (Lepidoptera : Carposinidae) in New Caledonia : implication for quarantine and biosecurity surveys in insular territories

    OpenAIRE

    Mille, C; Munzinger, Jérôme; Jourdan, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    We recorded the Australian guava moth for the first time in New Caledonia. Given its biology and recent spread into New Zealand, this moth may be a pest risk for many fruit crops and native plant species if it is proved to have been introduced in New Caledonia. Indeed, this record challenges our capabilities to identify insect interceptions in the context of a high gap of taxonomic knowledge in New Caledonia. It also urges high endemism islands to implement early detection protocols to preven...

  6. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – Major Pest in Apple Production: an Overview of its Biology, Resistance, Genetic Structure and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pajač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM (Linnaeus is a key pest in pome fruit production with a preference for apple. The pest is very adaptable to different climatic conditions and is known for developing resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides. Because of these reasons, the populations of codling moth are differentiated in many ecotypes of various biological and physiological development requirements. The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about: morphology, biology, dispersal, damages, resistance to insecticides, population genetic structure and genetic control of this pest.

  7. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) control with ground-based hydraulic applications of Gypchek, in vitro-produced virus, and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin W. Thorpe; John D. Podgwaite; James M. Slavicek; Ralph E. Webb

    1998-01-01

    Gypchek, a registered microbial insecticide for aerial and ground-based application against the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., was field-tested in 1996 and 1997 at 2 doses (1011 and 1012 polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) per 379 liters (100 gallons) ) and with and without a sunscreen. An in vitro-...

  8. Irrigation and fertilization effects on Nantucket Pine Tip Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Damage levels and pupal weight in an intensively-managed pine plantation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David, R.; Nowak, John, T.; Fettig, Christopher, J.

    2003-10-01

    The widespread application of intensive forest management practices throughout the southeastern U.S. has increased loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., yields and shortened conventional rotation lengths. Fluctuations in Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), population density and subsequent damage levels have been linked to variations in management intensity. We examined the effects of two practices, irrigation and fertilization, on R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights in an intensively-managed P. taeda plantation in South Carolina. Trees received intensive weed control and one of the following treatments; irrigation only. fertilization only, irrigation + fertilization, or control. Mean whole-tree tip moth damage levels ranged from <1 to 48% during this study. Damage levels differed significantly among treatments in two tip moth generations in 2001, but not 2000. Pupal weight was significantly heavier in fertilization compared to the irrigation treatment in 2000, but no significant differences were observed in 2001. Tree diameter. height. and aboveground volume were significantly greater in the irrigation + fertilization than in the irrigation treatment after two growing seasons. Our data suggest that intensive management practices that include irrigation and fertilization do not consistently increase R. frustrana damage levels and pupal weights as is commonly believed. However, tip moth suppression efforts in areas adjacent to our study may have partially reduced the potential impacts of R. frustrana on this experiment.

  9. A historical review and recent advances in moth-studies in Japan : Mature stage (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    The first species of moth described from Japan was Noctua serici THUNBERG, 1781. But unfortunately it was a South Africa Arctiid now considered to be junior synonym of Rhodogastria amesis (CRAMER) (HAMPSON, 1901 ; KARSHOLT & NIELSEN, 1985, ENT. Scand. 16 : 455). ・・・

  10. A taxonomic review of Attevidae (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea) from China with descriptions of two new species and a revised identity of the Ailanthus webworm moth, Atteva fabriciella, from the Asian tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This review describes four species of Atteva (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Attevidae) from China, including two new species: A. wallengreni n. sp. and A. yanguifella n. sp. The taxonomic identity of the Ailanthus webworm moth from South and Southeast Asia is revised with a designation of neotype for Phalaena (Tinea) fabriciella Swederus. Lectotypes of Atteva brucea Moore and A. niviguttella Walker are designated. Atteva brucea is synonymized with A. fabriciella. Synonymy of Atteva niviguttella and A. fabriciella is reconfirmed. The previous Chinese records of A. fabriciella were based on confusions with A. wallengreni n. sp. Confirmed specimens of A. fabriciella from China are reported. A pair of confused species, A. fabriciella and A. wallengreni n. sp., are distinguished by the number of white dots on the forewings and the genital features. Another confused pair, A. niveigutta and A. yanguifella n. sp., are compared by external and genital features. All type specimens of the described species are illustrated and compared with the conspecific specimens from various countries of the Asian tropics. Keys to all the species from China are provided.

  11. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  12. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  13. Color, iridescence, and thermoregulation in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Stephen G; Hayes, Jacqueline; Large, Maryanne C J; Poladian, Leon

    2008-10-10

    This paper examines evidence for the hypothesized connection between solar thermal properties of butterfly and moth (Lepidoptera) wings, iridescence/structural color, and thermoregulation. Specimens of 64 species of Lepidoptera were measured spectrophotometrically, their solar absorptances calculated, and their habitat temperatures determined. No correlation was found between habitat temperature and the solar absorptance of the wings. It was found, however, that the iridescent specimens exhibited, on average, substantially higher solar absorptance than noniridescent ones.

  14. A new genus and species of leaf-mining moth from the French Alps, Mercantouria neli gen. n., sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Triberti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Alps are a hotspot of biodiversity in Europe with many Lepidoptera species still to be discovered. Here we describe a new gracillariid genus and species, Mercantouria neli gen. n. and sp. n. The morphology of the male genitalia is highly differentiated with unique features. DNA barcodes show that its nearest neighbor is the North American species ‘Caloptilia’ scutellariella (Braun, 1923). Mercantouria neli is known from four adults (two males and two females) collected at two localities in the French Alps. Its host plant and life cycle remain unknown. PMID:27199612

  15. Microbial control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L.(Lepidoptera:Yponomeutidae) using bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) and its metabolites from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHAR Ali Nawaz; MUNIR Muhammad; ELAWAD Sami; GOWEN Simon Richard; HAGUE Nigel Graham Meckenzi

    2004-01-01

    Cells and cell-free solutions of the culture filtrate of the bacterial symbiont, Xenorhabdus nematophila taken from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in aqueous broth suspensions were lethal to larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella. Their application on leaves of Chinese cabbage indicated that the cells can penetrate into the insects in the absence of the nematode vector. Cell-free solutions containing metabolites were also proved as effective as bacterial cells suspension. The application of aqueous suspensions of cells of X. nematophila or solutions containing its toxic metabolites to the leaves represents a possible new strategy for controlling insect pests on foliage.

  16. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  17. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the central plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-08-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in three locations in Colorado and Kansas during 2001-2003 to investigate the potential of combining planting date and foliar and seed treatment insecticide applications to lower insect stalk densities of these three pests. The impact of these strategies on weevil larval parasitoids also was studied. Eight sunflower stem weevil larval parasitoid species were identified. All were Hymenoptera and included the following (relative composition in parentheses): Nealiolus curculionis (Fitch) (42.6%), Nealiolus collaris (Brues) (3.2%) (Braconidae), Quadrastichus ainsliei Gahan (4.2%) (Eulophidae), Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashmead (13.1%) (Eurytomidae), Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead) (33.7%), Chlorocytus sp. (1.6%), Pteromalus sp. (0.5%) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus sp. (1.0%) (Eupelmidae). The results from this 3-yr study revealed that chemical control was often reliable in protecting the sunflower crop from stem pests and was relatively insensitive to application timing. Although results in some cases were mixed, overall, delayed planting can be a reliable and effective management tool for growers in the central Plains to use in reducing stem-infesting pest densities in sunflower stalks. Chemical control and planting date were compatible with natural mortality contributed by C. adspersus larval parasitoids.

  18. Application Techniques of Sex Pheromone in Monitoring and Control of Sunflower Moth%性诱剂监测和控制向日葵螟应用技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白全江; 云晓鹏; 徐利敏; 曹丽霞; 杜磊

    2013-01-01

      向日葵螟 Homoeosoma nebulella 是危害向日葵花盘籽粒的主要害虫。为了减少化学农药对环境和有益昆虫的影响,探索应用性诱剂监测及防控向日葵螟技术。2008-2009年在内蒙古巴彦淖尔市、鄂尔多斯市测试向日葵螟性信息素性诱与灯诱的诱集活性,性诱剂不同剂量、诱芯常温条件下存放对诱蛾效果的影响;以及按棋盘式等距离放置25、11和6个诱捕器·hm−2,3次重复,调查不同密度诱捕器对向日葵螟危害的防控效果。结果表明,性诱剂对向日葵螟具有良好的诱集活性,并与灯诱成虫动态趋势基本一致,蛾峰谷明显;诱芯在常温条件下存放1年,对诱蛾有显著影响,而且诱捕向日葵螟效果与性诱剂的含量呈正相关;田间放置25个诱捕器·hm−2,对向日葵螟危害控制效果最佳,防效达81.9%。%In order to evaluate monitoring and control efficacy of sex pheromone lures of European sunflower moth and to develop biological control techniques, a comprehensive study was conducted in Bayannur and Ordos, Inner Mongolia in 2008 and 2009. Researches included comparisons of trap efficacy between different trap designs, pheromone dosages, trap densities and lure storage times. Results showed that pheromone lures had a good field performance, and their trapping peaks were in accord with those of light traps. One-year storage could significantly affect trap catches. Trap catches were positively correlated with pheromone dosage. Pheromone traps at 25 traps·hm−2 can achieve control efficacy above 81%.

  19. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  20. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  1. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and prota

  2. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, C.E.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and

  3. Effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the biology and ultrastructure of haemocytes of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Galleridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kholy, Eman M.S. [Biological Applications Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M., E-mail: nahlasalem97@yahoo.co [Entomology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    This study was carried out on fully grown pupae of greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L., {gamma}-irradiated to 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The four doses given to male parents in the F{sub 1} generation decreased the average number of eggs per mated female, the percentage of egg hatching and the percentage of mating in both the male and female lines; the effects increased with the dose. Dose dependence of the reduction in the fecundity and the percentage of egg hatching among the female line pairings (female descendants of irradiated parental male pupae) was more significant than among the male line pairings (male descendants of irradiated parental male pupae). We also examined morphological changes in the irradiated blood cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Vacuolization of the cytoplasm, disorganization and swelling of mitochondria were found.

  4. Molecular Characterization and In Silico Analysis of the Pheromone-Binding Protein of the European Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutis, A; Palma, R; Venthur, H; Iturriaga-Vásquez, P; Faundez-Parraguez, M; Mella-Herrera, R; Kontodimas, D; Lobos, C; Quiroz, A

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) is an economically important insect in Europe. The species invaded vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California during 2008-2010 causing severe problems. A major component of the sex pheromone, (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate (E7,Z9-12:Ac), is used in a mating disruption technique when grapevine moth populations are low or to monitor pest numbers. It is thought that these sexual pheromones are blends of volatiles that typically are specific to a species and are transported in the insect antenna by pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) across the sensillar lymph to the olfactory receptors. Currently, an increasing number of Lepidopteran PBPs are being identified and cloned. However, there are no studies of the olfactory system and of proteins involved in the olfactory perception of L. botrana at the molecular level. In the present study, we report, for the first time, the sequence of a PBP from L. botrana (LbotPBP), which was determined using reverse transcription technology. Homology modeling was used to generate the three-dimensional protein structure. The model suggests that PBP consists of six α-helices as follows: Lys2-Met23 (α1), Thr28-Phe36 (α2), Arg46-Leu59 (α3), His70-Asn80 (α4), Glu84-Asn100 (α5), and Cys108-Lys125 (α6), held together by three disulfide bridges, Cys19-Cys54, Cys50-Cys108, and Cys97-Cys117. Docking simulations based on this model suggested that Trp114 is a key residue in the recognition of acetate pheromones, such as E7,Z9-12:Ac. In silico results in this study are consistent with previous findings in which E7,Z9-12:Ac acts as the most active compound in behavioral and electroantennographic assays.

  5. Mouthparts and associated sensilla of a South American moth, Synempora andesae (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae Piezas bucales y sensilios asociados de Synempora andesae, una polilla de Sudamérica (Lepidoptera: Neopseustidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. Faucheux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The mouthparts of Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen were studied by means of scanning electron microscope. The existence of gustative uniporous sensilla styloconica is demonstrated for the second time on the proboscis of Neopseustidae. It is with this family, and not at a later stage within the Incurvaroidea, that these sensilla appear during the evolution of Lepidoptera. Contrary to common belief, the labial-palp-pit organ, or organ of vom Rath, is present at the distal extremity of the labial palpi of S. andesae. It is made up of a dozen of grooved multiporous sensilla coeloconica whose function is carbon dioxide sensitive. Thus, its presumed absence can no longer be considered as an autapomorphy of Neopseustidae. S. andesae possesses other original characteristics: both short and long bifurcate aporous sensilla chaetica on the labrum, numerous sensilla campaniformia on the first segment of labial palpi, as well as those previously described: the double-tube configuration of the proboscis and the composite and polymorphic multiporous sensilla basiconica on the antennae. Other cephalic sensilla are also described: aporous bifurcate sensilla chaetica on the clypeus, aporous sensilla campaniformia above the mandibles, and on the chaetosemata.Las piezas bucales de Synempora andesae Davis & Nielsen fueron estudiadas con un microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se demuestra, por segunda vez, la existencia de sensilios estilocónicos gustativos uniporosos en la proboscis de Neopseustidae. Es en esta familia, y no en un estadio posterior dentro de Incurvaroidea, que aparecen estos sensilios durante la evolución de Lepidoptera. Contrario a lo que se cree, el órgano sensitivo labial u órgano de Von Rath, se encuentra en la extremidad distal del palpo labial de S. andesae. Está conformado por una docena de sensilios celocónicos multiporosos estriados, cuya función es percibir el dióxido de carbono. Por lo tanto, su supuesta ausencia ya no puede

  6. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allo

  7. Materiały do znajomości Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera) Wielkopolskiego Parku Narodowego

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraniak, Edward; Walczak, Urszula; Karsholt, Ole

    2014-01-01

    A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland.......A faunistic list of 48 species of gelechiid moths (Lepidoptera: Gele-chiidae) collected in the Wielkopolski National Park is given. Syncopacma larseniella GOZMANY, 1957 is new to the fauna of Poland....

  8. Effects of Low Ozone Concentrations and Short Exposure Times on the Mortality of Immature Stages of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia Interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivanloo Ensieh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Iran, the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner, is one of the most important pests of such stored products as date fruits and pistachio nuts. Ozone was applied as a gas at four concentrations (0, 2, 3, and 5 ppm for four different periods (30, 60, 90, and 120 min on the immature stages of P. interpunctella. The results indicated that by increasing the concentration and exposure time, the rate of mortality increased for all tested stages. This study showed that 12-day-old larvae were more susceptible than other stages when exposed to 5 ppm ozone for 120 min. The next in order of susceptibility were pupae, then 5-day-old larvae, and 17-dayold larvae had the highest sensitivity to ozonation. At the highest concentration of ozone, for the longest time, the least mortality rate was recorded for one-day-old eggs. According to the results, a reduction in the population density of P. interpunctella in laboratory experiments is promising. However, validation studies will be necessary to fully determine the potential of ozone as a replacement for the current post harvest chemical control of P. interpunctella on either pistachio nuts or date fruits.

  9. Development and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers for the Peach Fruit Moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Zhu Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii is an economically important pest on dozens of fruits from Rosaceae and Rhamnaceae in Northeast Asia. We developed novel microsatellite markers for C. sasakii from randomly sequenced regions of the genome using next-generation sequencing. In total, 95,153 microsatellite markers were isolated from 4.70 GB genomic sequences. Thirty-five polymorphic markers were developed by assessing in 63 individuals from two geographical populations. The allele numbers ranged from 2 to 9 with an average value of 4.60 per locus, while the polymorphism information content ranged from 0.075 to 0.696 with an average value of 0.407. Furthermore, the observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.000 to 0.677 and 0.062 to 0.771, respectively. The microsatellites developed provide abundant molecular markers for investigating genetic structure, genetic diversity, and existence of host-plant associated biotypes of C. sasakii.

  10. Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller (Lepidoptera: pyrallidae on two commercial pistachio cultivars and an artificial diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Teimouri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding indices and enzymatic activities of Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller were studied in a growth chamber under controlled conditions (29 ± 2 °C, relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours on two commercial Pistachio cultivars (Akbari and Kalequchi and an artificial diet. Feeding indices of E. ceratoniae larvae differed significantly on three hosts (P < 0.05. The relative consumption rate was calculated to be 5.36 ± 0.009, 11.10 ± 1.49 and 10.631 ± 0.599 (mg/mg/day on artificial diet, Akbari and Kalequchi cultivars, respectively. Carob moth larvae reared on Akbari cultivar showed the highest efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD (5.64 ± 0.43. The highest amount of efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI was obtained on artificial diet but approximate digestibility (AD was the lowest on this diet. The highest enzymatic activities of alpha-amylase, general proteases and lipase were observed in the midgut of larvae reared on artificial diet. Total protein and lipid value were highest in larvae that were reared on artificial diet.

  11. Three-dimensional antennal lobe atlas of male and female moths, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and glomerular representation of plant volatiles in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masante-Roca, Ingwild; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2005-03-01

    Spatiotemporal odour coding is thought to be linked closely with the specific glomerular anatomy of the primary olfactory centre. In most insects the number of the glomeruli within the antennal lobe is limited to fewer than 100, allowing their individual identification. In the grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, a map of the antennal lobe glomeruli was reconstructed three-dimensionally, by comparing three different brains in males and females. The map of the antennal lobe of females served then as a basis to identify glomeruli containing dendritic arborisations of 14 physiologically characterised projection neurons. Projection neurons responding to the same plant compound did not always arborise in the same glomerulus and some neurons arborising in the same glomerulus responded to different compounds. Different zones of target glomeruli were, however, identified when pooling all neurons responding to one of two different compounds respectively (alpha-farnesene and nonatriene). All identified glomeruli of specifically responding projection neurons were situated close to the anterior surface of the antennal lobe. One broadly responding projection neuron arborised in a more posteriorly situated glomerulus. A local interneuron responding to only one compound was arborising densely in a neighbouring glomerulus and had sparse branches in all other glomeruli. These results are discussed with respect to plant odour processing and structure-function relations in antennal lobe neurons. The 3D AL atlas will, in the future, also be used to obtain a better understanding of coding mechanisms of grapevine odours in this pest insect.

  12. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Kevin J Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to...

  13. Ao38, a new cell line from eggs of the black witch moth, Ascalapha odorata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is permissive for AcMNPV infection and produces high levels of recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect cell line is a critical component in the production of recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system and new cell lines hold the promise of increasing both quantity and quality of protein production. Results Seventy cell lines were established by single-cell cloning from a primary culture of cells derived from eggs of the black witch moth (Ascalapha odorata; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Among 8 rapidly growing lines, cell line 38 (Ao38 was selected for further analysis, based on susceptibility to AcMNPV infection and production of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP from a baculovirus expression vector. In comparisons with low-passage High Five (BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells, infected Ao38 cells produced β-galactosidase and SEAP at levels higher (153% and 150%, respectively than those measured from High Five cells. Analysis of N-glycans of SEAP produced in Ao38 cells revealed two N-glycosylation sites and glycosylation patterns similar to those reported for High Five and Sf9 cells. Glycopeptide isoforms consisted of pauci- or oligomannose, with and without fucose on N-acetylglucosamine(s linked to asparagine residues. Estimates of Ao38 cell volume suggest that Ao38 cells are approximately 2.5× larger than Sf9 cells but only approximately 74% of the size of High Five cells. Ao38 cells were highly susceptible to AcMNPV infection, similar to infectivity of Sf9 cells. Production of infectious AcMNPV budded virions from Ao38 cells peaked at approximately 4.5 × 107 IU/ml, exceeding that from High Five cells while lower than that from Sf9 cells. Ao38 cells grew rapidly in stationary culture with a population doubling time of 20.2 hr, and Ao38 cells were readily adapted to serum-free medium (Sf-900III and to a suspension culture system. Analysis of Ao38 and a parental Ascalapha odorata cell line indicated that these lines were free of the alphanodavirus that was recently identified as an adventitious agent in High Five cell

  14. Host plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, suga...

  15. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  16. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: An overview of successful and unsuccessful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terenius, O.; Papanicolaou, A.; Garbutt, J.S.; Eleftherianos, I.; Huvenne, H.; Kanginakudru, S.; Albrechtsen, M.; An, Chunju; Aymeric, J.L.; Barthel, A.; Bebas, P.; Bitra, K.; Bravo, A.; Chevalier, F.; Collinge, D.P.; Crava, C.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Duvic, B.; Erlandson, M.; Faye, I.; Felfoldi, G.; Fujiwara, H.; Futahashi, R.; Gandhe, A.S.; Gatehouse, H.S.; Gatehouse, L.N.; Giebultowicz, J.M.; Gomez, I.; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Groot, A.T.; Hauser, F.; Heckel, D.G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Hrycaj, S.; Huang, L.; Hull, J.J.; Iatrou, K.; Iga, M.; Kanost, M.R.; Kotwica, J.; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Meyering-Vos, M.; Millichap, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; Mrinal, N.; Niimi, T.; Nowara, D.; Ohnishi, A.; Oostra, V.; Ozaki, K.; Papakonstantinou, M.; Popadic, A.; Rajam, M.V.; Saenko, S.; Simpson, R.M.; Soberon, M.; Strand, M.R.; Tomita, S.; Toprak, U.; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, S.; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, J.; Ffrench-Constant, R.H.; Herrero, S.; Gordon, K.; Swevers, L.; Smagghe, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex

  17. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  18. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J;

    2003-01-01

    are excited by sound stimuli. Those two cells differ in threshold by approximately 19 dB. The morphology of the ear suggests that the two larger scolopidia function as auditory sensilla; the two smaller scolopidia, located near the tympanal frame, were not excited by sound. We present a biophysical model...... insects, by having an internal tympanal membrane, and auditory sensilla embedded within the membrane. The tympanum is formed by two thin tracheal walls that stretch across a teardrop-shaped opening between dorsal and ventral air chambers in the first abdominal segment. There are four sensory organs...... (scolopidia) embedded separately between the tympanal membrane layers: two larger lateral scolopidia within the tympanal area, and two smaller scolopidia at the medial margin of the tympanal frame. Sound is thought to reach the tympanal membrane through two external membranes that connect indirectly...

  20. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed.

  1. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  2. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  3. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY, New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp. trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England.

  4. Effect of Pheromone Trap Density on Mass Trapping of Male Potato Tuber Moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, and Level of Damage on Potato Tubers Efecto de la Densidad de Trampas de Feromona en Masiva de Machos de Polilla de la Papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, y en el Nivel de Daño a los Tubérculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, is one of the pests that cause the most damage to potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. in both field crops and storage, especially in regions where summers are hot and dry. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of edible product. The use of synthetic pheromones that interfere with insect mating for pest control has been widely demonstrated in numerous Lepidoptera and other insect species. An experiment was carried out during the 2004-2005 season in Valle del Elqui, Coquimbo Region, Chile, to evaluate the effectiveness of different pheromone trap densities to capture P. operculella males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. The study evaluated densities of 10, 20, and 40 traps ha-1, baited with 0.2 mg of PTM sexual pheromone, and water-detergent for captures. Results indicated that larger numbers of male PTM were captured per trap with densities of 20 and 40 traps per hectare, resulting in a significant reduction (P La polilla de la papa, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, es una de las plagas que causan mayor daño a la papa (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto a los cultivos en campo como a los tubérculos almacenados, especialmente en zonas de climas cálidos y secos. Las larvas de este insecto se desarrollan en el follaje y tubérculos de papa causando pérdidas directas del producto a comercializar. La utilización de feromonas sintéticas, como una herramienta que interfiere con el apareamiento, ha sido ampliamente demostrada en innumerables especies de polillas y otros insectos. Con el fin de evaluar la efectividad de diferentes densidades de trampas de feromona en la captura de machos de P. operculella, para su futura utilizacióncomo técnica de trampeo masivo y consecuente disminución de la reproducción del insecto, se realizó un estudio durante la temporada 2004-2005, en el Valle del Elqui

  5. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  6. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  7. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  8. Synthetic pheromones disrupt male Dioryctria spp. moths in a loblolly pine seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary L. DeBarr; James L. Hanula; Christine G. Niwa; John C Nord

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic sex pheromones released in a loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceae), seed orchard interfered with the ability of male coneworm moths, Dioryctria Zeller spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to locate traps baited with sex pheromones or live females. Pherocon 1 C® traps baited with synthetic pheromones or live conspecific...

  9. Oviposition of diamondback moth in the presence and absence of a novel host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henniges-Janssen, K; Schöfl, G.; Reineke, A.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)) consumes a wide variety of brassicaceous host plants and is a common pest of crucifer crops worldwide. A highly unusual infestation of a sugar pea crop was recorded in Kenya in 1999, which persisted for two consecutive yea

  10. Moth-Inspired Chemical Plume Tracing on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    that the AUV sampling is too coarse relative to the spatial and temporal rates of change that can occur in the environment. This paper systematically ...Physiolog. Entomol., vol. 19, pp. 15–29, 1994. [51] J. S. Elkinton and R. T. Cardé, “Appetitive flight behavior of male gypsy moths ( Lepidoptera

  11. Factors affecting the field performance of an attracticide against the codling moth Cydia pomonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lösel, P.M.; Potting, R.P.J.; Ebbinghaus, D.; Scherkenbeck, J.

    2002-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficacy of an attracticide strategy for the control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella L (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were investigated using laboratory and field experiments. The sex-pheromone-based insect-control strategy utilises 100-?l droplets of a sticky, paste-like formu

  12. A striking new genus and species of tiger-moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) from the Caribbean, with molecular and morphological analysis of its systematic placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Benoit; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Rougerie, Rodolphe

    2014-01-31

    Westindia Vincent, a new genus, is proposed for W. haxairei Vincent, a new species of Neotropical tiger-moth described from Dominican Republic. Habitus, male and female genitalia are described and figured. The systematic position of the new genus within Arctiinae is discussed in light of a comparative morphology and a molecular phylogeny derived from the DNA barcode fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene and of the D2 region of the 28S rDNA gene.

  13. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    the day were also studied in order to determine whether or not these visitors contribute to pollination. At least 67 species or morpho-species belonging to four nocturnal visitor orders were recorded. The richest and most abundant order was Lepidoptera (44 species or morpho-species, five families, followed by Coleoptera (18 species or morpho-species, nine families, Orthoptera (three morpho-species, one family and Blattaria (two species, one family. Lepidopterans foraged exclusively for nectar while species in other orders consumed pollen and/or floral parts. However, stigma receptivity was greater during the day, peaking at midday (12:00 - 14:00. Unexpectedly, moth species widely outnumbered bee species as sunflower visitors. Since moths potentially transfer pollen at a time of the day when stigmas are least receptive, it is unlikely that they do effectively pollinate sunflowers.

  14. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  15. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  16. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Sarto i Monteys

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths", which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as

  17. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  18. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  19. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terenius, O.; Papanicolaou, A.; Garbutt, J.S.; Eleftherianos, I.; Huvenne, H.; Kanginakudru, S.; Albrechtsen, M.; An, C.; Aymeric, J.L.; Barthel, A.; Bebas, P.; Bitra, K.; Bravo, A.; Chevalier, F.; Collinge, D.P.; Crava, C.M.; de Maagd, R.A.; Duvic, B.; Erlandson, M.; Faye, I.; Felföldi, G.; Fujiwara, H.; Futahashi, R.; Gandhe, A.S.; Gatehouse, H.S.; Gatehouse, L.N.; Giebultowicz, J.M.; Gómez, I.; Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P.; Groot, A.T.; Hauser, F.; Heckel, D.G.; Hegedus, D.D.; Hrycaj, S.; Huang, L.; Hull, J.J.; Iatrou, G.; Iga, M.; Kanost, M.R.; Kotwica, J.; Li, C.; Li, J.H.; Liu, J.S.; Lundmark, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Meyering-Vos, M.; Millichap, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; Mrinal, N.; Niimi, T; Nowara, D.; Ohnishi, A.; Oostra, V.; Ozaki, K.; Papakonstantinou, M.; Popadic, A.; Rajam, M.V.; Saenko, S.; Simpson, R.M.; Soberón, M.; Strand, M.R.; Tomita, S.; Toprak, U.; Wang, P.; Wee, C.W.; Whyard, S.; Zhang, W.; Nagaraju, J.; Ffrench-Constant, R.H.; Herrero, S.; Gordon, K.; Smagghe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex

  20. Heritable genome editing with CRISPR/Cas9 induces anosmia in a crop pest moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroumpa, Fotini A; Monsempes, Christelle; François, Marie-Christine; de Cian, Anne; Royer, Corinne; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2016-07-12

    Lepidoptera suffer critical lack of genetic tools and heritable genome edition has been achieved only in a few model species. Here we demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient for genome editing in a non-model crop pest Lepidoptera, the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. We knocked-out the olfactory receptor co-receptor Orco gene to investigate its function in Lepidoptera olfaction. We find that 89.6% of the injected individuals carried Orco mutations, 70% of which transmitted them to the next generation. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Orco knockout caused defects in plant odor and sex pheromone olfactory detection in homozygous individuals. Our work genetically defines Orco as an essential OR partner for both host and mate detection in Lepidoptera, and demonstrates that CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and highly efficient genome editing technique in noctuid pests opening new routes for gene function analysis and the development of novel pest control strategies.

  1. The impact of brick (Agrochola circellaris Hufn. and owlet moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on the health of seeds of field elms (Ulmus minor Mill. in the landscape parks of the Świętokrzyskie Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk-Badowska Jolanta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period of 2012-2013, a research was conducted to investigate the insects damaging the seeds of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill.. The aim of the research was to specify the damages to field elm seeds caused mainly by the brick (Agrochola circellaris and to indicate the possible dependence between the number of damaged seeds by the caterpillars of this moth and stand density. The research was conducted in the areas of Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park (C-OLP and Nida Landscape Park (NLP in the Świętokrzyskie Province. In both parks, there were two test stands situated, each of which covered the material collected from the trees. The number of field elms ranged from four to six. Furthermore, a sample of 300 seeds were randomly collected from each tree. The elms in Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park were observed in full density stands (fully stocked stands; however, these trees in Nida Landscape Park were growing in loose density stands (under-stocked stands. In total, there were 12,000 seeds collected from 20 trees. The analysis of the collected research material demonstrated that 436 seeds from the field elms (Ulmus minor were damaged by the brick (Agrochola circellaris. It constituted 3.6% of the total number of collected samples (Table 1. In the seed samples collected from the test stands in Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park, the damages caused by the caterpillars of the brick moth ranged between 0.8% and 2.9%. In the case of seed samples collected from Nida Landscape Park, the damages caused by the caterpillars of the brick moth were greater and ranged between 4.1% and 6.5%. The percentage of undamaged seeds ranged between 94.4% in Cisów-Orłowiny Landscape Park and 84.7% in Nida Landscape Park, which constituted, on an average, 89.5% for both parks. The 6.8% of the seeds were also damaged by other insects. The results of the research showed the dependence between the number of field elm seeds damaged by the brick Agrochola circellaris and the

  2. Gypsy moth basic knowledge and its prevention%舞毒蛾基本知识及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓芬

    2012-01-01

    舞毒蛾属鳞翅目夜蛾总科毒蛾科舞毒蛾属。是一种食性广谱的食叶害虫,本文主要介绍了它的生活史、主要形态特征和主要防治措施。%gypsy moth genus Lepidoptera Lymantriidae gypsy moth genus of moth. Is a kind of feeding broad leaf eating insects, this paper mainly introduces its life history, the main characteristics and the main preventive measures.

  3. Description of the Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae Attacking the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lep.: Gelechiidae New to Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diadegma fenestrale is known as a parasitoid of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella. The potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller is one of the most destructive pest of potatoes. Also, we found this species attacking the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae. Ratio of parasitism is 20-30% and cocoon of lepidopteran was parasitic ichneumonid species after 3 days. This species and the genus Diadegma are recorded for the first time from Korea. In this paper, description of the parasitoid and photographs of the diagnostic characteristics are provided.

  4. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth.

  5. Identification of Components of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Simao pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, X.B.; Sun, X.L.; Wang, H.B.; Zhang, Z.; Booij, C.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), is a pest of economic importance on pine in southwest China. Three active compounds were detected during analyses of solvent extracts and effluvia sampled by solid phase microextraction (SPME) from virgin female

  6. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleiro, Marina; Mc Kay, Fernando; Wheeler, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    During surveys for natural enemies that could be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper), the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the shrub in South America. The biology and larval and adult host range of this species were examined to determine the insect's suitability for biological control of this invasive weed in North America and Hawaii. Biological observations indicate that the larvae have five instars. When disturbed, the late instar larvae emit formic acid from a prothoracic gland that may protect larvae from generalist predators. Larval host range tests conducted both in South and North America indicated that this species feeds and completes development primarily on members of the Anacardiaceae within the tribe Rhoeae. Oviposition tests indicated that when given a choice in large cages the adults will select the target weed over Pistacia spp. However, considering the many valued plant species in its host range, especially several North American natives, this species will not be considered further for biological control of S. terebinthifolius in North America.

  7. 舞毒蛾不同地理种群基于AFLP分子标记的遗传分析%AFLP Analysis of Different Geographic Populations of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar ( Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱路; 安榆林; 徐梅; 杨晓军; 朱宏斌

    2011-01-01

    舞毒蛾是一种食性很广、危害很大的世界性林木害虫,根据其地理分布和生活特性,现在被分为亚洲型和欧洲型2种.对来自俄罗斯远东地区、蒙古、日本、美国和中国5个地理种群,共26份舞毒蛾样品进行AFLP分子标记研究.成功建立并优化舞毒蛾AFLP分析体系,从16对引物组合中筛选出3对扩增条带多、多态检出率高的荧光标记引物组合,利用CEQ - 8000遗传分析仪进行毛细管电泳及数据分析,共检测到507个多态性位点.通过PAUP软件对AFLP数据进行UPGM和NJ树的聚类分析以及遗传距离分析,结果表明:5个地理种群舞毒蛾明显分成欧洲型(美国种群)和亚洲型,其中亚洲型又可分成俄罗斯、日本、中国及蒙古3个类群.美国种群间遗传变异比其他种群较大,中国种群与美国种群遗传距离最大,而与蒙古种群遗传分化最小.从分子水平上研究舞毒蛾不同种群的遗传分类情况,揭示利用AFLP分子标记技术可以区分舞毒蛾不同地理种群的基因型,为研究舞毒蛾的起源、入侵与扩散、遗传与变异以及检疫措施的制定等方面提供科学依据.%The gypsy moth,Lymantria dispar Linnaeus, is one of the most serious insect pests of palaearctic and nearctic forests. According to their geographical distribution and biology characteristics, they were divided into the Asian and European types of populations. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to detect genetic diversities within and among the gypsy moth populations. Three fluorescent-labeled AFLP primer combinations were used on 26 L. Dispar samples collected from different locations of Russia, Mongolia, Japan, United States of America and China, detecting a total of 507 polymorphic fragments. Genetic similarities based on these data were calculated and cluster analysis was performed to graphically display groupings between populations. L. Dispar samples from these areas were grouped

  8. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  9. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  10. Bionomics and integrated control of the pear leaf blister moth,Leucoptera malifoliella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)%旋纹潜蛾的生物学及综合防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞国跃; 王合; 张君明; 冯术快; 刘曦; 赵连祥

    2013-01-01

    Leucoptera malifoliella (Costa) is an occasional pest of apple and pear in China.This article reviews its damage and host plants,morphology,biology,natural enemies and control techniques,based upon literatures and our research.The moth occurs 4 generations a year in Beijing.Adult emergence starts in the spring,at the ‘ pink bud’ stage of apples,and lasts for about one month,with the peak period at the apple florescence.The caterpillars undergo three larval instars to complete their development,with the average head capsule width of 0.23,0.33,and 0.44 mm for each instar,respectively.Its outbreak occurred in the Wangjiayuan Orchard in Beijing in 2010.In spring of 2011 in this orchard,a huge number of adults were found in the sex pheromone traps,but very few eggs were found on the leaf.The population thereafter was maintained at a very low level.This is believed to be caused by low humidity for overwintering pupae and then low fecundity for the females.Protection of parasitoids is vital for its control,and measures including removing old and loose barks with the cocoons of pupae,and spraying with chlorbenzuron at egg peak during its outbreak,are also suggested.Color pictures for the damage,adult,egg,larva,cocoon and some parasitoids of this moth are provided.%旋纹潜蛾Leucoptera malifoliella (Costa)是苹果和梨上一种偶发性害虫.本文依据文献和我们的研究,综述了旋纹潜蛾的分布与危害、寄主植物、形态、习性、天敌和防治技术.旋纹潜蛾在北京1年4代,越冬代成虫在苹果花蕾露红期时开始羽化,可持续1个多月,盛期发生在苹果的花期.幼虫分为3个龄期,其各龄的平均头壳宽度分别为0.23,0.33和0.44 mm.2011年旋纹潜蛾在北京昌平王家园果园大发生.2011年春天在该果园用性诱剂引诱到大量的旋纹夜蛾成虫,第1代的卵量很低,且当年的种群数量一直很低,可能的原因是越冬期的干旱影响了蛹的活力,从而影响成虫的产卵量.

  11. Effects of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) expressed in tomato leaves on larvae of the tomato moth Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the effect of GNA on the development of the endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M E; Bell, H A; Fitches, E C; Edwards, J P; Gatehouse, A M R

    2006-02-01

    The effect of ingestion of transgenic tomato leaves expressing the plant lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) on development of larvae of Lacanobia oleracea (Linnaeus) was studied under laboratory conditions. When L. oleracea larvae were fed on tomato line 14.1H, expressing approximately 2.0% GNA, significant increases in the mean larval weight and in the amount of food consumed were found. This resulted in an overall reduction in the mean development time to the pupal stage of approximately 7 days. A significant increase in the percentage survival to the adult moth was also recorded when newly hatched larvae were reared on transgenic tomato leaves (72%) compared to larvae reared on untransformed leaves (40%). The effects of ingestion of GNA by L. oleracea larvae, via artificial diet or the leaves of transgenic tomato or potato plants, on the subsequent development of its solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus gyrator (Thunberg) was also studied. No significant effects on the life cycle parameters of M. gyrator developing in L. oleracea fed on GNA-containing diets were observed. Experiments with transgenic potato plants indicated that the stadium of the host larvae at parasitism had a greater influence on M. gyrator development than the presence of GNA. Potential GNA-binding glycoproteins were detected in the gut and body tissues of larval M. gyrator. Despite detection in host tissues, GNA could not be detected in adult M. gyrator and therefore it is likely that at the time of pupation M. gyrator are able to void the GNA in the meconial pellet.

  12. Influence of holding temperature and irradiation on field performance of mass-reared Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an integral component to the area-wide integrated management of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was successfully implemented in the Western Cape region of South Africa and subsequently expanded to citrus are...

  13. PROPOSED MEASURES OF CONTROL MANAGEMENT OF THE GRAPE MOTH, LOBESIA BOTRANA DEN AND SCHIFF (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE), IN REFERENCE TO INFESTATION PERCENTAGES, YIELD LOSS AND ECONOMICS OF CONTROL IN EGYPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordy, A M; Zaghloul, O A; Mourad, A K

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of five measures; including the release of two strains of Trichogramma, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). Sweetened B.t. and the environmentally friend insecticide (Tracer®), to manage the grape moth, Lobesia botrana that infested the grape vines c.v. "Thompson seedless " in Egypt severely during the two successive years of 2011 and 2012. In concern to the release of the worldwide, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood., the mean total grape yield ranged from 8.00 to 14.00 ton/fed and from 6.90 to 11.9, in respect to the two seasons and the mean infestation percentages fluctuated between 50.00 and 16.14; 43.48 and 21.01 in sequence for the same years. The corresponding grape bunches loss percentages averaged from 21.43 to 6.91; 18.63 to 9.00,respectively for the same periods of this study. Whereas, it was noticed that in releasing the indigenous T. bourarchae was more effective than T. evanescens in reducing all the above mentioned grape yield particularly. Applying Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) and/or adding sugar as a stimulant to improve yields reduced the infestation and the crop loss percentage. However, Bacillus thuringiensis mixed with sugar which overweighed the use of Bacillus thuringiensis alone. Although Tracer® provided good harvest in both years, but unfortunately it affected the grape berries components rather than the other treatments. Control plots indicated 48 and 50% infestation, with very low yield compared with the other five trials to manage the assigned insect pest. For the first time worldwide economics and profits were computed taking into account the whole market sale, the total control costs and the gross income to decide the most profitable treatment for the table grape growers under the Egyptian conditions. It was found that the mean (L.E.) profits/fed were arranged in a descending order as follows: 470.95, 513.28, 504.78, 500.82, 397.25 and 0.00 for Bacillus thuringiensis + sugar, Trichogramma

  14. Dietary Effects of Four Phytoecdysteroids on Growth and Development of the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella

    OpenAIRE

    Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; Lafont, René

    2010-01-01

    Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration o...

  15. Simple ears - flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Pfuhl, Gerit; Kalinova, Blanka; Valterova, Irena; Berg, Bente Gunnveig

    2015-01-01

    Published version, also available at journal’s home page Abstract Lepidoptera evolved tympanic ears in response to echolocating bats. Comparative studies have shown that moth ears evolved many times independently from chordotonal organs. With only 1 to 4 receptor cells, they are one of the simplest hearing organs. The small number of receptors does not imply simplicity, neither in behavior nor in the neural circuit. Behaviorally, the response to ultrasound is far from being a simp...

  16. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  17. Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

  18. 苹果蠹蛾成虫触角感器的超微结构观察%Ultrastructural observation on antennal sensilla of the adult codling moth,Cydia pomonella(L.)(Lepidoptera:Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵骁; 张雅林; 冯纪年

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】 As a fundamental study for further and deeper investigation of function of each sensillum type and olfactory perception mechanism,we examined the antennal morphology,types,number,and distribution of antennal sensilla of male and female adult codling moth,Cydia pomonella(L.).【Method】 The study used scanning electron microscopic techniques.【Result】 Eight types of sensillas identified on the antennas of both female and male were: sensilla trichodea(STⅠ and STⅡ),sensilla chaetica,sensilla coeloconica,sensilla styloconica,sensilla auricillica(SAⅠ and SAⅡ),sensilla basiconica,sensilla squamiformia,and Bhm bristles.Sensilla trichodae was the most abundant sensilla.Sensilla squamiformia existed on the dorsal side of the antenna and sensilla styloconica existed on the ventral side of each flagellar subsegment,while others were found on the ventral side and dorsal aspect.No obvious difference was found in the morphology and distribution between female and male.【Conclusion】 The distribution of each sensillum type on the antenna of C.pomonella(L.)was of certain pattern.%【目的】研究苹果蠹蛾(Cydia pomonella(L.))成虫触角感器的形态、数量和分布特征,为进一步探索其各类感器的功能和感受机理、与外界的化学通讯机制等提供参考。【方法】应用扫描电镜,对苹果蠹蛾成虫触角感器的形态结构进行观察。【结果】苹果蠹蛾成虫触角上存在8种感器:毛形感器(Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型)、刺形感器、腔锥形感器、栓锥形感器、耳形感器(Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型)、锥形感器、鳞形感器、Bhm氏鬃毛。其中毛形感器数量最多,鳞形感器仅存在于触角背面,栓锥形感器分布于触角鞭节各亚节腹面远端,其他类型感器在触角腹面、背面均有分布。每种感器的形态和分布在两性间无明显差异。【结论】不同类型感器在苹果蠹蛾成虫触角上的分布具有一定的规律性。

  19. Evaluación de algunos insecticidas para el control de la «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae y su efecto residual sobre el parasitoide Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae Efficacy of insecticides against the «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and their residual effects on the parasitoid Trichogrammatoidea bactrae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María B. Riquelme Virgala

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La «polilla del tomate», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, es una plaga clave de este cultivo en Argentina. Su manejo integrado debería incluir una selección de productos fitosanitarios que sean eficaces para su control y, al mismo tiempo, selectivos respecto de sus enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad de control de los insecticidas triflumurón, clorfenapir, abamectin y una cepa experimental de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre la plaga, y el poder residual de los mismos sobre Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja. Se registró la mortalidad de la polilla cada cuatro días, desde la aplicación hasta la emergencia de los adultos. El efecto sobre el parasitoide, se evaluó a través del número de huevos parasitados por hembra expuesta durante 48 horas a folíolos tratados, y su mortalidad luego de 1, 3, 7, 14 y 30 días de la pulverización. Todos los productos ocasionaron una mortalidad de T. absoluta mayor al 65% después de 12 días de aplicados. El Bt fue el único insecticida que no afectó la supervivencia y el parasitismo de T. bactrae . Estos resultados aportan información de interés para la selección de plaguicidas, a emplearse en programas de manejo integrado.The «tomato moth», Tuta absoluta (Meyrick is one of the key pests of tomato crops in Argentina. The compatible use of chemical and biological control is the main purpose of integrated pest management. Selective pesticides that can be successfully used to control pest without adverse side effects on natural enemies are highly required. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of control of T. absoluta and the residual effect on the oophagous parasitoid, Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja of the following insecticides: triflumuron, abamectin, chlorfenapyr, and an experimental strain of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Mortality of T. absoluta was evaluated every 4 days from pesticide spraying until adult emergency. The effect of pesticides on

  20. MICROELEMENTS IN SUNFLOWER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buldykova I. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The obtained experimental data show that the incorporation of trace elements into the system of the sunflower crop has a positive impact on the mineral nutrition of plants, the number and quality of the crop. Foliar feeding of sunflower crops with micronutrients improves nutrition of plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, thus creating the preconditions for the formation of highly agrocenosis. The seed yield of sunflower increased by variants with application of micronutrients 1.2-3.5 t/ha or 4.4-12.9 percent. The greatest impact of treatment with boron and copper, exceeding the background option 3.1-3.5 t/ha or 11.5-12.9% respectively. The crop is least influenced by manganese and molybdenum. The examined elements positively influenced the structure of the sunflower crop. The greatest influence on the diameter of the basket, the number of seeds, weight of seeds in the basket, the weight of 1000 seeds was provided by the zinc and copper. Trace elements contributed to the improvement of quality indicators of sunflower. For husk content, the greatest positive effect was cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper, increasing the background option 10.1, 10.4, 10.5 and 10, and 6%, respectively, on the oil content of sunflower seeds had cobalt, copper and zinc. The oil content on these options amounted 55,0, with 55.1 and 55.2%, respectively, increasing this figure by 1.5 to 1.7 %. The acid number at variants with boron, manganese and zinc was the same with the background option and amounted to 1.8. The greatest influence on iodine number provided molybdenum, zinc and copper, which accounted for 170,5, 171,2 and 171,4, exceeding the background option 10.2 and 11.1

  1. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  2. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor; Landero Ivonne; Vázquez Adolfo I; Moreno José MP; Ramos-Elorduy Julieta; Camacho Víctor HM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the mo...

  3. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soowon; Epstein, Samantha W; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world's natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized "wing vouchers" of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world.

  4. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  5. Death of the Moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Woolf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The image of moths gathering around a source of light recurs in Woolf’s private writings and becomes an import motif also in her novels and essays. It is most probably the description of moths in her sister’s letter that become an initial inspiration for writing of The Waves, Woolf’s most radical experiment in novelistic form, where she strives to create a subject-less perspective. On the other hand The Death of The Moth, a 1927 essay, whose first translation into Polish comes together with the present commentary from the translator, is a crystal-clear description of the world as seen by the writer/narrator at her desk, surrounded by exuberant life but witnessing death. 

  6. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  7. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  8. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  9. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  10. Gustav klimt's "sunflower" impact on Schiller "sunflower" Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯新

    2016-01-01

    gustav klimt and Schiller as a master of expressionism, same to the entire world's art has a great influence. But klimt's landscape painting had a huge impact on Schiller's landscape paintings, the most typical example is Schiller's already watched the klimt's "sunflower"exhibition, to create a picture composition and theme is very similar to the sunflower Ⅱ, thus klimt for Schiller's influence.

  11. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  12. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  13. The value of woody hedgerows for moth diversity on organic and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, C; Baril, A; McCabe, S K; Martin, P A; Guy, M

    2011-06-01

    Habitat destruction and degradation are important drivers of biodiversity loss within agro-ecosystems. However, little is known about the effect of farming practices and the value of woody hedgerows on Lepidoptera in North America. The purpose of this work was to study moth diversity in woody hedgerows and croplands of organic and conventional farms. In addition, the influence of vegetation composition and abiotic variables on species richness, abundance, and composition was examined. Moths were sampled with light traps during six weeks in the summer of 2001. Vegetation data and abiotic variables were obtained for all sites. In total, 26,020 individuals from 12 families and 408 species were captured. Most species were uncommon. Only 35 species included >100 individuals while for 71% of species moon illumination, rainfall, and cloud cover). Moth species composition was significantly correlated to vegetation composition. This study broadens our understanding of the factors driving moth diversity and expands our knowledge of their geographic range. The maintenance of noncrop habitats such as woody hedgerows within agro-ecosystems seems paramount to preserving the biodiversity and abundance of many organisms, including moths.

  14. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D; W. Dale Plummer Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventio...

  15. A major gene controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J.; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan; Saenko, Suzanne V.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Wu, Grace C.; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J.; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard; Dowling, Andrea; ffrench-Constant, Richard; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection1,2. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and if there is any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we identify a gene, cortex, through fine-scale mapping using population genomics and gene expression analyses, which regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell cycle regulators3, suggesting that it most likely regulates pigmentation patterning through regulation of scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia)4, our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  16. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-02

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects.

  17. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  18. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, J. J.; Berg, van den, A.E.; Potting, R.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocat...

  19. Plant population and weeds influence stalk insects, soil moisture, and yield in rainfed sunflowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAWWAD A. QURESHI; PHILLIP W. STAHLMAN; J. P. MICHAUD

    2007-01-01

    Insect infestation, soil moisture, and yield were examined in populations of≈ 33 140 plants/ha (low) and ≈ 40 340 plants/ha (high) of an oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L, cv. ' Triumph 660CL' with two levels of weediness. Less weedy plots resulted from the application of herbicide combination of S-metolachlor and sulfentrazone, whereas more weedy plots resulted from application of sulfentrazone alone. Among the 12 weed species recorded, neither plant numbers nor biomass differed between crop plant densities.Larvae of the stalk-boring insects Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae) were less abundant in high density sunflowers, ostensibly due to reduced plant size. However, the same effect was not observed for Dectes texanus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) or Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), two other stalk-boring insects. Soil moisture was highest in low density and lowest in the high density sunflowers that were less weedy. Stalk circumference, head diameter, and seed weight were reduced for sunflower plants with short interplant distances (mean = 20 cm apart) compared to plants with long interplant distances (mean = 46 cm apart).These three variables were greater in less weedy plots compared with more weedy plots and positively correlated with interplant distance. Yields on a per-hectare basis paralleled those on a per-plant basis but were not different among treatments. The agronomic implications of planting density are discussed in the context of weed and insect management.

  20. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindra Síchová

    Full Text Available Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute

  1. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: conserved karyotypes with diverged features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Síchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the

  2. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  3. Preventing Rancidity in sunflower Oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used in turn to extract the polar flavonoids, while chilled acetone and petroleum ether ... sunflower oil was measured using changes in peroxide values and the UV absorbances (Conjugated diene) .... metal ions and metalloprotein catalysts.

  4. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the observed potential negative effect in this trial, future randomized clinical trials may base their design on randomly assigning the exposed patients to give up use of sunflower seed intake.

  5. Anholts sommerfugle (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Bygebjerg, Rune; Meedom, Peter

    2008-01-01

      The Lepidoptera fauna of the Danish island of Anholt is surveyed, and 1160 species are recorded. Anholt is situated in Kattegat 44 km from Denmark and 47 km from Sweden. The history and environment of the island are briefly discussed, with special focus on the flora, and earlier studies...... of the Lepidopterera fauna of Anholt are dealt with. The present study is in first hand based on material collected by the late Ebbe Schmidt Nielsen and the authors, partly in the 1970's and partly in more recent years. The material do not permit a general comparison between the status of the Lepidoptera fauna...

  6. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Farris, R E; Epstein, M E; Gilligan, T M

    2011-10-01

    A molecular assay for diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North America is reported. The assay multiplexes two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) probe systems that are designed to target DNA segments of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and 18S rRNA gene. The RT-PCR probe designed for the 18S target recognizes a DNA sequence conserved in all of the moths included in the study and functions as a control in the assay. The second probe recognizes a segment of the ITS2 specifically found in E. postvittana and not found in the other moths included in the study, i.e., this segment is not conserved. Inclusion of the two markers in a single multiplex reaction did not affect assay performance. The assay was tested against 637 moths representing > 90 taxa in 15 tribes in all three subfamilies in the Tortricidae. The assay generated no false negatives based on analysis of 355 E. postvittana collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 282 moths representing 41 genera generated no false positives. Only three inconclusive results were generated from the 637 samples. Spike experiments demonstrated that DNA contamination in the assay can affect samples differently. Contaminated samples analyzed with the ITS2 RT-PCR assay and DNA barcode methodology by using the cytochrome oxidase I gene can generate contradictory diagnoses.

  7. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Duménil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  8. A predicted sex pheromone receptor of codling moth Cydia pomonella detects the plant volatile pear ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Bengtsson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles mediate host discrimination and host finding in phytophagous insects. Understanding how insects recognize these signals is a current challenge in chemical ecology research. Pear ester, ethyl (E,Z-2,4-decadienoate, is a powerful, bisexual attractant of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae and strongly synergizes the male response to female-produced sex pheromone. We show here that the codling moth odorant receptor (OR CpomOR3 is dedicated to detecting this plant volatile. Heterologous expression of CpomOR3 in Drosophila T1 trichoid and ab3A basiconic sensilla, followed by a screening with codling moth pheromone compounds and known plant volatile attractants, confirms that CpomOR3 binds to pear ester. Although CpomOR3 does not respond to any of the pheromone components tested, a phylogenetic analysis of lepidopteran chemosensory receptor genes reveals a close relationship of CpomOR3 with pheromone receptors (PRs in moths. This corroborates the interaction of ecological and social chemosensory cues during premating communication. The finding that a plant volatile compound, pear ester, is a specific ligand for a PR-like lepidopteran receptor adds to our understanding of insect-plant interactions and emphasizes the interaction of natural and sexual selection during the phylogenetic divergence of insect herbivores.

  9. Insecticidal Effect of Labramin, a Lectin—Like Protein Isolated from Seeds of the Beach Apricot Tree, Labramia bojeri, on the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestia kuehniella

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez D.S.T.; Freire M.D.G.M.; Mazzafera P.; Araujo-Jnior R.T.; Bueno R.D.; MacEdo M.L.R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the insecticidal effect of labramin, a protein that shows lectinlike properties. Labramin was isolated from seeds of the Beach Apricot tree, Labramia bojeri A. DC ex Dubard (Ericales: Sapotaceae), and assessed against the development of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of stored products such as corn, wheat, rice, and flour. Results showed that labramin caused 90% larval mortality when i...

  10. Host-plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Andrea L; Sermeno Chicas, Miguel; Serrano Cervantes, Leopoldo; Paniagua, Miguel; Scheffer, Sonja J; Solis, M Alma

    2016-12-01

    Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, sugarcane, and rice. Diatraea larvae were collected from these four host plants throughout the year in El Salvador and were reared on artificial diet until moths or parasitoids emerged. Adult moths were subsequently identified to species. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) were used to examine whether or not there was genetic divergence of D. lineolata or D. saccharalis populations on the four host plants. Percent parasitism was also determined for each moth on its host plants. D. lineolata was collected from corn in the rainy season and sorghum in the dry season. D. saccharalis was most abundant on sugarcane in the rainy season and sorghum in the dry season. The AFLP analysis found two genetically divergent populations of both D. lineolata and D. saccharalis. Both moths had high levels of parasitism on their dominant host plant in the rainy season, yet had low levels of parasitism on sorghum in the dry season. The presence of two genotypes of both Diatraea spp. on sorghum suggest that host-associated differentiation is occurring on this novel introduced crop plant.

  11. Compendium of sunflower disease and insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Compendium of Sunflower Diseases and Pests is a new addition to the popular APS Press series of plant disease compendia. This will be the most comprehensive guide to sunflower diseases and pests in the world. The introduction contains brief histories of sunflower use and production, botany of th...

  12. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  13. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  14. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  15. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals....... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  16. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  17. Towards a mitogenomic phylogeny of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Lees, David C; Simonsen, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    The backbone phylogeny of Lepidoptera remains unresolved, despite strenuous recent morphological and molecular efforts. Molecular studies have focused on nuclear protein coding genes, sometimes adding a single mitochondrial gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology have, however, made acquisition of entire mitochondrial genomes both practical and economically viable. Prior phylogenetic studies utilised just eight of 43 currently recognised lepidopteran superfamilies. Here, we add 23 full and six partial mitochondrial genomes (comprising 22 superfamilies of which 16 are newly represented) to those publically available for a total of 24 superfamilies and ask whether such a sample can resolve deeper lepidopteran phylogeny. Using recoded datasets we obtain topologies that are highly congruent with prior nuclear and/or morphological studies. Our study shows support for an expanded Obtectomera including Gelechioidea, Thyridoidea, plume moths (Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea; possibly along with Epermenioidea), Papilionoidea, Pyraloidea, Mimallonoidea and Macroheterocera. Regarding other controversially positioned higher taxa, Doidae is supported within the new concept of Drepanoidea and Mimallonidae sister to (or part of) Macroheterocera, while among Nymphalidae butterflies, Danainae and not Libytheinae are sister to the remainder of the family. At the deepest level, we suggest that a tRNA rearrangement occurred at a node between Adeloidea and Ditrysia+Palaephatidae+Tischeriidae.

  18. A historical review of the classification of Erebinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homziak, Nicholas T; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-11-10

    Erebidae is one of the most diverse families within the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), with nearly 25,000 described species. The nominal subfamily Erebinae is among the most species rich and taxonomically complex. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics, where much of the fauna remains undescribed. Species in this subfamily feed on a broad range of host plants, with associated radiations on grasses and legumes, and some species are pests of agriculture and forestry. The Erebinae, as defined today, comprises a large portion of the former noctuid subfamily Catocalinae. However, many lineages have tenuous or uncertain systematic placement. Here, we review the complex historical classification of Erebinae, and discuss the possible placement of some of these lineages in light of traditional morphological groupings and recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present an updated list of named erebine tribes and their relationships, and identify morphological traits from literature used to group genera within these tribes.

  19. Effect of different mowing regimes on butterflies and diurnal moths on road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtonen, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern and central Europe road verges offer alternative habitats for declining plant and invertebrate species of semi-natural grasslands. The quality of road verges as habitats depends on several factors, of which the mowing regime is one of the easiest to modify. In this study we compared the Lepidoptera communities on road verges that underwent three different mowing regimes regarding the timing and intensity of mowing; mowing in mid-summer, mowing in late summer, and partial mowing (a narrow strip next to the road. A total of 12,174 individuals and 107 species of Lepidoptera were recorded. The mid-summer mown verges had lower species richness and abundance of butterflies and lower species richness and diversity of diurnal moths compared to the late summer and partially mown verges. By delaying the annual mowing until late summer or promoting mosaic-like mowing regimes, such as partial mowing, the quality of road verges as habitats for butterflies and diurnal moths can be improved.

  20. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  1. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  2. Simple ears-flexible behavior: Information processing in the moth auditory pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerit PFUHL; Blanka KALINOVA; Irena VALTEROVA; Bente G.BERG

    2015-01-01

    Lepidoptera evolved tympanic ears in response to echolocating bats.Comparative studies have shown that moth ears evolved many times independently from chordotonal organs.With only 1 to 4 receptor cells,they are one of the simplest hearing organs.The small number of receptors does not imply simplicity,neither in behavior nor in the neural circuit.Behaviorally,the response to ultrasound is far from being a simple reflex.Moths' escape behavior is modulated by a variety of cues,especially pheromones,which can alter the auditory response.Neurally the receptor cell(s) diverges onto many intemeurons,enabling pa rallel processing and feature extraction.Ascending interneurons and sound-sensitive brain neurons innervate a neuropil in the ventrolateral protocerebrum.Further,recent electrophysiological data provides the first glimpses into how the acoustic response is modulated as well as how ultrasound influences the other senses.So far,the auditory pathway has been studied in noctuids.The findings agree well with common computational principles found in other insects.However,moth ears also show unique mechanical and neural adaptation.Here,we first describe the variety of moths' auditory behavior,especially the co-option of ultrasonic signals for intraspecific communication.Second,we describe the current knowledge of the neural pathway gained from noctuid moths.Finally,we argue that Galleriinae which show negative and positive phonotaxis,are an interesting model species for future electrophysiological studies of the auditory pathway and multimodal sensory integration,and so are ideally suited for the study of the evolution of behavioral mechanisms given a few receptors [Current Zoology 61 (2):292-302,2015].

  3. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  4. A new institution devoted to insect science: The Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akito Y.Kawahara; Thomas C.Emmel; Jacqueline Miller; Andrew D.Warren

    2012-01-01

    The Florida Museum of Natural History's McGuire Center for Lepidoptera and Biodiversity,on the University of Florida campus in Gainesville,Florida,has become one of the world's largest institutions for research on butterflies and moths,and an important research facility for insect science.The facility was constructed by combining the staff and merging the Lepidoptera holdings from the Allyn Museum of Entomology,the Florida State Collection of Arthropods and other University of Florida collections,and now includes over ten million specimens from all over the world,rivaling some of the largest Lepidoptera research collections globally.The facility includes a team of domestic and international researchers studying many areas of lepidopterology,including behavior,biodiversity,biogeography,ecology,genomics,physiology,systematics and taxonomy.In this paper,we introduce the McGuire Center,its staff,and the many research activities for researchers across entomological disciplines.

  5. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Nichole A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin.

  6. Genetic variation and correlations of life-history traits in gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar L. from two populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Jelica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic fluctuations in density impose different selection pressures on populations of outbreaking Lepidoptera due to changes in their nutritional environment. The maternal effects hypothesis of insect outbreak predicts the transmission of this nutritional "information" to subsequent generations and alterations in offspring life-history traits. To test for these time-delayed effects of the parental generation, we compared life-history traits and their variation and covariation among laboratory-reared gypsy moths hatched from egg masses collected from low- and medium-density populations. Decreased individual performance was recorded in offspring from the medium-density population, indicating reduced egg provisioning under crowding conditions. Genetic variance and covariance were also shown to be sensitive to density of the parental generation. In gypsy moths from the medium-density population, quantitative genetic analysis revealed significantly higher broad-sense heritabilities for development duration traits and demonstrated a trade-off between development duration and body size.

  7. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  8. Response of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar to Transgenic Poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, Expressing Fusion Protein Gene of the Spider Insecticidal Peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ω?-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ω?-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The...

  9. Gypsy moths get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer

    1999-01-01

    In June, those large, black, hairy caterpillars really begin to get your attention as they devour your trees, pelt you car with unpleasent dropping, and lounge about on your porch. I am describing the gysy moth, of course, an annoying caterpillar because of its voracious appette, large size, and abundance in many parts of eastern North America.

  10. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  11. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  12. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet si

  13. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  14. Emergence, Mating and Oviposition Behavior of the Chinese Population in Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huai-heng; HUANG Min-song; WAN Peng; Kris A G Wyckhuys; WU Kong-ming

    2013-01-01

    The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) is one of the most serious lepidopteran pests of cotton in the world. This pest invaded China at the onset of the 20th century, possibly through repeated introductions from several different locations worldwide. In this paper, we describe different behavioral parameters of this Hubei P. gossypiella strain under laboratory and field conditions. Using an infra-red video recorder, we observed (nocturnal) emergence, flight and mating activities, and oviposition patterns. Moth emergence started from 13:00 and continued up till 23:00. Under laboratory and field conditions, 2-7-d-old moths initiated flight around sunset, peaked 50 min later and gradually declined until 04:00. Although mating started immediately after darkness (i.e., 20:00), mating behavior was most intense from 23:00 to 03:40. Oviposition also showed distinct time-related patterns, with approx. 70%eggs laid between 20:00 and 22:00. In the studies of the relationship between flight and oviposition, the duration of flight had an effect on oviposition. The 1-d-old moths flown for 6 and 12 h began oviposition earlier than the unflown ones, and the 6-h flight had no effect on the egg production. However, the longevity of the flown moths was shortened after flight. In addition, the peaks of oviposition for the flown moths were advanced 2-3 d. The age when the moths flied affected the oviposition of adult moths. The earlier the moths started to fly after emergence, the greater the fecundity they had. The average egg production of moths flown for 24 h was less than that of non-flown moths which were of the same age. Both flight and delay in mating could advance the oviposition peak. Our study provides detailed insights in nocturnal activities and the reproductive biology of local P. gossypiella populations, which could be employed to fine-tune current pest management programs in China.

  15. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.

  16. Development and survival of nymphs of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed with caterpillars of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and survival of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae nymphs fed on larvae of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii Doubleday & Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae was studied at 25 ± 1ºC, 68 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photo phase. P. nigrispinus developed until the adult stage when fed on C. lacinia saundersii caterpillars. However, the survival rate of P. nigrispinus during early instars allowed this predator to complement its diet with other preys and to maintain its populations in areas with the sunflower culture.

  17. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baker

    Full Text Available The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L. (Malpighiales: Salicaceae. Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30-35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005 with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species' requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas.

  18. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality.

  19. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  20. Female sex pheromone secreted by Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent for an invasive weed in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Le Van; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the clearwing moth, Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), bore into the trunk of Mimosa pigra L., which is one of the most invasive weeds in Vietnam. GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses of a pheromone gland extract revealed that the female moths produced (3Z,13Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate. A lure baited with the synthetic acetate alone successfully attracted C. mimosa males in a field test. While the addition of a small amount of the corresponding alcohol did not strongly diminish the number of captured males, a trace of the aldehyde derivative or the (3E,13Z)-isomer markedly inhibited the attractiveness of the acetate. The diurnal males were mainly attracted from 6:00 am to 12:00 am.

  1. Analysis of evolution in the lower Lepidoptera (Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Lower Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The evolutionary mechanism in Lepidoptera is discussed. As a result of the comparison of evolution between the Microptergidae and the typical Lepidoptera, two different kinds of evolution are recognized. ・・・

  2. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 9. A new species of Givira Walker (Cossidae, Hypoptinae) dedicated to Delinda Mix, including a list of species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico in late 2006. Givira delindae sp. n., discovered in 2007 during the first year of study, is described here. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. The name is dedicated to Delinda Mix, mother of Steve Mix. The species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument during the study are listed. PMID:28331399

  3. The chemistry of antipredator defense by secondary compounds in neotropical lepidoptera: facts, perspectives and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trigo José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical defense against predation in butterflies and moths has been studied since nineteenth century. A classical example is that of the larvae of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus, which feed on leaves of Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae, sequestering cardenolides. The adults are protected against predation by birds. Several other substances may be involved in chemical defense, such as iridoid glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids, aristolochic acids, glycosidase inhibitors and pyrazines. The acquisition of these substances by lepidopterans can be due to sequestration from larval or adult host plants or de novo biosynthesis. Many Lepidoptera are known to be unpalatable, including the butterflies Troidini (Papilionidae, Pierinae (Pieridae, Eurytelinae, Melitaeinae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, Heliconiinae and Acraeinae (Nymphalidae, and Arctiidae moths, but knowledge of the chemical substances responsible for property is often scarce. This review discusses mainly three topics: field and laboratory observations on rejection of butterflies and moths by predators, correlation between unpalatability and chemicals found in these insects, and bioassays that test the activity of these chemicals against predators. Perspectives and future directions are suggested for this subject.

  4. Invasion biology, ecology, and management of the light brown apple moth (Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Brockerhoff, E G

    2010-01-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the light brown apple moth (LBAM), is an important leafroller pest with an exceptionally wide host range that includes many horticultural crops and other woody and herbaceous plants. LBAM is native to southeastern Australia but has invaded Western Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, much of England, and in 2007, it was confirmed as established in California. The discovery of this pest in California has led to a major detection and regulatory effort because of concerns about economic and environmental impacts. Its recent discovery in Sweden is also of note. LBAM has often been intercepted on imports of fruit and other plant parts, and it has the potential to become a successful invader in temperate and subtropical regions worldwide. The importance of the insect has prompted development of classical biological control programs together with a wide variety of other management interventions that can be used in integrated pest management or integrated pest eradication.

  5. A cuckoo-like parasitic moth leads African weaver ant colonies to their ruin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Orivel, Jérôme; Azémar, Frédéric; Hérault, Bruno; Corbara, Bruno

    2016-03-29

    In myrmecophilous Lepidoptera, mostly lycaenids and riodinids, caterpillars trick ants into transporting them to the ant nest where they feed on the brood or, in the more derived "cuckoo strategy", trigger regurgitations (trophallaxis) from the ants and obtain trophic eggs. We show for the first time that the caterpillars of a moth (Eublemma albifascia; Noctuidae; Acontiinae) also use this strategy to obtain regurgitations and trophic eggs from ants (Oecophylla longinoda). Females short-circuit the adoption process by laying eggs directly on the ant nests, and workers carry just-hatched caterpillars inside. Parasitized colonies sheltered 44 to 359 caterpillars, each receiving more trophallaxis and trophic eggs than control queens. The thus-starved queens lose weight, stop laying eggs (which transport the pheromones that induce infertility in the workers) and die. Consequently, the workers lay male-destined eggs before and after the queen's death, allowing the colony to invest its remaining resources in male production before it vanishes.

  6. Influence of temperature and moisture conditions of locality on the yield formation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Černý

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field polyfactorial experiments were realized on fields of the Agricultural Co-operative in Nitrianska Blatnica in years 2007−2009. Experimental field is located in the maize production area (climatic region: warm; climatic sub region dry; climatic zone: warm, dry with mild winter and long sunshine in altitude 250 m above sea level, with brown soil. We observed the influence of both temperature and moisture conditions of experimental area on sunflower yield of achenes (conventional, medium-late hybrids: NK Brio, NK Armoni. Preceding crop of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. every experimental year was wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Technological system of sunflower cultivation was realized in accordance with conventional technology of cultivation. The basic fertilization was made by balance method on the base of agrochemical soil analysis for expected yield 3 t.ha−1. The meteorological data were got out from agrometeorological station of the Central Controlling and Testing Institute in Agriculture in Veľké Ripňany. During every experimental year the change of inner energy (ΔU was evaluated for thermodynamic characteristic analysis (security of the temperature and moisture and the impact of changes on yield forming with maximal yield (Ymax in 2008 and minimal yield (Ymin in 2009. Achieved value of yield from thermal and precipitation energy introduces concrete energy amount, which is available in given period for concrete height of yield. From the results follow, the sunflower has got critical thermodynamic phase in the period of months from July to August. For the yield formation is requirement, that input power of precipitation prevailed over the thermal during moths July to August. Achieved results confirmed statistically high significant dependence of the yield on weather conditions and for high annual variations in climatic characteristics the consideration is needed about potential changes some agrotechnological measures of

  7. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  8. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 1. Two new species of Noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuinae, Agrotini

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    Eric Metzler

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The white gypsum dune ecosystem in the Tularosa Basin in south central New Mexico is the largest gypsum dune field on earth, covering 712.25 km2. White Sands National Monument in Otero County, New Mexico, protects approximately 40%, 297.85 km2, of this dune field. In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, resulting in the discovery of two new species, Euxoa lafontainei Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. and Protogygia whitesandsensis Metzler & Forbes, n. sp. described herein. Adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for Euxoa lafontainei, and adults and male genitalia are illustrated for Protogygia whitesandsensis and its relatives.

  9. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  10. A Burst of miRNA Innovation in the Early Evolution of Butterflies and Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, Shan; Hui, Jerome H.L.; Holland, Peter W.H.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. Because several miRNAs are known to affect the stability or translation of developmental regulatory genes, the origin of novel miRNAs may have contributed to the evolution of developmental processes and morphology. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) is a species-rich clade with a well-established phylogeny and abundant genomic resources, thereby representing an ideal system in which to study miRNA evolution. We sequenced small RNA libraries from developmental stages of two divergent lepidopterans, Cameraria ohridella (Horse chestnut Leafminer) and Pararge aegeria (Speckled Wood butterfly), discovering 90 and 81 conserved miRNAs, respectively, and many species-specific miRNA sequences. Mapping miRNAs onto the lepidopteran phylogeny reveals rapid miRNA turnover and an episode of miRNA fixation early in lepidopteran evolution, implying that miRNA acquisition accompanied the early radiation of the Lepidoptera. One lepidopteran-specific miRNA gene, miR-2768, is located within an intron of the homeobox gene invected, involved in insect segmental and wing patterning. We identified cubitus interruptus (ci) as a likely direct target of miR-2768, and validated this suppression using a luciferase assay system. We propose a model by which miR-2768 modulates expression of ci in the segmentation pathway and in patterning of lepidopteran wing primordia. PMID:25576364

  11. Contribution of interspecific hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is directed at improving sunflower using hybrid forms resulted from interspecific hybridization. The aim is to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific hybrid forms that are resistant to diseases, the parasite broomrape, herbicides, and other stress factors and are characterized with high combining ability and to obtain on this basis highly productive oilseed sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid composition of oil. The investigat...

  12. Synthesis and assessment of attractiveness and mating disruption efficacy of sex pheromone microcapsules for the diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZengLiang; FANG YuLing; ZHANG ZhongNing

    2007-01-01

    Microcapsules of sex pheromone of the diamondback moth (DBM),Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera:Plutellidae) were synthesized through complex coacervation using gelatin and gum arabic as wall-forming materials.The encapsulated pheromone released from these microcapsules into the air was monitored over six weeks in the field.Results of a field trial show that the attractiveness of microcapsules was superior to that of rubber septa loaded with the same amount of pheromone.The mating disruption efficiency of the pheromone treatment was estimated through comparing numbers of moths captured in pheromone-baited traps placed in pheromone treatment fields and pesticide treatment fields.The estimated mating disruption efficiency of the pheromone treatments ranged from 76.94% to 98.67% during the season.This study shows that pheromone microcapsules might provide a new method for P.xylostella control.

  13. PARASITISMO SOBRE Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE EN DOS LOCALIDADES DE CUSCO, PERÚ PARASITISM ON Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE IN TWO LOCALITIES AT CUSCO, PERÚ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Costa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa es una importante actividad económica en Cusco. La polilla Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la principal plaga registrada en este cultivo y presenta varios controladores biológicos. Se registran parasitoides y porcentajes de larvas parasitadas de la polilla de la quinua provenientes de dos localidades de Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 msnm y Quiquijana (3100 msnm. Las larvas colectadas se criaron en laboratorio hasta la emergencia de los parasitoides adultos. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae fue la principal especie parasitoide con 19,8% de parasitismo de larvas provenientes de ambas localidades. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, incluyendo Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, representó el 27,8% y Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae el 5,6%. Braconidae presentó mayor porcentaje de parasitismo en Quiquijana que en Izcuchaca. Se discute el efecto de la diversidad de plantas asociadas, cultivadas y silvestres, sobre las poblaciones de insectos parasitoides.Quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa is an important economic activity at Cusco. The quinoa moth: Eurysacca melanocampta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the main insect pest recorded from Cusco in quinoa fields and it has a complex of natural enemies. This research reports parasitoid insects and percentage of parasitized larvae of quinoa moth from two localities of Cusco: Izcuchaca (3400 masl and Quiquijana (3100 masl. Collected larvae were reared at room conditions up to emergence of adult parasitoids. Phytomyptera sp (Diptera: Tachinidae was the main parasitoid with 19,8% of parasitized larvae from both localities. Braconidae (Hymenoptera, including Apanteles sp y Earinus sp, accounted for 27,8% and Diadegma spp (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae the 5,6%. Braconidae showed a greater percentage of parasitism at Quiquijana than Izcuchaca. We discuss if diversity of associated plants, both cultivated and wild plants, influence parasitoid populations.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, in comparison with four other Noctuid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Huan-Na; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs) utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif "ATAGA" followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite "(AT)(7)", without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.

  15. Odorant receptors from the light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) recognize important volatile compounds produced by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melissa D; Anderson, Alisha; Begum, Doreen; Carraher, Colm; Authier, Astrid; Marshall, Sean D G; Kiely, Aidan; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Greenwood, David R; Christie, David L; Kralicek, Andrew V; Trowell, Stephen C; Newcomb, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Moths recognize a wide range of volatile compounds, which they use to locate mates, food sources, and oviposition sites. These compounds are recognized by odorant receptors (OR) located within the dendritic membrane of sensory neurons that extend into the lymph of sensilla, covering the surface of insect antennae. We have identified 3 genes encoding ORs from the tortricid moth, Epiphyas postvittana, a pest of horticulture. Like Drosophila melanogaster ORs, they contain 7 transmembrane helices with an intracellular N-terminus, an orientation in the plasma membrane opposite to that of classical GPCRs. EpOR2 is orthologous to the coreceptor Or83b from D. melanogaster. EpOR1 and EpOR3 both recognize a range of terpenoids and benzoates produced by plants. Of the compounds tested, EpOR1 shows the best sensitivity to methyl salicylate [EC(50) = 1.8 x 10(-12) M], a common constituent of floral scents and an important signaling compound produced by plants when under attack from insects and pathogens. EpOR3 best recognizes the monoterpene citral to low concentrations [EC(50) = 1.1 x 10(-13) M]. Citral produces the largest amplitude electrophysiological responses in E. postvittana antennae and elicits repellent activity against ovipositing female moths. Orthologues of EpOR3 were found across 6 families within the Lepidoptera, suggesting that the ability to recognize citral may underpin an important behavior.

  16. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-DM1 resistant to sunflower downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    HA-DM1 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 674793) sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm was developed and released cooperatively by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. HA-DM1 is a BC2F4 derived oilseed maintainer line from the cros...

  17. Correlation between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate.

  18. Interactions between pupae of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) and parasitoids in a Pinus forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, C P; Manti, F; Castiglione, E

    2015-10-01

    Parasitoids are significant enemies of many economically important insects and there is some evidence to suggest that their actions have a role in terminating the outbreaks of forest Lepidoptera populations. In this study, we examined the impact of parasitoids on the pupae of the pine processionary moth, and highlighted the presence of several parasitoid species for this developmental stage. A higher rate of parasitism was found when the pupal density in the soil was reduced, but the rate of parasitism was not influenced by pupal morphological traits or by the presence or absence of a cocoon around a pupa. Of the external factors examined, a delay in the time of descent of larvae from the trees had a positive effect on the level of parasitism. Observational data indicated that dipteran and hymenopteran were the most abundant parasitoids to emerge from moth pupae. Our study highlights the complexity of the parasitoid-host dynamics, and stresses the importance of carefully determining environmental effects on host-parasitoid relations.

  19. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-23

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana.

  20. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  1. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome.

  2. 梨小食心虫化学感受蛋白cDNA的克隆、序列分析及原核表达%cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of a chemosensory protein from the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta ( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国辉; 刘彦飞; 仵均祥

    2012-01-01

    为了研究梨小食心虫Grapholita molesta化学感受蛋白(chemosensory proteins,CSPs)在化学感受系统中的作用,本研究利用RT-PCR和RACE技术克隆到一条梨小食心虫化学感受蛋白的全长cDNA序列,命名为GmolCSP(GenBank登录号:JQ821389).序列分析表明,GmolCSP开放阅读框序列为384 bp,编码127个氨基酸残基,预测N末端含有18个氨基酸组成的信引肽序列,其成熟蛋白的预测分子量为12.80 kD,等电点为8.33.该基因编码的氨基酸序列与其他鳞翅目昆虫化学感受蛋白的氨基酸序列具有较高同源性.RT-PCR结果显示,GmolCSP在梨小食心虫成虫触角、去触角的头、胸、腹、足和翅中都有表达.将GmolCSP重组到表达载体pET-32a中,转入大肠杆菌Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)进行表达.SDS-PAGE和Western印迹检测结果显示,梨小食心虫化学感受蛋白基因在大肠杆菌中成功地表达出一个分子量约为29 kD的融合蛋白,与预测的融合蛋白分子量大小一致.本研究结果为进一步研究该蛋白的分子结构和功能奠定了良好基础.%In order to clarify the physiological function of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) in the olfactory system of Grapholita molesta, the full-length cDNA encoding a chemosensory protein was isolated from G. molesta by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR), and named as GmolCSP ( GenBank accession no. JQ821389). The results of sequence analysis indicated that the open reading frame (ORF) of GmolCSP is 384 bp in length, encoding 127 amino acid residues, with the deduced molecular weight (MW) of 12. 80 kD and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.33. The deduced amino acid sequence of GmolCSP showed a high identity to CPSs of other lepidopteran insects. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GmolCSP was expressed in antennae, head, thorax, abdomen, wings and legs of the test moth. GmolCSP was then constructed into the expression vector p

  3. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  4. Host-plant location by the Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora is assisted by floral volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Proffit, Magali; Birgersson, Göran

    2017-01-01

    Insects locate their host plants using mainly visual and olfactory cues, generally of the exploited plant structure. However, when the resource is difficult to access, it could be beneficial to utilise indirect cues, which indicates the presence of reward (e.g., oviposition site or mate). In the present study, we investigated the host-plant location strategy of the monophagous Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The larva of the moth feed exclusively on potato Solanum spp. (Solanaceae) tubers usually hidden below ground. Using electrophysiological and behavioural tests, we characterised the olfactory cues mediating the attraction of the moth towards their host plant. Odour blends were made to represent different potato structures: tubers, foliage, and flowers. Synthetic blends were created by combining potato-emitted compounds that were antennal active which showed positive dose-response. Attraction to these blends of compounds in relation to the mating status of males and females was tested in dual-choice Y-tube assays. Both males and females, virgin and mated, were attracted to a three-compound blend representing flower odour, while foliage and tuber blends attracted neither sexes. Oviposition bioassays indicated additionally that the floral blend enhances oviposition. We show that potato flower odour might indicate the presence of an oviposition site for the female and possibly an increased mating opportunity for both sexes. Our results provide one of the few examples of the use of floral odour as a reliable indicator of host and probably mating possibility for phytophagous insects exploiting a site spatially separated from the flower.

  5. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities.

  6. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent...

  7. Methodological comparison of DNA extraction from Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) for AFLP analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Min; ZHU Yang-yu; TAO Jing; Luo You-qing

    2008-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a powerful DNA fingerprinting technique for studying genetic rela-tionships and genetic diversity in insects. However, the crucial prerequisite for AFLP analysis is to extract DNA of high quality. In this study, we evaluate four different protocols (SDS method, improved SDS method, CTAB method and a complex method with SDS and CTAB) for isolating DNA from the seabuckthorn carpenter moth (Holcocerrus hippophaecolus (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)). The results indicate that the CTAB method does not produce DNA suitable for AFLP analysis. The SDS method and the complex method with SDS and CTAB are comparatively time-consuming and resulted in low yields of DNA and were therefore not used for AFLP assay. The improved SDS method is recommended for preparing DNA templates from H. hippophaecolus for AFLP analysis.

  8. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain.

  9. Registration of a male fertility restorer oilseed sunflower germplasm HA-R9 resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm HA-R9 (Reg. No.xxx, PI 667595) was developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the Agricultural Experiment Station of North Dakota State University and released in January, 2013. Sunflower rust (caused by P...

  10. Population dynamics and flight phenology model of codling moth differ between commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelendra K Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight and egg-hatch allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e.,1970’s model. In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  11. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  12. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  13. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  14. The repetitive component of the sunflower genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Giordani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower (Helianthus annuus and species belonging to the genus Helianthus are emerging as a model species and genus for a number of studies on genome evolution. In this review, we report on the repetitive component of the H. annuus genome at the biochemical, molecular, cytological, and genomic levels. Recent work on sunflower genome composition is described, with emphasis on different types of repeat sequences, especially LTR-retrotransposons, of which we report on isolation, characterisation, cytological localisation, transcription, dynamics of proliferation, and comparative analyses within the genus Helianthus.

  15. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family.

  16. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution.

  17. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  18. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: I. Ancient clade splitting revealed by mitochondrial haplotype markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraner, A; Brandstätter, A; Thaler, R; Aray, B; Unterlechner, M; Niederstätter, H; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is an important pest of pome fruit with global distribution. It has adapted successfully to different habitats by forming various ecotypes and populations, often termed strains, which differ among each other in several morphological, developmental, and physiological features. Many strains of Cydia pomonella have developed resistance against a broad range of chemically different pesticides. Obviously, pesticide-resistant strains must have a genetic basis inherent to the gene pool of codling moth populations, and this deserves our particular attention. The primary intention of the present study was to contribute novel information regarding the evolutionary phylogeny and phylogeography of codling moth populations in Central Europe. In addition, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that differential biological traits and response patterns towards pesticides in codling moth populations may be reflected at a mitochondrial DNA level. In particular, we wanted to test if pesticide resistance in codling moths is associated repeatedly and independently with more than one mitochondrial haplotype. To this end, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and constructed phylogenetic trees based on three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the A+T-rich region of the control region (CR), and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). The results indicate that Central European populations of Cydia pomonella are clearly divided in two ancient clades. As shown by means of a molecular clock approach, the splitting of the two clades can be dated to a time period between the lower and middle Pleistocene, about 1.29-0.20 million years ago. It is assumed that the cyclic changes of warm and cold periods during Pleistocene may have lead to the geographic separation of codling moth populations due to glaciation, giving rise to the formation of the two separate refugial clades, as already shown for many

  19. Preferência para alimentação de lagartas de Chlosyne lacinia saundersii Doubleday & Hewitson, 1849 em cultivares de girassol Feeding preference of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii Doubleday & Hewitson, 1849 among sunflower varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding preference of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii Doubleday & Hewitson, 1849 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae in eighteen sunflower varieties was investigated in two experiments under field conditions, at Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Varietal differences were evaluated by visually estimating the percentage of foliar area eaten by the caterpillars. The results showed that the variety Conti GH-8121 had the highest percentage of defoliation (57.8% and, the varieties Cargill 33 (20.0% and Estanzuella 75 (19.0%, the lowest.

  20. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  1. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  2. Foraging strategies in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) on Lepidoptera in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Longru; FENG Jiang; SUN Keping; LIU Ying; WU Lei; LI Zhenxin; ZHANG Xichen

    2005-01-01

    The diet of the bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was studied at the Zhi'an Village of Ji'an City in China, from June to August 2004. The bats were trained in a laboratory (volume: 9×4×4 m3). Foraging strategies of the bat were ob- served at night and prey remains were collected and identi- fied. The results showed that the diet consisted mainly of Lepidoptera in summer, including 11 families, more than 30 species of moths, such as Noctuidae (36.6% by number), Sphingidae (24.1%), Geometridae (13.4%) and Limacodidae (9.5%). The length of culled wings ranged from 10―40 mm (97.7%). Pearson correlation analysis showed that the bat R. ferrumequinum foraged their prey selectively, but not op- portunistically. From field studies, two ways were observed in which the bats retrieved their prey including aerial hawk- ing during peak active period of the insects and flycatching during the insects' non-peak activity period. The bats never gleaned prey from the ground, though they appeared to be well able to detect fluttering moths on the ground.

  3. Patterns of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the invasive pest Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooman, Leah K; Rose, Caroline J; Carraher, Colm; Suckling, D Max; Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Ledezma, Lisa A; Gilligan, Todd M; Epstein, Marc; Barr, Norman B; Newcomb, Richard D

    2011-06-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a horticultural pest of Australia and New Zealand that has more recently invaded Hawaii, Europe, and California. A 2,216-bp region of the mitochondrial genome containing the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes was sequenced from 752 individuals. Haplotype network analyses revealed a major split between a predominantly Western Australian clade and all other samples, suggestive of either a deep genetic divergence or a cryptic species. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were highest in the country of origin, Australia, and in New Zealand populations, with evidence of haplotype sharing between New Zealand and Tasmania. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were higher in California than within the British Isles or Hawaii. From the total of 96 haplotypes, seven were found in California, of which four were private. Within California, there have been at least two introductions; based on genetic diversity we were unable to assign a likely source for a single moth found and eradicated in Los Angeles in 2007; however, our data suggest it is unlikely that Hawaii and the British Isles are sources of the major E. postvittana population found throughout the rest of the state since 2006.

  4. DNA diagnostics to identify internal feeders (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of pome fruits of quarantine importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcenas, N M; Unruh, T R; Neven, L G

    2005-04-01

    A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is presented for differentiating among the North American internal apple-feeding pests codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); lesser appleworm, Grapholita prunivora (Walsh); and cherry fruitworm, Grapholita packardi Zeller. An approximately 470-bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced in three to six specimens of each species. Consistent and diagnostic differences were observed among the species in two regions of COI from which forward and reverse primers were designed to amplify a 112-116-bp segment of the gene. The primer sets were used to selectively amplify DNA from specimens of diverse geographic origin for each corresponding target species. Protocols were adapted for conventional and quantitative PCR, the latter being substantially faster. The method was validated as a decision-making tool for quarantine identifications for Mexico by representatives of their phytosanitary agency (Sanidad Vegetal). The method can facilitate identification of intercepted internal feeding Lepidoptera in apple and pear for many other importing nations.

  5. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  6. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganó, M.C.; Toso, G.; Caille, G.; Mangenot, C.; Lager, I.E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spat

  7. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  8. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal... are amending the South American cactus moth regulations by adding the State of Louisiana to the list of areas quarantined because of South American cactus moth. As a result of this action,...

  9. [Possible uses of sunflower in proper human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    The sunflower is the main oil crop in Serbia and one of the four major oil crops on the global scale. The seed of commercial sunflower crops being grown today consists most commonly of 45-53% oil and 15-18% protein. Unfortunately, sunflower seed protein has traditionally been underused in the human diet in Serbia. The amino acid composition of sunflower protein is quite favorable. In addition to oil and protein, sunflower kernels contain tocopherols, minerals, and vitamins. The sunflower is also a major honey plant, as sunflower plants produce over 40 kg of nectar and over 80 kg of pollen per area unit (hectare) under normal circumstances. Standard sunflower oil is linoleic in character, but induced mutations have been used to obtain genotypes with a high-oleic acid content of the oil (> 85%), thus enabling the development of high-oleic sunflower hybrids. Induced mutations have also been used to obtain genotypes with high levels of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids. The predominant tocopherol in standard sunflower oil is the alpha one, but sunflower genotypes have now been developed using spontaneous and induced mutations that predominantly contain beta, gamma, and delta tocopherols. Various developments in the field of genetics have made it possible to develop sunflower hybrids with different oil profiles in terms of fatty acid composition and tocopherol type and amount. The thermo-oxidative stability of the new types of sunflower oil is significantly higher than that of standard sunflower oil. Of the new types of sunflower, it is the high-oleic hybrids that have found the widest application in commercial production. It is expected that the future sunflower hybrids combining high levels of oleic and stearic acids with gamma tocopherol will become a major component of a healthy human diet. The development of new consumption sunflower hybrids with an increased protein content and altered oil quality will lead to the development of a large number of novel final

  10. Assessment of SPLAT formulations to control Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in a Brazilian apple orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano João Arioli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating disruption is a technique that uses synthetic copies of sex pheromones to control insect pests. We aimed to control Oriental fruit moth (OFM Grapholita molesta (Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae with formulations of SPLAT Grafo (SG and SPLAT Grafo Attract and Kill (SGAK in small (1 ha apple (Malus domestica Borkh. orchards. Our experiment was conducted in a commercial orchard with 'Gala' trees (spacing 1.5 x 4.5 m in Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. We evaluated the effect of four treatments on G. molesta population densities: a SG at 1 kg ha-1 (300 point sources of 3.3 g each, b SGAK at 1 kg ha-1 (1000 point sources of 1 g each, c insecticides as recommended by Integrated Apple Production (IAP, and d untreated control (no treatment. Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT treatments were applied on 1 August 2004 and reapplied after 120 d (1 December 2004. The treatment effect was evaluated by weekly counts of males captured in Delta traps baited with commercial synthetic sex pheromone lures (eight traps per treatment. We assessed fruit damage caused by G. molesta in eight replicates of 200 fruits each on 26 October, 30 November 2004, and 5 and 31 January 2005. Applying 1 kg ha-1 of SG and SGAK in August and December 2004 significantly reduced the number of male moths caught in Delta traps. Damage to fruits at harvest, however, did not differ significantly from the control. This indicates a decline in the efficacy of mating disruption when SG and SGAK are used to protect small areas (1 ha under high Oriental fruit moth pressure.

  11. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  12. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  13. Incomplete Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Indian Meal Moth, Plodia interpunctella, Based on De Novo Transcriptome Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter W.; Mank, Judith E.; Wedell, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Males and females experience differences in gene dose for loci in the nonrecombining region of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. If not compensated, this leads to expression imbalances, with the homogametic sex on average exhibiting greater expression due to the doubled gene dose. Many organisms with heteromorphic sex chromosomes display global dosage compensation mechanisms, which equalize gene expression levels between the sexes. However, birds and Schistosoma have been previously shown to lack chromosome-wide dosage compensation mechanisms, and the status in other female heterogametic taxa including Lepidoptera remains unresolved. To further our understanding of dosage compensation in female heterogametic taxa and to resolve its status in the lepidopterans, we assessed the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. As P. interpunctella lacks a complete reference genome, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly combined with orthologous genomic location prediction from the related silkworm genome, Bombyx mori, to compare Z-linked and autosomal gene expression levels for each sex. We demonstrate that P. interpunctella lacks complete Z chromosome dosage compensation, female Z-linked genes having just over half the expression level of males and autosomal genes. This finding suggests that the Lepidoptera and possibly all female heterogametic taxa lack global dosage compensation, although more species will need to be sampled to confirm this assertion. PMID:23034217

  14. Development and Evaluation of Codon-modified cry V Constructs in Cultivated Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ) for Control of Potato Tuber Moth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Hongju; Li Wenbin; Douches David; Lu Cuihua

    2007-01-01

    A cryV gene, specifically toxic to Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, was incorporated into binary vectors with different promoters and the presence or absence of the β -glucuronidase (gus) reporter gene. These constructs were integrated into potato cv. Spunta by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Highest expression of cryV gene, determined by mRNA levels and insect mortality, was obtained using the CaMV 35S promoter without the gus gene configuration.Detached leaf and tuber bioassays showed a mortality rate of up to 83% and 100%, respectively, for potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) in the transgenic lines. Our results demonstrated that the presence of the gus gene negatively affects the expression level of the cryV gene. Bt expression was also facilitated by using the (ocs)3 mas super promoter, whereas the Bt expression regulated by the patatin promoter (tuber-specific) was too low to have any effect upon the mortality of potato tuber moth. These results represent significant improvement in the level of host plant resistance for the control of potato tuber moth via Bt transgenes.

  15. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  16. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard G Brockerhoff

    Full Text Available Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders.

  17. Sunflower Array Antenna with Adjustable Density Taper

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Carolina Viganó; Giovanni Toso; Gerard Caille; Cyril Mangenot; Lager, Ioan E.

    2009-01-01

    A deterministic procedure to design a nonperiodic planar array radiating a rotationally symmetric pencil beam pattern with an adjustable sidelobe level is proposed. The elements positions are derived by modifying the peculiar locations of the sunflower seeds in such a way that the corresponding spatial density fits a Taylor amplitude tapering law which guarantees the pattern requirements in terms of beamwidth and sidelobe level. Different configurations, based on a Voronoi cell spatial tessel...

  18. Sunflower crop in Argentina to date

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez A.; de Romano A.

    2006-01-01

    Inside a panorama of a spectacular grain production in the last 10 years in Argentina, sunflower crop participates with an annual production of more than 3,500,000 t. During that period, many advances were made in the improvement of diseases resistance: Verticillium wilt, downy mildew and head rot. Also oil yield per hectare continued to increase. The new hybrids have new qualities, for example imidazolinones resistance, which allows farmers to keep yields, although the soils destined to sunf...

  19. High-oleic sunflower, a new oil component; Die High-Oleic-Sunflower als neue Grundoelkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botz, O. [Natoil AG, Technopark Luzern (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    Achieved results from NATOIL {sup registered} proved that the application of the High-Oleic-Sunflower as a component of a base oil in lubricants is in general feasible. The target goals and properties have been realised with great success. To emphasize are particularly good results in relation to piston cleanliness, oxidative stability as well as fuel economy properties. The central fear that the High-Oleic-Sunflower would not be sufficiently stable concerning oxidation has been clearly refuted in diverse motor tests. The application of the High-Oleic Sunflower and of the here of manufactured esters enables the development of lubricants with much lower viscosity characteristics in comparison to mineral-oil-based lubricants, which may result in the overall reduction of the average drag torque by up to 30%. (orig.)

  20. Proteolytic activity in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, Pomegranate carob moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ranjbar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the proteolytic activity in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae as the major pest of pomegranate was investigated to find nature of specific proteases and their properties for adopting possible pest management procedure. It was found that fourth and fifth instar larvae had the highest proteolytic activity as well as specific proteinases including, elastase, trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and two exopeptidases. The optimal pH of general protease was 10 and 9 for azocasein, casein and hemoglobin as substrate. The optimal temperature of the total proteolytic activity in the midgut of E. ceratoniae was found 30 and 35 °C by using azocasein and casein as substrates, respectively. In case of hemoglobin, the enzyme showed the highest enzymatic activity at temperatures from 15 to 35 °C. There was no enhancement in the proteolytic activity by using different cations but SDS, citric acid and mercaptoetahnol significantly decreased the proteolytic activity in the midgut of E. ceratoniae. Using specific proteolytic inhibitors including PMSF, TLCK, TPCK, E-64, DTT and phenanthroline revealed presence of serine proteases as the major proteases in the midgut of E. ceratoniae.

  1. A comprehensive DNA barcode library for the looper moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) of British Columbia, Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    deWaard, Jeremy R; Hebert, Paul D N; Humble, Leland M

    2011-01-01

    .... By analyzing specimens held in national and regional natural history collections, we assemble barcode records from representatives of 400 species from BC and surrounding provinces, territories and states...

  2. Developmental inhibition of gamma irradiation on the peach fruit moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jihoon; Ahn, Jun-Young; Sik Lee, Seung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing irradiation is a useful technique for disinfestation under plant quarantine as well as post-harvest management. Effects of gamma irradiation treatment were tested on different developmental events of Carposina sasakii, which is a serious pest of various orchard crops. Apple fruits infested by C. sasakii were irradiated by gamma rays ranging from 0 to 300 Gy. Inhibition rates were determined on behavioral events related to development, including larval exit from apples, cocoon formation, adult eclosion, and oviposition. Failure rates of all these developmental events increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Rates of larval exit from apples and cocoon formation decreased to 13.2% and 1.7%, respectively, at 300 Gy. However, the adult eclosion rate decreased to 5.4% at 100 Gy and was completely inhibited at doses greater than 150 Gy. LD99 values for the inhibition of cocoon formation and adult emergence was estimated into 313.4 and 191.0 Gy. Furthermore, adults developed from irradiated larvae completely failed to lay eggs. Thus, irradiation of infested apples at doses of 200 Gy and higher completely inhibited the next generation of C. sasakii. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation treatment would be a promising technique for the control of C. sasakii.

  3. New Records of Five Ennomine Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae; Ennominae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Ennominae is one of the most species-rich taxa of Geometridae that include more than 9,700 species worldwide and over 280 species in South Korea. Herein, we present the first report of five species of Ennominae. Abraxas flavisinuata can be characterized by the white wings, a thick black postmedial line that is medially and dorsally broken with an orange band, large rounded black discal dots on the forewing, and a black dotted postmedial line on the hindwing. Lomographa claripennis can be characterized by the whitish wings, the black undulating postmedial line as well as the minute blackish discal dot on the forewing, and the black undulating postmedial line with a minute black discal dot on the hindwing. Arichanna tetrica can be characterized by the grayish forewings, thick black transverse ante- and postmedial lines, a large blackish discal dot, whitish apical streak on the forewing, and scattered black dots on the whitish hindwing. Apocleora rimosa can be characterized by the brown ground color of the fore- and hindwings, the black slanted ante- and postmedial lines of the forewing, and two black medial lines on the hindwing. Ourapteryx japonica can be characterized by the white wings, the dark brown transverse ante- and postmedial lines with a long discal dot on the forewing, and the dark brownish transverse antemedial line as well as a termen that has a sharp white tail with one large dark reddish dot and one small black dot on the hindwing.

  4. Delayed mating reduces reproductive output of female European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vila, L M; Rodríguez-Molina, M C; Stockel, J

    2002-06-01

    Virgin females of Lobesia botrana Denis & Schiffermüller were mated at ages of 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 16 days and the effect of mating delay on reproductive output assessed. Delayed mating did not affect female mating success but fertilization was reduced in 16-day-old females. Increased mating delays substantially affected daily oviposition pattern and resulted in a significant reduction of both fecundity and fertility, so that mean number of viable eggs laid decreased from 150 to 22 in 1- and 16-day-old mated females, respectively. Heavier females were more constrained than lighter ones by mating delays and female reproductive efficiency (no. viable eggs/female body weight) was also significantly reduced. Female longevity significantly increased and oviposition period gradually declined with mating delay. The number of viable eggs was positively correlated with both female weight and oviposition period; female longevity and female weight were also significantly correlated. However, the significance of these correlations declined with increased mating delay. Results overall indicated that mating delay drastically reduces female L. botrana reproductive output. The implications of delayed mating of females are discussed from an ecological perspective in relation to L. botrana control using mating disruption.

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the European Grapevine moth (EGVM) Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Melissa Claire; van Helden, Maarten; Court, Leon N; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-09-01

    The Lobesia botrana larvae feed on grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), thereby reducing crop yield and increasing crop susceptibility to fungal and bacterial attacks. We determined the circular mitochondrial genome of L. botrana as 15 229 bp (GenBank KP677508) and contained 13 protein coding genes (PCG's), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and two ribosomal RNAs. All tRNAs have the "clover-shaped" 2-D structures, while the tRNA-Ile which has the TψC-stem but lacked the TψC-loop. Knowledge of L. botrana mitochondrial genome represents a valuable molecular resource for developing effective DNA identification tools for biosecurity purposes and will contribute to better understanding of its evolutionary and population genetics.

  6. Temporal patterns of diversification in Andean Eois, a species-rich clade of moths (Lepidoptera, Geometridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzenberger, P; Fiedler, K

    2011-04-01

    The timing of the origin of present day Neotropical animal diversity is still a matter of debate. For a long time, a preponderance of glacial (i.e. Pleistocene) radiations has been proposed. However, recent data from molecular clock studies indicate a preglacial origin for most of the examined taxa. We performed a fossil-calibrated molecular dating analysis of the genus Eois, which is a major component of one of the world's most diverse assemblages of herbivorous insects. We found that diversification of Eois took place in the Miocene following a pattern best explained by density-dependent diversification. A strong slowdown of diversification towards the present was detected. Diversification of Eois does overlap with increased Andean uplift and diversification of the most commonly used host plant genus Piper. These findings match the patterns found for the majority of Neotropical tetrapods and for three other unrelated, ecologically different lepidopteran genera.

  7. First discovery of a cave-dwelling Tineid moth (Lepidoptera, Tineidae) from East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bong-Kyu Byun; Sat-Byul Shin; Yang-Seop Bae; Do Sung Kim; Yong Geun Choi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we report Monopis crocicapitella (Clemens, 1859) (Tineidae), which was collected from bat guano in a cave in the southern region of Korea, for the first time from East Asia. We briefly redescribe and illustrate the external morphology and genital structures of both sexes. Also, we discuss the local habitat characteristics and some of the ecological information that was observed during our field investi-gation.

  8. Genetic structure of fragmented November moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) populations in farmland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne, Ian Robert; Loxdale, Hugh D.; Brookes, Cliff P.

    2003-01-01

    allozymes, conservation genetics, Epirrita dilutata, Epirrita christyi, molecular markers, habitat fragmentation, population genetic structure......allozymes, conservation genetics, Epirrita dilutata, Epirrita christyi, molecular markers, habitat fragmentation, population genetic structure...

  9. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  10. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  11. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  12. Identification of components of the female sex pheromone of the Simao pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Booij, Kees C J H

    2011-04-01

    The pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), is a pest of economic importance on pine in southwest China. Three active compounds were detected during analyses of solvent extracts and effluvia sampled by solid phase microextraction (SPME) from virgin female D. kikuchii using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with electroantennographic (EAG) recording with antennae from a male moth. The compounds were identified as (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH), and (5Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc) by comparison of their GC retention indices, mass spectra, and EAG activities with those of synthetic standards. Microchemical reactions of gland extracts provided further information confirming the identifications of the three components. Solvent extractions and SPME samples of pheromone effluvia from virgin calling females provided 100:18:0.6 and 100:7:1 ratios of Z5,E7-12:OAc:Z5,E7-12:OH:Z5-12:OAc, respectively. Field behavioral assays showed that Z5,E7-12:OAc and Z5,E7-12:OH were essential for attraction of male D. kikuchii moths. However, the most attractive blend contained these three components in a 100:20:25 ratio in a gray rubber septa. Our results demonstrated that the blend of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5-12:OAc comprise the sex pheromone of D. kikuchii. The optimized three-component lure blend is recommended for monitoring D. kikuchii infestations.

  13. Correlation between the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections during the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae leaf-mining moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Florence; Dedeine, Franck; Kaiser, Wilfried; Giron, David; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Internally feeding herbivorous insects such as leaf miners have developed the ability to manipulate the physiology of their host plants in a way to best meet their metabolic needs and compensate for variation in food nutritional composition. For instance, some leaf miners can induce green-islands on yellow leaves in autumn, which are characterized by photosynthetically active green patches in otherwise senescing leaves. It has been shown that endosymbionts, and most likely bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, play an important role in green-island induction in the apple leaf-mining moth Phyllonorycter blancardella. However, it is currently not known how widespread is this moth-Wolbachia-plant interaction. Here, we studied the co-occurrence between Wolbachia and the green-island phenotype in 133 moth specimens belonging to 74 species of Lepidoptera including 60 Gracillariidae leaf miners. Using a combination of molecular phylogenies and ecological data (occurrence of green-islands), we show that the acquisitions of the green-island phenotype and Wolbachia infections have been associated through the evolutionary diversification of Gracillariidae. We also found intraspecific variability in both green-island formation and Wolbachia infection, with some species being able to form green-islands without being infected by Wolbachia. In addition, Wolbachia variants belonging to both A and B supergroups were found to be associated with green-island phenotype suggesting several independent origins of green-island induction. This study opens new prospects and raises new questions about the ecology and evolution of the tripartite association between Wolbachia, leaf miners, and their host plants.

  14. Targets of an invasive species: oviposition preference and larval performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on 14 North American opuntioid cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, Heather A; Stiling, Peter D; Carpenter, James E

    2010-12-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the cactus moth, is a well-known biological control agent of prickly pear cactus (Cactaceae: Opuntia Miller). The arrival of the moth in Florida and its subsequent spread through the southeastern United States poses a threat to opuntioid diversity in North America. Of particular concern are the ecological and economic impacts the moth could have in the southwestern United States and Mexico, where both native and cultivated Opuntia species are important resources. It is unknown which species would best support larval development if the moth were to spread further westward in North America. This study aimed to determine if ovipositing females demonstrate preferences for any of 14 common opuntioids native to or naturalized in Mexico and the southwestern United States; which of these opuntioids best support larval development; and if oviposition preference correlates with larval performance, as predicted by simple adaptive models. Results from a field experiment showed that female moths preferred O. engelmannii Salm-Dyck ex Engelmann variety linguiformis (Griffiths) Parfitt and Pinkava and O. engelmannii variety engelmannii for oviposition. A generalized linear model showed number of cladodes and degree of spininess to be significant predictors of oviposition activity. Results from a no-choice larval survival experiment showed Consolea rubescens (Salm-Dyck ex de Candolle.) Lemaire and O. streptacantha Lemaire to be the best hosts. Epidermal toughness was a significant predictor of most larval fitness parameters. In general, oviposition preference was not correlated with larval performance. A lack of co-evolutionary history between C. cactorum and North American opuntioid species may help explain this disconnect.

  15. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  16. Pouoogmotte (Lepidoptera : Saturniidae van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. van den Berg

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available More male than female emperor moths were attracted to ultra-violet light. Females fly mainly before and males mainly after midnight. Among the 16 emperor moth species collected in the Kruger National Park, were the mopani emperor (Gonimbrasia belina (Westw. and the poplar emperor (Pseudobunaea irius (F.. Ludia delegorguei (Bsd. was collected at Punda Milia, which proves that the species does occur in the Transvaal.

  17. Occurrence of Cystosporogenes sp. (Protozoa, Microsporidia) in a multi-species insect production facility and its elimination from a colony of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Frankenhuyzen, Kees; Ebling, Peter; McCron, Bob; Ladd, Tim; Gauthier, Debbie; Vossbrinck, Charles

    2004-09-01

    We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory colony of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Light and electron microscopic investigations showed that gross pathology and ultrastructure of our isolate are similar to those described for Cystosporogenes legeri from the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods revealed perfect homology with the C. legeri sequence. The microsporidian was infectious to other Choristoneura species, as well as Malacosoma disstria, Lymantria dispar, and Lambdina fiscellaria. Incubation of infected egg masses at 41 degrees C for 20 min followed by 30 min in 33% formaldehyde did not reduce disease incidence in larval offspring. Exposure of one or two generations to fumagillin at 6000 ppm or higher eliminated infection in adult moths, but also reduced colony fitness. A clean colony was established by conducting individual matings and selecting disease-free offspring.

  18. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Miran

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimated. “One productpartial equilibrium analysis” has been used to estimate the future market structure of sunflower seed. Asimulation model from 2003 to 2015 has been created with partial equilibrium analysis. Turkey is a netimporter of vegetable oils. Sunflower seed import is approximately 300 thousand tons while crude oil importis approximately 180 thousand tons in 2002. According to the results of simulation model, Turkey willcontinue to be a net importer for sunflower and other oil seeds. It has been estimated that the sunflower seedimport will be approximately 1 million tons and crude oil import will be approximately 400 thousand tons atend of the simulation period (2003-2015.

  19. Morphology and networks of sunflower wax crystals in organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant waxes are considered as promising alternatives to unhealthy solid fats such as trans fats and saturated fats in structured food products including margarines and spreads. Sunflower wax is of a great interest due to its strong gelling ability. Morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in soyb...

  20. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  1. Evaluating perennial sunflower for wildlife and food uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34). H. tuberosusis part of the secondary gene pool of sunflower and has b...

  2. Consumptive Water Use and Crop Coefficients of Irrigated Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing...

  3. Sunflower water productivity in four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a drought-adapted crop whose short growing season reduces irrigation requirements, makes it ideal for regions with limited irrigation water supplies. Our objectives were to a) evaluate the yield (Y) potential of sunflower under full and deficit irrigation (IR) b)...

  4. SUNflower +6 : development and application of a footprint methodology for the SUNflower +6 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Oppe, S. Reurings, M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in traffic safety is the result of many efforts, starting with political decisions, the development of safety plans and safety actions and their implementation. This report explores ways of presenting information from the SUNflower+6 countries in such a way that it shows how the interaction

  5. SUNflower +6 : development and application of a footprint methodology for the SUNflower +6 countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, P. Oppe, S. Reurings, M. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in traffic safety is the result of many efforts, starting with political decisions, the development of safety plans and safety actions and their implementation. This report explores ways of presenting information from the SUNflower+6 countries in such a way that it shows how the interaction

  6. Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for color removal from textile wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.; Xu, X. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Textiles and Clothing

    1997-03-01

    Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for two basic dyes (Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9) and two direct dyes (Congo Red and Direct Blue 71) in aqueous solutions were studied with equilibrium isotherms and kinetic adsorptions. The maximum adsorptions of two basic dyes on sunflower stalks are very high, i.e., 205 and 317 mg/g for Methylene Blue and Basic Red 9, respectively. The two direct dyes have relatively lower adsorption on sunflower stalks. The adsorptive behaviors of sunflower stalk components are different. The pith, which is the soft and porous material in the center of stalks, has twice the adsorptive capacity of the skin. Particle sizes of sunflower stalks also affect the adsorption of dyes. The adsorption rates of two basic dyestuffs are much higher than that of the direct dyes. Within 30 min about 80% basic dyes were removed from the solutions.

  7. Industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemelä, J. R.K.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available High oleic sunflower oil has been developed for some special purposes where a good oxidation stability is needed and a healthy fatty acid profile is preferred. The oil is especially suitable for deep fat frying. These industrial frying trials with high oleic sunflower oil were part of the AIR-project CT 920687 "Utilisation of Sunflower Oils in Industrial Frying Operations". High oleic sunflower oil (HOSO was tested against the traditional oils and fats in two industrial deep fat frying applications, namely crisps and prefried frozen french fries. The frying trials took place in Raisio Groups factories in Pyhanta and Vihanti, Finland in 1993 and 1994. According to the trials, high oleic sunflower oil is very suitable for deep fat frying. Problems occurred when a hard fat was substituted for a liquid oil in the preparation of prefrozen French Fries. These problems could be partly overcome by adjustments in the processing line.

  8. Dietary effects of four phytoecdysteroids on growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rharrabe, Kacem; Sayan, Fouad; Lafont, René

    2010-01-01

    Using pure phytoecdysteroids isolated from Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Silene nutans L. (Caryophyllales: Caryophyllaceae), plants known for their high ecdysteroid content, a study was carried out on the effects of ingestion of four different phytoecdysteroids (20-hydroxyecdysone, polypodine B, ponasterone A and makisterone A) on the growth and development of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae when added at a concentration of 200 ppm in their diet. The experiments clearly showed the susceptibility of P. interpunctella to phytoecdysteroid ingestion. The toxicity of phytoecdysteroids manifested itself by a decrease in larval weight, induction of cannibalism and an increase of mortality, together with disruption of development. The severity of the phytoecdysteroid effect on P. interpunctella depended on the structure of the molecule. The results demonstrate that the minimal structural differences existing between these four phytoecdysteroids significantly affected their toxicity toward P. interpunctella. Makisterone A was the most toxic of the four compounds towards P. interpunctella larvae. In conclusion, phytoecdysteroids ingestion evokes disruptive growth effects on P. interpunctella. This work supports a role for phytoecdysteroids in plant defence against phytophagous insects.

  9. Life cycle and immature stages of the arctiid moth, Phoenicoprocta capistrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Loeches, Laura; Barro, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Phoenicoprocta capistrata (Fabricius 1775) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an arctiid moth reported for the Caribbean and Brazil, whose immature stages and life cycle are unknown. In this study, and for the first time, a host plant is registered and the immature stages and the captivity life cycle are described using a Cuban population. Larvae feed on fowlsfoot, Serjania diversifolia (Jacq.) Radlk (Sapindales: Sapindaceae). One complete cohort was obtained from December of 2004 to February of 2005 and about 57 days lapsed from oviposition to adult emergence. The egg is light green-yellowish and semi-spherical. Most larvae developed through 6 or 7 instars, although there were individuals with 8 instars. The last instar has a cephalic capsule width of 2.04 +/- 0.06 mm (n = 29) irrespective of the number of instars. The cephalic capsule growth curves of the larvae with 6 and 7 instars have different slopes, but both follow a geometric pattern consistent with the Dyar's rule. In each larval molt the setae types and the larvae coloration change. Adult females have two color morphs, one orange-reddish and the other blue. Female descendants of blue and red females differ in the proportion of color morphs, which could indicate the existence of a female-limited polymorphism phenomenon in this species.

  10. Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D; Molina, J M

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats.

  11. Development time plasticity of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa populations under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berardi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae is a univoltine defoliator that is active over a wide range of latitudes and elevations, being largely influenced by temperature variations, especially during larval development across the winter. This work compares field development time with that observed in the laboratory rearing under controlled conditions, in four Th. pityocampa populations characterized by different life history phenology: two populations from the Italian Alps characterized by early and late adult emergence, and two populations from Portugal, the first characterized by winter feeding and late adult emergence, the second by a switch of the larval feeding from winter to summer. The rearing started from the egg stage and was maintained in the laboratory at 20-25°C under natural light in transparent boxes. In spite of the different geographic origins and asynchrony of the period of larval development, all populations maintained an annual life cycle under laboratory conditions, as well as a phenology similar to that of the field populations. Such an outcome was possible due to a trade-off in the duration of the larval and pupal stages, the latter being identified as the phase of development when an efficient regulatory mechanism is acting to maintain the univoltine life cycle.

  12. Biosynthesis and PBAN-regulated transport of pheromone polyenes in the winter moth, Operophtera brumata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Szöcs, Gabor; Chinta, Satya Prabhakar; Schulz, Stefan; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-06-01

    The trienoic and tetraenoic polyenes, (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene, (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-henicosatriene, and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-henicosatetraene were found in the abdominal cuticle and pheromone gland of the winter moth Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), in addition to the previously identified single component sex pheromone (3Z,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene. The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved in the regulation of polyene transport from abdominal cuticle to the pheromone gland. In vivo deuterium labeling experiments showed that (11Z,14Z,17Z)-11,14,17-icosatrienoic acid, the malonate elongation product of linolenic acid, (9Z,12Z,15Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, is used to produce (3Z,6Z,9Z)-3,6,9-nonadecatriene and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene.

  13. New approaches for the management of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altindisli Ferhunde Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the key pest of grape in Turkey. It damages grape berries directly and requires strict control measures producing 3 or 4 generations per year. Since the ‘80s, farmers often preferred chemical control with organophosphorus insecticides against the pest because it is wieldy, very effective and cheap. Tendency to use environmentally friendly pesticides began at the beginning of the nineties because chemicals sprayed next to grape harvest threaten environment and consumer health, causing residue problem in export. Consequently, a bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl., was put into practice against the pest. Forecasting System timing according to the larvicides against EGVM was reviewed as a result of the registration of an ovicide at the end of nineties. Modifications have been made in standard biological efficacy test method and Forecasting System taking the biological stages of EGVM into account to get optimal results from ovicides. Mating disruption and auto-confusion techniques against EGVM were tested and put into practice for the first time in the Aegean Region to decrease insecticide applications. Since 2005, mating disruption has been gradually preferred by the growers and firms because it is very effective and easy to apply.

  14. Ancient expansion of the hox cluster in lepidoptera generated four homeobox genes implicated in extra-embryonic tissue formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths. Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria, with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.

  15. Ancient expansion of the hox cluster in lepidoptera generated four homeobox genes implicated in extra-embryonic tissue formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Carter, Jean-Michel; Taylor, William R; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-10-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.

  16. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  17. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS). Referenc

  18. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  19. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae......) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13...

  20. [Isolation and purification of virus damaging sunflower].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakusilo, A O; Didenko, L F; Kniazieva, N A; Boĭko, A L

    1994-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for purifying intact virus's isolate particles evoking yellow spot mosaic disease in sunflower. Purification of pathogen in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 containing 0.05 M Na3SO3 and 0.2% 2-mercaptoethanol is used. After first clarification extract was exposed to two cycles of high-speed centrifugation and fractionated in linear 10-40% (wt vol-1) sucrose density gradient. Virus was recovered from appropriate fractions after dialysis against 0.01 M Na2SO3.

  1. Sunflower cataract: do not forget Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tomasz; Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology for 6 years was admitted to our department to confirm the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. He consulted an ophthalmologist who suspected the presence of a sunflower cataract and Kayser-Fleischer ring. At admission, his liver function tests were modestly impaired (Child-Pugh C, 10 pts). Neurological examination was normal, but cognitive functions were mildly impaired. Based on the copper metabolism abnormalities and clinical manifestation, we diagnosed Wilson's disease (Ferenci score, 6 pts) and started treatment with d-penicillamine. Presenting the case we would like to emphasise the significance of the ophthalmological examination in Wilson's disease diagnosis.

  2. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  3. Of Mice Moths and Men Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Schuppli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, Grace Murray Hopper a pioneer in early computing made an unusual entry into her daily logbook: lsquo;Relay #70 Panel F (moth in relay. First actual case of bug being found.rsquo; Accompanying this entry is an actual celluloid tape encrusted bug, or more specifically a moth, fastened to the page of the logbook. According to Hopper, one of the technicians in her team solved a glitch in the emHarvard Mark II/em computer by pulling an actual insect out from between the contacts of one of its relays. Word soon went out that they had lsquo;debugged the machinersquo; and the phrase quickly entered our lexicon. After languishing for years this mythic moth was eventually transported to the emSmithsonian/em where it now lies in archival state. The mothrsquo;s dynamic vitality had introduced a kind of surplus or aberrant code into the machine, which in effect pushed the machine towards a state of chaos and breakdown. Its failure to act as desired, to perform the coding sequences of its programmed history suggests that even a seemingly inert or lifeless machine can become lsquo;more and other than its historyrsquo;. (Elizabeth Grosz, 2005 Hopperrsquo;s bug is thus a material witness to the creative co-evolution of the machine with the living matter of the moth. Moreover, as a cipher for machinic defect the bug reminds us that mutations are in fact necessary for systems to change and evolve. The crisis introduced into a biological system or machine through the virulence of the bug is terminal only to the extent that it becomes the source for another kind of order, another kind of interaction. This is used as a casenbsp;study to argue that chaos is not only an animating force in the constitution of new systems but is necessary for the evolution of difference.

  4. Habitat Impact on Ultraviolet Reflectance in Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapletalová, L; Zapletal, M; Konvička, M

    2016-10-01

    A comparison of 95 species of Central European moths, representing 11 families and inhabiting various habitats, was carried out in order to detect the potential impact of biotope on the ultraviolet (UV) light reflectance of their wings. Based on digitized photographs taken under UV light conditions, a phylogeny-controlled redundancy analysis relating UV reflectance to preferred habitat type (xerophilous, mesophilous, and hygrophilous) and habitat openness (open, semiopen, and closed) was carried out. Species preferring hygrophilous habitats displayed significantly higher UV wing reflectance than species inhabiting xerothermic and mesic habitats, and this pattern remained significant even after controlling for phyletic relationships. In contrast, UV wing reflectance displayed no pattern related to habitat openness. Given the higher UV reflectance of water and humid surfaces, we interpret these results, which are based on the first comprehensive sampling of UV reflectance in Central European moths, in terms of predator avoidance under habitat-specific light conditions. We conclude that the moisture content of the environment may markedly contribute to the variation of appearance of moth wings for better imitation habitat characteristics and therefore to increase protection. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) abundance and seasonal flight activity in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and woodlands in five eastern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, J C; Leskey, T C; Walgenbach, J F; Klingeman, W E; Kain, D P; Zhang, A

    2009-06-01

    The relative abundance and seasonal flight activity of dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was measured using weekly records from traps baited with its sex pheromone and deployed in apple orchards, urban landscapes, and native woodland sites in New York, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee in 2005 and 2006. The mean total number of moths captured per site in apple orchards was 3,146 +/- 644 and 3095 +/- 584 SE in 2005 and 2006, respectively, exceeding captures at urban sites by 16 and 13 times and at woodland sites by 210 and 206 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Mean total captures at urban sites exceeded those in woodland habitats by 13 and 16 times in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The mean duration (wk) of the flight period did not differ significantly between apple orchards (22.6 +/- 0.6 SE) and urban sites (20.3 +/- 1.2 SE). The onset of flight was somewhat later in New York (around early June) than further south (around early to mid-May), but moth captures continued into October in all states. Captures in apple orchards and at urban sites with higher populations were essentially continuous throughout the flight period, with substantial weekly fluctuations, and tended to show a bimodal pattern with peaks from late May through mid-July and from late August through mid-September. Captures at woodland sites tended to occur predominantly from mid-May through about mid-June and were very sporadic thereafter.

  6. Molecular identification of the genotype of gypsy moth larvae%舞毒蛾幼虫基因型的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林瑶; 雷桥; 朱雅君; 周国梁; 叶军; 易建平; 查利文; 杨轶

    2012-01-01

    To identify 2 Lepidoptera larvae intercepted in the red oak from Belgium,their morphological characters were identified and the comparative analysis between them and other gypsy moth samples was carried out through amplification and sequencing of the two genetic markers of their mitochondria and autosomes.The results showed that the larvae were hybrids of Lymantria dispar.%为鉴定来自比利时红橡木原木上截获的2头鳞翅目幼虫,通过形态特征鉴定及对样本线粒体和常染色体上两段分子标记进行扩增和测序,并与其他舞毒蛾样本进行比对与分析.结果表明:该样品为舞毒蛾幼虫,且为亚洲型和欧洲型的杂交种.

  7. Toxicity of essential oils extracted from Origanum onites L. and Citrus aurentium L. against the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Erler, Fedai; Yanikoglu, Atila

    2006-01-01

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams. (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae), is an important forest pest in the Mediterranean area, additionally urticating hairs of the caterpillars of this species cause strong allergic reactions on skin of humans and animals. In the present study, essential oils extracted from aerial parts of Origanum onites L. and fruit peels of Citrus aurentium L. were tested at three doses (0.1, 0.5 and 1%) against 4th and 5th instar larvae of the pest. The results showed that the activities were concentration dependent. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.288 and 0.926% for O. onites, 0.530 and 2.306% for C. aurentium, respectively.

  8. Uninvited guests: traditional insect repellents in Estonia used against the clothes moth Tineola bisselliella, human flea Pulex irritons and bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Kalle, Raivo; Svanberg, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    Extensive folklore records from pre-modern Estonia give us an excellent opportunity to study a variety of local plant knowledge and plant use among the peasantry in various parts of the country. One important biocultural domain where plant knowledge has been crucial was in the various methods of combating different ectoparasites that cohabited and coexisted with humans and their domestic animals. Some of these methods were widely known (world-wide, Eurasia, Europe, Baltic Rim), while others were more local. Here we discuss ways of reducing clothes moths Tineola bisselliella (Hummel) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), human fleas Pulex irritons L. (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and bedbugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with the help of plants. Various taxa used as traditional repellents have been identified. The use of plants as repellents and their toxic principles are also discussed from a comparative perspective.

  9. Morphological and molecular investigations of a microsporidium infecting the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff., and its taxonomic determination as Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies, Regina G; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A

    2003-07-01

    We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory stock of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Screening of this stock showed an infection rate of more than 90%, whereas field collected larvae from three different locations in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) did not demonstrate any signs of infection. Light and electron microscopic investigations of infected insects showed that gross pathology, morphology, and ultrastructure of the microsporidium are similar to those described earlier for Pleistophora legeri. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods showed that our isolate was closely related to Cystosporogenes operophterae. Based on our morphological and molecular investigations we propose to rename this species Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

  10. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  11. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia ly

  12. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  13. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  14. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  15. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  16. Contributions of gut bacteria to Bacillus thuringiensis-induced mortality vary across a range of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut microbiota contribute to the health of their hosts, and alterations in the composition of this microbiota can lead to disease. Previously, we demonstrated that indigenous gut bacteria were required for the insecticidal toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis to kill the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. B. thuringiensis and its associated insecticidal toxins are commonly used for the control of lepidopteran pests. A variety of factors associated with the insect host, B. thuringiensis strain, and environment affect the wide range of susceptibilities among Lepidoptera, but the interaction of gut bacteria with these factors is not understood. To assess the contribution of gut bacteria to B. thuringiensis susceptibility across a range of Lepidoptera we examined larval mortality of six species in the presence and absence of their indigenous gut bacteria. We then assessed the effect of feeding an enteric bacterium isolated from L. dispar on larval mortality following ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin. Results Oral administration of antibiotics reduced larval mortality due to B. thuringiensis in five of six species tested. These included Vanessa cardui (L., Manduca sexta (L., Pieris rapae (L. and Heliothis virescens (F. treated with a formulation composed of B. thuringiensis cells and toxins (DiPel, and Lymantria dispar (L. treated with a cell-free formulation of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII. Antibiotics eliminated populations of gut bacteria below detectable levels in each of the insects, with the exception of H. virescens, which did not have detectable gut bacteria prior to treatment. Oral administration of the Gram-negative Enterobacter sp. NAB3, an indigenous gut resident of L. dispar, restored larval mortality in all four of the species in which antibiotics both reduced susceptibility to B. thuringiensis and eliminated gut bacteria, but not in H. virescens. In contrast, ingestion of B. thuringiensis toxin (MVPII following antibiotic

  17. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  18. Degree-Day Prediction Models for the Flight Phenology of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Assessed with the Concordance Correlation Coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A A; Moon, R D; Wright, R J; Hunt, T E; Hutchison, W D

    2015-08-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native, univoltine pest of corn and dry beans in North America. The current degree-day model for predicting a specified percentage of yearly moth flight involves heat unit accumulation above 10°C after 1 May. However, because the moth's observed range has expanded into the northern and eastern United States, there is concern that suitable temperatures before May could allow for significant S. albicosta development. Daily blacklight moth catch and temperature data from four Nebraska locations were used to construct degree-day models using simple or sine-wave methods, starting dates between 1 January and 1 May, and lower (-5 to 15°C) and upper (20 to 43.3°C) developmental thresholds. Predicted dates of flight from these models were compared with observed flight dates using independent datasets to assess model performance. Model performance was assessed with the concordance correlation coefficient to concurrently evaluate precision and accuracy. The best model for predicting timing of S. albicosta flight used simple degree-day calculations beginning on 1 March, a 3.3°C (38°F) lower threshold, and a 23.9°C (75°F) upper threshold. The revised cumulative flight model indicated field scouting to estimate moth egg density at the time of 25% flight should begin when 1,432 degree-days (2,577 degree-days °F) have accumulated. These results underscore the importance of assessing multiple parameters in phenological models and utilizing appropriate assessment methods, which in this case may allow for improved timing of field scouting for S. albicosta.

  19. Ethiopian soya bean and sunflower value chains : Opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, J.H.M.; Dufera Gurmesa, N.; Lute, J.C.M.; Loo, van E.N.

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the business opportunities of soya beans and sunflowers. The opportunities are addressed to firms in all levels of the value chain ranging from consumers to farmers in the Ethiopian agriculture.

  20. Final Critical Habitat for the Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Pecos Sunflower (Helianthus paradoxus) occur. The geographic extent includes...

  1. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  2. Sunflower cake in the diet of Quarter Horses in activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Falaschini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of sunflower cake, a by-product of oilseed extraction for biodiesel production, prompted us to test the scope of its utilization in the diet of Quarter Horses employed in equestrian shows. We substituted 600 and 1200 g of feed with 300 and 600 g of sunflower cake, respectively, so as to obtain isoproteic and isoenergetic diets. Digestibility evaluation by the AIA method evidenced generally improved nutrient utilization with the lower cake diet (300 g sunflower. The higher cake diet was associated with a reduction in organic matter, protein and ether extract digestibility coefficients. In particular, the trend of the protein coefficients (88.5 - 91.5 - 87.7 for control, 300 and 600 g sunflower cake, respectively was confirmed by higher plasma urea levels.

  3. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  4. Significance of cytogenetic research in sunflower and rapeseed breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atlagić Jovanka; Terzić Sreten; Marjanović-Jeromela Ana; Marinković Radovan

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic research of sunflower and rapeseed has a century long tradition. Chromosome number and morphology were studied at first in species from the Helianthus and Brassica genera, and than their cytotaxonomy and phylogenesis...

  5. Mutation breeding in sunflower for resistance to alternaria leaf spot

    OpenAIRE

    de Marcelo Oliveira F.; Tulmann Augusto Neto; Regina Leite M.V.B.C.; Vania Castiglioni B.R.; Arias C.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variability for resistance to Alternarla leaf spot disease (Alternaria helianthi) can be induced by radiation or chemical mutagens. The objectives of this study were to create genetic variability in cultivated sunflower and to select lines resistant to Alternaria leaf spot. In the first experiment, sunflower seeds of the genotype HA BR 104 were irradiated with 150 and 165 Gy of gamma rays. Seeds were sown in the field at the Embrapa Soybean experimental station, in Londrina, PR, Brazi...

  6. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  7. Oryzanol as natural antioxidant for improving sunflower oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, L; Srinivas, P; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-06-01

    Sunflower oil is being made shelf stable by the incorporation of synthetic antioxidants such as tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), while natural antioxidants like oryzanol and tocopherols can also be used. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of natural oryzanol (Oz) concentrate (15.5 % oryzanol) and purified Oz (80 % oryzanol) on oxidative and thermal stability of sunflower oil. Sunflower oil was incorporated with Oz concentrate to provide 0, 0.12, 0.25, 0.50, 0.84, 1.0, 1.60, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.20 % oryzanol in the oil, stored for 5 weeks at 37 °C and oxidative stability was evaluated. It was found that the oryzanol concentrate showed good antioxidant effect with increase in concentration of oryzanol. In another set of experiments, sunflower oil containing purified Oz at 1 % level individually and in combination with 0.1 % α- tocopherol (α-T) was heated at 120 °C for 24 h to evaluate thermal stability. Sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) showed 98.40 % and sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz and 0.1 % α-T showed 108.75 % antioxidant effect compared to TBHQ taken as 100 %. The study indicated that sunflower oil containing 1 % Oz (80 % purity) and 0.1 % α-T combination provides a synergistic effect in inhibiting primary and secondary products and showed highest thermal stability. SFO containing 1 % Oz added as concentrate also showed good antioxidant effect during storage. Hence, instead of using synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ, we can add natural oryzanol (purified or as concentrate) to sunflower oil to increase its oxidative and thermal stability.

  8. SUNFLOWER HUSKS AS A SOURCE OF FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Khusid S. B.; Gneush A. N.; Nesterenko E. E.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the results of the complex feed additive based on sunflower husk, enriched with beer wort with the addition of pumpkin pulp. We have studied the chemical composition of sunflower husk, which is the secondary resource of the processing plant raw material, selected methods of enrichment of this raw material with the help of fungi Trichoderma harzianum. Cellulolytic enzyme preparations on the basis of fungi of the genus Trichoderma for use in agriculture and animal feed pro...

  9. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  10. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hladni Nada; Škorić Dragan; Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2003-01-01

    The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean va...

  11. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Savithri Nambeesan; Bowers, John E; Laura F Marek; Daniel Ebert; Loren H. Rieseberg; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall ...

  12. Contribution of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization to sunflower breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Christov M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation was directed to sunflower improvement using hybrid forms resulted from wide hybridization. The aim was to create new B/A and R lines from interspecific and intergeneric hybrids resistant to diseases, parasite broomrape, herbicides, other stress factors and with high combining ability in highly productive oil-type sunflower hybrids with varied fatty acid contents. The confectionary hybrids should have a high kernel protein content and amin...

  13. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of the Early Domestication of Sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    David M Wills; Burke, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic analyses of the domestication syndrome have revealed that domestication-related traits typically have a very similar genetic architecture across most crops, being conditioned by a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), each with a relatively large effect on the phenotype. To date, the domestication of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stands as the only counterexample to this pattern. In previous work involving a cross between wild sunflower (also H. annuus) and a highly improv...

  14. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  15. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  16. Development of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Siniša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of tribenuron-methyl resistant wild Helianthus annuus L. population (ANN-KAN created an opportunity for expansion of sunflower herbicide resistance breeding program. The aim of this study was development of sunflower hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Creation of tribenuron-methyl resistant hybrids would enable the use of a wider palette of herbicides for sunflower, more efficient chemical control of Cirsium arvense and more economically profitable post-emergence control of some annual broad-leaves weeds in sunflower. Original populations SURES-1 and SURES-2 are homozygous for resistance to tribenuron-methyl. F1 generations produced from the crossings are completely resistant to tribenuron-methyl, pointing out to dominant way of inheritance of this trait. Studies on the exact number of genes controlling the resistance are in progress. Tribenuron-methyl resistance was transferred from original populations into a number of female and male inbred lines of cultivated sunflower. These inbred lines could enable creation of a number of hybrids resistant to tribenuron-methyl. Hybrids SUMO-1-PR, SUMO-2- OR and SUMO-3 are resistant to doubled application dose of tribenuron-methyl. Agronomical characteristics of these hybrids are on the level with the leading conventional sunflower hybrids.

  17. Technical Efficiency of Sunflower Production in Trakya Region by DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Unakitan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine how efficiently the resources are used in sunflowerproduction in Turkey. The data used in efficiency measurements covers the provinces Tekirdag, Kırklareliand Edirne in Trakya region which is the most important area of sunflower seed production. The productionarea of sunflower is about 307 thousand hectares, 57% of total sunflower sown area in Turkey and theamount of production is 498 thousand metric tons, 62% of the total sunflower production. 197 farmers wereinterviewed face to face to obtain the data. Efficiency measurements are made by means of the DataEnvelopment Analysis (DEA with respect to constant return to scale for each province. The Efficiencyscores is decomposed into pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency for getting more information fromthe measurements. Total sunflower production (kg is used as the output and land (decar; labour (hour,tractor use (hour, nitrogen fertilizer use (kg, seed use (kg and pesticide (kg are considered as the maininputs. Average technical efficiency score covering all the provinces is estimated as 0.672. Although none ofthe provinces produces sunflower efficiently, Tekirdag province is relatively more successful in input use.Tekirdag province has the highest pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency score. Considering all theregions, the reason for inefficiency is not optimal production but not producing a certain output withminimum input. Yield is a factor that increases efficiency.

  18. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  19. Genetic impact on protein content and hullability of sunflower seeds, and on the quality of sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed quality, in particular the characteristics of hullability and protein content, has a significant impact on the protein content of the resulting meal. Seeds dehulled before crushing produce a meal with a protein content of approximately 36%; without dehulling, the protein content is typically in the range of 27–29%. This study seeks to assess the effect of sunflower variety on hullability and protein content. Genetic effects were studied by means of seed samples obtained from a network of variety evaluation trials undertaken across the production area in France for sunflowers. For both characteristics, significant differences between cultivars were observed; as a consequence, the potential protein content of their dehulled meals also ranged widely (34–44%. Genetic selection, which provides substantial improvements in both oil content and fatty acid composition, should therefore be expected to enhance the quality of sunflower meal.

  20. Flight attraction of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae to cotton headspace and synthetic volatile blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eBorrero-Echeverry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system discriminates odor signals of different biological relevance, which drive innate behavior. Identification of stimuli that trigger upwind flight attraction towards host plants is a current challenge, and is essential in developing new, sustainable plant protection methods, and for furthering our understanding of plant-insect interactions. Using behavioral, analytical and electrophysiological studies, we here show that both females and males of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, use blends of volatile compounds to locate their host plant, cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (Malvales, Malvaceae. Female S. littoralis were engaged in upwind orientation flight in a wind tunnel when headspace collected from cotton plants was delivered through a piezoelectric sprayer. Although males took off towards cotton headspace significantly fewer males than females flew upwind towards the sprayed headspace. Subsequent assays with antennally active synthetic compounds revealed that a blend of nonanal, (Z-3 hexenyl acetate, (E-β-ocimene, and (R-(+-limonene was as attractive as cotton headspace to females and more attractive to males. DMNT and (R-(--linalool, both known plant defense compounds may have reduced the flight attraction of both females and males; more moths were attracted to blends without these two compounds. Our findings provide a platform for further investigations on host plant signals mediating innate behavior, and for the development of novel insect plant protection strategies against S. littoralis.

  1. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawahara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: H. ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, H. makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Maui and H. tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of H. inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, H. auropurpurea Walsingham and H. nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, the CAD primer sequences for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  2. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  3. Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov., isolated from caterpillars of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kati, Hatice; Ince, Ikbal Agah; Demir, Ismail; Demirbag, Zihni

    2010-02-01

    This work deals with the taxonomic study of a bacterium, strain Tp12(T), isolated from caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775; Lepidoptera, Thaumetopoeidae). The isolate was assigned to the genus Brevibacterium on the basis of a polyphasic taxonomic study, including morphological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, fatty acid analysis and DNA G+C content. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to this isolate was approximately 96 %, with the type strains of Brevibacterium album and Brevibacterium samyangense. Cellular fatty acids of the isolate are of the branched type, with the major components being anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). The DNA G+C content was 69.8 mol%. Although the strain was related to B. album and B. samyangense according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, it differed from any known species of Brevibacterium. Based on this evidence, the novel species Brevibacterium pityocampae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain Tp12(T) (=DSM 21720(T) =NCCB 100255(T)) as the type strain.

  4. Control of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by biodegradable ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; De Cristofaro, A; Germinara, G S; Ioriatti, C; Reggiori, F; Vitagliano, S; Angeli, G

    2008-04-01

    Mating disruption with a high density of sex pheromone dispensers is a new strategy recently developed for the control of the moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ecodian LB dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material, were formulated with 10 mg of (E,Z) -7,9-dodecadienyl acetate and placed at a rate of 1,600 dispensers per ha. Seasonal dispenser performances were studied using different methods. The female attractiveness disruption and the efficacy of the method were evaluated in the field. The release rates of field-aged Ecodian LB dispensers, measured directly by solid phase microextraction, was comparable with that of the standard monitoring lure after 50-60 d of field exposure and significantly lower beyond 60 d; however, at the end of the season, it was approximately 46 times higher than that of a calling L. botrana female. Electroantennographic recordings showed that dispensers of different field age strongly stimulated male antennae. In a wind tunnel test, dispensers elicited close-range approaches and direct source contacts irrespective of their age. In fields treated with Ecodian dispensers the attractiveness of traps lured with calling females and monitoring baits was significantly reduced. Our data suggest that Ecodian dispensers are active sources of pheromone throughout the season. The efficacy of Ecodian strategy for L. botrana control was comparable with standard mating disruption and curative insecticides.

  5. Effects of rearing conditions, geographical origin, and selection on larval diapause in the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayaratne, Leanage K W; Fields, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a serious insect pest of stored products, and its late-instar larvae diapause as pre-pupae. Diapause induction in P. interpunctella was investigated for four populations obtained from Modesto, California, U.S.A.; Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; and two locations from Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Insects were reared at 25° C and 16:8 L:D for 9 days. The larvae were then either continuously maintained under those conditions or transferred to 25° C 8:16 L:D, 20° C 16:8 L:D, or 20° C 8:16 L:D, and the percent diapause was recorded. In the experiment with four populations, the highest diapause frequency was observed at 20° C 8:16 L:D. The two Winnipeg populations had significantly higher frequency of diapause than the California populations, indicating the increased frequency of diapause in populations from higher latitudes. In a second experiment, the Vancouver population was selected for diapause. Larvae were reared at 25° C 16:8 L:D for 9 days, then placed at 20° C 8:16 L:D for the rest of their development, and percent diapause was determined. Eggs laid by moths that completed diapause in this first (parental) generation were used to obtain a second generation (F1), and the experiment was repeated as in the first generation. Selection increased the frequency of diapause to 91%, compared to 26% in the unselected population, after selecting over two generations. The narrow sense heritability of selection in P. interpunctella was 0.39 in the first selection, and 0.82 in the second. This study has shown that both low temperature and short photoperiod are required to induce diapause in North American populations of P. interpunctella, and that selection can increase diapause in a few generations.

  6. Development of Quality Control Procedures for Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidopteran species are among the most destructive insect pests throughout the world. The sterile insect technique (SIT), within an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approach, has proven to be a valuable tactic for controlling and eradicating important moth pests. Improving laboratory...

  7. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  8. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  9. Using RNA sequencing to characterize female reproductive genes between Z and E Strains of European Corn Borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wathiqui, Nooria; Lewis, Sara M; Dopman, Erik B

    2014-03-12

    Reproductive proteins often evolve rapidly and are thought to be subject to strong sexual selection, and thus may play a key role in reproductive isolation and species divergence. However, our knowledge of reproductive proteins has been largely limited to males and model organisms with sequenced genomes. With advances in sequencing technology, Lepidoptera are emerging models for studies of sexual selection and speciation. By profiling the transcriptomes of the bursa copulatrix and bursal gland from females of two incipient species of moth, we characterize reproductive genes expressed in the primary reproductive tissues of female Lepidoptera and identify candidate genes contributing to a one-way gametic incompatibility between Z and E strains of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Using RNA sequencing we identified transcripts from ~37,000 and ~36,000 loci that were expressed in the bursa copulatrix or the bursal gland respectively. Of bursa copulatrix genes, 8% were significantly differentially expressed compared to the female thorax, and those that were up-regulated or specific to the bursa copulatrix showed functional biases toward muscle activity and/or organization. In the bursal gland, 9% of genes were differentially expressed compared to the thorax, with many showing reproduction or gamete production functions. Of up-regulated bursal gland genes, 46% contained a transmembrane region and 16% possessed secretion signal peptides. Divergently expressed genes in the bursa copulatrix were exclusively biased toward protease-like functions and 51 proteases or protease inhibitors were divergently expressed overall. This is the first comprehensive characterization of female reproductive genes in any lepidopteran system. The transcriptome of the bursa copulatrix supports its role as a muscular sac that is the primary site for disruption of the male ejaculate. We find that the bursal gland acts as a reproductive secretory body that might also interact with male

  10. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to both...... the male song and bat calls by "freezing", which males take advantage of in mating (deceptive courtship song). In contrast, females of the Japanese lichen moth are able to distinguish between the male song and bat calls by the structure of the sounds; females emit warning clicks against bats, but accept....../could distinguish, respectively, from bat calls....

  11. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop.

  12. Novel components of the sex pheromones produced by emerald moths: identification, synthesis, and field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Rei; Do, Nguyen Duc; Kinjo, Masakatsu; Terashima, Yoshie; Ando, Tetsu

    2011-01-01

    The subfamily Geometrinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) includes many species called emerald moths. Based on our recent finding of novel polyenyl compounds, including a double bond at the 12-position from two geometrine species, Hemithea tritonaria and Thalassodes immissaria intaminata, (6Z,9Z,12Z)-6,9,12-trienes and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z)-3,6,9,12-tetraenes with a C(17)-C(20) straight chain were synthesized and analyzed by GC-MS. The 6,9,12-trienes, which were prepared by a double Wittig reaction between two alkanals and an ylide derived from (Z)-1,6-diiodo-3-hexene, characteristically produced fragment ions at m/z 79, 150, and M-98. The 3,6,9,12-tetraenes, which were prepared by a coupling between (Z)-3-alkenal and an ylide derived from (3Z,6Z)-1-iodo-3,6-nonadiene, showed fragment ions at m/z 79, 148, and M-96. These diagnostic ions were useful to distinguish these compounds from other known polyenyl pheromones, such as 4,6,9- and 6,9,11-trienes and 1,3,6,9-tetraenes. With reference to the GC-MS data, pheromone extracts of other species in Geometrinae inhabiting the Iriomote Islands were analyzed, and the 6,9,12-trienes were identified in the pheromone gland extracts of Pamphlebia rubrolimbraria rubrolimbraria and Maxates versicauda microptera. Furthermore, a field evaluation of the synthetic polyenes in a mixed forest of Tokyo revealed the following new male attractants for emerald moths: Idiochlora ussuriaria by a C(17) 6,9,12-triene and Jodis lactearia by a C(20) 3,6,9,12-tetraene, indicating the characteristic chemical structures of Geometrinae pheromones. On the other hand, through reexamination of the pheromone extract of H. tritonaria, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene was identified as an electrophysiologically active component in addition to the C(17) 6,9,12-triene. The binary mixture attracted more males than the single component lure baited with the triene in the Iriomote Islands.

  13. Identification and behavioral evaluation of sex pheromone components of the Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Bo Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai and Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is the most important defoliator of coniferous trees in northern China. Outbreaks occur over enormous areas and often lead to the death of forests during 2-3 successive years of defoliation. The sex pheromone of D. tabulaeformis was investigated to define its chemistry and behavioral activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sex pheromone was collected from calling female D. tabulaeformis by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME and by solvent extraction of pheromone glands. Extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD, using antennae from male moths. Five components from the extracts elicited antennal responses. These compounds were identified by a combination of retention indices, electron impact mass spectral matches, and derivatization as (Z-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc, (Z-5-dodecenyl alcohol (Z5-12:OH, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr, and (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH. Behavioral assays showed that male D. tabulaeformis strongly discriminated against incomplete and aberrant blend ratios. The correct ratio of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr was essential for optimal upwind flight and source contact. The two monoenes, Z5-12:OAc and Z5-12:OH, alone or binary mixtures, had no effect on behavioral responses when added to the optimal three-component blend. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that deviations from the optimal ratio of 100:100:4.5 of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,EZ7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr resulted in marked decreases in male responses suggests that biosynthesis of the pheromone components is precisely controlled. The optimal blend of the sex pheromone components of D. tabulaeformis worked out in this study should find immediate use in monitoring

  14. (Z)-7-tricosene and monounsaturated ketones as sex pheromone components of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana: identification, field trapping, and phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, A R; Suckling, D M; Morris, B D; Dawson, T E; Bunn, B; Comeskey, D; Dymock, J J

    2006-01-01

    Pheromone gland extracts of the Australian guava moth Coscinoptycha improbana (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae), contained four compounds that elicited responses from male moth antennae in gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses. These were identified by GC-mass spectrometry as (Z)-7-tricosene (Z7-23Hy), (Z)-7-octadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-18Hy), (Z)-7-nonadecen-11-one (Z7-11-one-19Hy), and (Z)-7-tricosen-11-one (Z7-11-one-23Hy) at a ratio of 65:23.5:1.5:10, respectively. Z7-23Hy, Z7-11-one-18Hy, and Z7-11-one-23Hy have not previously been reported as lepidopteran sex pheromone components. Z7-11-one-18Hy was active as a single component, and was synergized by Z7-11-one-23Hy but not Z7-11-one-19Hy, although the latter compound was weakly attractive as a single component. Addition of Z7-23Hy further increased attraction. The amount of the major pheromone component, Z7-11-one-18Hy in female pheromone gland extracts was estimated to be 16.4 ng/female (N = 8). Phenological data gathered over a 12-mo period in 2002 and 2003 using the binary blend indicated that moths are active throughout the year. The pheromone has already been employed to monitor the spread of C. improbana in New Zealand and detect its presence in Queensland, Australia.

  15. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Pink Stem Borer, Sesamia inferens, in Comparison with Four Other Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhou Du

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs utilized the standard ATN, but the cox1 gene used CGA as the initiation codon; cox1, cox2, and nad4 genes had the truncated termination codon T in the S. inferens mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnS1(AGN, in which the dihydrouridine (DHU arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS genes inferred from the S. inferens mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the S. inferens mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the trnM in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.

  16. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I.; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C.; Hamelin, Richard C.; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a “molecular key” (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5’ region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3’ region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the “FS1” nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS. PMID:27513667

  17. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C; Hamelin, Richard C; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a "molecular key" (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3' region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the "FS1" nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS.

  18. Disease Tolerance in Helianthus petiolaris: A Genetic Resource for Sunflower Breeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutierrez, Agustina; Cantamutto, Miguel; Poverene, Monica

    2012-01-01

    .... Controlled crosses of this species with sunflower demonstrated that H. petiolaris constitutes a valuable genetic variability source for sunflower breeding to improve tolerance to rust (Puccinia helianthi), white rust (Albugo tragopogonis...

  19. Effect of cultivation measures on index of photosynthesis and yield of sunflower

    OpenAIRE

    Aksyonov I.

    2007-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity is the decisive factor of yield increase in sunflower plants. This activity determines the application of agrotechnical measures such as row spacing and plant density. Experiments have proved that agrotechnical measures allow to control the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids and varieties. Row spacing and plants density affect the index of photosynthesis and the yield of sunflower agrophytocoenoses. Cultivation of sunflower at the row spacing of 15 cm i...

  20. Sexual communication in castniid moths: Males mark their territories and appear to bear all chemical burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Carmen; Sarto i Monteys, Victor; Rosell, Gloria; Puigmartí, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Castniid moths (Lepidoptera: Castniidae) display a butterfly-like reproductive behavior, i.e., they use visual stimuli for mate location and females have apparently lost their pheromone glands in an evolutionary context. In this paper we report for the first time the identification of three new compounds, namely n-octadecyl acetate, (Z)-9-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl acetate, in males of the Castniid Palm Borer, Paysandisia archon, which could be involved in its short-range courtship behavior, and also shed light on recent controversies on the sexual behavior of the species. The compounds are produced in a ring-shaped gland of the male terminalia and have occasionally been detected in very minor amounts (ng) in ovipositor extracts of females, but only while mating or just after copulation. We also report that males use the already known (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol to mark their territory by rubbing their midlegs against the upper side of nearby leaves, especially palm leaves. This compound, produced in large amounts, is mostly concentrated in the midleg basitarsi and its maximum production is detected on the sexually mature 1-day-old specimens. In addition, analysis of male wings extracts confirms the presence of Z,E and E,E-farnesals, which are mostly produced in the median band of hindwings of 48–53 h-old insects. The biological significance of farnesals in this species is unknown. Our results point out that the chemical communication of P. archon relies mostly on males, which appear to bear all chemical burden in this respect. PMID:28178286

  1. Cloning, ligand-binding, and temporal expression of ecdysteroid receptors in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Baozhen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae, is a devastating pest of cruciferous crops worldwide, and has developed resistance to a wide range of insecticides, including diacylhydrazine-based ecdysone agonists, a highly selective group of molt-accelerating biopesticides targeting the ecdysone receptors. Result In this study, we cloned and characterized the ecdysone receptors from P. xylostella, including the two isoforms of EcR and a USP. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed striking conservations among insect ecdysone receptors, especially between P. xylostella and other lepidopterans. The binding affinity of ecdysteroids to in vitro-translated receptor proteins indicated that PxEcRB isoform bound specifically to ponasterone A, and the binding affinity was enhanced by co-incubation with PxUSP (Kd =3.0±1.7 nM. In contrast, PxEcRA did not bind to ponasterone A, even in the presence of PxUSP. The expression of PxEcRB were consistently higher than that of PxEcRA across each and every developmental stage, while the pattern of PxUSP expression is more or less ubiquitous. Conclusions Target site insensitivity, in which the altered binding of insecticides (ecdysone agonists to their targets (ecdysone receptors leads to an adaptive response (resistance, is one of the underlying mechanisms of diacylhydrazine resistance. Given the distinct differences at expression level and the ligand-binding capacity, we hypothesis that PxEcRB is the ecdysone receptor that controls the remodeling events during metamorphosis. More importantly, PxEcRB is the potential target site which is modified in the ecdysone agonist-resistant P. xylostella.

  2. Phenotypic screen for RNAi effects in the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinda; Gu, Liuqi; Ireland, Stephen; Garczynski, Stephen F; Knipple, Douglas C

    2015-11-10

    RNAi-based technologies have the potential to augment, or replace existing pest management strategies. However, some insect taxa are less susceptible to the induction of the post-transcriptional gene silencing effect than others, such as the Lepidoptera. Here we describe experiments to investigate the induction of RNAi in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a major lepidopteran pest of apple, pear, and walnut. Prior to a knockdown screen, fluorescently labeled small interfering RNA (siRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence were delivered to the surface of artificial diet to which neonate larvae were introduced and subsequently examined for the distribution of fluorescence in their tissues. Fluorescence was highly concentrated in the midgut but its presence in other tissues was equivocal. Next, dsRNAs were made for C. pomonella genes orthologous to those that have well defined deleterious phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. A screen was conducted using dsRNAs encoding cullin-1 (Cpcul1), maleless (Cpmle), musashi (Cpmsi), a homeobox gene (CpHbx), and pumilio (Cppum). The dsRNAs designed from these target genes were administered to neonate larvae by delivery to the surface of the growth medium. None of the dsRNA treatments affected larval viability, however Cpcul1-dsRNA had a significant effect on larval growth, with the average length of larvae about 3mm, compared to about 4mm in the control groups. Measurement of Cpcul1 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed a dose-dependent RNAi effect in response to increasing amount of Cpcul1-dsRNA. Despite their reduced size, Cpcul1-dsRNA-treated larvae molted normally and matured to adulthood in a manner similar to controls. In an additional experiment, Cpcul1-siRNA was found to induce similar stunting effect as that induced by Cpcul1-dsRNA.

  3. Fossilized biophotonic nanostructures reveal the original colors of 47-million-year-old moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E McNamara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Structural colors are generated by scattering of light by variations in tissue nanostructure. They are widespread among animals and have been studied most extensively in butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera, which exhibit the widest diversity of photonic nanostructures, resultant colors, and visual effects of any extant organism. The evolution of structural coloration in lepidopterans, however, is poorly understood. Existing hypotheses based on phylogenetic and/or structural data are controversial and do not incorporate data from fossils. Here we report the first example of structurally colored scales in fossil lepidopterans; specimens are from the 47-million-year-old Messel oil shale (Germany. The preserved colors are generated by a multilayer reflector comprised of a stack of perforated laminae in the scale lumen; differently colored scales differ in their ultrastructure. The original colors were altered during fossilization but are reconstructed based upon preserved ultrastructural detail. The dorsal surface of the forewings was a yellow-green color that probably served as a dual-purpose defensive signal, i.e. aposematic during feeding and cryptic at rest. This visual signal was enhanced by suppression of iridescence (change in hue with viewing angle achieved via two separate optical mechanisms: extensive perforation, and concave distortion, of the multilayer reflector. The fossils provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the function of structural color in fossils and demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing color in non-metallic lepidopteran fossils. Plastic scale developmental processes and complex optical mechanisms for interspecific signaling had clearly evolved in lepidopterans by the mid-Eocene.

  4. 20-hydroxyecdysone deters oviposition and larval feeding in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, Delphine; Thiéry, Denis; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2006-11-01

    European grapevine moth females (Lobesia botrana, Lepidoptera Tortricidae) select an oviposition site by tasting the host plant surface and then gluing a single egg on berries from grapes or from several other host plant species. In doing so, females should avoid ovipositing on plants that are detrimental to their progeny. Do they sense the same deterrent compounds as larvae, despite the fact that they do not have access to the same compartments of the plants? We tested this hypothesis with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), purified from Leuzea carthamoides. Phytoecdysteroids are usually found inside plant tissues and accessible to larvae in an aqueous phase, while adults would access them only through the epicuticular wax. We first confirmed that larvae avoid feeding on 20E and that they taste 20E with their lateral sensilla styloconica, at a threshold of 10(-6) M. Then, we tested whether adult females avoid ovipositing on glass spheres sprayed with 20E. When given a choice, females avoided laying eggs on a treated surface, at a threshold of 8 ng/cm(2). In addition, they deposited significantly fewer eggs in the presence of 20E. Presuming that legs play an important role in assessing the oviposition substrate, we assessed the sensitivity of their taste receptors. In females, 14 taste sensilla are located on the ventral side of the last tarsus of the prothoracic leg. One group of these sensilla house one neuron that is sensitive to 20E, with a detection threshold of about 10(-7) M. The same molecule is thus sensed both in larvae and adults of L. botrana where it respectively inhibits feeding and oviposition.

  5. Spiracle activity in moth pupae--the role of oxygen and carbon dioxide revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Thomas D; Hetz, Stefan K

    2010-05-01

    After decades of intensive research, the actual mechanism behind discontinuous gas exchange in insects has not been fully understood. One open question concerns the actual way (closed, flutter, and open) of how spiracles respond to tracheal gas concentrations. As the results of a classic paper [Burkett, B.N., Schneiderman, H.A., 1974. Roles of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the control of spiracular function in cecropia pupae. Biological Bulletin 147, 274-293] allow ambiguous interpretation, we thus reexamined the behavior of the spiracles in response to fixed, controlled endotracheal gas concentrations. The tracheal system of diapausing pupae of Attacus atlas (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) was flushed with gas mixtures varying in P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) while the behavior of the spiracles was monitored using changes in the pressure signal. This novel pressure based technique proved to be superior to classic visual observation of single spiracles. A two-dimensional map of the spiracle behavior in response to endotracheal P(O(2)) and P(CO(2)) was established. Typically, it contained two distinct regions only, corresponding to "closed" and "open" spiracles. A separate "flutter" region was missing. Because fluttering is commonly observed in moth pupae, we suggest that the intermittent spiracle opening during a flutter phase is an effect of non-steady-state conditions within the tracheal system. For low P(CO(2)) the minimum P(O(2)) resulting in open spiracles was linearly dependent upon P(CO(2)). Above a threshold of 1-1.5 kPa CO(2) the spiracles were open irrespective of P(O(2)). We propose a hypothetical spiracular control model, which is simple and explains the time course of endotracheal partial pressures during all phases of discontinuous gas exchange.

  6. Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanost, Michael R; Arrese, Estela L; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chellapilla, Sanjay; Goldsmith, Marian R; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Heckel, David G; Herndon, Nicolae; Jiang, Haobo; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Qu, Jiaxin; Soulages, Jose L; Vogel, Heiko; Walters, James; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Almeida, Francisca C; An, Chunju; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Bretschneider, Anne; Bryant, William B; Bucks, Sascha; Chao, Hsu; Chevignon, Germain; Christen, Jayne M; Clarke, David F; Dittmer, Neal T; Ferguson, Laura C F; Garavelou, Spyridoula; Gordon, Karl H J; Gunaratna, Ramesh T; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; He, Yan; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna; Hirsh, Ariana; Hu, Yingxia; Jiang, Hongbo; Kalra, Divya; Klinner, Christian; König, Christopher; Kovar, Christie; Kroll, Ashley R; Kuwar, Suyog S; Lee, Sandy L; Lehman, Rüdiger; Li, Kai; Li, Zhaofei; Liang, Hanquan; Lovelace, Shanna; Lu, Zhiqiang; Mansfield, Jennifer H; McCulloch, Kyle J; Mathew, Tittu; Morton, Brian; Muzny, Donna M; Neunemann, David; Ongeri, Fiona; Pauchet, Yannick; Pu, Ling-Ling; Pyrousis, Ioannis; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Redding, Amanda; Roesel, Charles; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Schaack, Sarah; Shukla, Aditi; Tetreau, Guillaume; Wang, Yang; Xiong, Guang-Hua; Traut, Walther; Walsh, Tom K; Worley, Kim C; Wu, Di; Wu, Wenbi; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Zhang, Xiufeng; Zou, Zhen; Zucker, Hannah; Briscoe, Adriana D; Burmester, Thorsten; Clem, Rollie J; Feyereisen, René; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Hamodrakas, Stavros J; Hansson, Bill S; Huguet, Elisabeth; Jermiin, Lars S; Lan, Que; Lehman, Herman K; Lorenzen, Marce; Merzendorfer, Hans; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Morton, David B; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Oakeshott, John G; Palmer, Will; Park, Yoonseong; Passarelli, A Lorena; Rozas, Julio; Schwartz, Lawrence M; Smith, Wendy; Southgate, Agnes; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogt, Richard; Wang, Ping; Werren, John; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Brown, Susan J; Scherer, Steven E; Richards, Stephen; Blissard, Gary W

    2016-09-01

    Manduca sexta, known as the tobacco hornworm or Carolina sphinx moth, is a lepidopteran insect that is used extensively as a model system for research in insect biochemistry, physiology, neurobiology, development, and immunity. One important benefit of this species as an experimental model is its extremely large size, reaching more than 10 g in the larval stage. M. sexta larvae feed on solanaceous plants and thus must tolerate a substantial challenge from plant allelochemicals, including nicotine. We report the sequence and annotation of the M. sexta genome, and a survey of gene expression in various tissues and developmental stages. The Msex_1.0 genome assembly resulted in a total genome size of 419.4 Mbp. Repetitive sequences accounted for 25.8% of the assembled genome. The official gene set is comprised of 15,451 protein-coding genes, of which 2498 were manually curated. Extensive RNA-seq data from many tissues and developmental stages were used to improve gene models and for insights into gene expression patterns. Genome wide synteny analysis indicated a high level of macrosynteny in the Lepidoptera. Annotation and analyses were carried out for gene families involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes, including apoptosis, vacuole sorting, growth and development, structures of exoskeleton, egg shells, and muscle, vision, chemosensation, ion channels, signal transduction, neuropeptide signaling, neurotransmitter synthesis and transport, nicotine tolerance, lipid metabolism, and immunity. This genome sequence, annotation, and analysis provide an important new resource from a well-studied model insect species and will facilitate further biochemical and mechanistic experimental studies of many biological systems in insects.

  7. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  8. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed....

  9. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  10. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R12 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is r...

  11. The Metabolism of Sunflower Phytoalexins Ayapin and Scopoletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Beni; Robeson, David J.

    1986-01-01

    The coumarin phytoalexins ayapin and scopoletin accumulate in longitudinal stem sections of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Compositae) following inoculation with fungi both pathogenic (Alternaria helianthi) and nonpathogenic (Helminthosporium carbonum) to this plant. Both compounds were induced more rapidly, and they attained higher levels in tissue inoculated with the heterologous pathogen H. carbonum as compared with the sunflower pathogen A. helianthi. Similarly, scopoletin and ayapin accumulated to comparatively low concentrations following inoculation with a second sunflower pathogen, Phoma macdonaldii. Scopoletin was biosynthesized de novo following inoculation, although levels of its glucoside scopolin exceeded those of the aglucone in both infected and control tissues. Both scopoletin and scopolin were routinely detected in trace amounts in uninoculated tissue. In contrast, ayapin was not detected as a component of uninfected plants. When [14C]scopoletin was supplied to induced sunflower stem sections about 36% of the recovered radioactivity was in the form of ayapin. In vitro studies demonstrated that A. helianthi possessed the ability to rapidly degrade both scopoletin and ayapin, whereas H. carbonum was much less efficient in these traits. The differential degradation of these compounds by phytopathogenic fungi which do not attack sunflower is also discussed. PMID:16664986

  12. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein.

  13. Antioxidative effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris in sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Zaborowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Lipid oxidation is a main problem during food processing, storage and consumption leading to losses of quality, stability, safety and nutritive value. Antioxidants have been used to prevent oxidation changes and off – flavor development in food products. Aim of the research was to evaluate antioxidative effect of thyme ethanol extract on sunflower oil during its storage in different temperature conditions. Oil samples were stored in darkness at 4°C, 18°C, 38°C. Material and methods. Samples of thyme (thymus vulgaris were purchased at a local pharmacy in Poznań, Poland and sunflower oil was acquired from a local supermarket. Thyme extract was characterized by total polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity was estimated with use of DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging methods. Ethanol extract of thyme at 1% level was added to sunflower oil. Peroxide value (PV, anisidine value (AV, totox value (TxV and fatty acids (FA content were taken as parameters for evaluation of effectiveness of thyme extract in stabilization of sunflower oil. Results. High polyphenol content, DPPHand ABTSradicals scavenging activity of ethanol thyme extract were evaluated. Results from different parameters were in agreement with other researchers, suggesting the antioxidant effect of thyme on antioxidant stability. Results show that thyme extract prolonged stability of sunflower oil and it may be a potent antioxidant for its stabilization. Conclusions. Ethanol thyme extract may be used as a natural antioxidant to prolong stability of oils.  

  14. Two psammophilic noctuids newly associated with beach plum, Prunus maritima (Rosaceae: The Dune Noctuid (Sympistis riparia and Coastal Heathland Cutworm (Abagrotis benjamini in Northeastern North America (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Z. Goldstein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Beach plum, Prunus maritima Marshall, 1785 not Wangenh., 1787 (Rosaceae, currently under development as a potential crop, represents an under-acknowledged host plant for several Lepidoptera that have undergone declines in the northeastern USA. The Coastal Heathland Cutworm, Abagrotis nefascia (Smith, 1908, and the Dune Noctuid, Sympistis riparia (Morrison, 1875, are unrelated species of psammophilic noctuines (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae regularly encountered on a localized basis in coastal southern New England and New York, and whose precise life history requirements are undocumented. We inferred and, based on field observation and rearing, corroborated beach plum as a larval host for these species in Massachusetts; the plant’s role in sustaining other moths with limited or contracting regional distributions is discussed. Sympistis riparia, belonging to a widely distributed complex of closely related species, has been associated specifically with both maritime and freshwater dunes. The eastern populations of Abagrotis nefascia represent a conspicuous range disjunction, separated from the nearest western populations by more than 2000 miles, and originally described by Franclemont as race benjamini of A. crumbi, both later synonymized with A. nefascia. Following examination of types and other material, an evaluation of putatively diagnostic features from both the original description and our own observations, genitalic characters, and the results of provisional barcode analyses, Abagrotis benjamini Franclemont, stat. rev., is elevated to the rank of a valid species rather than representing eastern populations of Abagrotis nefascia (=crumbi to which it originally referred.

  15. Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by native and alien wasp species relative to elevation in subalpine Sophora (Fabaceae) forests on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Banko, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control agent for pepper weevil, did not vary significantly with elevation. Results are contrasted with a previous study of this system with implications for the conservation of an endangered bird species that feed on Cydia larvae. Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. These factors should be incorporated into risk analysis for biological control introductions and invasive species programs. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  16. Different leachate phytotreatment systems using sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbo, Francesco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Malagoli, Mario; Schiavon, Michela; Cossu, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    The use of energy crops in the treatment of wastewaters is of increasing interest, particularly in view of the widespread scarcity of water in many countries and the possibility of obtaining renewable fuels of vegetable origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of landfill leachate phytotreatment using sunflowers, particularly as seeds from this crop are suitable for use in biodiesel production. Two different irrigation systems were tested: vertical flow and horizontal subsurface flow, with or without effluent recirculation. Plants were grown in 130L rectangular tanks placed in a special climatic chamber. Leachate irrigated units were submitted to increasing nitrogen concentrations up to 372mgN/L. Leachate was successfully tested as an alternative fertilizer for plants and was not found to inhibit biomass development. The experiment revealed good removal efficiencies for COD (η>50%) up until flowering, while phosphorous removal invariably exceeded 60%. Nitrogen removal rates decreased over time in all experimental units, particularly in vertical flow tanks. In general, horizontal flow units showed the best performances in terms of contaminant removal capacity; the effluent recirculation procedure did not improve performance. Significant evapo-transpiration was observed, particularly in vertical flow units, promoting removal of up to 80% of the inlet irrigation volume.

  17. Circumnutations of sunflower hypocotyls in satellite orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. H.; Chapman, D. K.; Lewis, R. F.; Venditti, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objective of the research reported here was to determine whether a plant's periodic growth oscillations, called circumnutations, would persist in the absence of a significant gravitational or inertial force. The definitive experiment was made possible by access to the condition of protracted near weightlessness in an earth satellite. The experiment, performed during the first flight of Spacelab on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle, Columbia, in November and December, 1983, tested a biophysical model, proposed in 1967, that might account for circumnutation as a gravity-dependent growth response. However, circumnutations were observed in microgravity. They continued for many hours without stimulation by a significant g-force. Therefore, neither a gravitational nor an inertial g-force was an absolute requirement for initiation [correction of initation] or continuation of circumnutation. On average, circumnutation was significantly more vigorous in satellite orbit than on earth-based clinostats. Therefore, at least for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) circumnutation, clinostatting is not the functional equivalent of weightlessness.

  18. EST sequencing and fosmid library construction in a non-model moth, Mamestra brassicae, for comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Manabu; Tateishi, Ken; Tanaka-Okuyama, Makiko; Okabe, Takuya; Shibata, Fukashi; Sahara, Ken; Yasukochi, Yuji

    2012-11-01

    Genome data are useful for both basic and applied research; however, it is difficult to carry out large-scale genome analyses using species with limited genetic or genomic resources. Here, we describe a cost-effective method to analyze the genome of a non-model species, using the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). First, we conducted expression sequence tag (EST) analysis. In this analysis, we performed PCR-based prescreening of a non-normalized embryonic cDNA library to eliminate already sequenced cDNAs from further sequencing, which significantly increased the percentage of unique genes. Next, we constructed a fosmid library of M. brassicae and isolated 120 clones containing 119 putative single copy genes by PCR-based screening with primer sets designed from the ESTs. Finally, we showed that the isolated fosmid clones could be used as probes for multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis against an M. brassicae chromosome and confirmed conserved gene order between M. brassicae and the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we developed new genomic resources for comparative genome analysis in M. brassicae using robust and relatively low cost methods that can be applied to any non-model organism.

  19. A free lunch? No cost for acquiring defensive plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a specialist arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogni, Rodrigo; Trigo, José R; Futuyma, Douglas J

    2012-12-01

    Many herbivorous insects sequester defensive chemicals from their host plants. We tested sequestration fitness costs in the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We added pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations. Of all the larval and adult fitness components measured, only development time was negatively affected by PA concentration. These results were repeated under stressful laboratory conditions. On the other hand, the amount of PAs sequestered greatly increased with the diet PA concentration. Absence of a detectable negative effect does not necessarily imply a lack of costs if all individuals express the biochemical machinery of detoxification and sequestration constitutively. Therefore, we used qPCR to show that expression of the gene used to detoxify PAs, pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenase (pno), increased 41-fold in our highest PA treatment. Nevertheless, fitness components were affected only slightly or not at all, suggesting that sequestration in this species does not incur a strong cost. The apparent lack of costs has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of ecological interactions; for example, it implies that selection by specialist herbivores may decrease the levels of certain chemical defences in plant populations.

  20. Acute and reproductive effects of Align, an insecticide containing azadirachtin, on the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigaray, F Javier Sáenz-De-Cabezón; Moreno-Grijalba, Fernando; Marco, Vicente; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Azadirachtin, derived from the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Sapindales: Meliaceae), seems promising for use in integrated pest management programs to control a variety of pest species. A commercial formulation of azadirachtin, Align, has been evaluated against different developmental stages of the European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). When administered orally, Align reduced the fecundity and fertility of adults treated with 1, 5, and 10 mg litre(-1). At the highest doses, fecundity and fertility were zero, but longevity was not affected. An LC(50) of 231.5 mg litre(-1) was obtained when Align was sprayed on eggs less than 1 day old. Hatching of all egg classes was significantly reduced, and this reduction was more pronounced for eggs less than 24 h old. LC(50) values of 2.1 mg litre(-1) for first instars and 18.7 mg litre(-1) for third instars were obtained when Align was present in the diet. Larvae reared on a diet containing different concentrations of Align did not molt into adults at the highest concentrations (0.3, 0.6, 1.2), and 50% molted at the lowest concentration (0.15). Phenotypic effects included inability to molt properly and deformities. The combination of acute toxicity and low, effective concentrations of Align observed in this study could lead to the inclusion of insecticides containing azadirachtin in integrated management programs against this pest.

  1. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  2. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  3. Simple sequence repeat map of the sunflower genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Yu, J.-K.; Slabaugh, B.; Shintani, K.; Knapp, J.

    2002-12-01

    Several independent molecular genetic linkage maps of varying density and completeness have been constructed for cultivated sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.). Because of the dearth of sequence and probe-specific DNA markers in the public domain, the various genetic maps of sunflower have not been integrated and a single reference map has not emerged. Moreover, comparisons between maps have been confounded by multiple linkage group nomenclatures and the lack of common DNA markers. The goal of the present research was to construct a dense molecular genetic linkage map for sunflower using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, 879 SSR markers were developed by identifying 1,093 unique SSR sequences in the DNA sequences of 2,033 clones isolated from genomic DNA libraries enriched for (AC)(n) or (AG)(n) and screening 1,000 SSR primer pairs; 579 of the newly developed SSR markers (65.9% of the total) were polymorphic among four elite inbred lines (RHA280, RHA801, PHA and PHB). The genetic map was constructed using 94 RHA280 x RHA801 F(7) recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and 408 polymorphic SSR markers (462 SSR marker loci segregated in the mapping population). Of the latter, 459 coalesced into 17 linkage groups presumably corresponding to the 17 chromosomes in the haploid sunflower genome ( x = 17). The map was 1,368.3-cM long and had a mean density of 3.1 cM per locus. The SSR markers described herein supply a critical mass of DNA markers for constructing genetic maps of sunflower and create the basis for unifying and cross-referencing the multitude of genetic maps developed for wild and cultivated sunflowers.

  4. A mathematical model of exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to Bt-maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J N; Devos, Y; Arpaia, S; Bartsch, D; Gathmann, A; Hails, R S; Kiss, J; Lheureux, K; Manachini, B; Mestdagh, S; Neemann, G; Ortego, F; Schiemann, J; Sweet, J B

    2010-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 expresses a Cry1Ab insecticidal protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), toxic to lepidopteran target pests such as Ostrinia nubilalis. An environmental risk to non-target Lepidoptera from this GM crop is exposure to harmful amounts of Bt-containing pollen deposited on host plants in or near MON810 fields. An 11-parameter mathematical model analysed exposure of larvae of three non-target species: the butterflies Inachis io (L.), Vanessa atalanta (L.) and moth Plutella xylostella (L.), in 11 representative maize cultivation regions in four European countries. A mortality-dose relationship was integrated with a dose-distance relationship to estimate mortality both within the maize MON810 crop and within the field margin at varying distances from the crop edge. Mortality estimates were adjusted to allow for physical effects; the lack of temporal coincidence between the susceptible larval stage concerned and the period over which maize MON810 pollen is shed; and seven further parameters concerned with maize agronomy and host-plant ecology. Sublethal effects were estimated and allowance made for aggregated pollen deposition. Estimated environmental impact was low: in all regions, the calculated mortality rate for worst-case scenarios was less than one individual in every 1572 for the butterflies and one in 392 for the moth.

  5. Optimisation of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín, G; Tinaut, F V; Briceño, Y; Castaño, V; Pérez, C; Ramírez, A I

    2002-06-01

    In this work the transformation process of sunflower oil in order to obtain biodiesel by means of transesterification was studied. Taguchi's methodology was chosen for the optimisation of the most important variables (temperature conditions, reactants proportion and methods of purification), with the purpose of obtaining a high quality biodiesel that fulfils the European pre-legislation with the maximum process yield. Finally, sunflower methyl esters were characterised to test their properties as fuels in diesel engines, such as viscosity, flash point, cold filter plugging point and acid value. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions is an excellent substitute for fossil fuels.

  6. Evolution of oxidation during storage of crisps and french fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Polvillo, M.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Storage studies were carried out to define the behaviour of both conventional and high oleic sunflower oils in the industrial preparation of crisps and prefried french fries. Samples of crisps and prefried french fries were stored during 6 and 21 months, respectively, and evolution of oxidation was compared with that of the more saturated fats normally used for the preparation of both products, i.e., palm olein and hydrogenated rapeseed/palm oil mixture. Total oxidation compounds, α-tocopherol content, as well as monomeric and dimeric triglycerides, were quantitated in lipids from fried products after different time periods. Results obtained for crisps at room temperature indicated that only conventional sunflower oil underwent significant oxidation after 6 months. In the case of prefried french fries, maintained at freezer temperatures, no appreciable changes were found after 21 months storage, thus indicating that both sunflower oils can be good alternatives to saturated fats.

  7. β-carotene in sunflower oil oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanishlieva, N. V.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation kinetics of sunflower oil (SO, as well as of pure triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO in the presence of different concentrations (0.001-0.02 % β-carotene was studied. The process was β-performed at high (kinetic regime and low (diffusion regime oxygen concentrations at room temperature in the dark and under daylight. The results from the oxidation of SO and TGSO at 100ºC in the presence of β-carotene were also presented. It was established that in the antioxidant-free lipid system, the β-carotene did not give any antioxidative protection. It worked as a prooxidant during the oxidation at room temperature and at sufficiently high oxygen concentration, the effect being more pronounced in the dark than under daylight. β-carotene increased the stability of tocopherol-containing SO during its oxidation at room temperature and under daylight. This effect is more strongly expressed in a kinetic regime of oxidation. The synergism of β-carotene with the tocopherols was characterized by the stabilization factor F and the activity A. In the kinetic regime of oxidation F and A varied in the interval F=2.0-6.3, and A =2.7-21.0. In the diffusion regime F=1.3-1.5, and A=1.5-2.8.Se estudió la cinética de oxidación de aceite de girasol (SO, así como la de triacilgliceroles puros de aceite de girasol (TGSO en presencia de diferentes concentraciones (0.001-0.02 % de β- caroteno. El proceso se llevó a cabo a altas (régimen cinético y bajas (régimen de difusión concentraciones de oxígeno a temperatura ambiente con luz natural y en la oscuridad, y se presentan también los resultados de la oxidación de SO y TGSO a 100ºC en presencia de β-caroteno. Los resultados indicaron que en los sistemas lipídicos libres de antioxidantes, el β-caroteno no dio protección antioxidante. Funcionó como prooxidante durante la oxidación a temperatura ambiente y a concentraciones de oxigeno suficientemente elevadas, siendo el efecto m

  8. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J; Kevin J Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal ar...

  9. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  10. Antibiosis in Ascia monuste orseis Godart (Lepidoptera: Pieridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flávio Gonçalves

    In general, throughout the larval stage, A. monuste orseis caterpillars that fed on the .... DC) na biologia Plutella xylostella (L., 1758) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Cienc. ... Plant resistance to arthropods: molecular and conventional approaches.

  11. Saniba nom. nov. para Sabina Evans (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mielke Olaf H. H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Saniba nom. nov. for Sabina Evans, 1955 (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae, Hesperiinae. Sabina Evans, 1955 is preoccupied by Williams (1851 (Annelida, Polychaeta; a new replacement name is proposed: Saniba Mielke & Casagrande.

  12. A degree-day model initiated by pheromone trap captures for managing pecan nut casebearer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Allen E; Muegge, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Field observations from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) Koch, orchards in Texas were used to develop and validate a degree-day model of cumulative proportional adult flight and oviposition and date of first observed nut entry by larvae of the first summer generation of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The model was initiated on the date of first sustained capture of adults in pheromone traps. Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used to determine the sum of degree-days from onset to 99% moth flight and oviposition and the date on which first summer generation larvae were first observed penetrating pecan nuts. Cumulative proportional oviposition (y) was described by a modified Gompertz equation, y = 106.05 x exp(-(exp(3.11 - 0.00669 x (x - 1), with x = cumulative degree-days at a base temperature of 3.33 degrees C. Cumulative proportional moth flight (y) was modeled as y = 102.62 x exp(- (exp(1.49 - 0.00571 x (x - 1). Model prediction error for dates of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% cumulative oviposition was 1.3 d and 83% of the predicted dates were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. Prediction error for date of first observed nut entry was 2.2 d and 77% of model predictions were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. The model provides ample lead time for producers to implement orchard scouting to assess pecan nut casebearer infestations and to apply an insecticide if needed to prevent economic loss.

  13. Palaeoenvironmental shifts drove the adaptive radiation of a noctuid stemborer tribe (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini in the miocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel F A Toussaint

    Full Text Available Between the late Oligocene and the early Miocene, climatic changes have shattered the faunal and floral communities and drove the apparition of new ecological niches. Grassland biomes began to supplant forestlands, thus favouring a large-scale ecosystem turnover. The independent adaptive radiations of several mammal lineages through the evolution of key innovations are classic examples of these changes. However, little is known concerning the evolutionary history of other herbivorous groups in relation with this modified environment. It is especially the case in phytophagous insect communities, which have been rarely studied in this context despite their ecological importance. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of grass-specialist moths from the species-rich tribe Apameini (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. The molecular dating analyses carried out over the corresponding phylogenetic framework reveal an origin around 29 million years ago for the Apameini. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate (i a potential Palaearctic origin of the tribe Apameini associated with a major dispersal event in Afrotropics for the subtribe Sesamiina; (ii a recent colonization from Palaearctic of the New World and Oriental regions by several independent lineages; and (iii an ancestral association of the tribe Apameini over grasses (Poaceae. Diversification analyses indicate that diversification rates have not remained constant during the evolution of the group, as underlined by a significant shift in diversification rates during the early Miocene. Interestingly, this age estimate is congruent with the development of grasslands at this time. Rather than clade ages, variations in diversification rates among genera better explain the current differences in species diversity. Our results underpin a potential adaptive radiation of these phytophagous moths with the family Poaceae in relation with the major environmental shifts that have occurred in the

  14. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  15. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of... South American cactus moth regulations by adding the entire State of Louisiana to the list of... American cactus moth to noninfested areas of the United States. DATES: Effective on December 27, 2010,...

  16. The Evolution and Expression of the Moth Visual Opsin Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W.; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies. PMID:24205129

  17. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

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    Pengjun Xu

    Full Text Available Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R, blue (B and ultraviolet (UV opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  18. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and linkage disequilibrium in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkman, Judith M; Berry, Simon T; Leon, Alberto J; Slabaugh, Mary B; Tang, Shunxue; Gao, Wenxiang; Shintani, David K; Burke, John M; Knapp, Steven J

    2007-09-01

    Genetic diversity in modern sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars (elite oilseed inbred lines) has been shaped by domestication and breeding bottlenecks and wild and exotic allele introgression(-)the former narrowing and the latter broadening genetic diversity. To assess single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies, nucleotide diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in modern cultivars, alleles were resequenced from 81 genic loci distributed throughout the sunflower genome. DNA polymorphisms were abundant; 1078 SNPs (1/45.7 bp) and 178 insertions-deletions (INDELs) (1/277.0 bp) were identified in 49.4 kbp of DNA/genotype. SNPs were twofold more frequent in noncoding (1/32.1 bp) than coding (1/62.8 bp) sequences. Nucleotide diversity was only slightly lower in inbred lines ( = 0.0094) than wild populations ( = 0.0128). Mean haplotype diversity was 0.74. When extraploted across the genome ( approximately 3500 Mbp), sunflower was predicted to harbor at least 76.4 million common SNPs among modern cultivar alleles. LD decayed more slowly in inbred lines than wild populations (mean LD declined to 0.32 by 5.5 kbp in the former, the maximum physical distance surveyed), a difference attributed to domestication and breeding bottlenecks. SNP frequencies and LD decay are sufficient in modern sunflower cultivars for very high-density genetic mapping and high-resolution association mapping.

  20. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.