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Sample records for sunflower bud moth

  1. Ovipositional preference and larval performance of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its larval parasitoids on resistant and susceptible lines of sunflower (Asterales: Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham, is one of the most destructive seed-feeding insect pests of sunflowers, causing significant economic yield losses in the northern Great Plains. In an attempt to understand host-plant resistance mechanisms for this pest, we field tested over several ...

  2. Trace element accumulation and distribution in sunflower plants at the stages of flower bud and maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna De Maria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the accumulation and distribution of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn and copper (Cu in different portions of plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Oleko grown in soil with contaminants (5, 300, 400 mg kg–1 of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively and without (untreated soil as a control from the emergence of cotyledon leaves until to two phenological stages: flower bud (R-1 and maturity (R- 9. Sunflower accumulated considerable amounts of heavy metals in both phenological stages showing slight reductions of dry matter production. At R-1 stage, Cd, Zn and Cu were accumulated mainly in the roots with concentrations respectively up to 5.4, 233 and 160 mg kg–1 of dry matter with a low translocation from roots to the aerial part. Yet at the R-1 stage, the bioconcentration factor (BCF of Cd showed a significantly higher value in the Cd-Zn-Cu treatment (0.27 with respect to the untreated control (0.02, vice versa was observed for Cu, whereas no significant difference between treatments was observed for Zn (0.12 on average. However among metals, Cd showed the highest value of BCF. Referring only to the epigeous portion, differences in the accumulation and distribution of the three metals in the treated plants were found in both phenological stages; indeed passing from flower bud to the maturity stage, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations increased in the stems and leaves, particularly in the old ones, whereas decreased in the heads. Metal accumulation in the achenes was very low and never exceed the toxicity threshold value considered for livestock. The high storage of heavy metals in roots and the probable re-translocation of the three metals along the plant during the growing cycle could be considered as a strategy of sunflower to preserve young metabolically-active leaves and reproductive organs from toxic metal concentrations.

  3. Tree-ring proxies of larch bud moth defoliation: latewood width and blue intensity are more precise than tree-ring width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Jarvis, Ingrid; Chavardès, Raphaël D; Daniels, Lori D; Stoffel, Markus

    2018-05-19

    Reconstructions of defoliation by larch bud moth (LBM, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.) based on European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) tree rings have unraveled outbreak patterns over exceptional temporal and spatial scales. In this study, we conducted tree-ring analyses on 105 increment cores of European larch from the Valais Alps, Switzerland. The well-documented history of LBM outbreaks in Valais provided a solid baseline for evaluating the LBM defoliation signal in multiple tree-ring parameters. First, we used tree-ring width measurements along with regional records of LBM outbreaks to reconstruct the occurrence of these events at two sites within the Swiss Alps. Second, we measured earlywood width, latewood width and blue intensity, and compared these parameters with tree-ring width to assess the capacity of each proxy to detect LBM defoliation. A total of six LBM outbreaks were reconstructed for the two sites between AD 1850 and 2000. Growth suppression induced by LBM was, on average, highest in latewood width (59%), followed by total ring width (54%), earlywood width (51%) and blue intensity (26%). We show that latewood width and blue intensity can improve the temporal accuracy of LBM outbreak reconstructions, as both proxies systematically detected LBM defoliation in the first year it occurred, as well as the differentiation between defoliation and non-defoliation years. This study introduces blue intensity as a promising new proxy of insect defoliation and encourages its use in conjunction with latewood width.

  4. Spectacular Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author illustrates how she shares her love of sunflowers with her kindergarten and first-grade students through an interesting art lesson. Sunflowers are easy to grow, so the author started the lesson four months earlier with inexpensive seed packets. She planted many varieties, but she most likes the colors of the Mexican…

  5. Sunflower disease compendium: Sunflower botany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number one challenge for global sunflower production is diseases. Sunflower is the fifth largest oilseed crop grown in temperate and subtropical areas in 72 countries and on every continent, except Antarctica. This has facilitated the spread of diseases globally. Disease control can be by chemic...

  6. Arenavirus Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzo Urata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  7. Arenavirus Budding

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Shuzo; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-termin...

  8. Learning about Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  9. Van Gogh's Sunflowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddino, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein kindergarten students painted sunflowers. These beautiful and colorful sunflowers were inspired by the book "Camille and the Sunflowers" by Laurence Anholt, which does an amazing job of introducing young children to the art and life of Vincent van Gogh.

  10. SUNFLOWER SUPPLY INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gineo, Wayne M.; Sundquist, W. Burt

    1981-01-01

    This report is concerned with a discussion of the sunflower production sector. It summarizes and discusses the North American sunflower production sector in terms of area, acreage, total production, yields and prices. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of the potential level of sunflower production is made.

  11. Genetic Architecture of Capitate Glandular Trichome Density in Florets of Domesticated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Kane, Nolan C; Hulke, Brent S; Reinert, Stephan; Pogoda, Cloe S; Tittes, Silas; Prasifka, Jarrad R

    2017-01-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT), one type of glandular trichomes, are most common in Asteraceae species. CGT can produce various secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) and provide durable resistance to insect pests. In sunflower, CGT-based host resistance is effective to combat the specialist pest, sunflower moth. However, the genetic basis of CGT density is not well understood in sunflower. In this study, we identified two major QTL controlling CGT density in sunflower florets by using a F 4 mapping population derived from the cross HA 300 × RHA 464 with a genetic linkage map constructed from genotyping-by-sequencing data and composed of 2121 SNP markers. One major QTL is located on chromosome 5, which explained 11.61% of the observed phenotypic variation, and the second QTL is located on chromosome 6, which explained 14.06% of the observed phenotypic variation. The QTL effects and the association between CGT density and QTL support interval were confirmed in a validation population which included 39 sunflower inbred lines with diverse genetic backgrounds. We also identified two strong candidate genes in the QTL support intervals, and the functions of their orthologs in other plant species suggested their potential roles in regulating capitate glandular trichome density in sunflower. Our results provide valuable information to sunflower breeding community for developing host resistance to sunflower insect pests.

  12. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  13. Exogenous application of abscisic acid may improve the growth and yield of sunflower hybrids under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Iqbal, J.; Ibrahim, M.; Atta, S.; Ahmed, T.; Saleem, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower genotypes perform differently under different water regimes. Drought stress at various growth stages drastically reduces the growth, development and yield of sunflower hybrids. However, exogenous application of abscisic acid helps in mitigating drought stress by improving growth, development and yield of sunflower. In the present study, three sunflower hybrids viz. DK-4040 (large stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were exposed to varied irrigation regimes and abscisic acid application schedule i.e. T1: four irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud, flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray,T/sub 2/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 3/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu MABA spray at bud initiation, T/sub 4/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, T/sub 5/: three irrigations with schedule (25DAS, at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with 8 mu M ABA spray at flower initiation. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Design with factorial arrangement having three replications. ABA application at bud or at flower initiation under drought stress helped in mitigating the detrimental effects by improving growth and yield of sunflower hybrids. Enhancement in drought tolerance of sunflower genotypes was better when ABA was applied at bud initiation stage than that of at flower initiation stage under drought. Improvements in head diameter, achenes per head, 1000-achene weight, achene yield, oil yield, biological yield, harvest index, leaf area index and crop growth rate was recorded. Sunflower hybrid DK-4040 showed more improvement in drought tolerance byfoliar application of ABA under water deficit stress than that of the SF-187 and S-278. It is suggested that sunflower hybrid DK 4040

  14. Silky Sunflowers & Swirly Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Linda

    2012-01-01

    In this article, second-graders create a sunflower drawing using pastel techniques that produce similar effects to Vincent van Gogh's brushstrokes. They also learn how layering colors and using white to lighten colors creates depth in their flowers.

  15. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  16. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  17. Sunflower seed allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients’ IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient’s anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  18. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger. Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  19. What Are Taste Buds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español What Are Taste Buds? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Are Taste Buds? ...

  20. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines.

  1. Dragee product based on sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower kernel is rich in valuable nutritive compounds so it is suitable as a raw material for production of confectionery products. In this paper we evaluated the technological characteristics of the confectionery sunflower kernel with the aim of obtaining dragee products, and determining the final product quality and shelf life. The dragee product was obtained by panning sunflower kernel with savory powder mixture of spices in a dragee pan. The used sunflower seed has an even distribution of linear size and satisfactory dehulling characteristics. The savoury dragee product was in excellent category of sensory quality and showed stable colour and good shelf life in the period of three months.

  2. Deadly Sunflower Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2018-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure is usually very effective at removing hazardous millimeter-sized debris from distant orbits around asteroidsand other small solar system bodies (Hamilton and Burns 1992). Theprimary loss mechanism, driven by the azimuthal component of radiationpressure, is eccentricity growth followed by a forced collision withthe central body. One large class of orbits, however, neatly sidestepsthis fate. Orbits oriented nearly perpendicular to the solar directioncan maintain their face-on geometry, oscillating slowly around a stableequilibrium orbit. These orbits, designated sunflower orbits, arerelated to terminator orbits studied by spacecraft mission designers(Broschart etal. 2014).Destabilization of sunflower orbits occurs only for particles smallenough that radiation pressure is some tens of percent the strength ofthe central body's direct gravity. This greatly enhanced stability,which follows from the inability of radiation incident normal to theorbit to efficiently drive eccentricities, presents a threat tospacecraft missions, as numerous dangerous projectiles are potentiallyretained in orbit. We have investigated sunflower orbits insupport of the New Horizons, Aida, and Lucy missions and find thatthese orbits are stable for hazardous particle sizes at asteroids,comets, and Kuiper belt objects of differing dimensions. Weinvestigate the sources and sinks for debris that might populate suchorbits, estimate timescales and equilibrium populations, and willreport on our findings.

  3. Utilization of sunflower crop wild relatives for cultivated sunflower improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the few crops native to the U.S. The current USDA-ARS-NPGS crop wild relatives sunflower collection is the largest extant collection in the world, containing 2,519 accessions comprised of 53 species; 39 perennial and 14 annual. To fully utilize gene bank co...

  4. Integrated management of sunflower necrosis disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shirshikar S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sunflower necrosis disease (SND) is a new threat for sunflower cultivation in India. The disease was observed during 1997 in Karnataka, a major sunflower growing state of India. Later, its occurrence was reported from almost all sunflower growing states of India, posing threat to sunflower cultivation. Presently no reliable resistant sources are available. The disease being viral in nature is very much difficult to combat by single approach. At Oilseeds Research Station, Latur (M.S.), India, ...

  5. Axillary bud development in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de H.A.

    1996-01-01


    Each chrysanthemum cutting originates from an axillary bud. For an improvement of the cultivation of cuttings or more specific their quality, it is necessary that the development of an axillary bud can be controlled as good as possible. Axillary bud development can be distinguished into

  6. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman; Richard R. Mason; Galen C. Trostle

    1981-01-01

    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) is an important defoliator of true firs and Douglas-fir in Western North America. Severe tussock moth outbreaks have occurred in British Columbia, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, Nevada, California, Arizona, and New Mexico, but the area subject to attack is more extensive

  7. Improvement of sunflower for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijanović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing sunflower (Heliianthus annuus L for consumption is becoming more and more attractive in the whole world and in our country, as well. The consumption of this product has been considerably increased because it is being used more and more in various forms: sunflower seed in a hull, hulled kernels fried or non-fried, salted or non-salted with addition of various spices. The sunflower kernel is used for preparing over 100 different food products: special types of bread, cakes, ice-cream, chocolate. In accordance with the trade demands, the aims of sunflower seeds for consumption improvement are: high productivity, greater content of proteins, lesser content of oil, oncreased mass of 1000 seeds, lesser portion of the hull easy nibbling, as well as tolerance to dominant diseases in the growing region. In the Agricultural and Technological Research Center in Zajecar, 4 genotypes of protein sunflower (two cultivars and two hybrids have been created so far. This study shows the results achieved in increasing the content of protein, the mass of 1000 seeds, decreasing the content of oil and hull of the new 90 hybrid combination. The hybrid combinations were obtained by crossing of the CMS and restorer lines.

  8. Abscisic acid, a stress hormone helps in improving water relations and yield of sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) hybrids under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Saleem, M.F.; Cheema, M.A.; Ashraf, M.Y.; Haq, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Genotypic variation in water relations under drought is an important index of studying drought tolerance of crops. Abscisic acid (ABA) application helped in mitigating drought stress by improving water relations and yield. Three sunflower hybrids viz., DK-4040 (tall stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were subjected to different irrigation and ABA application regimes i.e., four irrigations (25 days after sowing (DAS), at bud initiation, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing, at flower initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at bud initiation, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with no ABA spray, three irrigations (25 days after sowing), at bud initiation and at achene formation) and with ABA spray at flower initiation. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement and had three replications. Exogenous application of ABA under drought at either stage (bud or flower initiation) was helpful in ameliorating drought stress by improving water relations and yield of sunflower hybrids; however response was better when ABA was applied under drought at bud initiation than at flower initiation stage. Sunflower hybrid DK- 4040 showed better enhancement of drought tolerance by exogenous application of ABA under drought than SF-187 and S-278 because it showed more improvement in water potential, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, relative leaf water contents and achene yield. (author)

  9. Historical Gypsy Moth Defoliation Frequency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely...

  10. Axillary bud development in rose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis - van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Axillary buds form the basis of flower production of a rose crop. Within a rose crop there exists an undesired large variation in shoot number and size, which affects flower yield. Part of this variation may be traced back to early variation in axillary buds. The aim of the research

  11. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  12. The condensed mutation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, P.

    1978-01-01

    Three inbred lines of sunflower were treated with gamma rays. In the progeny of one of these lines, the desired dwarf mutation appeared with a high frequency (23%). The dwarfing was accompanied by various undesirable characteristics (lateness, poor seed production, etc.), for which correction through genetic diversification and selection is in progress. The ratio capitulum diameter/stem height has increased from 1/8 up to 1/3 [fr

  13. Taste bud cells and nerves

    OpenAIRE

    武田,正子/内田,暢彦/鈴木,裕子; タケダ,マサコ/ウチダ,ノブヒコ/スズキ,ユウコ; TAKEDA,Masako/UCHIDA,Nobuhiko/SUZUKI,Yuko

    2002-01-01

    Sectioning of glossopharyngeal nerves which innervate the taste buds in the circumvallate papillae caused apoptosis of taste buds, the numbers decreasing and the taste buds disappearing after 11 days. This indicates that gustatory nerves may release a trophic substance that induces and maintains taste buds. Taste bud cells contain neurotrophins, NCAM, NSE, PGP9.5, and NeuroD which are specific markers of neurons. The BDNF and GDNF of neurotrophins, and Trk B and GFRαl of their receptors were ...

  14. Siberian Moth: Potential New Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Michael Montgomery; Daniel Kucera

    1997-01-01

    The Siberian moth, Dendrolimus superans Butler (Family Lasiocampidae), is the most destructive defoliator of conifer forests in Northern Asia. Outbreaks defoliate millions of acres and occur at intervals of 8 to 11 years. The larvae feed on most conifers in the pine family, but outbreaks occur in fir, spruce, Siberian pine, and larch forests. The...

  15. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...

  16. Emulsion properties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Merck, K.B.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Emulsions were made with sunflower protein isolate (SI), helianthinin, and sunflower albumins (SFAs). Emulsion formation and stabilization were studied as a function of pH and ionic strength and after heat treatment of the proteins. The emulsions were characterized with respect to average droplet

  17. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  18. Climate constraints for siberian moth distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuri Baranchikov; Nadezda Tschebakova; Elena Parfenova; Natalia. Kirichenko

    2010-01-01

    A simplistic bioclimatic model of the Siberian moth Dendrolimus sibiricus Tschtvrk. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is based on the moth's basic biological requirements, expressed through summer thermal conditions...

  19. Electrical Properties of Sunflower Achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Ján

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contains the results of measuring the electrical properties of sunflower achenes. The interest in electrical properties of biological materials resulted in engineering research in this field. The results of measurements are used for determining the moisture content, the surface level of liquid and grainy materials, for controlling the presence of pests in grain storage, for the quantitative determination of mechanical damage, in the application of dielectric heating, and in many other areas. Electrical measurements of these materials are of fundamental importance in relation to the analysis of quantity of absorbed water and dielectric heating characteristics. It is a well-known fact that electrical properties of materials, namely dielectric constant and conductivity, are affected by the moisture content of material. This fact is important for the design of many commercial moisturetesting instruments for agricultural products. The knowledge of dielectric properties of materials is necessary for the application of dielectric heating. The aim of this work was to measure conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent on samples of sunflower achenes, the electrical properties of which had not been sufficiently measured. Measurements were performed under variable moisture content and the frequency of electric field ranging from 1 MHz to 16 MHz, using a Q meter with coaxial probe. It was concluded that conductivity, dielectric constant and loss tangent increased with increasing moisture content, and dielectric constant and loss tangent decreased as the frequency of electric field increased.

  20. Soil and applied sulphur utilization by sunflower grown on vertisol under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreemannarayana, B.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a field experiment, conducted with sunflower genotypes viz., Morden, APSH-11, and EC 68414 grown on a local black clay loam soil, fertilizer sulphur (labelled with 35 S) was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg S/ha through gypsum and ammonium sulphate. Among the sunflower genotypes, EC 68414 utilized maximum sulphur from the sources at any given growth stage i.e., star, bud, flowering and maturity. Sulphur applied through ammonium sulphate resulted in highest S utilization by all the genotypes at all the stages of growth. Though, sulphur uptake showed an increase, the S utilization decreased with increase in levels of S. The S uptake was highest at 60 kg S/ha level applied through any of the sources. The soil S uptake was higher than fertilizer S uptake at any given stage of crop. Maximum yields were recorded at 40 kg S/ha level signifying that this dose is optimum for sunflower grown on black clay loam soils. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses as affected by bud age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of axillary bud age on the development and potential for growth of the bud into a shoot was studied in roses. Age of the buds occupying a similar position on the plant varied from 'subtending leaf just unfolded' up to 1 year later. With increasing age of the axillary bud its dry mass,

  2. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M

    2015-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  3. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend Jan; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.; Rottier, P.J.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  4. Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...

  5. Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Daniel Gomes Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some people are born with the wish of being different: some want to be politicians to mark the History in their country, others want to be football players, others want to have an “ability” that makes them special, like flying, reading people’s minds, mind control, etc, but aren’t we perfect as we are? Normality is the only perfection in our lives, but the thirst for power prevents us from doing the right thing. Even if we have a good heart, we are always prone to corruption, so as to fulfill our thirst for power.  We have the example of some politicians and other people in charge of enterprises who had power but used it for their own good, even if that meant harming people others. The short story that I present is completely original, but it’s a criticism of the corruptive influence of power. We can say that “If you want to know a man, give him power”.

  6. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  7. Response and utilization of phosphorus by sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, P.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.; Prasad Rao, A.; Sultana, Fatima

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to find the response and utilization of applied P by sunflower at different levels of N, in the light soils of Andhra Pradesh using 32 P labelled fertilizer. The results of the experiment clearly brought out the significant effects of N and P application on the dry matter yield, per cent Pdff and P utilization of sunflower at flowering and seed yield at harvest

  8. DNA barcoding of gypsy moths from China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) reveals new haplotypes and divergence patterns within gypsy moth subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang Chen; Youqing Luo; Melody A. Keena; Ying Wu; Peng Wu; Juan Shi

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome...

  9. Quantitative analysis of taste bud cell numbers in fungiform and soft palate taste buds of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2011-01-07

    Mammalian taste bud cells (TBCs) consist of several cell types equipped with different taste receptor molecules, and hence the ratio of cell types in a taste bud constitutes the taste responses of the taste bud. Here we show that the population of immunohistochemically identified cell types per taste bud is proportional to the number of total TBCs in the taste bud or the area of the taste bud in fungiform papillae, and that the proportions differ among cell types. This result is applicable to soft palate taste buds. However, the density of almost all cell types, the population of cell types divided by the area of the respective taste buds, is significantly higher in soft palates. These results suggest that the turnover of TBCs is regulated to keep the ratio of each cell type constant, and that taste responsiveness is different between fungiform and soft palate taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  11. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  12. Sunflower seeds as eliciting agents of Compositae dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; El-Houri, Rime B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sunflowers may cause dermatitis because of allergenic sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). Contact sensitization to sunflower seeds has also been reported, but the allergens are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To analyse sunflower seeds for the presence of SLs and to assess the prevalence of sunflower...... sensitization in Compositae-allergic individuals. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Sunflower-sensitive patients were identified by aimed patch testing. A dichloromethane extract of whole sunflower seeds was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: The prevalence of sensitivity to sunflower in Compositae-allergic individuals was 56%. A solvent wash of whole sunflower seeds yielded an extract containing SLs, the principal component tentatively being identified as argophyllin A or B, other SLs being present in minute amounts. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration...

  13. Agronomic characteristic of a dwarf germplasm sunflower line

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilevska-Ivanova Roumiana; Tcekova Zoja

    2005-01-01

    A new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L) dwarf line, HA-ARG-1, has been developed after interspecific hybridization between cultivated sunflower H. annuus and wild annual silver-leaf sunflower H. argophyllus. Plants were selected for reduced height and multiple branching characteristics. The agronomic, morphologic and oil content characteristics of the line were analyzed. Isolation of similar dwarfed lines illustrates the importance of using the wild sunflower germplasms in the development of sp...

  14. The sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Martinez, Yves; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Vear, Felicity; Pichon, Magalie; Godiard, Laurence

    2015-02-01

    Downy mildew of sunflower is caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farlow) Berlese & de Toni. Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete pathogen that attacks annual Helianthus species and cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Depending on the sunflower developmental stage at which infection occurs, the characteristic symptoms range from young seedling death, plant dwarfing, leaf bleaching and sporulation to the production of infertile flowers. Downy mildew attacks can have a great economic impact on sunflower crops, and several Pl resistance genes are present in cultivars to protect them against the disease. Nevertheless, some of these resistances have been overcome by the occurrence of novel isolates of the pathogen showing increased virulence. A better characterization of P. halstedii infection and dissemination mechanisms, and the identification of the molecular basis of the interaction with sunflower, is a prerequisite to efficiently fight this pathogen. This review summarizes what is currently known about P. halstedii, provides new insights into its infection cycle on resistant and susceptible sunflower lines using scanning electron and light microscopy imaging, and sheds light on the pathogenicity factors of P. halstedii obtained from recent molecular data. Kingdom Stramenopila; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Plasmopara; Species Plasmopara halstedii. Sunflower seedling damping off, dwarfing of the plant, bleaching of leaves, starting from veins, and visible white sporulation, initially on the lower side of cotyledons and leaves. Plasmopara halstedii infection may severely impact sunflower seed yield. In spring, germination of overwintered sexual oospores leads to sunflower root infection. Intercellular hyphae are responsible for systemic plant colonization and the induction of disease symptoms. Under humid and fresh conditions, dissemination structures are produced by the pathogen on all

  15. Main aspects of sunflower production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world, since its grains have high oil content (38% to 50%, primarily used for the production of high quality oil. The production of sunflower increases the supply of protein meal for animal feeding, which enables the increase of protein production, more specifically meat, eggs and milk. Grain production systems in Brazil have peculiarities, since two to three different crops are grown in a special arrangement, in the same area and year. Notwithstanding the small cultivated area in Brazil of 62.3 thousand hectares, sunflower is used in succession or rotation with other grain crops such as soybean or maize, showing an enormous potential for expansion and can be cultivated from latitudes 33°S to 5°N, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Sunflower cultivation in succession to soybean as a second summer crop can also reduce environmental impacts because of the more efficient usage of production factors, such as land and sharing of agricultural inputs, machinery, infrastructure and workforce. The success of establishing the sunflower is associated with the adequate management of soil fertility, use of cultivars adapted to different environments, plant arrangement, seed quality and adequate phytosanitary management, among other factors. It also needs strategic actions, planning and, long-term research and technology diffusion.

  16. 7 CFR 810.1801 - Definition of sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of sunflower seed. 810.1801 Section 810... STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Terms Defined § 810.1801 Definition of sunflower seed. Grain that, before the removal of foreign material, consists of 50.0 percent or...

  17. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  18. Loss of sunflower seeds to columbids in South Africa: economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey across the sunflower production region of South Africa during November 2003 to July 2005 estimated the loss of sunflower seeds to columbids (doves and pigeons, Aves: Columbidae). Farmers estimated that 12.7% of the national yield was lost to columbids. In a follow-up survey, 37 sunflower fields were visited ...

  19. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  20. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  1. Repellence of the red bud borer (Resseliella oculiperda) to grafted apple trees by impregnation of budding tape with essential oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Linden, van der A.; Swarts, H.J.; Visser, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The red bud borer Resseliella oculiperda (Rübs.) is a pest insect of apple trees when rootstocks are grafted with scion buds by shield budding. The female midges are attracted to the wounds of the grafted buds where they lay their eggs. The larvae feed on the cambium and destroy the buds completely

  2. Sex stimulant and attractant in the Indian meal moth and in the almond moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, U E; Tumlinson, J H; Brownlee, R G; Silverstein, R M

    1971-02-26

    cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadien-1-yl acetate was isolated from the female Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and the female almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker). It is the major if not the sole component of the sex stimulatory and attractant pheromone of female Plodia. It is present in the pheromone of the female Cadra along with at least one synergist.

  3. In vitro PROLIFERATION ABILITY OF AXILLARY BUDS IN Musa spp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    The proliferation rate of Axillary and apical buds and other growth parameters ... types of buds after four to five sub cultures in all the varieties except for CRBP 39 where the axillary bud exhibits ..... propagation, conservation and exchange.

  4. Identification of differentially expressed sequences in bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The developmental process of lily flower bud differentiation has been studied in morphology thoroughly, but the mechanism in molecular biology is still ambiguous and few studies on genetic expression have been carried out. Little is known about the physiological responses of flower bud differentiation in Oriental hybrid lily ...

  5. Life history attributes of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) reared on transgenic corn kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M

    2001-04-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides.

  6. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  7. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  8. Nickel remediation by AM-colonized sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Keomany; Charest, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    This greenhouse study aimed to examine the contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of and tolerance to nickel (Ni) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). We hypothesized that AM colonization increases Ni content and tolerance in sunflower grown under varying soil Ni concentrations. The combined effect of AM colonization and soil Ni input on the assimilation of nitrogen, in particular the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS), in sunflower plants was also investigated. A factorial experimental design was performed with sunflower cv. Lemon Queen, with or without the AM fungus, Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, and treated with 0, 100, 200, or 400 mg Ni kg(-1) dry soil (DS). The AM colonization significantly enhanced plant growth and Ni content, especially at the lower soil Ni treatments. Furthermore, the AM plants exposed to the highest soil Ni level of 400 mg Ni kg(-1) DS had a significantly higher shoot Ni extracted percentage than non-AM plants, suggesting that the AM symbiosis contributed to Ni uptake, then its translocation from roots to shoots. The AM colonization also significantly increased the GS activity in roots, this being likely an indicator of an enhanced Ni tolerance. These findings support the hypothesis that AM symbiosis contributes to an enhanced Ni plant uptake and tolerance and should be considered as part of phytoremediation strategies.

  9. Sunflower: A potential fructan-bearing crop?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle eMartinez-Noel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain filling in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. mainly depends on actual photosynthesis, being the contribution of stored reserves in stems (sucrose, hexoses and starch rather low. Drought periods during grain filling often reduce yield. Increasing the capacity of stem to store reserves could help to increase grain filling and yield stability in dry years. Fructans improve water uptake in soils at low water potential, and allow the storage of large amount of assimilates per unit tissue volume that can be readily remobilized to grains. Sunflower is a close relative to Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L., which accumulates large amounts of fructan (inulin in tubers and true stems. The reason why sunflower does not accumulate fructans is obscure. Through a bioinformatics analysis of a sunflower transcriptome database, we found sequences that are homologous to dicotyledon and monocotyledon fructan synthesis genes. A HPLC analysis of stem sugar composition revealed the presence of low amounts of 1-kestose, while a drastic enhancement of endogenous sucrose levels by capitulum removal did not promote 1-kestose accumulation. This suggests that the regulation of fructan synthesis in this species may differ from the currently best known model, mainly derived from research on Poaceae, where sucrose acts as both a signaling molecule and substrate, in the induction of fructan synthesis. Thus, sunflower might potentially constitute a fructan-bearing species, which could result in an improvement of its performance as a grain crop. However, a large effort is needed to elucidate how this up to now unsuspected potential could be effectively

  10. Sex Pheromone of the Almond Moth and the Indian Meal Moth: cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadienyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Y; Kitamura, C; Takashi, S; Hara, H; Ishii, S; Fukami, H

    1971-02-26

    Female moths of different species but belonging to the same subfamily produce an identical compound as their sex pheromone. The sex pheromone of the almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker), and the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), has been isolated and identified as cis-9, trans-12-tetradecadienyl acetate.

  11. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  12. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  13. Fingerprinting taste buds: intermediate filaments and their implication for taste bud formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, M; Reutter, K; Ganchrow, D; Ganchrow, J R

    2000-01-01

    Intermediate filaments in taste organs of terrestrial (human and chick) as well as aquatic (Xenopus laevis) species were detected using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. During development, the potential importance of the interface between the taste bud primordium and non-gustatory adjacent tissues is evidenced by the distinct immunoreactivity of a subpopulation of taste bud cells for cytokeratins and vimentin. In human foetuses, the selective molecular marker for taste bud primor...

  14. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: co...

  15. Hearing diversity in moths confronting a neotropical bat assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Kössl, Manfred; Mora, Emanuel C

    2017-09-01

    The tympanal ear is an evolutionary acquisition which helps moths survive predation from bats. The greater diversity of bats and echolocation strategies in the Neotropics compared with temperate zones would be expected to impose different sensory requirements on the neotropical moths. However, even given some variability among moth assemblages, the frequencies of best hearing of moths from different climate zones studied to date have been roughly the same: between 20 and 60 kHz. We have analyzed the auditory characteristics of tympanate moths from Cuba, a neotropical island with high levels of bat diversity and a high incidence of echolocation frequencies above those commonly at the upper limit of moths' hearing sensitivity. Moths of the superfamilies Noctuoidea, Geometroidea and Pyraloidea were examined. Audiograms were determined by non-invasively measuring distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. We also quantified the frequency spectrum of the echolocation sounds to which this moth community is exposed. The hearing ranges of moths in our study showed best frequencies between 36 and 94 kHz. High sensitivity to frequencies above 50 kHz suggests that the auditory sensitivity of moths is suited to the sounds used by sympatric echolocating bat fauna. Biodiversity characterizes predators and prey in the Neotropics, but the bat-moth acoustic interaction keeps spectrally matched.

  16. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  17. Sunflowers. Cultivation, processing, economic aspects. Sonnenblumen. Anbau, Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftlichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, K [Landwirtschaftsschule, Alzey (Germany, F.R.); Hunger, A [Landes-, Lehr- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Weinbau und Gartenbau, Neustadt (Germany, F.R.); Weickel, J [Landespflanzenschutzamt Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany, F.R.)

    1988-01-01

    Sunflowers are cultivated throughout the world, primarily for oil extraction but also as a birdseed, for eating, or for backing. Although some attempts have been made, they are hardly ever used as green fodder. Sunflowers grown for oil extraction usually have thin-shelled, black seeds. They have an oil fraction of 40 to 50% and a protein fraction of more than 20%. Sunflowers for other uses have large seeds with thick, striped shells. Their oil fraction is between 25 and 30%. (orig.).

  18. Sunflower (Helinathus annuus L.): A potential crop for environmental industry

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad M.N.V.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower applications in phytotechnologies for the clean-up of inorganic and organic contaminants and pollutants are reviewed in this compilation. There have been several apprehensions on the application of phytoremediation technology. High bioproductivity and biomass yield are a must for the success of this strategy. The phytoextraction coefficient of sunflowers is high compared with many other species. Sunflower is a proven laboratory and field example for the emerging environmental indust...

  19. Un-“ESCRT”-ed Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Yondola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In their recent publication, Rossman et al. [1] describe how the inherent budding capability of its M2 protein allows influenza A virus to bypass recruitment of the cellular ESCRT machinery enlisted by several other enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including HIV, Ebola, rabies, herpes simplex type 1 and hepatitis B. Studies from the same laboratory [2] and other laboratories [3–6] indicate that budding of plasmid-derived virus-like particles can be mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the absence of M2. These events are also independent of canonical ESCRT components [2,7]. Understanding how intrinsic properties of these influenza virus proteins permit ESCRT-independent budding expands our understanding of the budding process itself.

  20. Taste buds: cells, signals and synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a consolidation and refinement of the extraordinary progress made in taste research. This Review describes recent advances in our understanding of taste receptors, taste buds, and the connections between taste buds and sensory afferent fibres. The article discusses new findings regarding the cellular mechanisms for detecting tastes, new data on the transmitters involved in taste processing and new studies that address longstanding arguments about taste coding.

  1. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  2. Genetic analysis of sunflower chlorophyll mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashkina, E.V.; Guskov, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    The method of getting the chlorophyll mutations in sunflower was developed by Y.D. Beletskii in 1969 with the use of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH). Certain concentrations of NMH are known to induce plastid mutations in growing seeds, and their yield depends on the duration of the exposure. The given work presented studies on the influence of rifampicin (R) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on the genetic activity NMH, as an inductor of plastid and nuclear mutations

  3. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  4. Backcrosses in interspecific hybridization in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlagić Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When incorporating desirable traits (resistance to causal agents of various diseases from the wild relatives into the cultivated sunflower, some undesirable ones are introduced too (branching, small head diameter, low oil content, etc. To overcome this problem, backcrosses (F1 interspecific hybrids x cultivated sunflower are used, although very often desirable traits are lost in the process. Cytological analysis (meiosis and pollen viability and molecular markers (RAPD were used to estimate what portion of the parental species genome was present in (be interspecific hybrids of the F1 and BC1F1 generations. The results showed that the percentage of irregularities at meiosis increased from F1 to BC1F1 gen. They also indicated the presence of aneuploids and sterility in the cross between the hexaploid species H.rigidus and cultivated sunflower. The genetic distance between the parents was 83%, that between H.rigidus and the F1 hybrid 54 61%, and that between H.annuus and F1 hybrid 70-76%. In the BC1F1 generation, the genetic distance from Hannuus decreased to 58-66% and that from H.rigidus increased to 69-76%.

  5. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  6. Electroantennogram responses of the potato tuber moth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    lay eggs in soil cracks and on exposed tubers (Radcliffe ... Compounds belonging to the fatty acid derivatives class appear to be important for an oligophagous pest such as the potato tuber moth and the findings are discussed in relation to host plant selection in ..... specific adaptation of the set of olfactory receptors on the.

  7. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  8. A monitoring system for gypsy moth management

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. William Ravlin; S. J. Fleischer; M. R. Carter; E. A. Roberts; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Within the last ten years considerable research has been directed toward the development of a gypsy moth monitoring system for project planning at a regional level and for making control decisions at a local level. Pheromones and pheromone-baited traps have been developed and widely used and several egg mass sampling techniques have also been developed. Recently these...

  9. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  10. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, Van Frank; Grunsven, Van Roy H.A.; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Fijen, Thijs P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  11. Complex bud architecture and cell-specific chemical patterns enable supercooling of Picea abies bud primordial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud primordia of Picea abies, despite a frozen shoot, stay ice free down to -50 °C by a mechanism termed supercooling whose biophysical and biochemical requirements are poorly understood. Bud architecture was assessed by 3D-reconstruction, supercooling and freezing patterns by infrared video thermog...

  12. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Ke; Yang, Juan-Mei; Huang, Yi-Bo; Ren, Dong-Dong; Chi, Fang-Lu

    2015-06-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  13. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds.

  14. Differential representation of sunflower ESTs in enriched organ-specific cDNA libraries in a small scale sequencing project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Ruth A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subtractive hybridization methods are valuable tools for identifying differentially regulated genes in a given tissue avoiding redundant sequencing of clones representing the same expressed genes, maximizing detection of low abundant transcripts and thus, affecting the efficiency and cost effectiveness of small scale cDNA sequencing projects aimed to the specific identification of useful genes for breeding purposes. The objective of this work is to evaluate alternative strategies to high-throughput sequencing projects for the identification of novel genes differentially expressed in sunflower as a source of organ-specific genetic markers that can be functionally associated to important traits. Results Differential organ-specific ESTs were generated from leaf, stem, root and flower bud at two developmental stages (R1 and R4. The use of different sources of RNA as tester and driver cDNA for the construction of differential libraries was evaluated as a tool for detection of rare or low abundant transcripts. Organ-specificity ranged from 75 to 100% of non-redundant sequences in the different cDNA libraries. Sequence redundancy varied according to the target and driver cDNA used in each case. The R4 flower cDNA library was the less redundant library with 62% of unique sequences. Out of a total of 919 sequences that were edited and annotated, 318 were non-redundant sequences. Comparison against sequences in public databases showed that 60% of non-redundant sequences showed significant similarity to known sequences. The number of predicted novel genes varied among the different cDNA libraries, ranging from 56% in the R4 flower to 16 % in the R1 flower bud library. Comparison with sunflower ESTs on public databases showed that 197 of non-redundant sequences (60% did not exhibit significant similarity to previously reported sunflower ESTs. This approach helped to successfully isolate a significant number of new reported sequences

  15. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  16. 33 CFR 117.677 - Big Sunflower River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Sunflower River. 117.677 Section 117.677 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Mississippi § 117.677 Big Sunflower River. The draw of...

  17. Sunflower disease and insect pests in Pakistan: A review | Mukhtar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun flower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oil seed crops and potentially fit in agricultural system and oil production sector of Pakistan. Various diseases, insects and nematodes attack damage the sunflower crop, results a wide range of loss in production and yield. Sunflower is susceptible to diseases of ...

  18. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many countries. In Tunisia, this pathogen was found parasitizing sunflower cultivars in some fields in the Béja region, for the first time during the 2009-2010 agricultural season. Clear O. cumana attachments ...

  19. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Sinclair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT, acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR.Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM. OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II nor Presynaptic (Type III cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene.We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of

  20. Oxytocin signaling in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael S; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Yoshida, Masahide; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2010-08-05

    The neuropeptide, oxytocin (OXT), acts on brain circuits to inhibit food intake. Mutant mice lacking OXT (OXT knockout) overconsume salty and sweet (i.e. sucrose, saccharin) solutions. We asked if OXT might also act on taste buds via its receptor, OXTR. Using RT-PCR, we detected the expression of OXTR in taste buds throughout the oral cavity, but not in adjacent non-taste lingual epithelium. By immunostaining tissues from OXTR-YFP knock-in mice, we found that OXTR is expressed in a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells, and also in cells on the periphery of taste buds. Single-cell RT-PCR confirmed this cell-type assignment. Using Ca2+ imaging, we observed that physiologically appropriate concentrations of OXT evoked [Ca2+]i mobilization in a subset of taste cells (EC50 approximately 33 nM). OXT-evoked responses were significantly inhibited by the OXTR antagonist, L-371,257. Isolated OXT-responsive taste cells were neither Receptor (Type II) nor Presynaptic (Type III) cells, consistent with our immunofluorescence observations. We also investigated the source of OXT peptide that may act on taste cells. Both RT-PCR and immunostaining suggest that the OXT peptide is not produced in taste buds or in their associated nerves. Finally, we also examined the morphology of taste buds from mice that lack OXTR. Taste buds and their constituent cell types appeared very similar in mice with two, one or no copies of the OXTR gene. We conclude that OXT elicits Ca2+ signals via OXTR in murine taste buds. OXT-responsive cells are most likely a subset of Glial-like (Type I) taste cells. OXT itself is not produced locally in taste tissue and is likely delivered through the circulation. Loss of OXTR does not grossly alter the morphology of any of the cell types contained in taste buds. Instead, we speculate that OXT-responsive Glial-like (Type I) taste bud cells modulate taste signaling and afferent sensory output. Such modulation would complement central pathways of appetite

  1. Wild sunflower species as a genetic resource for resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a parasitic weed that causes economic damage in sunflower production in many countries, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, Spain, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Kazakhstan, and China. Genes for resistance to broomrape races A, B, C, D, and E are present in variet...

  2. Taste buds as peripheral chemosensory processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are peripheral chemosensory organs situated in the oral cavity. Each taste bud consists of a community of 50-100 cells that interact synaptically during gustatory stimulation. At least three distinct cell types are found in mammalian taste buds - Type I cells, Receptor (Type II) cells, and Presynaptic (Type III) cells. Type I cells appear to be glial-like cells. Receptor cells express G protein-coupled taste receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami compounds. Presynaptic cells transduce acid stimuli (sour taste). Cells that sense salt (NaCl) taste have not yet been confidently identified in terms of these cell types. During gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells secrete synaptic, autocrine, and paracrine transmitters. These transmitters include ATP, acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and GABA. Glutamate is an efferent transmitter that stimulates Presynaptic cells to release 5-HT. This chapter discusses these transmitters, which cells release them, the postsynaptic targets for the transmitters, and how cell-cell communication shapes taste bud signaling via these transmitters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New sunflower seeds with high contents of phytosterols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary phytosterols have a positive nutritional impact because they contribute to reduce cholesterol levels in blood. Accordingly, foods rich in phytosterols are required in a healthy diet. Vegetable oils are the richest source of phytosterols in the diet, though sunflower oil has lower phytosterol content than other seed oils such as rapeseed and corn. Increasing phytosterol content in sunflower oil requires optimizing first selection procedures. In this way, the development of accurate methods for analyzing phytosterol content in seeds instead of oils has opened up recently the way for large-scale screening for this trait. Large variability for seed phytosterol content has been identified in sunflower germplasm, from which we have developed a line, IASP-18, with about twofold seed phytosterol content than conventional sunflower. The trait is expressed across environments. Genetic studies are underway to characterize its inheritance and assess the feasibility of introgressing genes for high phytosterol content into elite sunflower germplasm.

  4. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  5. Progress and Bottlenecks in the Early Domestication of the Perennial Oilseed Silphium integrifolium, a Sunflower Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vilela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Silflower (Silphium integrifolium Michx. is in the early stages of domestication as a perennial version of oilseed sunflower, its close relative. Grain crops with deep perennial root systems will provide farmers with new alternatives for managing soil moisture and limiting or remediating soil erosion, fertilizer leaching, and loss of soil biota. Several cycles of selection for increased seed production potential following initial germplasm evaluation in 2002 have provided opportunities to document the botany and ecology of this relatively obscure species, to compare agronomic practices for improving its propagation and management, and to evaluate the differences between semi-domesticated and wild accessions that have accrued over this time through intentional and unintentional genetic processes. Key findings include: domestication has increased aboveground biomass at seedling and adult stages; seed yield has increased more, achieving modest improvement in harvest index. Harvest index decreases with nitrogen fertilization. Silflower acquires nitrogen and water from greater depth than typical crops. In agricultural silflower stands within its native range, we found that Puccinia silphii (rust and Eucosma giganteana (moth populations build up to unacceptable levels, but we also found genetic variation for traits contributing to resistance or tolerance. Breeding or management for reduced height and vegetative plasticity should be top priorities for future silflower research outside its native range.

  6. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  7. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  8. Quantitative analysis of developing epiglottal taste buds in sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, R M; Cheal, M L; Kim, Y H

    1980-01-01

    Epiglottal taste buds of the sheep increase in number during development, and continue to increase until the epiglottis has reached its adult size. However, since the increase in taste bud numbers is paralleled by increase in the surface area of the epiglottis, the density of taste buds decreases progressively in the fetus and newborn. After birth the density remains relatively constant. From examination of the morphological stages of epiglottal taste bud development, we conclude that taste b...

  9. Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) interference in soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, P.W.; Maddux, L.D.; Moshier, L.J.; Stahlman, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple weed species in the field combine to cause yield losses and can be described using one of several empirical models. Field studies were conducted to compare observed corn yield loss caused by common sunflower and shattercane populations with predicted yield losses modeled using a multiple species rectangular hyperbola model, an additive model, or the yield loss model in the decision support system, WeedSOFT, and to derive competitive indices for common sunflower and shattercane. Common sunflower and shattercane emerged with corn and selected densities established in field experiments at Scandia and Rossville, KS, between 2000 and 2002. The multiple species rectangular hyperbola model fit pooled data from three of five location–years with a predicted maximum corn yield loss of 60%. Initial slope parameter estimate for common sunflower was 49.2 and 4.2% for shattercane. A ratio of these estimates indicated that common sunflower was 11 times more competitive than shattercane. When common sunflower was assigned a competitive index (CI) value of 10, shattercane CI was 0.9. Predicted yield losses modeled for separate common sunflower or shattercane populations were additive when compared with observed yield losses caused by low-density mixed populations of common sunflower (0 to 0.5 plants m −2 ) and shattercane (0 to 4 plants m −2 ). However, a ratio of estimates of these models indicated that common sunflower was only four times as competitive as shattercane, with a CI of 2.5 for shattercane. The yield loss model in WeedSOFT underpredicted the same corn losses by 7.5%. Clearly, both the CI for shattercane and the yield loss model in WeedSOFT need to be reevaluated, and the multiple species rectangular hyperbola model is proposed. (author)

  10. Gene transfer from wild Helianthus to sunflower: topicalities and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (2n=17 belongs to the Helianthus genus (Asteraceae. Wild Helianthus species display morphological variation for branching and stem number, for architecture and seed size, and for resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses due to which they thrive in different environments in North America. The genus is divided into botanical sections, two for annual as sunflower, and two for perennial species as Jerusalem artichoke that produces rhizomes (tubers. We explain the difficulties and successes obtained by crossing sunflower with these species to improve the agronomic traits of the sunflower crop. It is easier to cross the annual species than the perennials’ with sunflower. Several traits such as Cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer Rf-PET1 genes, Downy mildew resistance, Phomopsis resistance, Sclerotinia resistance, Rust resistance, and Orobanche resistance have already been introduced from annual species into sunflower crop, but the complex genomic organization of these species compared to sunflower limits their important potential. Perennial species are much more diverse, and their genomes display 2n, 4n, or 6n chromosomes for n 17. The realities of inter-specific hybridization are relatively disappointing due to the introgression lines that have low oil and low seed yield. We report here several attempts to introgress agronomic traits from these species to sunflower, and we present as a case study, an introgressed progenies from H. mollis, a diploid species with sessile small leaves. We constructed a preliminary genetic map with AFLP markers in 21 BC1 plants, and we then showed that some progenies display 6 to 44% of introgression from H. mollis. Although this study is promising due to the novel compact architecture of the progenies, we cannot estimate the transferability from H. mollis to other perennial Helianthus to improve sunflower.

  11. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  12. Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes | Berkhoudt | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the oral mucosa of Crotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and ...

  13. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  14. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  15. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Radiation effects on bovine taste bud membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatzman, A.R.; Mossman, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of radiation-induced taste loss, the effects of radiation on preparations of enriched bovine taste bud membranes were studied. Taste buds containing circumvallate papilae, and surrounding control epithelial tissues devoid of taste buds, were obtained from steers and given radiation doses of 0-7000 cGy (rad). Tissue fractions were isolated into membrane-enriched and heterogeneous components using differential and sucrose gradient centrifugation of tissue homogenates. The yield of membranes, as measured by protein content in the buoyant membrane-enriched fractions, was reduced in quantity with increasing radiation dose. The relation between radiation dose and membrane quantity in membrane-enriched fractions could be fit by a simple exponential model with taste bud-derived membranes twice as radiosensitive as membranes from control epithelial tissue. Binding of sucrose, sodium, and acetate and fluoride stimulation of adenylate cyclase were nearly identical in both irradiated and nonirradiated intact membranes. Radiation had no effect on fractions of heterogeneous components. While it is not clear what changes are occurring in enriched taste cell membranes, damage to membranes may play an important role in the taste loss observed in patients following radiotherapy

  17. Effect of temperature on development and growth potential of axillary buds in roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of temperature during axillary bud formation on axillary bud development and subsequent shoot growth was investigated. Growth potential of the axillary buds was studied either in situ, by pruning the parent shoot above the bud, or in isolation, by grafting the bud or by culturing the bud

  18. Ontogeny of axillary buds and shoots in roses: Leaf initiation and pith development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The ontogeny of an axillary bud (in the middle region of a shoot) from initiation up to flowering of the subsequent shoot was studied. The first secondary buds appeared in the axillary bud (primary bud) when the leaf subtending the primary bud unfolded. By that time, the primary bud contained seven

  19. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  20. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  1. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  2. Tip moth parasitoids and pesticides: Are they compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. McCravy; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    1999-01-01

    Effects of herbicide and insecticide applications on parasitism of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) were examined in 2-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in Georgia. Total parasitism rates varied significantly among tip moth generations, but there were no differences in parasitism rates between herbicide-treated and untreated...

  3. Douglas-fir tussock moth: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Lorna C. Youngs

    1978-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes references to 338 papers. Each deals in some way with either the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), or a related species. Specifically, 210 publications and 82 unpublished documents make some reference, at least, to the Douglas-fir tussock moth; 55 are concerned with other species in...

  4. What causes the patterns of gypsy moth defoliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive G. Jones

    1991-01-01

    Gypsy moth defoliation is typically observed to occur on xeric ridge tops before more mesic, lowland forest, in oak-dominated habitats in the Northeast. In subsequent years defoliation may also occur in mesic forests. What causes this pattern of defoliation? Differences in the degree of defoliation may be due to differences in the density of gypsy moth populations in...

  5. Analysis of spatial density dependence in gypsy moth mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Joseph S. Elkinton

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth is perhaps the most widely studied forest insect in the world and much of this research has focused on various aspects of population dynamics. But despite this voluminous amount of research we still lack a good understanding of which, if any, natural enemy species regulate gypsy moth populations. The classical approach to analyzing insect population...

  6. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi. Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses.

  7. The Homeowner and the Gypsy Moth: Guidelines for Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. McManus; David R. Houston; William E. Wallner

    1979-01-01

    The gypsy moth is the most important defoliating insect of hardwood trees in the Eastern United States (fig. 1). Since the turn of the century, millions of dollars have been spent in efforts to control or eliminate gypsy moth populations and to retard natural and artificial spread. In the early decades of this century, outbreaks occurred only in New England; today...

  8. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derk M. Johnson; Andrew M. Liebhold; Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most...

  9. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-03

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  10. Response of Adult Lymantriid Moths to Illumination Devices in the Russian Far East

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; Lee M. Humble; Robert E. Levin; Yuri N. Baranchikov; Ring T. Carde; Ring T. Carde

    1995-01-01

    In field studies in the Russian Far East, five types of illuminating devices were evaluated for attracting adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), pink gypsy moth, L. mathura Moore, and nun moth, L. monacha (L.). Our objective was to determine if light from commercial lamps suited to out-of-doors floodlighting could be modified to reduce their attractiveness to moths...

  11. The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor for FVS: a tool for forest and pest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Anthony W. Courter

    2007-01-01

    The Gypsy Moth Event Monitor is a program that simulates the effects of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), within the confines of the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Individual stands are evaluated with a susceptibility index system to determine the vulnerability of the stand to the effects of gypsy moth. A gypsy moth outbreak is scheduled in the...

  12. Processing umami and other tastes in mammalian taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-07-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potential to shape the final signal output that taste buds transmit to the brain. The following paragraphs summarize current thinking about how taste signals generally, and umami taste in particular, are processed in taste buds.

  13. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    ) were recently shown to whisper extremely low-intensity ultrasonic courtship songs close to females. Since low sound levels will prevent eavesdropping by predators, parasites and conspecific rivals, we predicted low intensity ultrasound communication to be widespread among moths. Here we tested 13...... species of moths including members of the Noctuidae, Arctiidae, Geometridae and Crambidae. Males of nine species, 70%, produced broadband ultrasound close to females. Peak frequencies ranged from 38 to above 100 kHz. All sounds were of low intensity, 43-76 dB SPL at 1 cm [64+/-10 dB peSPL (mean +/- s......Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae...

  14. Improving oxidative stability of soya and sunflower oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rosmarinus officinallis) and tert- butyl-hydroquinone (TBHQ) as possible antioxidants in sunflower and soya oil. Upon addition of 200 ppm of dried leaf extract, acetone extract yielded protection of the samples against oxidation more efficiently as ...

  15. Creating Sunflower Mutant Lines (Helianthus Annuus L.) Using Induced Mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encheva, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immature sunflower zygotic embryos of sunflower fertility restorer line 374 R were treated with ultrasound and gamma radiation before plating embryos to culture medium. All plants were isolated and self-pollinated for several generations. New sunflower forms with inherited morphological and biochemical changes were obtained. The genetic changes occurring during the mutation procedure included fourteen morphological and biochemical characters. In comparison to the check line 374 R, decreasing of the mean value of the indexes was registered for 33 % of the total number of characters and vise verse, significant increasing was observed for 60 %. Mutation for resistance to the local population of Orobanche cumana race A-E was obtained from the susceptible Bulgarian control line 374 R. Two investigated mutant lines possessed 100 % resistance to Orobanche and stable inheritance in the next generations. Our results showed that induced mutagenesis in sunflower can be successfully used to develop new lines useful for heterosis breeding

  16. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Ali, S.; Javed, M.A.; Javad, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  17. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  18. Volumetry of human taste buds using laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, T; Srur, E; Stachs, O; Pau, H W

    2009-10-01

    In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy is a relatively new, non-invasive method for assessment of oral cavity epithelia. The penetration depth of approximately 200-400 microm allows visualisation of fungiform papillae and their taste buds. This paper describes the technique of in vivo volumetry of human taste buds. Confocal laser scanning microscopy used a diode laser at 670 nm for illumination. Digital laser scanning confocal microscopy equipment consisted of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph HRTII and the Rostock Cornea Module. Volume scans of fungiform papillae were used for three-dimensional reconstruction of the taste bud. This technique supplied information on taste bud structure and enabled measurement and calculation of taste bud volume. Volumetric data from a 23-year-old man over a nine-day period showed only a small deviation in values. After three to four weeks, phenomenological changes in taste bud structures were found (i.e. a significant increase in volume, followed by disappearance of the taste bud and appearance of a new taste bud). The data obtained indicate the potential application of this non-invasive imaging modality: to evaluate variation of taste bud volume in human fungiform papillae with ageing; to study the effects of chorda tympani nerve transection on taste bud volume; and to demonstrate recovery of taste buds in patients with a severed chorda tympani nerve who show recovery of gustatory sensibility after surgery.

  19. Whole-plant utilization of sunflowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R P [Univ. of Texas, Austin; Seiler, G J

    1984-01-01

    Forty-eight accessions representing 39 taxa of the genus Helianthus (sunflower) were collected from a common garden and whole plants examined for yields of non-polar extractables. (hydrocarbons, rubber, etc.), polar extractables (resins, sugars, etc.) and crude protein. This study revealed several promising species for obtaining hydrocarbons: H. agrestis, H. annuus, H. argophyllus, and H. arizonensis. Species highest in methanol extractables were H. ciliaris, H. leavigtus, H. occidentalis ssp. plantagineus, H. paradoxus, H. petiolaris, and H. silphioides. Species with greater than 16% protein yields were H. arizonensis, H. grosseserratus, H. neglectus, H. petiolaris ssp. fallax, and H. simulans. Since this genus is well known agronomically, the development of one of the species for whole-plant utilization may be easier than the domestication of some lesser-known genera. 42 references, 3 tables

  20. THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUNFLOWER BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUCA Maria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanchaceae is a dicot family, which consists of annual and perennial plants distributing from tropical to subarctic regions, predominately in temperate regions. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. = Orobanche cernua Loefl. is a parasitic angiosperm that has been causing a great deal of damage to sunflower production in many countries, including Republic of Moldova. This parasitic angiosperm depends entirely on the host for its supply of water and nutrients. A thorough understanding of its biology, including detailed knowledge of the specific mechanisms of parasitism, is needed in order to develop novel control methods. Some main developmental steps are described for the root parasites: seed conditioning and germination, haustorium formation, penetration into host tissues, maturation of the parasite plant, and seed production. All these stages were studied in artificial and natural conditions.

  1. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  2. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2017-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi , or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  3. System for combustion of sunflower shells in industrial steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriev, Kh.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an economically efficient solution for reconstruction of steam generators with steam production over 5 t/h using foregoing cyclone chamber for sunflower shells combustion. For average fuel caloricity 9 445 ccal/kg and sunflower shells caloricity between 3 485 and 3 750 ccal/kg, the petroleum saving is 68.78% for an average boiler efficiency 4.6 t/h steam

  4. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Horn, Renate

    2018-01-01

    In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare. Integrative approaches

  5. Sunflower Hybrid Breeding: From Markers to Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Dimitrijevic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In sunflower, molecular markers for simple traits as, e.g., fertility restoration, high oleic acid content, herbicide tolerance or resistances to Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia helianthi, or Orobanche cumana have been successfully used in marker-assisted breeding programs for years. However, agronomically important complex quantitative traits like yield, heterosis, drought tolerance, oil content or selection for disease resistance, e.g., against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum have been challenging and will require genome-wide approaches. Plant genetic resources for sunflower are being collected and conserved worldwide that represent valuable resources to study complex traits. Sunflower association panels provide the basis for genome-wide association studies, overcoming disadvantages of biparental populations. Advances in technologies and the availability of the sunflower genome sequence made novel approaches on the whole genome level possible. Genotype-by-sequencing, and whole genome sequencing based on next generation sequencing technologies facilitated the production of large amounts of SNP markers for high density maps as well as SNP arrays and allowed genome-wide association studies and genomic selection in sunflower. Genome wide or candidate gene based association studies have been performed for traits like branching, flowering time, resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot. First steps in genomic selection with regard to hybrid performance and hybrid oil content have shown that genomic selection can successfully address complex quantitative traits in sunflower and will help to speed up sunflower breeding programs in the future. To make sunflower more competitive toward other oil crops higher levels of resistance against pathogens and better yield performance are required. In addition, optimizing plant architecture toward a more complex growth type for higher plant densities has the potential to considerably increase yields per hectare

  6. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Dal Belo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different levels, which could be met by simulation models. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the crop model OILCROP-SUN to simulate sunflower development and growth under Brazilian conditions and to explore sunflower water- and nitrogen-limited, water-limited and potential yield and yield variability over an array of sowing dates in the northern region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For model calibration, an experiment was conducted in which two sunflower genotypes (H358 and E122 were cultivated in a clayey soil. Growth components (leaf area index, above ground biomass, grain yield and development stages (crop phenology were measured. A database composed of 27 sunflower experiments from five Brazilian regions was used for model evaluation. The spatial yield distribution of sunflower was mapped using ordinary kriging in ArcGIS. The model simulated sunflower grain productivity satisfactorily (Root Mean Square Error ≈ 13 %. Simulated yields were relatively high (1,750 to 4,250 kg ha-1 and the sowing window was fairly wide (Oct to Feb for northwestern locations, where sunflower could be cultivated as a second crop (double cropping at the end of the rainy season. The hybrid H358 had higher yields for all simulated sowing dates, growth conditions and selected locations.

  7. Nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Berwanger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the nutritional and energy values of sunflower cake for broilers through two experiments. The first study evaluated the energy values by the method of total excreta collection, using 100 broiler chicks 21–31 days old, divided into five treatments of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% inclusion sunflower cake will reference a diet. The second experiment evaluated the influence of the period and the quantity supplied of sunflower cake on digestibility of amino acids by a forcedfeeding technique. Eighteen cockerels were used, divided into three treatments, which consisted of supplying 15 g of sunflower cake, 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 12 hours and 30 g of sunflower cake (15 g at intervals of 24 hours, and an additional six roosters were fasted for correction of metabolic and endogenous losses. The samples were sent for amino acid analysis by HPLC in the Evonik Laboratory (Germany, and chemical and energy analysis to Unioeste Laboratory. The values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME, metabolization coefficient (AMC, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn, metabolization coefficient corrected for nitrogen balance (AMCn for sunflower cake were 2211.68 kcal.kg-1, 2150.54 kcal.kg-1, 45.47% and 44.73%, respectively. The amount of food provided in the feeding method changed the assessment of true digestibility of amino acids (TDCA, and when only 15 g was used, the values of true digestibility coefficients were underestimated. The lysine, histidine and threonine amino acids were at lower TDCA, and arginine and methionine showed the highest TDCA for sunflower cake.

  8. Torrefaction of residues and by-products from sunflower chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The high heterogeneity of some residual biomasses makes rather difficult their energy use and standardisation is a key aspect for these fuel products. Torrefaction is an interesting process used to improve the quality of ligno-cellulosic biomasses and to achieve standardisation. In the present study torrefaction has been employed on residues and by-products deriving from sunflower production chain, in particular sunflower stalks and oil press cake. The thermal behaviour of materials has been studied at first by thermo-gravimetric analysis in order to identify torrefaction temperatures range. Different residence time and torrefaction temperatures have been employed in a bench top torrefaction reactor afterwards. Analyses of raw and torrefied materials have been carried out to assess the influence of the process. As a consequence of torrefaction, the carbon and ash contents increase while the volatilisation range is reduced making the material more stable and standardised. Mass yield, energy yield and energy densification reach values of about 60 %, 80 % and 1.33 for sunflower stalks and 64 %, 85 % and 1.33 for sunflower oil press cake respectively. As highlighted by results, torrefaction is more interesting for sunflower stalks than oil cake and husks because of the different starting characteristics. Untreated oil cake and husks already show a good high heating value and the eventual torrefaction should be mild. On the contrary for sunflower stalks the process is more useful and could be more severe.

  9. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Sewalem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid peroxidation and membrane leakage with less affected photosynthesis in the leaves of the treated sunflower seedlings compared to the effects of Pb. The results presented here showed that a high amount of the total absorbed Cd (88.84% was accumulated in roots, while a high amount of the total absorbed Pb (71.39 was tranlocated to shoots of sunflower seedlings. Similar trends of Cd and Pb allocation between roots and shoots at the yield stage were recorded. We suggest here that sunflower plants may remediate Cd contaminated soils through phytostabilization, while may remediate Pb contaminated soils through phytoextraction. Finaly, the trace amounts of Cd and Pb that were accumulated in seeds recommends sunflower plants to be used safely and economically for cleaning up soils contaminated with Cd and/or Pb.

  10. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  11. Research on resistance to sunflower broomrape: an integrated vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco Leonardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr. parasitization on sunflower was first observed at the end of the 19th century and has continued since then jeopardizing sunflower cultivation in many areas of Europe and Asia. A distinctive characteristic of the O. cumana-sunflower parasitic system is that it is mainly governed by a gene-for-gene interaction. This determines complete resistance in the host controlled by dominant alleles at a single locus, which facilitates the management of the resistance for hybrid seed production. But on the other hand avirulence in the parasite is also controlled by dominant alleles at a single gene. Monogenic, dominant resistance exerts a strong selection pressure on the parasite that maximizes the probability of overcoming resistance mechanisms in a short period of time. This has in fact resulted in a number of physiological races that periodically surpass all the available resistance sources. The spread of populations to new areas and the subsequent hybridization between populations is another mechanism creating genetic diversity in sunflower broomrape and allegedly recombination of avirulences genes. After more than one century of coexistence, genetic resistance to broomrape in sunflower has to be focused under an integrated approach that considers not only the characterization of resistance mechanisms in the host, but also the genetic and physiological bases of avirulence in the parasite. From the perspective of genetic resistance in sunflower, most important is not relying only on single dominant genes, but following instead pyramiding strategies. These should give priority to combining complementary mechanisms of resistance under both qualitative (vertical and quantitative (horizontal genetic control. These aspects are discussed in the paper.

  12. Characterization of the Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Valin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A male sterile two-linear sunflower hybrid was developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute – General Toshevo using the method of inter-linear hybridization. The mother component is line 10517 which possesses cytoplasmic male sterility, and the father component is line 10595R, a fertility restorer of branched type. Both parental forms have very good general and specific combining ability. Hybrid Valin is medium early, with vegetation period of 110 – 115 days, plant height 165 – 175 cm and head diameter 17 – 18 cm. The percent of kernel in seed is within the range of 65 – 73%. Seeds have absolute weight 50 – 55 g, and oil content in seed is 46 – 50%. The hybrid is resistant to lodging and moderately resistant to phoma and phomopsis. The resistance to downy mildew is as high as 95 % up to race 700, and the resistance to the parasite Orobanche is 100% (races A-F. In the breeding fields of DAI the hybrid went through threeyear testing according to a scheme and growing technology approved for this crop. During the first two years of the control testing it exceeded the mean standard by seed yield with 11.0% and 14.4%, respectively. During the third year, hybrid Valin was above the mean standard with 10.9% by seed yield and with 6.6% by oil yield in a unified competitive varietal testing. The maximum yield obtained at DAI was 4483 kg/ha, and the maximum oil content was 50.1%. In 2007 and 2008 hybrid Valin went through official testing within the structure of the Executive Agency of Variety Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control of Bulgaria. By the index seed yield, the exceeding of the mean standard was 23.6 % in the first year, and in the second the yield was with 1.4 % below the standard. Oil content was a little below the standard in both years. The aim of this investigation was to make as full as possible a characterization of the new registered sunflower hybrid Valin on the base of biological, phytopatological and

  13. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  14. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  15. Breadth of Tuning and Taste Coding in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomchik, Seth M.; Berg, Stephanie; Kim, Joung Woul; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    A longstanding question in taste research concerns taste coding and, in particular, how broadly are individual taste bud cells tuned to taste qualities (sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour). Taste bud cells express G-protein-coupled receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami tastes but not in combination. However, responses to multiple taste qualities have been recorded in individual taste cells. We and others have shown previously there are two classes of taste bud cells directly involved in gu...

  16. Processing Umami and Other Tastes in Mammalian Taste Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, Stephen D.; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscientists are now coming to appreciate that a significant degree of information processing occurs in the peripheral sensory organs of taste prior to signals propagating to the brain. Gustatory stimulation causes taste bud cells to secrete neurotransmitters that act on adjacent taste bud cells (paracrine transmitters) as well as on primary sensory afferent fibers (neurocrine transmitters). Paracrine transmission, representing cell-cell communication within the taste bud, has the potentia...

  17. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E

    OpenAIRE

    Sales,Ronaldo Oliveira; Silva Sobrinho,Américo Garcia da; Zeola,Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes; Lima,Natália Ludmila Lins; Manzi,Gabriela Milani; Almeida,Fabiana Alves de; Endo,Viviane

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2) sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3) sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet...

  18. Guiding characteristics of sunflower-type fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Exian; Yan, Bei; Tan, Wei; Xie, Jianlan; Ge, Rui; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the guiding characteristics of sunflower-type fiber (SFF) with 6-fold rotational symmetry are investigated theoretically using finite element method (FEM). The behavior of single-mode propagation in SFF is verified. Numerical results reveal that, the cutoff ratio for endlessly single-mode propagation in SFF is 0.575 which is larger than that of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF). Moreover, SFF can present ultra-flattened near-zero chromatic dispersion, 0.249 ± 1.146 ps/nm/km, in a broadband of wavelength covering 1.20-1.84 μm over all the telecommunication wavelengths. In term of chromatic dispersion and confinement loss in the wavelength range from 1.00 to 2.00 μm, a comparison between SFF, PCF and PQF with same structure parameters is carried out. Importantly, the rotational symmetry, as a new manageable structure parameter beyond common air hole diameter and lattice constant, can be employed to manipulate the chromatic dispersion, confinement loss, effective mode area and non-linear coefficient and it dependences on these guiding characteristics are discussed in detail.

  19. Genetics of alternative splicing evolution during sunflower domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris C R; Tittes, Silas; Mendieta, J Paul; Collier-Zans, Erin; Rowe, Heather C; Rieseberg, Loren H; Kane, Nolan C

    2018-06-11

    Alternative splicing enables organisms to produce the diversity of proteins necessary for multicellular life by using relatively few protein-coding genes. Although differences in splicing have been identified among divergent taxa, the shorter-term evolution of splicing is understudied. The origins of novel splice forms, and the contributions of alternative splicing to major evolutionary transitions, are largely unknown. This study used transcriptomes of wild and domesticated sunflowers to examine splice differentiation and regulation during domestication. We identified substantial splicing divergence between wild and domesticated sunflowers, mainly in the form of intron retention. Transcripts with divergent splicing were enriched for seed-development functions, suggesting that artificial selection impacted splicing patterns. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with 144 differential splicing cases revealed primarily trans -acting variation affecting splicing patterns. A large proportion of identified QTLs contain known spliceosome proteins and are associated with splicing variation in multiple genes. Examining a broader set of wild and domesticated sunflower genotypes revealed that most differential splicing patterns in domesticated sunflowers likely arose from standing variation in wild Helianthus annuus and gained frequency during the domestication process. However, several domesticate-associated splicing patterns appear to be introgressed from other Helianthus species. These results suggest that sunflower domestication involved selection on pleiotropic regulatory alleles. More generally, our findings indicate that substantial differences in isoform abundances arose rapidly during a recent evolutionary transition and appear to contribute to adaptation and population divergence.

  20. Drought Stress Responses of Sunflower Germplasm Developed after Wide Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumiana Dimova Vassilevska-Ivanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Response of sunflower germplasms viz. cultivated sunflower H. annuus and two breeding lines H. annuus x T. rotundifolia and H. annuus x V. encelioides developed after wide hybridization were used for identification of drought tolerant sunflower genotypes at the seedling growth stage. Three water stress levels of zero (control, -0.4, and -0.8 MPa were developed using polyethyleneglycol-6000 (PEG-6000. Physiological and biochemical stress determining parameters such as root and shoots length, fresh weight, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (GPO, ascorbate peroxidase (APX and antioxidant metabolite content (total antioxidant capacity, total phenols and total flavonoids content were compared between seedlings of all three genotypes. Results revealed that sunflower genotypes have similar responses at two osmotic potentials for shoot and root length and fresh weight. The data also showed that drought stresss could induce oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase level of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase at -04 MPa in H. annuus cv 1114. Although the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase was differentially influenced by drought, the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase subjected to drought stress follow a similar pattern in both breeding lines, indicating that similar defense systems might be involved in the oxidative stress injury in sunflowers. Increase in content of phenols and flavonoids were detected for all three genotypes under stress, which showed that these were major antioxidant metabolites in scavenging cellular H2O2.

  1. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Koert G.; van Eck, Emiel; de Boer, Rens A.; van Grunsven, Roy H.A.; Salis, Lucia; Berendse, Frank; Veenendaal, Elmar M.

    2015-01-01

    * Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  2. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  3. The characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhkamov, Kh.K.; Gorshkova, R.M.; Khalikova, S.

    2013-01-01

    Present article describes characteristics of polysaccharides fractions of sunflower obtained in dynamic mode. The decomposition of sunflower pectin was studied by means of continuous fractionation method in dynamic regime. It was found that the process is of extreme nature due to heterogeneity of its macromolecule structure. The additional information on macromolecule structure of sunflower pectin was obtained.

  4. Mutant induction through adventitious buds of Kohleria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parliman, B.J.; Stushnoff, C.

    1979-01-01

    Freshly cut leaves of Kohleria eriantha and K. x 'Longwood' were exposed in a wide range of gamma irradiation doses and allowed to root and form adventitious buds. K. Eriantha could not be successfully propagated from leaf half cuttings. 'Longwood' produced a small number of adventitious plantlets as compared to other Gesneriads. Colchicine treatments reduced leaf half survival in 'Longwood' by more than 50%. Leaf halves exposed to low and moderate doses of gamma irradiation showed increased overall plantlet production compared to nonirradiated leaf halves. (Auth.)

  5. Epicormic buds in trees: a review of bud establishment, development and dormancy release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew R. ​Meier; Michael R. Saunders; Charles H. Michler

    2012-01-01

    The formation of epicormic sprouts on the boles of trees is a phenomenon that has, until recently, been poorly understood. Renewed interest in the topic in the last two decades has led to significant advances in our knowledge of the subject, especially in regard to bud anatomy, morphology and ontogeny. There exists, however, no comprehensive synthesis of results from...

  6. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  7. Some results of applied interspecific hybridization in sunflower breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations on the interspecific hybridization in sunflower, aimed at developing a diversified initial selection material, were carried out Wild species of the diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid groups, varieties, hybrids, and selfed-lines of cultivated sunflower were used for crossings. To overcome incrossability between the species and sterility in the hybrids the method of f;cilitating of crossability by mutual gra'fting and gamma-rays treatment of seeds and pollen were applied. Results showed that: 1. By the method of interspecific hybridization forms might be produced resistant to more important diseases. 2. Interspecific hybridization in combination with other methods of selection might produce varieties and hybrids with a complex of valuable qualities. 3. Crossings between wild species and cultivated sunflower gave progenies with gene rale sterility. 4. The species H.tuberosus, H.scaberimus, H.arωphylus and H.lenticularis possess genes of full fertility restoration. (author)

  8. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  10. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  11. Occurrence of Parthenogenesis in Potato Tuber Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Hu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ya; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zong-Kai; Xiao, Chun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Parthenogenesis, a natural form of asexual reproduction produced from unfertilized eggs, occurs in many insects in Hemiptera and Hymenoptera, but very rarely in Lepidoptera. The current study aimed to test the larval density dependent occurrence of parthenogenesis in potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. More than 10% of females out of 25 tested females that developed from the high larval density treatment at 45 larvae per tuber were capable to reproduce asexually. Both male and female offspring were produced parthenogenetically. The sexually reproductive offspring of a laboratory parthenogenetic population had a lower egg hatch rate, shorter larval stage, and shorter male life span when compared with the non-parthenogenetic population. This suggests that the sexually reproductive offspring of parthenogenetic population have a decreased overall fitness compared to the sexually reproductive offspring of non-parthenogenetic population.

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Arenavirus Assembly and Budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzo Urata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses have a bisegmented negative-strand RNA genome, which encodes four viral proteins: GP and NP by the S segment and L and Z by the L segment. These four viral proteins possess multiple functions in infection, replication and release of progeny viruses from infected cells. The small RING finger protein, Z protein is a matrix protein that plays a central role in viral assembly and budding. Although all arenaviruses encode Z protein, amino acid sequence alignment showed a huge variety among the species, especially at the C-terminus where the L-domain is located. Recent publications have demonstrated the interactions between viral protein and viral protein, and viral protein and host cellular protein, which facilitate transportation and assembly of viral components to sites of virus egress. This review presents a summary of current knowledge regarding arenavirus assembly and budding, in comparison with other enveloped viruses. We also refer to the restriction of arenavirus production by the antiviral cellular factor, Tetherin/BST-2.

  13. Whole transcriptome profiling of taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Lewandowski, Brian C; Qin, Yumei; Kotha, Ramana; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Margolskee, Robert F

    2017-08-08

    Analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data can provide insights into the specific functions of individual cell types that compose complex tissues. Here, we examined gene expression in two distinct subpopulations of mouse taste cells: Tas1r3-expressing type II cells and physiologically identified type III cells. Our RNA-Seq libraries met high quality control standards and accurately captured differential expression of marker genes for type II (e.g. the Tas1r genes, Plcb2, Trpm5) and type III (e.g. Pkd2l1, Ncam, Snap25) taste cells. Bioinformatics analysis showed that genes regulating responses to stimuli were up-regulated in type II cells, while pathways related to neuronal function were up-regulated in type III cells. We also identified highly expressed genes and pathways associated with chemotaxis and axon guidance, providing new insights into the mechanisms underlying integration of new taste cells into the taste bud. We validated our results by immunohistochemically confirming expression of selected genes encoding synaptic (Cplx2 and Pclo) and semaphorin signalling pathway (Crmp2, PlexinB1, Fes and Sema4a) components. The approach described here could provide a comprehensive map of gene expression for all taste cell subpopulations and will be particularly relevant for cell types in taste buds and other tissues that can be identified only by physiological methods.

  14. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  15. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Resistance of sunflower hybrids to imazamox and tribenuron-methyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozic, D; Saric, M; Malidza, G

    2012-01-01

    The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post-emergence wi......The response of the imazamox resistant and susceptible sunflower hybrids Rimi and S to imazamox and of tribenuron-methyl resistant and susceptible hybrids Rsu and S to tribenuron-methyl was investigated both in a whole-plant bioassay and in field experiments. Plants were treated post...

  17. Sunflower oil in the treatment of hot tar burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türegün, M; Oztürk, S; Selmanpakoğlu, N

    1997-08-01

    Hot tar burns compose a unique class of thermal injury, because removal of this highly sticky compound may be very difficult without inflicting additional tissue damage. Early removal of tar facilitates assessment of the burn and improves patient comfort. Although the use of many substances for the painless removal of tar has been described, we used sunflower oil effectively in the treatment of four tar burn patients. This first report describes the practical and successful use of sunflower oil which was easily obtained from the hospital kitchen.

  18. Phytoremediation of Lead and Cadmium Contaminated Soils using Sunflower Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Sewalem; Soad Elfeky; Fatma El- Shintinawy

    2014-01-01

    Phytremediation has emerged as a practical approach to clean up metal-polluted soils. In this study the role of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) plants as a potential phytoremediator to soils contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was investigated. Our results showed that the effect of Cd was stronger on the growth of the roots, while the effect of Pb was stronger on the shoots of sunflower seedlings. At the physiological level, Cd treatment was found to induce low levels of lipid pero...

  19. Unearthing belowground bud banks in fire-prone ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, Juli G; Lamont, Byron B; Paula, Susana; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz; Fidelis, Alessandra

    2018-03-01

    Despite long-time awareness of the importance of the location of buds in plant biology, research on belowground bud banks has been scant. Terms such as lignotuber, xylopodium and sobole, all referring to belowground bud-bearing structures, are used inconsistently in the literature. Because soil efficiently insulates meristems from the heat of fire, concealing buds below ground provides fitness benefits in fire-prone ecosystems. Thus, in these ecosystems, there is a remarkable diversity of bud-bearing structures. There are at least six locations where belowground buds are stored: roots, root crown, rhizomes, woody burls, fleshy swellings and belowground caudexes. These support many morphologically distinct organs. Given their history and function, these organs may be divided into three groups: those that originated in the early history of plants and that currently are widespread (bud-bearing roots and root crowns); those that also originated early and have spread mainly among ferns and monocots (nonwoody rhizomes and a wide range of fleshy underground swellings); and those that originated later in history and are strictly tied to fire-prone ecosystems (woody rhizomes, lignotubers and xylopodia). Recognizing the diversity of belowground bud banks is the starting point for understanding the many evolutionary pathways available for responding to severe recurrent disturbances. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  1. Bud initiation and optimum harvest date in Brussels sprouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Sukkel, W.

    1999-01-01

    For six cultivars of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) with a decreasing degree of earliness, or optimum harvest date, the time of bud initiation was determined during two seasons. Fifty percent of the plants had initiated buds between 60 and 75 days after planting (DAP) in 1994

  2. Bud abortion in tulip bulbs studied by magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, van M.G.; Nicolaij, K.; Franssen, J.M.; Kollöffel, C.

    2002-01-01

    After storage and subsequent planting of flower bulbs, the flower bud frequently appears to be aborted. This physiological aberration is probably caused by a change in the water status of the bulb and may be initiated during storage. The development of bud abortion in tulip bulbs was studied during

  3. Proceedings, U. S. Department of Agriculture interagency gypsy moth research review 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery; Shirley I. Smith; [Editors

    1991-01-01

    Eight invited papers and 68 abstracts of volunteer presentations on gypsy moth biology, ecology, impacts, and management presented at the U. S. Department of Agriculture Interagency Gypsy Moth Research Review.

  4. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  5. Breeding sunflower for drought tolerance: genetic variability for drought torrance in sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.K.; Ilyas, M.; Rehman, O.U.

    1994-01-01

    Five inbred lines and their all possible crosses excluding reciprocals were evaluated for tolerance to drought and effect of drought adversely influenced the traits of leaf area, days to maturity, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant, whereas number of leaves per plant and plant height were comparatively less affected. Average performance of sunflower cross/hybrids was far more better than parental lines. Inbred lines GIMSUN-420x-431 and GIMSUN-498x-477 produced higher achene yield under drought conditions and showed less loses than other. Effect of drought on various growth stages showed that button (R1 stage) was the most critical as compared to 50% flowering (R5 stage) and seed formation (R6 stage) which reduced leaf area, head diameter, 100-achene weight and achene yield per plant by 40-59, 32-14 and 31-07 percent respectively. (author)

  6. Cytokinins and polar transport of auxin in axillary pea buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kalousek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cytokinin on auxin transport during release of axillary buds from apical dominance was studied. Expression of auxin-carrier coding genes PsAUX1 (AUXIN RESISTANT 1 and PsPIN1 (PIN-FORMED 1 was explored in axillary buds of the 2nd node of 7-day pea plants (Pisum sativum L. cv. Vladan after decapitation or after exogenous application of benzyladenine (6-benzylaminopurine onto axillary buds of intact plants. Localization of the PsPIN1 protein, the key factor for polar transport of auxin in axillary buds, was visualised by immunohistochemistry. After exogenous application of cytokinin the expression of PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 rapidly increased with a simultaneous rapid decrease in PsDRM1 and PsAD1 expression – genes related to bud dormancy. The same changes in expression were observed after decapitation, however they were markedly slower. The PsPIN1 auxin efflux carrier in the inhibited axillary buds of intact plants was localised in a non-polar manner. After exogenous application of cytokinin gradual polarisation of the PsPIN1 protein occurred on the basal pole of polar auxin transport competent cells. Despite the fact that direct auxin application to buds of intact plants led to an increase in PsAUX1 and PsPIN1 expression, the buds remained dormant (non-growing what was accompanied by persistent expression of the dormancy markers PsDRM1 and PsAD1. The results indicate a possible effect of cytokinins on biosynthesis, and/or transport of auxin in axillary buds and they highlight the importance of auxin-cytokinin crosstalk in the regulation of bud outgrowth after breaking of apical dominance.

  7. Anti-bat tiger moth sounds: Form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. CORCORAN, William E. CONNER, Jesse R. BARBER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The night sky is the venue of an ancient acoustic battle between echolocating bats and their insect prey. Many tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae answer the attack calls of bats with a barrage of high frequency clicks. Some moth species use these clicks for acoustic aposematism and mimicry, and others for sonar jamming, however, most of the work on these defensive functions has been done on individual moth species. We here analyze the diversity of structure in tiger moth sounds from 26 species collected at three locations in North and South America. A principal components analysis of the anti-bat tiger moth sounds reveals that they vary markedly along three axes: (1 frequency, (2 duty cycle (sound production per unit time and frequency modulation, and (3 modulation cycle (clicks produced during flexion and relaxation of the sound producing tymbal structure. Tiger moth species appear to cluster into two distinct groups: one with low duty cycle and few clicks per modulation cycle that supports an acoustic aposematism function, and a second with high duty cycle and many clicks per modulation cycle that is consistent with a sonar jamming function. This is the first evidence from a community-level analysis to support multiple functions for tiger moth sounds. We also provide evidence supporting an evolutionary history for the development of these strategies. Furthermore, cross-correlation and spectrogram correlation measurements failed to support a “phantom echo” mechanism underlying sonar jamming, and instead point towards echo interference [Current Zoology 56 (3: 358–369, 2010].

  8. Budding yeast for budding geneticists: a primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duina, Andrea A; Miller, Mary E; Keeney, Jill B

    2014-05-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans.

  9. Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Kirsch, Richard; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    to determine the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence. The following 10 statements achieved consensus: Tumor budding is defined as a single tumor cell or a cell cluster consisting of four tumor cells or less (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is an independent predictor of lymph node metastases in pT1......%). Intratumoral budding exists in colorectal cancer and has been shown to be related to lymph node metastasis (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is assessed in one hotspot (in a field measuring 0.785 mm 2) at the invasive front (22/22, 100%). A three-tier system should be used along with the budding count in order...

  10. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  11. Gypsy moth role in forest ecosystems: the good, the bad, and the indifferent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1995-01-01

    Despite a century of attempts to control populations of the gypsy moth, it remains one of the most destructive forest pests introduced to North America. Research has yielded valuable, albeit sometimes conflicting information about the effects of gypsy moth on forests. Anecdotal accounts and scientific data indicate that impacts of gypsy moth defoliation can range from...

  12. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  13. Association mapping in sunflower for sclerotinia head rot resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusari Corina M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sclerotinia Head Rot (SHR is one of the most damaging diseases of sunflower in Europe, Argentina, and USA, causing average yield reductions of 10 to 20 %, but leading to total production loss under favorable environmental conditions for the pathogen. Association Mapping (AM is a promising choice for Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL mapping, as it detects relationships between phenotypic variation and gene polymorphisms in existing germplasm without development of mapping populations. This article reports the identification of QTL for resistance to SHR based on candidate gene AM. Results A collection of 94 sunflower inbred lines were tested for SHR under field conditions using assisted inoculation with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Given that no biological mechanisms or biochemical pathways have been clearly identified for SHR, 43 candidate genes were selected based on previous transcript profiling studies in sunflower and Brassica napus infected with S. sclerotiorum. Associations among SHR incidence and haplotype polymorphisms in 16 candidate genes were tested using Mixed Linear Models (MLM that account for population structure and kinship relationships. This approach allowed detection of a significant association between the candidate gene HaRIC_B and SHR incidence (P  Conclusions These results suggest that AM will be useful in dissecting other complex traits in sunflower, thus providing a valuable tool to assist in crop breeding.

  14. Liquid Crystal Formation from Sunflower Oil: Long Term Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Maruno, Mônica; Ferrari, Márcio; Topan, José Fernando

    2016-06-09

    The Brazilian biodiversity offers a multiplicity of raw materials with great potential in cosmetics industry applications. Some vegetable oils and fatty esters increase skin hydration by occlusivity, keeping the skin hydrated and with a shiny appearance. Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) oil is widely employed in cosmetic emulsions in the form of soaps, creams, moisturizers and skin cleansers due to the presence of polyphenols and its high vitamin E content. Liquid crystals are systems with many applications in both pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations and are easily detected by microscopy under polarized light due to their birefringence properties. The aim of this research was to develop emulsions from natural sunflower oil for topical uses. Sunflower oil (75.0% w/w) was combined with liquid vaseline (25.0% w/w) employing a natural self-emulsifying base (SEB) derivative. The high temperature of the emulsification process did not influence the antioxidant properties of sunflower oil. Fatty esters were added to cosmetic formulations and extended stability tests were performed to characterize the emulsions. Fatty esters like cetyl palmitate and cetyl ester increase the formation of anisotropic structures. O/W emulsions showed acidic pH values and pseudoplastic behavior. The presence of a lamellar phase was observed after a period of 90 days under different storage conditions.

  15. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR), yield components and oil contents to planting ... be fairly stable (Monteith, 1977; Gallagher and Biscoe, ... oil quality of sunflower under irrigated arid environmental ... tically for the analysis of variance (ANOVA). ..... in this study confirm the findings of many scientists.

  16. A tripartite approach identifies the major sunflower seed albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Achala S; Franke, Bastian; Rosengren, Johan; Mylne, Joshua S

    2016-03-01

    We have used a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches to identify the napin-type albumin genes in sunflower and define their contributions to the seed albumin pool. Seed protein content is determined by the expression of what are typically large gene families. A major class of seed storage proteins is the napin-type, water soluble albumins. In this work we provide a comprehensive analysis of the napin-type albumin content of the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by analyzing a draft genome, a transcriptome and performing a proteomic analysis of the seed albumin fraction. We show that although sunflower contains at least 26 genes for napin-type albumins, only 15 of these are present at the mRNA level. We found protein evidence for 11 of these but the albumin content of mature seeds is dominated by the encoded products of just three genes. So despite high genetic redundancy for albumins, only a small sub-set of this gene family contributes to total seed albumin content. The three genes identified as producing the majority of sunflower seed albumin are potential future candidates for manipulation through genetics and breeding.

  17. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency in varieties of sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-27

    Sep 27, 2010 ... The effect of single treatment with gamma-rays, sodium azide and combination treatments of gamma- rays and sodium azide on seed germination, seedling survival, pollen fertility and seed set in sunflower. (Helianthus annuus L.) M2 generation was studied in the varieties of USH-430 and SHSF-333.

  18. Effect of saponified high fat sunflower oilcake and lipoic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are toxic to cellulolytic bacteria and are also saturated in the rumen. Stabilization of residual oil in sunflower oilcake by conversion into calcium salts would be advantageous. Alpha lipoic acid acts as an anti-oxidant to ...

  19. Association Mapping and the Genomic Consequences of Selection in Sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jennifer R.; Nambeesan, Savithri; Bowers, John E.; Marek, Laura F.; Ebert, Daniel; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Knapp, Steven J.; Burke, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The combination of large-scale population genomic analyses and trait-based mapping approaches has the potential to provide novel insights into the evolutionary history and genome organization of crop plants. Here, we describe the detailed genotypic and phenotypic analysis of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) association mapping population that captures nearly 90% of the allelic diversity present within the cultivated sunflower germplasm collection. We used these data to characterize overall patterns of genomic diversity and to perform association analyses on plant architecture (i.e., branching) and flowering time, successfully identifying numerous associations underlying these agronomically and evolutionarily important traits. Overall, we found variable levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) across the genome. In general, islands of elevated LD correspond to genomic regions underlying traits that are known to have been targeted by selection during the evolution of cultivated sunflower. In many cases, these regions also showed significantly elevated levels of differentiation between the two major sunflower breeding groups, consistent with the occurrence of divergence due to strong selection. One of these regions, which harbors a major branching locus, spans a surprisingly long genetic interval (ca. 25 cM), indicating the occurrence of an extended selective sweep in an otherwise recombinogenic interval. PMID:23555290

  20. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  1. Effect of Dietary Inclussion of Antibiotics and Wild Sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of penicillin, streptomycin and wild sunflower leaf in layer diet on the performance of hens was investigated. Forty (40) Shaver Brown layers at twenty four weeks of age were involved in a completely randomized design experiment. They were randomly allocated to give dietary treatments.

  2. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  3. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were established at Research Farm, Bahauddin Zakariya University, (BZU) Multan, Pakistan, during the spring season of 2009 to study the interactive effect of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in terms of growth, fraction of intercepted radiation (Fi), intercepted photo-synthetically active ...

  4. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  5. Effect of growing degree days on autumn planted sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) having high degree of adaptability under wide range of climatic conditions, allow the crop to be productive in broad range of environments. Field experiments in autumn were laid out at Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan for two years (2007 and 2008), ...

  6. Allelopathic potential of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The effect of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) variety, namely Hysun 38, on metals and of aqueous extracts of its leaves on germination in two varieties of wheat, namely Margalla 99 and Chakwall 97, were studied under laboratory conditions. In particular, the effect of leaf extract on hormones produced ...

  7. A crop model-based approach for sunflower yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Barbosa Justino, F.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Pushed by the Brazilian biodiesel policy, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production is becoming increasingly regarded as an option to boost farmers' income, particularly under semi-arid conditions. Biodiesel related opportunities increase the demand for decision-making information at different

  8. Cross reaction between P-61 sunflower seedlings oleosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A true triacylglycerol lipase was detected in germinating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings associated to oleosomes. This enzyme that has not yet been identified was partially purified as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) (10%); two protein bands, P-61 and P-66 ...

  9. Response of sunflower hybrids to management practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.), etc. The total edible oil ... hybrids with high fertilizer requirements. The farmers are applying ... Crop growth and productivity can be discussed in terms of biomass ... the interactive effects of hybrids, planting geometries and nitrogen rates on ...

  10. Sunflower proteins : overview of their physicochemical, structural and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Pérez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing worldwide demand for proteins of both animal and plant origin. However, animal proteins are expensive in terms of both market price and environmental impact. Among alternative plant proteins, sunflower seeds are particularly interesting in view of their widespread availability in

  11. Radiation-use efficiency of sunflower crops: effects of specific leaf nitrogen and ontogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A.J.; Connor, D.J.; Sadras, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of nitrogen from the leaves and a reduction in specific leaf nitrogen (SLN, g N m −2 ) is associated with grain filling in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). To explore the relationship between crop radiation-use efficiency (RUE, g MJ −1 ) and SLN, crop biomass accumulation and radiation interception were measured between the bud-visible and physiological-maturity stages in crops growing under combinations of two levels of applied nitrogen (0 and 5 g N m −2 ) and two population densities (2.4 and 4.8 plants m −2 ). Both nitrogen fertilization and density had significant (P = 0.05) effects on crop biomass yield, nitrogen uptake, leaf area index and SLN, but the nitrogen effects were more pronounced for these and other crop variables. Linear regressions of accumulated biomass (OCdwt, corrected for the energy costs of oil synthesis in the grain) on accumulated intercepted short-wave radiation between bud visible and early grain filling provided appropriate and significantly (P = 0.05) different estimates of RUE for the pooled 0 g N m −2 (1.01 g OCdwt MJ −1 ) and 5 g N m −2 (1.18 g OCdwt MJ −1 ) treatments. When calculated for each inter-harvest interval, crop RUE varied in a curvilinear fashion during the season, with a broad optimum from 40 to 70 days after emergence of the crops, and with lower values earlier and later in the season. The reduction in RUE toward physiological maturity was particularly marked. A plot of RUE against SLN revealed a reduction in RUE at small SLN values, but the relationship may be confounded by ontogenetic changes in other factors. A published model (Sinclair and Horie (1989), Crop Sci., 29: 90–98) was used to explore the RUE/SLN relationship. The model was unable to reproduce the decline in RUE during the second half of the grain-filling period. It is suggested that an important cause of this failure may be the partition, in the model, of a fixed, rather than a variable, fraction of crop gross photosynthesis to

  12. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  13. Stable isotope signatures reflect dietary diversity in European forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, Lisamarie; Truxa, Christine; Wanek, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly. In particular, species whose larvae feed on mosses or aquatic plants deviated from those that consumed vascular land plants. Moth δ(15)N signatures spanned a broader range, and were less dependent on species identity than δ(13)C values. Comparison between moth samples and ostensible food sources revealed heterogeneity in the lichenivorous guild, indicating only Lithosia quadra as an obligate lichen feeder. Among root-feeding Agrotis segetum, some specimens appear to have developed on crop plants in forest-adjacent farm land. Reed-feeding stem-borers may partially rely on intermediary trophic levels such as fungal or bacterial growth. Diagnostic partitioning of moth dietary guilds based on isotopic signatures alone could not be achieved, but hypotheses on trophic relationships based on often vague literature records could be assessed with high resolution. Hence, the approach is well suited for basic categorization of moths where diet is unknown or notoriously difficult to observe (i.e. Microlepidoptera, lichen-feeders).

  14. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Xu

    Full Text Available Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R, blue (B and ultraviolet (UV opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  15. Gamma radiation induced mutant for improved yield components in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Sunflower has become an important oilseed in the Indian vegetable oil pool following its introduction from Russia in 1969. It can be used for all quality products useful to humans. The need for genetic variability and new useful gene sources has necessitated that sunflower breeders and geneticists utilize a wide range of germplasm in their breeding programmes. The induction of mutations in sunflower by physical and chemical mutagens has been practiced quite intensively in the last two decades. The results recorded to date suggest that utilization of mutagenesis could be a great advantage in improving the sunflower crop. An induced mutation programme was undertaken to generate variability in the variety 'Morden' using gamma rays. The certified and genetically pure seeds were irradiated with 50, 100, and 150 Gy gamma rays and used for further studies. Selection in M 2 generations, raised from different treatments, revealed the presence of an erectophylly leaf mutant from 50 Gy treatment. The isolated mutant showed improved yield components like head diameter, 100- seed weight and yield per plant. The mutant was a plant with short petiole length and erect leaves. This type of leaf get sunlight throughout the day. From morning to afternoon, the first half of the leaf gets sunlight, and from afternoon to evening the second half of the leaf gets sunlight. As a result of getting sunlight the whole day, the plant had more photosynthetic products and grew vigorously. Plant height, head diameter and 100-seed weight had direct effect on seed yield, and the number of leaves and stem diameter influenced the seed yield indirectly. In the M 3 generation, the mutant showed an almost two-fold increase over the parent variety for all investigated characters, except that of the yield per plant where there was a three-fold increase. The present investigation has shown that there are remarkable possibilities of increasing the yield components in sunflower by induced mutations

  16. FORTIFICATION OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FORTIFICATION OF SUNFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a trace element which in small amounts is necessary for human and animal nutrition. In the organism it helps a number of antioxidant enzymes to function normally. In many parts of the world, including the Central European region, its content in agricultural products is very low. Attempts are therefore made to increase its content and cover human requirements with biologically valuable products by incorporating selenium into the system of plant nutrition. In a vegetation trial established in 2010 and 2011 we explored the effect of foliar applications of Se (IV on achenes yields and on content of selenium in the seeds and the uptake of selenium by the sunflower stand. Solutions of sodium selenite at 0.16 and 0.5 g Se.he-1 were applied at rates 50 and 150 g Se.ha-1 at the beginning of elongation growth (stage R-1. Sunflower achenes yields were significantly influenced by the weather in the experimental years. In 2011 sunflower production was by 29.4% lower than in 2010. Se fortification in dose 50 g Se.ha-1 increased sunflower achenes yield by 3.1%. The higher dose of selenium (150 g Se.ha-1 reduced yields by 6.8% compared with the no-fertilized treatment. Due to the effect of foliar Se nutrition the content of selenium in sunflower achenes increased highly significantly from 123 µg.kg-1 to 6,004 µg.kg-1 of achenes. The weight of 1000 achenes, oil content and content of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic acids were not significantly affected by selenium application. Fortification of Se increased stearic acid content from 3.16% to 3.47%.

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Bud Differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnolias are widely cultivated for their beautiful flowers, but despite their popularity, the molecular mechanisms regulating flower bud differentiation have not been elucidated. Here, we used paraffin sections and RNA-seq to study the process of flower bud differentiation in Magnolia sinostellata. Flower bud development occurred between 28 April and 30 May 2017 and was divided into five stages: undifferentiated, early flower bud differentiation, petal primordium differentiation, stamen primordium differentiation, and pistil primordium differentiation. A total of 52,441 expressed genes were identified, of which 11,592 were significantly differentially expressed in the five bud development stages. Of these, 82 genes were involved in the flowering. In addition, MADS-box and AP2 family genes play critical roles in the formation of flower organs and 20 differentially expressed genes associated with flower bud differentiation were identified in M. sinostellata. A qRT-PCR analysis verified that the MADS-box and AP2 family genes were expressed at high levels during flower bud differentiation. Consequently, this study provides a theoretical basis for the genetic regulation of flowering in M. sinostellata, which lays a foundation for further research into flowering genes and may facilitate the development of new cultivars.

  18. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  19. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  20. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8–12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  2. Ontogenetic changes in radiation use efficiency of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapani, N.; Hall, A.J.; Sadras, V.O.; Vilella, F.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation use efficiency (ϵ) values for sunflower were derived using data from periodic determinations of crop aerial or total (aerial + root) biomass and radiation interception in two experiments conducted at Junin and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Analysis showed that three distinct phases, each characterized by a different value of ϵ, could be distinquished. The phases were establishment (0–47 days after emergence (dae)), rapid growth (47 dae-anthesis) and postanthesis (anthesis-physiologcial maturity). The crops had reached the bud-visible stage and intercepted at least 85% of incident radiation by 47 dae. Efficiency values based on aerial biomass were highest during the rapid growth (ϵrg = 2.4 ± 0.22 g/MJ PAR) phase and lower during the establishment (ϵ e = 1.01 ± 0.25 g/MJ PAR) and postanthesis (ϵ pa = 1.3 ± 0.15 g/MJ PAR) phases. The differences between ϵ pa and ϵ rg are attributed to the increased respiration load, high synthesis costs of the oil-rich grains and leaf senescence during grain filling. The value of ϵe was less than of ϵ rg even when efficiencies were calculated on the basis of total crop biomass (i.e. including root biomass). Hence, ontogenetic changes in partitioning of biomass between the root and aerial organs do not seem to be the cause of the changes in the value of ϵ. No variations in photosynthetic capacity with leaf position could be found, and it is concluded that the most likely reason for the lower values of ϵ e lies in saturation of canopy photosynthesis at less than full sunlight while crop cover is incomplete. (author)

  3. SUNflower +6 : a comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower +6 countries : final report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  4. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  5. Norepinephrine is coreleased with serotonin in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yijen A; Maruyama, Yutaka; Roper, Stephen D

    2008-12-03

    ATP and serotonin (5-HT) are neurotransmitters secreted from taste bud receptor (type II) and presynaptic (type III) cells, respectively. Norepinephrine (NE) has also been proposed to be a neurotransmitter or paracrine hormone in taste buds. Yet, to date, the specific stimulus for NE release in taste buds is not well understood, and the identity of the taste cells that secrete NE is not known. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with alpha(1A) adrenoceptors and loaded with fura-2 ("biosensors") to detect NE secreted from isolated mouse taste buds and taste cells. Biosensors responded to low concentrations of NE (>or=10 nm) with a reliable fura-2 signal. NE biosensors did not respond to stimulation with KCl or taste compounds. However, we recorded robust responses from NE biosensors when they were positioned against mouse circumvallate taste buds and the taste buds were stimulated with KCl (50 mm) or a mixture of taste compounds (cycloheximide, 10 microm; saccharin, 2 mm; denatonium, 1 mm; SC45647, 100 microm). NE biosensor responses evoked by stimulating taste buds were reversibly blocked by prazosin, an alpha(1A) receptor antagonist. Together, these findings indicate that taste bud cells secrete NE when they are stimulated. We isolated individual taste bud cells to identify the origin of NE release. NE was secreted only from presynaptic (type III) taste cells and not receptor (type II) cells. Stimulus-evoked NE release depended on Ca(2+) in the bathing medium. Using dual biosensors (sensitive to 5-HT and NE), we found all presynaptic cells secrete 5-HT and 33% corelease NE with 5-HT.

  6. Studies on population dynamic of diamondback moth in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malakrong, A.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Keawchoung, P.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population dynamic of diamondback moth larva in the field was studied at Khao Khor High-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The distribution patterns of diamondback moth larva was clumped when population was low and would change to be random when population was high. The maximun and minimum number of diamondback moth in the field were 71,203 and 2,732 larva/rai during March and September. Temperature, rainfall and age of cabbage were slightly relative with number of larva (r=-0.2891, p=0.30; r=-0.2816, p=0.31 and r=0.2931, p=0.29 respectively) but relative humidity has no effect on number of larva

  7. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  8. Arsenic-contaminated soils. Phytotoxicity studies with sunflower and sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyubun, Y.V.; Kosterin, P.V.; Zakharova, E.A.; Fedorov, E.E. [Inst. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov (Russian Federation); Shcherbakov, A.A. [Saratov Military Inst. of Radiological, Chemical and Biological Defence, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Aim and Scope. Environmental pollution caused by arsenic (As) is a major ecological problem. There has been intense worldwide effort to find As-hyperaccumulating plants that can be used in phytoremediation - the green-plant-assisted removal of chemical pollutants from soils. For phytoremediation, it is natural to prefer cultivated rather than wild plants, because their agriculture is well known. This study was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of common sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sugar sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum Pers.) for soil-As contents of 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil, with sodium arsenite as a model contaminant. Methods. Plants were grown in a growth chamber for 30 days. Microfield experiments were conducted on experimental plots. To study the phytoremediation effect of the auxins indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), we treated 1- and 3-day-old plant seedlings with water solutions of the auxins (concentrations of 10{sup -5}, 10{sup -7}, and 10{sup -9} g l{sup -1}). The soil and plant-biomass samples were analyzed for total As by using the color reaction of ammonium molybdate with As. Results and Discussion. Phytotoxicity studies showed that 100 mg as kg{sup -1} soil poisoned sunflower and sorghum growth by 50%. There was a linear correlation between soil-As content and As accumulation in the plants. Laboratory experiments showed that the soil-As content was reduced two- to threefold after sunflower had been grown with 10-100 mg As kg{sup -1} soil for 30 days. Treatment of sunflower and sorghum seedlings with IAA and 2,4-D at a concentration of 10{sup -5} g l{sup -1} in microfield experiments enhanced the phytoremediation two- to fivefold as compared with untreated control plants. The best results were obtained with 3-day-old seedlings. Conclusion, Recommendation and Outlook. (a) Sunflower and sorghum are good candidates to remediate As-polluted soils. (b) Phytoremediation can be improved with IAA or 2

  9. Apoptosis at inflection point in liquid culture of budding yeasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hagiwara

    Full Text Available Budding yeasts are highly suitable for aging studies, because the number of bud scars (stage proportionally correlates with age. Its maximum stages are known to reach at 20-30 stages on an isolated agar medium. However, their stage dynamics in a liquid culture is virtually unknown. We investigate the population dynamics by counting scars in each cell. Here one cell division produces one new cell and one bud scar. This simple rule leads to a conservation law: "The total number of bud scars is equal to the total number of cells." We find a large discrepancy: extremely fewer cells with over 5 scars than expected. Almost all cells with 6 or more scars disappear within a short period of time in the late log phase (corresponds to the inflection point. This discrepancy is confirmed directly by the microscopic observations of broken cells. This finding implies apoptosis in older cells (6 scars or more.

  10. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  11. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  12. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  13. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Nagai, Takatoshi; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor) taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic) taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  14. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Johnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone.

  15. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  16. Taste Bud Homeostasis in Health, Disease, and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50–100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature...

  17. Longleaf pine bud development: influence of seedling nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Barnett; D. P. Jackson; R. K. Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    A subset of seedlings from a larger study (Jackson and others 2006, 2007) were selected and evaluated for two growing seasons to relate bud development, and root-collar diameter (RCD), and height growth with three nursery fertilization rates. We chose seedlings in the 0.5 (lowest), 2.0 (mid-range), and 4.0 (highest) mg of nitrogen per seedling treatments. Buds moved...

  18. Micropropagation of Helleborus through axillary budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beruto, Margherita; Viglione, Serena; Bisignano, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Helleborus genus, belonging to the Ranunculaceae family, has 20 species of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. The commercial exploitation of this plant is dependent on the selection and propagation of appropriate lines. High propagation rate could be accomplished by using a suitable tissue culture method enabling the rapid introduction of valuable selections in the market. However, in vitro cultivation of Helleborus is still very difficult. Thereby the development of reliable in vitro propagation procedures is crucial for future production systems. Axillary buds cultured on agar-solidified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L benzyladenine, 0.1 mg/L β-naphthoxyacetic acid, and 2 mg/L isopentenyl adenine develop shoots after 16 weeks of culture under 16 h light regime, 50-60 μmol/s/m(2), and 19 ± 1°C. The multiplication rate ranges from 1.4 to 2.1. However, the genotype and the number of subcultures affect the efficiency of the micropropagation process. The rooting of shoots is about 80% in solidified MS medium containing 1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid. The described protocol provides information which can contribute to the commercial production of Helleborus plants.

  19. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  20. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-01-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast

  1. Change of the human taste bud volume over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srur, Ehab; Stachs, Oliver; Guthoff, Rudolf; Witt, Martin; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Just, Tino

    2010-08-01

    The specific aim of this study is to measure the taste volume in healthy human subjects over a 2.5-month period and to demonstrate morphological changes of the peripheral taste organs. Eighteen human taste buds in four fungiform papillae (fPap) were examined over a 10-week period. The fungiform papillae investigated were selected based on the form of the papillae or the arrangement of surface taste pores. Measurements were performed over 10 consecutive weeks, with five scans in a day once a week. The following parameters were measured: height and diameter of the taste bud, diameter of the fungiform papilla and diameter of the taste pore. The findings of this exploratory study indicated that (1) taste bud volumes changed over a 10-week period, (2) the interval between two volume maxima within the 10-week period was 3-5 weeks, and (3) the diameter of the fPap did not correlate with the volume of a single taste bud or with the volume of all taste buds in the fPap within the 10-week period. This exploratory in vivo study revealed changes in taste bud volumes in healthy humans with age-related gustatory sensitivity. These findings need to be considered when studying the effect of denervation of fungiform papillae in vivo using confocal microscopy. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of sulfonylurea receptors in rat taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dian-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhou, Li-Hong; Feng, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Juan

    2011-07-01

    To test the possibility that a fast-onset promoting agent repaglinide may initiate prandial insulin secretion through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release, we explored the expression and distribution character of sulfonylurea receptors in rat taste buds. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 10 weeks old were killed after general anesthesia. The circumvallate papillae, fungiform papillae and pancreas tissues were separately collected. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression and distribution of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) or sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) in rat taste buds. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 mRNA. The pancreatic tissues from the same rat were used as positive control. This is the first study to report that SUR1 is uniquely expressed in the taste buds of fungiform papillae of each rat tongue, while the expression of SUR1 or SUR2 was not detected in the taste buds of circumvallate papillae. SUR1 is selectively expressed in rat taste buds, and its distribution pattern may be functionally relevant, suggesting that the rapid insulin secretion-promoting effect of repaglinide may be exerted through the cephalic-phase secretion pathway mediated by taste buds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    the day were also studied in order to determine whether or not these visitors contribute to pollination. At least 67 species or morpho-species belonging to four nocturnal visitor orders were recorded. The richest and most abundant order was Lepidoptera (44 species or morpho-species, five families, followed by Coleoptera (18 species or morpho-species, nine families, Orthoptera (three morpho-species, one family and Blattaria (two species, one family. Lepidopterans foraged exclusively for nectar while species in other orders consumed pollen and/or floral parts. However, stigma receptivity was greater during the day, peaking at midday (12:00 - 14:00. Unexpectedly, moth species widely outnumbered bee species as sunflower visitors. Since moths potentially transfer pollen at a time of the day when stigmas are least receptive, it is unlikely that they do effectively pollinate sunflowers.

  4. Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon Content in Eight Diploid Sunflower Species Inferred from Next-Generation Sequence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Hannah M.; Ungerer, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The most abundant transposable elements (TEs) in plant genomes are Class I long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons represented by superfamilies gypsy and copia. Amplification of these superfamilies directly impacts genome structure and contributes to differential patterns of genome size evolution among plant lineages. Utilizing short-read Illumina data and sequence information from a panel of Helianthus annuus (sunflower) full-length gypsy and copia elements, we explore the contribution of these sequences to genome size variation among eight diploid Helianthus species and an outgroup taxon, Phoebanthus tenuifolius. We also explore transcriptional dynamics of these elements in both leaf and bud tissue via RT-PCR. We demonstrate that most LTR retrotransposon sublineages (i.e., families) display patterns of similar genomic abundance across species. A small number of LTR retrotransposon sublineages exhibit lineage-specific amplification, particularly in the genomes of species with larger estimated nuclear DNA content. RT-PCR assays reveal that some LTR retrotransposon sublineages are transcriptionally active across all species and tissue types, whereas others display species-specific and tissue-specific expression. The species with the largest estimated genome size, H. agrestis, has experienced amplification of LTR retrotransposon sublineages, some of which have proliferated independently in other lineages in the Helianthus phylogeny. PMID:27233667

  5. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  6. Purification and Characterization of Antioxidant Peptide from Sunflower Protein Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Qun Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower proteins were hydrolyzed with Flavourzyme for the production of antioxidant peptide. DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC were consecutively employed to purify a novel sunflower antioxidant peptide, and the ability to inhibit the autoxidation of pyrogallol was expressed as the antioxidative activity of the peptide. The amino acid sequence was identified as Ala-Cys-Ala-His-Asp-Lys-Val by a Q-Tof2 mass spectrometer. This novel peptide exhibited a high antioxidative activity of 79.42 U/mL, which is expected to protect against oxidative damage in living systems in relation to aging and carcinogenesis. Higher antioxidative activities were presumed mainly due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acids in its sequence.

  7. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  8. Role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in Sunflower (helianthus annusl.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Iftikhar, I.I.; Nawaz, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The potted experiment was conducted to determine the exogenous role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Salinity levels (0, 60 and 120 mmol) were created according to the saturation percentage of soil. Different levels (0, 30, 60 mmol) of proline were applied as a foliar spray on sunflower under saline and non saline conditions. Application of proline as a foliar spray ameliorated the toxic effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower. Among different levels of proline, 60 mmol was found to be the most effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of salinity on sunflower. (author)

  9. New phenotypes generated by the G57R mutation of BUD23 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Yu, Hui-Chia; Chao, Ju-Lan; Wang, Chung; Cheng, Ming-Yuan

    2012-12-01

    BUD23 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes for a class I methyltransferase, and deletion of the gene results in slow growth and random budding phenotypes. Herein, two BUD23 mutants defective in methyltransferase activity were generated to investigate whether the phenotypes of the null mutant might be correlated with a loss in enzymatic activity. Expression at the physiological level of both D77A and G57R mutants was able to rescue the phenotypes of the bud23-null mutant. The result implied that the methyltransferase activity of the protein was not necessary for supporting normal growth and bud site selection of the cells. High-level expression of Bud23 (G57R), but not Bud23 or Bud23 (D77A), in BUD23 deletion cells failed to complement these phenotypes. However, just like Bud23, Bud23 (G57R) was localized in a DAPI-poor region in the nucleus. Distinct behaviour in Bud23 (G57R) could not be originated from a mislocalization of the protein. Over-expression of Bud23 (G57R) in null cells also produced changes in actin organization and additional septin mutant-like phenotypes. Therefore, the absence of Bud23, Bud23 (G57R) at a high level might affect the cell division of yeast cells through an as yet unidentified mechanism. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Development of sunflower germplasm with high delta-tocopherol content

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco L.; Pérez-Vich B.; Fernández-Martínez J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Tocopherols are the main compounds with antioxidant activity in oilseeds Sunflower seeds contain predominantly alpha-tocopherol, which accounts for more than 90% of the total tocopherols in the seeds. This tocopherol derivative possesses a maximum vitamin E or in vivo antioxidant activity, but it exerts a minimum in vitro protective action in oils and food containing them. Other tocopherol derivatives such as beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol are more powerful antioxidants than alpha-tocoph...

  11. Nutritional value, for pigs and rats, of sunflower oilcake meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differences (P> 0.05) could be found in mean growth rate (0.77 kg/day and 0.80 kg/day) and ... Digestible energy, pigs, poultry, protein content, rats, relative nutritive value, sunflower oilcake meal, ... density of the meal is increased while the crude fibre content ..... two meals differed by only 3.5%, while a range of 6% to 28%.

  12. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  13. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R.

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Scope and Methods Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East–West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light–response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Conclusions. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the ‘photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis’ as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. PMID:26420201

  14. Expression of modified tocopherol content and profile in sunflower tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral, Lidia; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2012-01-30

    Alpha-tocopherol is the predominant tocopherol form in sunflower seeds. Sunflower lines that accumulate increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds as well as lines with reduced and increased total seed tocopherol content have been developed. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the modified tocopherol levels are expressed in plant tissues other than seeds. Lines with increased levels of beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol in seeds also possessed increased levels of these tocopherols in leaves, roots and pollen. Correlation coefficients for the proportion of individual tocopherols in different plant tissues were significantly positive in all cases, ranging from 0.68 to 0.97. A line with reduced tocopherol content in seeds also showed reduced content in roots and pollen. Genetic modifications producing altered seed tocopherol profiles in sunflower are also expressed in leaves, roots and pollen. Reduced total seed tocopherol content is mainly expressed at the root and pollen level. The expression of tocopherol mutations in other plant tissues will enable further studies on the physiological role of tocopherols and could be of interest for early selection for these traits in breeding programmes. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sunflower growth according to seed inoculation with endophytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes dos Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The sunflower crop has a great importance worldwide, due to the oil of excellent quality extracted from its seeds and in natura grains that are consumed in various ways. However, drought is one of the main environmental factors that limit its yield. An experiment was carried out under controlled greenhouse conditions, in a completely randomized experimental design, in order to determine the effect of endophytic bacteria inoculation (Bacillus sp. and Enterobacter cloacae on the growth and contents of nutrients and organic solutes, in sunflower leaves and roots under water deficit. Plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry biomass of shoot and roots, as well as contents of N, P, K, soluble carbohydrates, free proline, free amino acids and soluble proteins, were determined at 35 days after the plant emergence. The water deficit reduced plant growth regardless inoculation. However, under optimum conditions of soil moisture, the combination of both endophytic bacteria increased the sunflower growth. The water deficit also increased the N and K contents in leaves, as well as the organic solutes content in shoots, especially in inoculated plants. These results suggest that the inoculation of endophytic bacteria may increase the capacity of drought stressed plants to perform the osmotic adjustment through a higher accumulation of organic solutes, when compared to plants not inoculated.

  16. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  17. Cultivation of sunflower and its utilization in livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Hussain, A.; Khan, S.

    2008-01-01

    The sunflower is valuable from economic, as well as ornamental point of view. Every part of the plant may be utilized for some economic purpose. The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The leaves form a cattle-food and the stems contain a fibre, which may be used successfully in making paper. (Khan and Rana, 1966). The seed is rich in oil, which is said to be more near to olive oil, than any other vegetable oil known, and to be largely used as a substitute. In prewar days, sunflower seed was sometimes grown in this country, especially on sewage farms, as an economical crop for pheasants, as well as poultry. The flowers contain a yellow dye. The oil extracted from the seeds is of citron yellow colour and sweet in taste. Sunflower seeds have a high feedings value the analysis in round figures in 16 per cent albumen and 21 per cent fat. Being so rich in oil, they are too stimulating to use alone and should only be used in combination with other feeding stuffs. Mixed with oats in equal quantities, they make a perfectly balanced ration. (author)

  18. Optimization of Sunflower Oil Transesterification Process Using Sodium Methoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara KoohiKamali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the methanolysis process of sunflower oil was investigated to get high methyl esters (biodiesel content using sodium methoxide. To reach to the best process conditions, central composite design (CCD through response surface methodology (RSM was employed. The optimal conditions predicted were the reaction time of 60 min, an excess stoichiometric amount of alcohol to oil ratio of 25%w/w and the catalyst content of 0.5%w/w, which lead to the highest methyl ester content (100%w/w. The methyl ester content of the mixture from gas chromatography analysis (GC was compared to that of optimum point. Results, confirmed that there was no significant difference between the fatty acid methyl ester content of sunflower oil produced under the optimized condition and the experimental value (P≥0.05. Furthermore, some fuel specifications of the resultant biodiesel were tested according to American standards for testing of materials (ASTM methods. The outcome showed that the methyl ester mixture produced from the optimized condition met nearly most of the important biodiesel specifications recommended in ASTM D 6751 requirements. Thus, the sunflower oil methyl esters resulted from this study could be a suitable alternative for petrol diesels.

  19. Utilization of sunflower seed in laying hen rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuzuki ET

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of sunflower seed inclusion (0, 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6% in a laying hen diet containing corn, soybean meal, wheat meal and soybean oil as main ingredients on performance and egg quality. The evaluated variables were daily feed intake, average egg weight, feed conversion (kg.kg-1 and kg.dz-1, eggshell percentage, yolk color and Haugh unit. One hundred and sixty 25 week-old Lohmann laying hens were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of eight birds per experimental unit. Four periods of 28 days were evaluated during 112 days. The inclusion of sunflower seed in the diet had no effect on production parameters during the experimental period. Thus, can be concluded that sunflower seed might be used at concentrations up to 5.6% in laying hen diets without affecting performance and egg quality.

  20. Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages. PMID:16940358

  1. Wild bees enhance honey bees' pollination of hybrid sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S; Kremen, Claire

    2006-09-12

    Pollinators are required for producing 15-30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.

  2. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  3. Characterization of some sunflower genotypes using ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrani, L.; Nabulsi, I.; MirAli, N.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is grown mostly as a source of vegetable oil of high quality and is especially used in food industry. It is generally produced by multinationals and sold as hybrids. Our research, based on two techniques (ISSR and RAPD), is considered as the first one to be interested in molecular characterization of sunflower genotypes in Syria. We used 25 ISSR primers and 13 RAPD primers to study 29 sunflower genotypes and two reference controls belonging to the same family (Calendula officinalis L. and Targets erecta L.). ISSR results revealed a low polymorphism when compared to other studies. We noticed also 11 genotypes genetically related where percent disagreement values (PDV) didn't exceed 1%, they are 7189 - 7191 - 7184 - 7183 - 443 - 441 - Ghab1 -Ghab2 - Ghab3 - Ghab4 - Ghab5 - Madakh halab - Sarghaya4 -Tarkibi knitra. Sarghaya4 and Tarkibi knitra have indeed the lowest yield and some common morphological characters. At the opposite, the genotype Hysum33 has the highest yield and is genetically distant from the other genotypes. All the genotypes could be used in QTL detection as we didn't notice any similarity between them. (author)

  4. Genetic variance of sunflower yield components - Heliantus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of sunflower breeding in Yugoslavia and abroad are increased seed yield and oil content per unit area and increased resistance to diseases, insects and stress conditions via an optimization of plant architecture. In order to determine the mode of inheritance, gene effects and correlations of total leaf number per plant, total leaf area and plant height, six genetically divergent inbred lines of sunflower were subjected to half diallel crosses. Significant differences in mean values of all the traits were found in the F1 and F2 generations. Additive gene effects were more important in the inheritance of total leaf number per plant and plant height, while in the case of total leaf area per plant the nonadditive ones were more important looking at all the combinations in the F1 and F2 generations. The average degree of dominance (Hi/D1/2 was lower than one for total leaf number per plant and plant height, so the mode of inheritance was partial dominance, while with total leaf area the value was higher than one, indicating super dominance as the mode of inheritance. Significant positive correlation was found: between total leaf area per plant and total leaf number per plant (0.285* and plant height (0.278*. The results of the study are of importance for further sunflower breeding work.

  5. Tree condition and mortality following defoliation by the gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Campbell; Harry T. Valentine; Harry T. Valentine

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between expected defoliation and the subsequent condition and mortality rate among the defoliated trees are almost always important factors in deciding if, when, and where to take control action against a defoliator such as the gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar (L. )

  6. Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Burand; Anna Welch; Woojin Kim; Vince D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has recently invaded eastern Massachusetts. This insect has caused widespread defoliation of many deciduous tree species and severely damaged a variety of crop plants in the infested area including apple, strawberry, and especially blueberry.

  7. Length Research Paper The effects of the pine processionary moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), causing significant damage on pine stands in Turkey, affects mainly crimean pine stands within the Ulus vicinity. To determine the damage, 20 sample plots of second site class crimean pine stands were measured; 10 of which were taken as the control sample and 10 of which were ...

  8. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1987-01-01

    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  9. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van K.G.; Eck, van E.; Boer, de R.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Salis, F.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    1.Levels of artificial night lighting are increasing rapidly worldwide, subjecting nocturnal organisms to a major change in their environment. Many moth species are strongly attracted to sources of artificial night lighting, with potentially severe, yet poorly studied, consequences for development,

  10. Interactions between microbial agents and gypsy moth parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald M. Weseloh

    1985-01-01

    The parasite Cotesia melanoscelus attacks small gypsy moth larvae more successfully than large ones, and Bacillus thuringiensis retards the growth of caterpillars it does not kill. Together, both factors lead to higher parasitism by C. melanoscelus in areas sprayed with B. thuringiensis than...

  11. The small-scale spatial distribution of an invading moth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David Richard; Agassiz, David J. L.; Godfray, H. C. J.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the spread of a small leaf-mining moth [Phyllonorycter leucographella (Zeller), Gracillariidae] after its accidental introduction into the British Isles. At large geographical scales, previous work had shown the spread to be well described by a travelling wave of constant velocity. Her...

  12. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... April 2013. Kevin Shea, Acting Administrator, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. [FR Doc. 2013... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0113] Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...

  13. selected strains of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    464-8601, Japan. Present address: K. D. Ninsin, Animal Health and Food Safety Division, CSIR-Animal. Research Institute, Post Office Box AH 20, Achimota. Ghana. Email: kdninsin@hotmail.com. Abstract. Effective control of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) has become critical ...

  14. Data from: Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Fijen, T.P.M.

    2017-01-01

    One major, yet poorly studied, change in the environment is nocturnal light pollution, which strongly alters habitats of nocturnally active species. Artificial night lighting is often considered as driving force behind rapid moth population declines in severely illuminated countries. To understand

  15. RXLR and CRN Effectors from the Sunflower Downy Mildew Pathogen Plasmopara halstedii Induce Hypersensitive-Like Responses in Resistant Sunflower Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Quentin; Buendia, Luis; Pecrix, Yann; Blanchet, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Vear, Felicity; Godiard, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g., plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower) strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analyzed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances. PMID:28066456

  16. RXLR and CRN effectors from the sunflower downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara halstedii induce hypersensitive-like responses in resistant sunflower lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Gascuel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara halstedii is an obligate biotrophic oomycete causing downy mildew disease on sunflower, Helianthus annuus, an economically important oil crop. Severe symptoms of the disease (e.g. plant dwarfism, leaf bleaching, sporulation and production of infertile flower strongly impair seed yield. Pl resistance genes conferring resistance to specific P. halstedii pathotypes were located on sunflower genetic map but yet not cloned. They are present in cultivated lines to protect them against downy mildew disease. Among the 16 different P. halstedii pathotypes recorded in France, pathotype 710 is frequently found, and therefore continuously controlled in sunflower by different Pl genes. High-throughput sequencing of cDNA from P. halstedii led us to identify potential effectors with the characteristic RXLR or CRN motifs described in other oomycetes. Expression of six P. halstedii putative effectors, five RXLR and one CRN, was analysed by qRT-PCR in pathogen spores and in the pathogen infecting sunflower leaves and these six effectors were selected for functional analyses. We developed a new method for transient expression in sunflower plant leaves and showed for the first time subcellular localization of P. halstedii effectors fused to a fluorescent protein in sunflower leaf cells. Overexpression of the CRN and of 3 RXLR effectors induced hypersensitive-like cell death reactions in some sunflower near-isogenic lines resistant to pathotype 710 and not in susceptible corresponding lines, suggesting they could be involved in Pl loci-mediated resistances.

  17. Rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Du, Qiuyang; Qin, Haiwen; Shi, Juan; Wu, Zhiyi; Shao, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The gypsy moth- Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus)-is a worldwide forest defoliator and is of two types: the European gypsy moth and the Asian gypsy moth. Because of multiple invasions of the Asian gypsy moth, the North American Plant Protection Organization officially approved Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 33. Accordingly, special quarantine measures have been implemented for 30 special focused ports in the epidemic areas of the Asian gypsy moth, including China, which has imposed great inconvenience on export trade. The Asian gypsy moth and its related species (i.e., Lymantria monocha and Lymantria xylina ) intercepted at ports are usually at different life stages, making their identification difficult. Furthermore, Port quarantine requires speedy clearance. As such, it is difficult to identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species only by their morphological characteristics in a speedy measure. Therefore, this study aimed to use molecular biology technology to rapidly identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on the consistency of mitochondrial DNA in different life stages. We designed 10 pairs of specific primers from different fragments of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species, and their detection sensitivity met the need for rapid identification. In addition, we determined the optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification temperature of the 10 pairs of specific primers, including three pairs of specific primers for the Asian gypsy moth ( L. dispar asiatic ), four pairs of specific primers for the nun moth ( L. monocha ), and three pairs of specific primers for the casuarina moth ( L. xylina ). In conclusion, using our designed primers, direct rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species is possible, and this advancement can help improve export trade in China.

  18. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Yıldırım; Miyase Çınar; İlkay Yalçınkaya; Hüsamettin Ekici; Nurgül Atmaca; Enes Güncüm

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa...

  19. GABA, its receptors, and GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Huang, Yijen A; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2011-04-13

    Taste buds consist of at least three principal cell types that have different functions in processing gustatory signals: glial-like (type I) cells, receptor (type II) cells, and presynaptic (type III) cells. Using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunostaining, we show that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter in mouse taste buds, acting on GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to suppress transmitter (ATP) secretion from receptor cells during taste stimulation. Specifically, receptor cells express GABA(A) receptor subunits β2, δ, and π, as well as GABA(B) receptors. In contrast, presynaptic cells express the GABA(A) β3 subunit and only occasionally GABA(B) receptors. In keeping with the distinct expression pattern of GABA receptors in presynaptic cells, we detected no GABAergic suppression of transmitter release from presynaptic cells. We suggest that GABA may serve function(s) in taste buds in addition to synaptic inhibition. Finally, we also defined the source of GABA in taste buds: GABA is synthesized by GAD65 in type I taste cells as well as by GAD67 in presynaptic (type III) taste cells and is stored in both those two cell types. We conclude that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter released during taste stimulation and possibly also during growth and differentiation of taste buds.

  20. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Rec...

  1. Preliminary results on seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangping; Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Lillie

    2012-01-01

    . cerasus ‘Kelleriis 16’ under natural conditions, and investigated seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’. In a cold winter with unusual low temperatures in December, the injury rate of buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ was significantly higher than that of ‘Kelleriis 16......’, confirming that buds of the latter cultivar are considerably more cold hardy than buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’. The majority of frost injuries in buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ occurred mid-winter, but dehardening appeared fast, indicating that the critical injury times of buds of ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte...

  2. Genetic progress in sunflower crop in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, D N; Cargnelutti Filho, A; Lorentz, L H; Boligon, A A; Caraffa, M; Wartha, C A

    2017-04-13

    The sunflower has adaptability to growing regions with different climatic and soil characteristics, showing drought tolerance and high-quality oil production. The State of Rio Grande do Sul is the third largest sunflower producer in Brazil, with research related to the sunflower breeding initiated after the decade of 1950. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic progress for grain yield, oil content, and oil yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Data of grain yield, oil content, and oil yield obtained from 58 sunflower cultivar yield trials in 19 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul during the period from 2005 to 2014 were used. Genetic progress was studied according to the methodology proposed by Vencovsky and data from sunflower cultivar yield trials were used. Annual genetic progress of sunflower during the period of 10 years (2005-2014) was 132.46 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for grain yield, -0.17%/year for oil content, and 48.11 kg⋅ha -1 ⋅year -1 for oil yield. The sunflower-breeding programs in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were efficient for the traits grain yield and oil yield and presented no efficiency for oil content.

  3. Using Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" to Teach the Study of Genocide and the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, Kimberley A.

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses a project called ""The Sunflower" Symposium," named in honor of Simon Wiesenthal's "The Sunflower" (1998). The project was a catalyst for discussions on legalized discrimination, the infringement of civil rights, (in)justice, (in)tolerance, and civic responsibility, influencing students to connect the Holocaust to other world…

  4. Formation and Stability of Foams Made with Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Foam properties of a sunflower isolate (SI), as well as those of helianthinin and sunflower albumins (SFAs), were studied at various pH values and ionic strengths and after heat treatment. Less foam could be formed from helianthinin than from SFAs, but foam prepared with helianthinin was more stable

  5. Influence of nitrogen deficiency on the metabolism of photoassimilated 14C in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, V.; Angelov, M.; Popov, G.

    1981-01-01

    In experiments carried out on sunflower the specific changes in the metabolism of photoassimilated 14 C caused by nitrogen deficiency are investigated. The data presented show that nitrogen deficiency in sunflower inhibits the metabolism of photoassimilated 14 C through phosphoglyceric acid and phosphoenolpyruvate and directs it to a great extent through hexo-monophosphates towards the hydrocarbons-sucrose and starch. (authors)

  6. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  7. Triploid production from interspecific crosses of two diploid perennial Helianthus with cultivated sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild Helianthus species are a valuable genetic source for the improvement of cultivated sunflower. We report the discovery and characterization of a unique high frequency production of triploids when cultivated sunflower was pollinated by specific accessions of diploid Helianthus nuttallii T. &. G. ...

  8. Seed yield and oil content of some sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of irrigation applied at different growth stages on yield, yield components and oil content of sunflower during 2002 and 2003. Sunflower cultivars Sanbro, Tarsan-1018 and Ozdemirbey were used as materials in the experiment which was designed in a split plot of ...

  9. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (psunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  10. Physicochemical properties of 2S Albumins and the corresponding protein isolate from Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Vereijken, J.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower albumins (SFAs) are a diverse group of proteins present in sunflower isolates, with a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 2S. This research presents a detailed study of the influence of pH on the structure and solubility of SFAs. The effect of temperature on the structure of SFAs

  11. Sexual communication in day-flying Lepidoptera with special reference to castniids or 'butterfly-moths'

    OpenAIRE

    Sarto, Víctor; Quero, Carmen; Santa-Cruz, M.C.; Rosell Pellisé, Glòria; Guerrero Pérez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth f...

  12. Adventitious bud regeneration from the stigma of Sinapis alba L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Zenkteler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stigmas isolated from flower buds of 'Nakielska' variety of Sinapis alba were used to develop a micropropagation method suitable for breeding of new cultivars. The origin of adventitious bud regeneration was studied on MS medium, under stimulation by bezylaminopurine (BAP in combination with 2,4-D - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Histological analysis showed the structure of Sinapis stigma (composed from four types of tissue: papillae, transmitting tissue, parenchyma and vascular bundles and revealed that numerous meristematic centers developed from parenchyma cells in close vicinity of vascular bundles. Buds very quickly appeared on the surface of initial explants and later formed multiplantlets that were easily rooted in the soil.

  13. Light Signaling in Bud Outgrowth and Branching in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Leduc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Branching determines the final shape of plants, which influences adaptation, survival and the visual quality of many species. It is an intricate process that includes bud outgrowth and shoot extension, and these in turn respond to environmental cues and light conditions. Light is a powerful environmental factor that impacts multiple processes throughout plant life. The molecular basis of the perception and transduction of the light signal within buds is poorly understood and undoubtedly requires to be further unravelled. This review is based on current knowledge on bud outgrowth-related mechanisms and light-mediated regulation of many physiological processes. It provides an extensive, though not exhaustive, overview of the findings related to this field. In parallel, it points to issues to be addressed in the near future.

  14. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuey, R.K.; Koros, I.; Wanyonyi, W.

    2001-01-01

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  15. Effect of sunflower cake supplementation on meat quality of indigenous goat genotypes of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xazela, N M; Chimonyo, M; Muchenje, V; Marume, U

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four castrated goat genotypes and sunflower cake supplementation on goat meat quality was determined. Supplemented Boer (BOR) and Xhosa-Boer cross (XBC) goats had significantly higher (Pgoats had higher pH24 (Pgoats. For each genotype, the sunflower cake supplemented and non-supplemented goats had similar a* values, except for the XLE goats. In the XLE goats, the a* values were lower in the sunflower cake supplemented goats. Sunflower cake supplemented BOR goats had higher L*values than their non-supplemented counterparts (Pgoats also had higher b* values as compared to their non-supplemented counterparts. In comparison with the Boer goat, the XLE and NGN goats had lower CDM, L* and WBF values but generally had higher CL and a* values. Sunflower cake supplementation improved meat quality attributes of the goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of the ectonucleotidase NTPDase2 in taste bud function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Parnes, Jason; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C; Finger, Thomas E; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2013-09-03

    Taste buds are unusual in requiring ATP as a transmitter to activate sensory nerve fibers. In response to taste stimuli, taste cells release ATP, activating purinergic receptors containing the P2X2 and P2X3 subunits on taste nerves. In turn, the released ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP by a plasma membrane nucleoside triphosphate previously identified as nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2). In this paper we investigate the role of this ectonucleotidase in the function of taste buds by examining gene-targeted Entpd2-null mice globally lacking NTPDase2. RT-PCR confirmed the absence of NTPDase2, and ATPase enzyme histochemistry reveals no reaction product in taste buds of knockout mice, suggesting that NTPDase2 is the dominant form in taste buds. RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that in knockout mice all cell types are present in taste buds, even those cells normally expressing NTPDase2. In addition, the overall number and size of taste buds are normal in Entpd2-null mice. Luciferin/luciferase assays of circumvallate tissue of knockout mice detected elevated levels of extracellular ATP. Electrophysiological recordings from two taste nerves, the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal, revealed depressed responses to all taste stimuli in Entpd2-null mice. Responses were more depressed in the glossopharyngeal nerve than in the chorda tympani nerve and involved all taste qualities; responses in the chorda tympani were more depressed to sweet and umami stimuli than to other qualities. We suggest that the excessive levels of extracellular ATP in the Entpd2-knockout animals desensitize the P2X receptors associated with nerve fibers, thereby depressing taste responses.

  17. Molecular analysis of radiation injury in rat taste buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, K.; Abe, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A critical adverse effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer is the resulting decreased sense of taste, which greatly impairs patients' quality of life. Irradiation of the head and neck area decreases the sense of taste within one or two weeks and recovery takes about one month. Although taste bud cells are intimately involved in these manifestations, few basic studies in this area have been reported. Here, we investigate the injury and recovery process of taste bud tissue after irradiation, at the molecular and cellular levels. Rat tongues were selectively irradiated once with 15 Gy of 6 MV X-rays. Immediately thereafter and at periods up to 30 days samples were collected for HE staining, BrdU labelling, p21 and p53 immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL staining. Six days after irradiation, morphologically-identified taste bud cells, as well as the surrounding epithelial tissue, were no longer visible. Immature bud cells reappeared ten days after irradiation, and looked morphologically normal at 13 to 15 days.BrdU labelling revealed DNA synthesis arrest in of epithelial cells 10 days after irradiation. Cells in the basal layer expressed p21 four hours after irradiation. Prior to that, it, p53 accumulation was observed in the nucleus. Expression of p21 was no longer detectable by on the sixth day or later, and DNA synthesis resumed around the eighth day. No apoptosis was detected at any time. The disappearance and reappearance of taste bud cells after a single 15-Gy irradiation dose can be explained by temporary cell cycle arrest in taste bud stem cells, which is regulated by p21

  18. First stage of bio-jet fuel production: non-food sunflower oil extraction using cold press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Zhao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of concerning petroleum price increasing and environmental impact, more attention is attracted to renewable resources for transportation fuels. Because not conflict with human and animal food resources, non-food vegetable oils are promising sources for developing bio-jet fuels. Extracting vegetable oil from oilseeds is the first critical step in the pathway of bio-jet fuel production. When sunflower seeds are de-hulled, there are always about 5%–15% broken seed kernels (fine meat particles left over as residual wastes with oil content up to 48%. However, the oil extracted from these sunflower seed residues is non-edible due to its quality not meeting food standards. Genetically modified sunflower grown on margin lands has been identified one of sustainable biofuel sources since it doesn't compete to arable land uses. Sunflower oils extraction from non-food sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats (seed de-hulling residue was carried out using a cold press method in this study. Characterization of the sunflower oils produced was performed. The effect of cold press rotary frequency on oil recovery and quality was discussed. The results show that higher oil recovery was obtained at lower rotary frequencies. The highest oil recovery for sunflower seeds, sunflower meats, and fine sunflower meats in the tests were 75.67%, 89.74% and 83.19% respectively. The cold press operating conditions had minor influence on the sunflower oil quality. Sunflower meat oils produced at 15 Hz were preliminarily upgraded and distilled. The properties of the upgraded sunflower oils were improved. Though further study is needed for the improvement of processing cost and oil recovery, cold press has shown promising to extract oil from non-food sunflower seeds for future bio-jet fuel production.

  19. Biplot Analysis of Silicon Dioxide on Early Growth of Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into nanotechnology has advanced in almost all fields of technology and the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2 in germination performance sunflower. Germination and seedling growth are the most important stage of plant development and are critical factors to crop production and are essential to achieve optimum performance. The effects of pre-germination hydration in solutions of nano-SiO2 (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 and 1.2 mM for 8 h on germination characteristics of sunflower were investigated. The trait by treatment (TT biplot explained 93% of the total variation of the standardized data (77% and 16% for the first and second principal components, respectively. According to polygon-view of TT biplot, T2 (0.2 mM had the highest values for all of the measured traits except mean germination time and the time to 50% germination. The germination percentage was determined as the best trait and showed the high association with promptness index, energy of germination and germination rate traits. The results of the present study indicated that pre-sowing seed treatments with low concentration of nano-SiO2 had favorable effect sunflower seed germination and seedling early growth. Such a similar outcome could be applied in the future to outline other crops in response to nano-particles as well as to help define tolerance tools for recommendations in stressful conditions in the world.

  20. Cadmium accumulation in sunflower plants influenced by arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Sara Adrián López; da Silveira, Adriana Parada Dias; Jorge, Renato Atílio; de Abreu, Mônica Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the cadmium (Cd) accumulation patterns and possible alleviation of Cd stress by mycorrhization, sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L.) were grown in the presence or absence of Cd (20 micromol L(-1)) and inoculated or not inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices. No visual symptoms of Cd phytotoxicity were observed; nevertheless, in non-mycorrhizal plants the presence of Cd decreased plant growth. The addition of Cd had no significant effect on either mycorrhizal colonization or the amount of extra-radical mycelia that was produced by the AMF. Cd accumulated mainly in roots; only 22% of the total Cd absorbed was translocated to the shoots, where it accumulated to an average of 228 mg Cd kg(-1). Although the shoot-to-root ratio of Cd was similar in both the AMF inoculated and non-inoculated plants, the total absorbed Cd was 23% higher in mycorrhizal plants. Cd concentration in AMF extra-radical mycelium was 728 microg g(-1) dry weight. Despite the greater absorption of Cd, mycorrhizal plants showed higher photosynthetic pigment concentrations and shoot P contents. Cd also influenced mineral nutrition, leading to decreased Ca and Cu shoot concentrations; N, Fe and Cu shoot contents; and increased S and K shoot concentrations. Cd induced guaiacol peroxidase activity in roots in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, but this increase was much more accentuated in non-mycorrhizal roots. In conclusion, sunflower plants associated with G. intraradices were less sensitive to Cd stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal sunflowers showed enhanced Cd accumulation and some tolerance to excessive Cd concentrations in plant tissues.

  1. Growth morphology and inheritance of fasciation mutation in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    A gamma ray induced fascination mutation was isolated from sunflower variety Surya. Morphological traits and inheritance pattern of the mutant were studied. Fascination mutation was the manifestation of enlarged shoot apex, smaller and more number of leaves with irregular leaf arrangements, significantly higher leaf area and leaf biomass, flattened stem and low seed yield than the parent variety. Inheritance studies indicated that fascination was governed by a single recessive nuclear gene, which may be responsible for the disturbed differentiation of stem and leaves during developmental stages of plant growth [it

  2. Dynamics of acoustic-convective drying of sunflower cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of drying sunflower cake by a new acoustic-convective method has been studied. Unlike the conventional (thermal-convective) method, the proposed method allows moisture to be extracted from porous materials without applying heat to the sample to be dried. Kinetic curves of drying by the thermal-convective and acoustic-convective methods were obtained and analyzed. The advantages of the acoustic-convective extraction of moisture over the thermal-convective method are discussed. The relaxation times of drying were determined for both drying methods. An intermittent drying mode which improves the efficiency of acoustic-convective extraction of moisture is considered.

  3. Evaluation of the biological activity of sunflower hull extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taha, F. S.; Wagdy, S. M.; Hassanein, M. M. M.; Hamed, S. F.

    2012-11-01

    This work was planned with the aim of adding value to sunflower seed hulls, a waste product of the oil industry by preparing a sunflower hull phenolic extract rich in chlorogenic acid (CGA). In order to fulfill this goal, the optimization for the extraction of a phenolic extract from the hulls was investigated. The parameters studied were: type of solvent, solvent to water ratio and hull to solvent ratio. In addition, the solvent mixtures were also studied. The resulting phenolic extracts were evaluated for their biological activities. This included phenolic content determination, evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Chlorogenic acid was determined in two chosen hull extracts using the UV spectrophotometric method and HPLC analysis. The anti carcinogenic activity of the two chosen extracts was tested on seven different cell line carcinomas. The results revealed that all the phenolic extracts of sunflower hull studied contain between 190-312.5 mg phenolics/ 100 g hulls. The highest phenolic extraction was achieved with 80% methanol (1:30, hull to solvent, w/v ratio) and methanol to ethanol to water (7:7:6 v/v/v) mixture with values of 312.5 and 306.5 mg phenolics/100 g hulls, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of all the samples ranged from 33.6-72.6%. The highest antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity were achieved by the same extracts that possessed the highest phenolic content, namely methanol to ethanol to water extract and 80% methanol with values 71.8 and 72.6%, 68.2 and 70.9% respectively, compared to 77.9 and 76.9% respectively for TBHQ. All the phenolic extracts possessed antimicrobial activity but to different levels against different pathogenic bacteria. The two chosen extracts also possessed anti carcinogenic activity, which differed among varying cell line carcinomas. The HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was the main phenolic acid in the extract. Thus it can

  4. Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiated parenchyma on the growth of irradiated potato tuber buds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The development of buds greffed on irradiated potato parenchyma was studied. The irradiated parenchyma does not influence the sprouting capacity of buds, but it affects the way they develop. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Taste bud development and patterning in sighted and blind morphs of Astyanax mexicanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharasan, Nirupa; Croll, Roger P; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara

    2009-12-01

    In the blind cave-dwelling morph of A. mexicanus, the eye degenerates while other sensory systems, such as gustation, are expanded compared to their sighted (surface-dwelling) ancestor. This study compares the development of taste buds along the jaws of each morph. To determine whether cavefish have an altered onset or rate of taste bud development, we fluorescently labeled basal and receptor cells within taste buds over a developmental series. Our results show that taste bud number increases during development in both morphs. The rate of development is, however, accelerated in cavefish; a small difference in taste bud number exists at 5 dpf reaching threefold by 22 dpf. The expansion of taste buds in cavefish is, therefore, detectable after the onset of eye degeneration. This study provides important insights into the timing of taste bud expansion in cavefish as well as enhances our understanding of taste bud development in teleosts in general. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Buchmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York’s Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale.

  9. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    OpenAIRE

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary induct...

  10. Qualitative and quantitative differences between taste buds of the rat and mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Huazhi; Yang Ruibiao; Thomas Stacey M; Kinnamon John C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous electrophysiological, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical studies on rodent taste buds have been carried out on rat taste buds. In recent years, however, the mouse has become the species of choice for molecular and other studies on sensory transduction in taste buds. Do rat and mouse taste buds have the same cell types, sensory transduction markers and synaptic proteins? In the present study we have used antisera directed against PLCβ2, α-gustducin, serotonin ...

  11. Heterogeneity of fish taste bud ultrastructure as demonstrated in the holosteans Amia calva and Lepisosteus oculatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Reutter, K; Boudriot, F; Witt, M

    2000-01-01

    Taste buds are the peripheral sensory organs of the gustatory system. They occur in all taxa of vertebrates and are pear-shaped intra-epithelial organs of about 80 microm height and 50 microm width. Taste buds mainly consist of specialized epithelial cells, which synapse at their bases and therefore are secondary sensory cells. Taste buds have been described based on studies of teleostean species, but it turned out that the ultrastructure of teleostean taste buds may differ between distinct s...

  12. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallara Janardhanan Wills

    Full Text Available Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155 with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6% for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala.

  13. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  14. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  15. The Sprouting Potential of Dormant Buds on the Bole of Pole-Size Sugar Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1970-01-01

    A study of epicormic sprouting in pole-size sugar maples showed that all visible dormant buds on the bole were capable of producing epicormic shoots. The buds were induced to break dormancy by applying four methods of crown removal known to stimulate sprouting. The amount of crown removed determined the year that the buds broke dormancy; this may be accounted for by...

  16. Visible dormant buds as related to tree diameter and log position

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1967-01-01

    Red oaks and yellow-poplars in a stand of second-growth cove hardwoods in West Virginia were studied to determine whether visible dormant buds are related to tree size or log position. No correlation was found between dormant buds and tree size, for either species; but yellow-poplars had a significantly greater number of buds on the upper log.

  17. Effects of bud loading levels and nitrogen doses on yield, physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several bud loading levels in winter pruning and nitrogen doses on yield and physical and chemical properties of fresh vine-leaves of grape cultivar “Narince”. Vines trained with bilateral cordon system was pruned to yield 35000 to 53000 buds/ha (16 or 24 buds/vine) ...

  18. Developmental control of hypoxia during bud burst in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitha, Karlia; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Signorelli, Santiago; Gibbs, Daniel J; Considine, John A; Foyer, Christine H; Considine, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Dormant or quiescent buds of woody perennials are often dense and in the case of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) have a low tissue oxygen status. The precise timing of the decision to resume growth is difficult to predict, but once committed, the increase in tissue oxygen status is rapid and developmentally regulated. Here, we show that more than a third of the grapevine homologues of widely conserved hypoxia-responsive genes and nearly a fifth of all grapevine genes possessing a plant hypoxia-responsive promoter element were differentially regulated during bud burst, in apparent harmony with resumption of meristem identity and cell-cycle gene regulation. We then investigated the molecular and biochemical properties of the grapevine ERF-VII homologues, which in other species are oxygen labile and function in transcriptional regulation of hypoxia-responsive genes. Each of the 3 VvERF-VIIs were substrates for oxygen-dependent proteolysis in vitro, as a function of the N-terminal cysteine. Collectively, these data support an important developmental function of oxygen-dependent signalling in determining the timing and effective coordination bud burst in grapevine. In addition, novel regulators, including GASA-, TCP-, MYB3R-, PLT-, and WUS-like transcription factors, were identified as hallmarks of the orderly and functional resumption of growth following quiescence in buds. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. presence of axillary bud and application of plant growth hormones

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. alata)- were grown in pots in the greenhouse. Half the cuttings bore axillary buds and half had none. The cuttings were sprayed with a factorial combination of indole acetic acid (IAA), benzyladenine (BA) and giberellic acid (GA3). Cuttings ...

  20. Molybdenum distribution and sensitivity in tomatoes, sunflowers and beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht-Buchholz, C

    1973-01-01

    The influence of increasing levels of molybdenum on the growth, molybdenum uptake and distribution in individual plant organs was investigated in tomatoes, beans and sunflowers in a 9 day trial. With tomatoes, which showed marked damage with high molybdenum levels, the molybdenum content of dry matter was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem. On the other hand, beans, insensitive towards the high molybdenum level, dry matter molybdenum content was appreciably higher in the stem than in the leaf. It is supposed that in plant species, insensitive to high molybdenum levels, molybdenum is held less firmly in this tissue and can attain damaging levels in the cytoplasm of the youngest leaf tissue cells. It is supposed, on the basis of the reactions which were carried out with expressed root juice and on the basis of the yellow coloration attainable in vitro in the tissue caused by the addition of molybdate solution, that the yellow coloration appearing in the cells and plant organs of various plant species, here tomatoes and sunflowers, with high molybdenum levels is due to a reaction between molybdenum and polyvalent phenols in cellsap.

  1. Effects of sunflower soap stocks on light lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, C; Giráldez, J F; Morán, L; Mateo, J; Villalobos-Delgado, L H; Andrés, S; Bodas, R

    2017-08-01

    Thirty-two lambs were used to study the effect of sunflower soap stocks (SS), a by-product from the vegetable oil refinery industry, on meat chemical composition, fatty acid profile, volatile compounds, and consumer acceptability. Lambs were finished (average length of fattening period 35 ± 7.3 d, 26.8 ± 0.09 kg final BW) on a pelleted total mixed ration (TMR) with no SS (00SS) or including 15, 30 or 60 g SS/kg (15SS, 30SS, and 60SS, respectively). Sunflower soap stocks decreased the percentage of SFA, increased the proportion of -MUFA ( 0.05). Atherogenicity and saturation indexes decreased by 31% and 27%, respectively, in SS groups compared to control (linear 0.05). However, certain volatile compounds (benzene and toluene) and 10-18:1 fatty acid, known potential hazards for human health, were increased in meat from lambs fed TMR with SS. For this reason, only inclusion rates up to 15 g SS/kg TMR seem to sustain a satisfactory balance between beneficial and detrimental effects on lamb meat composition and quality.

  2. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  3. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  4. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  5. Whole plant senescence of sunflower following seedhead removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, InSun; Below, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to further clarify the relationship between seed development and monocarpic senescence of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Field-grown plants with and without seedheads were evaluated for rate and duration of accumulation of dry weight, reduced N, and P by whole shoots, and for partitioning of these constituents within the individual plant parts. Concurrent with seedhead removal, [ 15 N]nitrate was applied to the plants in a selected are of the experimental plot. Whole plants (above ground portions) were harvested seven times during the seed-filling period and analyzed from dry weight, reduced N, and P. Although seedhead removal depressed the rates of dry weight, reduced N, and P accumulation by whole shoots, it extended the duration of accumulation of these constituents, relative to headed control plants. As a result, the final whole shoot dry weight and N and P contents at seed maturity were similar for deheaded and headed plants. Seedhead removal also affected the partitioning of dry matter, reduced N, and P but the relative proportions varied as a function of constituent and growth stage. Analysis of 15 N present in whole shoots at physiological maturity showed that similar amounts of nitrate were absorbed during the postflowering period by headed and deheaded plants. These data indicate that the absence of seeds does not affect the total accumulation of dry matter, reduced N, or P, by sunflower plants, but does alter the rates of accumulation and partitioning of these constituents

  6. Response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Karar, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    To study the response of sunflower to various levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, an experiment was conducted in pots at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, during 1997. Four nitrogen levels 0, 80, 120, 160 kg/ha and three phosphorous levels 0,60,90 kg/ha were included in the experiment. Increase in nitrogen levels significantly increased head diameter, grain yield per head and thousand-grain weight. Maximum head diameter (25.71), grain yield per head (114.84g) and thousand-grain weight (75.67g) was recorded at nitrogen level of 160 kg/ha. Increased in phosphorus level increased plant height and thousand grains weight. Tallest plants (198.92cm) were observed at 6Okg P/ha while heavy grains (70.67g) were recorded at P level of 9Okg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha. It is concluded that l60kg N/ha and 9Okg P/ha is proper dose of N and P for sunflower hybrid. (author)

  7. Copia and Gypsy retrotransposons activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Retrotransposons are heterogeneous sequences, widespread in eukaryotic genomes, which refer to the so-called mobile DNA. They resemble retroviruses, both in their structure and for their ability to transpose within the host genome, of which they make up a considerable portion. Copia- and Gypsy-like retrotransposons are the two main classes of retroelements shown to be ubiquitous in plant genomes. Ideally, the retrotransposons life cycle results in the synthesis of a messenger RNA and then self-encoded proteins to process retrotransposon mRNA in double stranded extra-chromosomal cDNA copies which may integrate in new chromosomal locations. Results The RT-PCR and IRAP protocol were applied to detect the presence of Copia and Gypsy retrotransposon transcripts and of new events of integration in unstressed plants of a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) selfed line. Results show that in sunflower retrotransposons transcription occurs in all analyzed organs (embryos, leaves, roots, and flowers). In one out of sixty-four individuals analyzed, retrotransposons transcription resulted in the integration of a new element into the genome. Conclusion These results indicate that the retrotransposon life cycle is firmly controlled at a post transcriptional level. A possible silencing mechanism is discussed. PMID:20030800

  8. Biodiesel from sunflower oil in supercritical methanol with calcium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sunflower seed oil was subjected to the transesterification reaction with calcium oxide (CaO) in supercritical methanol for obtaining biodiesel. Methanol is used most frequently as the alcohol in the transesterification process. Calcium oxide (CaO) can considerably improve the transesterification reaction of sunflower seed oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as the catalyst content, reaction temperature and the molar ratio of soybean oil to alcohol, were investigated and compared with those of non-catalyst runs. The catalytic transesterification ability of CaO is quite weak under ambient temperature. At a temperature of 335 K, the yield of methyl ester is only about 5% in 3 h. When CaO was added from 1.0% to 3.0%, the transesterification speed increased evidently, while when the catalyst content was further enhanced to 5%, the yield of methyl ester slowly reached to a plateau. It was observed that increasing the reaction temperature had a favorable influence on the methyl ester yield. In addition, for molar ratios ranging from 1 to 41, as the higher molar ratios of methanol to oil were charged, the greater transesterification speed was obtained. When the temperature was increased to 525 K, the transesterification reaction was essentially completed within 6 min with 3 wt% CaO and 41:1 methanol/oil molar ratio

  9. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L.

    2003-01-01

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials

  10. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  11. New sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvejić Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of sunflower hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl enabled the use of wider palette of herbicides to control effectively weeds during the growing season. Moreover, thanks to this tolerance, chemical control of broad-leaves weeds in sunflower, especially Cirsium arvense, is more efficient. The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops offers four new hybrids tolerant to tribenuron-methyl: NS SUMO SUN, NS SUMO STAR, NS SUMO SjAj and NS SUMO SOL, released in 2016. Hybrids belong to early and medium-early maturity groups; have high yield potential and high oil content. They are adapted for cultivation in different environmental conditions. All hybrids are resistant to broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr races from A-E and have a high level of tolerance to Phomopsis, white rot (Sclerotinia sclorotiorum, rust (Puccinia helianthi and others. The paper presents the results of seed and oil yield from the official trials of the Department of variety registration within the Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection of the Republic of Serbia.

  12. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  13. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  14. Identification and characterization of a RAPD-PCR marker for distinguishing Asian and North American gypsy moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J. Garner; J.M. Slavicek

    1996-01-01

    The recent introduction of the Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) into North America has necessitated the development of genetic markers to distinguish Asian moths from the established North American population, which originated in Europe. We used RAPD-PCR to identify a DNA length polymorphism that is diagnostic for the two moth strains. The...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all food...

  16. Hourly and seasonable variation in catch of winter moths and bruce spanworm in pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; Natalie Leva; George Boettner; Roy Hunkins; Marinko. Sremac

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which, as far as it is known, consists of a single compound that is also used by Bruce spanworm, the North American congener of winter moth, O....

  17. Confectionery products (halva type obtained from sunflower: production technology and quality alterations. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower "halva" is a popular and widely enjoyed confectionery product specific to the countries of Eastern Europe. Conventional halva has historically been produced from sesame seeds in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, in the production of halva in Eastern Europe, sesame seeds have been largely replaced by sunflower seeds, due to the high availability of sunflower in this region and the comparable taste of the final product. Due to the importance of the cost of raw materials in the food industry, utilization of sunflower seeds in halva production may be of great interest worldwide because it offers the possibility of significantly lowering production costs. Nevertheless, oil separation and storage techniques must be perfected if sunflower halva is to fulfill its promise of becoming a cost effective alternative to sesame seed halva on a worldwide scale. The aims of this review are firstly, to describe the current state of sunflower halva technology, secondly, to isolate the main problems affecting the quality of the final product, and thirdly, to suggest areas of further research necessary to move sunflower halva production closer to reaching its full potential on the world market.

  18. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernandez

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de. The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons. The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0 was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01 allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement.

  19. Fine structure of selected mouthpart sensory organs of gypsy moth larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnie D.C. Shields

    2011-01-01

    Gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.), are major pest defoliators in most of the United States and destroy millions of acres of trees annually. They are highly polyphagous and display a wide host plant preference, feeding on the foliage of hundreds of plants, such as oak, maple, and sweet gum. Lepidopteran larvae, such as the gypsy moth, depend...

  20. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology and timing of insecticide spray applications in seven Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Mark J. Dalusky; C. Wayne Berisford

    2000-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a common pest of Christmas tree and pine plantations throughout much of the Eastern United States. The moth completes two to five generations annually, and insecticide spray timing models are currently available for controlling populations where three or...

  1. Assessment of MODIS NDVI time series data products for detecting forest defoliation by gypsy moth outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Spruce; Steven Sader; Robert E. Ryan; James Smoot; Philip Kuper; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an assessment of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time-series data products for detecting forest defoliation from European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). This paper describes an effort to aid the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service in developing and assessing MODIS-based gypsy moth defoliation...

  2. Moth wing scales slightly increase the absorbance of bat echolocation calls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyao Zeng

    Full Text Available Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40-60 kHz than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5-6%.

  3. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate.

  4. The effect of environmental conditions on viability of irradiated codling moth Cydia Pomonella (L.) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2001-12-01

    Cooled (4 ± 2 Centigrade) codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) males exposed to dose of 350 Gy were released in apple orchards starting at 6:00 o'clock in the morning until 4:00 in the afternoon at 2 h. intervals. Moths were released in shade (under trees) or in the sun (between trees), the number of dead moths after 20 minutes of release were recorded, percentage mortality was calculated and compared with unirradiated controls. The effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on moth survival and activity was evaluated by counting the number of caught males by pheromone traps. Results showed that percentage mortality increased with increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity and reached to 82% at 30 Centigrade and 40% Rh., when irradiated moths were released under direct sun shine. However, when moths were released in the shade under the same conditions, survival rate was as high as 91%. Results also showed that percentage survival in irradiated males was less than in the control when moths were released under direct sunshine. Results of monitoring moth activity also showed that pheromone trap continued to catch males for up to 8 days which may suggests that released males lived under field conditions for no less than one week. (author)

  5. Interactions between nuclear polyhedrosis virus and Nosema sp. infecting gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. S. Bauer; M. McManus; J. Maddox

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) is the only entomopathogen that plays an important role in the natural regulation of North American gypsy moth populations. Recent European studies suggest that populations of gypsy moth in Eurasia are regulated primarily by the interactions between NPV and several species of microsporidia. Researchers have proposed that the...

  6. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  7. Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, Å.K; Liénard, M.A.; Groot, A.T.; Hedenström, E; Löfstedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major

  8. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M

    2013-01-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than ...

  9. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Martijn F. L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A. M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth

  10. Spread ability of diamondblack moth (Plutella xylotella L) steriled by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Fang Julian; Xia Darong; Chu Jiming; Feng Chunsheng

    1990-01-01

    The spread ability of the radiation steriled diamondblack moth (DBM) is reported. It shows that the 94.2% of DBM is spread in 40 m duration of 10 days and a few of moths are 120 m. It indicates that the spread of steriled DBM is definitely time limit, the spread area is withinca. 700 m 2 in the first three days

  11. The effects of the pine processionary moth on the increment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... sycophanta L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae) used against the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Den. & Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in biological control. T. J. Zool. 30:181-185. Kanat M, Sivrikaya F (2005). Effect of the pine processionary moth on diameter increment of Calabrian ...

  12. Cost analysis and biological ramifications for implementing the gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin

    2008-01-01

    The gypsy moth Slow the Spread Program aims to reduce the rate of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), spread into new areas in the United States. The annual budget for this program has ranged from $10-13 million. Changes in funding levels can have important ramifications to the implementation of this program, and consequently affect the rate of gypsy...

  13. Persistent effects of aerial applications of disparlure on gypsy moth: trap catch and mating success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin W. Thorpe; Ksenia S. Tcheslavskaia; Patrick C. Tobin; Laura M. Blackburn; Donna S. Leonard; E. Anderson Roberts

    2007-01-01

    In forest plots treated aerially with a plastic laminated flake formulation (Disrupt® II) of the gypsy moth sex pheromone disparlure to disrupt gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), mating was monitored the year of treatment and 1-2 years after treatment to determine the effects of the treatment on suppression of...

  14. Preparing for the gypsy moth - design and analysis for stand management Dorr Run, Wayne National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. J. Colbert; Phil Perry; Bradley Onken

    1997-01-01

    As the advancing front of the gypsy moth continues its spread throughout Ohio, silviculturists on the Wayne National Forest are preparing themselves for potential gypsy moth outbreaks in the coming decade. Through a cooperative effort between the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station and Northeastern Area, Forest Health Protection, the Wayne National Forest, Ohio, is...

  15. Gypsy moth in the southeastern U.S.: Biology, ecology, and forest management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce W. ​Kauffman; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; Andrew M. Liebhold; David R. Coyle

    2017-01-01

    The European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is a non-native insect that was accidentally introduced to North America in 1869 when it escaped cultivation by a French amateur entomologist living near Boston, MA. Despite early efforts to eradicate the species, it became established throughout eastern Massachusetts. Since then, the gypsy moth has...

  16. Influence of temperature on bud break, shoot growth, flower bud atrophy and winter production of glasshouse roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of temperature in the range 15-22 °C on growth, production, quality and flower bud atrophy ('blindness') of the rose cultivars Sweet Promise and Varlon was studied. The roses were grown in Dutch glasshouse soil under natural light conditions and studied from October until May

  17. Oxidative stability of mayonnaise containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Xu, Xuebing; Nielsen, Nina Skall

    2003-01-01

    Mayonnaise based on enzymatically produced specific structured lipid (SL) from sunflower oil and caprylic acid was compared with mayonnaise based on traditional sunflower oil (SO) or chemically randomized lipid (RL) with respect to their oxidative stability, sensory and rheological properties......, but was most likely influenced by the structure of the lipid, the lower tocopherol content and the higher initial levels of lipid hydroperoxides and secondary volatile oxidation compounds in the SL itself compared with the RL and traditional sunflower oil employed. EDTA was a strong antioxidant, while propyl...

  18. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  19. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

  20. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  1. Membrane-elasticity model of Coatless vesicle budding induced by ESCRT complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Różycki

    Full Text Available The formation of vesicles is essential for many biological processes, in particular for the trafficking of membrane proteins within cells. The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT directs membrane budding away from the cytosol. Unlike other vesicle formation pathways, the ESCRT-mediated budding occurs without a protein coat. Here, we propose a minimal model of ESCRT-induced vesicle budding. Our model is based on recent experimental observations from direct fluorescence microscopy imaging that show ESCRT proteins colocalized only in the neck region of membrane buds. The model, cast in the framework of membrane elasticity theory, reproduces the experimentally observed vesicle morphologies with physically meaningful parameters. In this parameter range, the minimum energy configurations of the membrane are coatless buds with ESCRTs localized in the bud neck, consistent with experiment. The minimum energy configurations agree with those seen in the fluorescence images, with respect to both bud shapes and ESCRT protein localization. On the basis of our model, we identify distinct mechanistic pathways for the ESCRT-mediated budding process. The bud size is determined by membrane material parameters, explaining the narrow yet different bud size distributions in vitro and in vivo. Our membrane elasticity model thus sheds light on the energetics and possible mechanisms of ESCRT-induced membrane budding.

  2. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J; Stice, Steven L; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-11-17

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240-360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and α-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us to peel off whole epithelial sheets, leaving the shape and integrity of the tissue intact. In the peeled epithelial sheets, taste buds labeled with antibodies against Vimentin and α-Gustducin were easily identified and counted under a light microscope and many more taste buds, patterned in rosette-like clusters, were found than previously reported with SEM. Broiler-type, female-line males have more taste buds than other groups and continue to increase the number of taste buds over stages after hatch. In addition to ovoid-shaped taste buds, big tube-shaped taste buds were observed in the chicken using 2-photon microscopy. Our protocol for labeling taste buds with molecular markers will factilitate future mechanistic studies on the development of chicken taste buds in association with their feeding behaviors.

  3. Optimizing conditions for enzymatic extraction of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr, F. H.

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was extracted with an enzymatic processes using different hydrolytic enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex, as compared to enzyme - free aqueous extraction. All the hydrolytic enzymes enhanced oil extraction from sunflower seeds. The most optimal conditions for oil extraction from sunflower seeds were: 2% enzyme concentration, 30% substrate concentration and 3 hrs period. Using Boganov and Buchkov equation showed that time must be prolonged to get higher yields. The maximum yield during 3 hrs extraction with enzymatic process ranged between 44,5%-57,1% of the soxhlet extractable oil. The potency of the investigated enzymes in extracting oil was in the following order: acid proteinase > cellulase > hemicellulase > animal proteinase > pectinex > pectinase when compared at the previous optimal conditions.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído mediante un proceso enzimático usando diferentes enzimas hidrolíticos: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinasa acida, pectinasa y pectinex, comparando con la extracción acuosa libre de enzima. Todos los enzimas hidrolíticos incrementan la extracción de aceites de semilla de girasol. Las condiciones óptimas para la extracción de aceite a partir de semillas de girasol fueron: 2% de concentración de enzima, 30% de concentración de sustrato y un período de 3 horas. La ecuación de Boganov y Buchkov mostró que el tiempo debe ser prolongado para alcanzar altos rendimientos. El máximo rendimiento durante tres horas de extracción con proceso enzimático osciló entre el 44,5%-57,1% del aceite extraído con soxhlet. La potencia de los enzimas investigados en la extracción de aceite siguió el orden: proteinasa acida > celulasa > hemicelulasa > proteinasa animal > pectinex > pectinasa cuando fue previamente comparado con las condiciones óptimas.

  4. New Approach on Sunflower Seeds Processing: Kernel with Several Technological Applications, Husks Package, Different Fat Content Tahini and Halva Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Mureşan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is the basic oil-crop in Central and Eastern Europe. As sunflower seeds are mainly used for oil production, the most of the kernels available on the market show high oil content (>55%. Consequently, when sunflower kernel paste (tahini is used in different food products, oil exudation occurs.The aim of current work was to use entirely the sunflower seeds by partially defatting and obtaining different fat content sunflower pastes with multiple food applications, while using the husks for developing an ecological package. Sunflower kernels were industrially roasted in a continuous roasting drum.  Raw and roasted kernels were pressed at pilot plant scale by using a laboratory expeller. Partially defatted sunflower paste was obtained from the press cakes by employing a ball mill. Different fat content tahini samples were obtained by adding the required amount of oil to the partially defatted paste. Tahini samples fat content ranged from 45 to 60%. Tahini and halva were chosen as a study model. Decreasing tahini oil content increased its colloidal stability during storage, a similar trend being noticed when halva samples were stored. Moreover, halva texture analysis and sensory characteristics were assessed for selecting the optimum tahini oil content and thermal treatment. Various sunflower kernel food applications were proposed by obtaining the related prototypes at pilot plant scale: roasted sunflower kernel biscuits, sunflower spreadable cream filled biscuits, hummus, sunflower paste coated in chocolate, sunflower kernel chikki and bars, as well as an innovative ecological package based on the resulting sunflower husks and a starch adhesive. 

  5. Tumor budding is a strong and reproducible prognostic marker in T3N0 colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wang, Lai Mun

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor budding along the advancing front of colorectal adenocarcinoma is an early event in the metastatic process. A reproducible, prognostic budding scoring system based on outcomes in early stage colorectal cancer has not been established. DESIGN: One hundred twenty-eight T3N0M0 colorectal carcinoma patients with known outcome were identified. Tumor budding was defined as isolated tumor cells or clusters of <5 cells at the invasive tumor front. Tumor bud counts were generated in 5 regions at 200x by 2 pathologists (conventional bud count method). The median bud count per case was used to divide cases into low (median=0) and high budding (median > or =1) groups. Forty cases were reevaluated to assess reproducibility using the conventional and a novel rapid bud count method. RESULTS: Fifty-seven (45%) carcinomas had high and 71 (55%) had low budding scores. High budding was associated with an infiltrative growth pattern (P<0.0001) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.005). Five-year cancer-specific survival was significantly poorer in high compared with low budding groups: 63% versus 91%, respectively, P<0.0001. Multivariate analysis demonstrated tumor budding to be independently prognostic (hazard ratio=4.76, P<0.001). Interobserver agreement was at least equivalent comparing the conventional to the rapid bud count methods: 87.5% agreement (kappa=0.75) versus 92.5% agreement (kappa=0.85), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tumor budding is a strong, reproducible, and independent prognostic marker of outcome that is easily assessed on hematoxylin and eosin slides. This may be useful for identifying the subset of T3N0M0 patients at high risk of recurrence who may benefit from adjuvant therapy.

  6. Distribution of α-Gustducin and Vimentin in premature and mature taste buds in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Payne, Jason; Goodfellow, Forrest; Wang, Zhonghou; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Stice, Steven; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-10-14

    The sensory organs for taste in chickens (Gallus sp.) are taste buds in the oral epithelium of the palate, base of the oral cavity, and posterior tongue. Although there is not a pan-taste cell marker that labels all chicken taste bud cells, α-Gustducin and Vimentin each label a subpopulation of taste bud cells. In the present study, we used both α-Gustducin and Vimentin to further characterize chicken taste buds at the embryonic and post-hatching stages (E17-P5). We found that both α-Gustducin and Vimentin label distinct and overlapping populations of, but not all, taste bud cells. A-Gustducin immunosignals were observed as early as E18 and were consistently distributed in early and mature taste buds in embryos and hatchlings. Vimentin immunoreactivity was initially sparse at the embryonic stages then became apparent in taste buds after hatch. In hatchlings, α-Gustducin and Vimentin immunosignals largely co-localized in taste buds. A small subset of taste bud cells were labeled by either α-Gustducin or Vimentin or were not labeled. Importantly, each of the markers was observed in all of the examined taste buds. Our data suggest that the early onset of α-Gustducin in taste buds might be important for enabling chickens to respond to taste stimuli immediately after hatch and that distinctive population of taste bud cells that are labeled by different molecular markers might represent different cell types or different phases of taste bud cells. Additionally, α-Gustducin and Vimentin can potentially be used as molecular markers of all chicken taste buds in whole mount tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  8. Impact of climate changes and correlations on oil fatty acids in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onemli, F.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower oil is a major important vegetable oil because it is widely used in human nutrition and in many industrial productions depends on fatty acid composition. Field studies were conducted during in two years on the same soil to investigate changes of climate induced oil fatty acid composition of a traditional sunflower, and to obtain correlations among oil fatty acids. Seed oil content and twelve fatty acid percentages of sunflower oil were analyzed. Variations for years were significant for seed oil content and palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), miristic (C14:0) and eicosenoic acids (C20:1). Higher temperatures during seed development in 2010 resulted with 68.38 % increasing in oleic content of the traditional sunflower hybrid. The highest negative correlations (r= -0.99) were noted between oleic and linoleic acids. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the effect of fat content of sunflower meal on rumen fungi growth and population by direct (quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction) and indirect (dry matter and neutral detergent fibre disappearance) methods.

  10. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  11. Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) in vivo assay for screening imidazolinone-resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, T; Breccia, G; Gil, M; Zorzoli, R; Picardi, L; Nestares, G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vivo acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity response to imidazolinones and its possible use as a selection method for evaluating AHAS inhibitor resistance. In vivo AHAS assay and the comparison of parameters from dose-response curves have been used as a valid tool for comparing sunflower lines and hybrids differing in imidazolinone resistance. The sunflower resistant genotypes evaluated here were 100-fold and 20-fold more resistant compared with the susceptible line for imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. This assay also allowed discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous genotypes for I(mr1) locus that codify for the catalytic subunit of AHAS. The in vivo AHAS assay described in this study was useful for the selection of sunflower genotypes differing in herbicide resistance and could be a useful tool when breeding for imidazolinone resistance in sunflower. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. New sesquiterpene lactones from sunflower root exudate as germination stimulants for Orobanche cumana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupp, Frank M; Spring, Otmar

    2013-11-06

    Orobanche cumana is a serious threat for cultivation of sunflower in Europe and Asia. Germination of the parasite is induced by metabolites released from the host root system. The first germination stimulant from sunflower root exudate was recently identified as dehydrocostus lactone, a sesquiterpene lactone. Bioassay-guided fractionation of root exudates now showed the release of additional sesquiterpene lactones. Besides dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, tomentosin, and 8-epixanthatin were purified and identified spectroscopically. All four compounds induced germination of O. cumana at nano- to micromolar concentrations. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone concentrations above 1 μM reduced the activity, and application of 100 μM inhibited germination irreversibly. Seeds of Phelipanche ramosa could not be induced with costunolide. O. cumana seeds also germinated with GR24, a synthetic strigolactone. No bioactive fraction of sunflower contained compounds of this type. This supports previous findings that sesquiterpene lactones instead of strigolactones trigger the sunflower/O. cumana interaction.

  13. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  14. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the regulation of critical biological functions in humans and other mammals. EPA production via solid state fermentation of sunflower press cake was investigated...

  15. An alternative process for hydrogenation of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Classic methodologies for hydrogenation of vegetable oils have traditionally been carried out by nickel catalysts under high pressure of H2 and high temperature. An alternative method for hydrogenation of sunflower oil using limonene and palladium-on-carbon was investigated in this study. The use of limonene as a hydrogen donor solvent was proposed in order to avoid high temperature and high-pressure conditions. The catalytic transfer of hydrogenation was studied by using 0.5 to 2% of Pd as a catalyst, a limonene:oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction times from 0.5 to 2 hours. Under these conditions, high selectivities for oleic acid and low concentrations of stearic acid were obtained.

  16. gamma-Aminobutyric acid stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathiresan, A.; Tung, P.; Chinnappa, C.C.; Reid, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is often accumulated in plants following environmental stimuli that can also cause ethylene production. We have investigated the relationship between GABA and ethylene production in excised sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tissues. Exogenous GABA causes up to a 14-fold increase in the ethylene production rate after about 12 h. Cotyledons fed with [14C]GABA did not release substantial amounts of radioactive ethylene despite its chemical similarity to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indicating that GABA is not likely to be an alternative precursor for ethylene. GABA causes increases in ACC synthase mRNA accumulation, ACC levels, ACC oxidase mRNA levels, and in vitro ACC oxidase activity. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine or alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, GABA did not stimulate ethylene production. We therefore conclude that GABA stimulates ethylene biosynthesis mainly by promoting ACC synthase transcript abundance. Possible roles of GABA as a signal transducer are suggested

  17. Variability among inbred lines and RFLP mapping of sunflower isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrera Alicia D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight isozyme systems were used in this study: acid phosphatase (ACP, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, esterase (EST, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and phosphoglucomutase (PGM. The polymorphism of these enzyme systems was studied in 25 elite inbred lines. A total of 19 loci were identified, but only eight of them were polymorphic in the germplasm tested. The polymorphic index for the eight informative markers ranged from 0.08 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.36. Five isozyme loci were mapped in F2:3 populations with existing RFLP data. Est-1, Gdh-2 and Pgi-2 were mapped to linkage groups 3, 14 and 9, respectively. As in previous reports, an ACP locus and a PGD locus were found to be linked, both located in linkage group 2 of the public sunflower map.

  18. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

  19. The genetic architecture of UV floral patterning in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brook T; Owens, Gregory L; Baute, Gregory J; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2017-07-01

    The patterning of floral ultraviolet (UV) pigmentation varies both intra- and interspecifically in sunflowers and many other plant species, impacts pollinator attraction, and can be critical to reproductive success and crop yields. However, the genetic basis for variation in UV patterning is largely unknown. This study examines the genetic architecture for proportional and absolute size of the UV bullseye in Helianthus argophyllus , a close relative of the domesticated sunflower. A camera modified to capture UV light (320-380 nm) was used to phenotype floral UV patterning in an F 2 mapping population, then quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified using genotyping-by-sequencing and linkage mapping. The ability of these QTL to predict the UV patterning of natural population individuals was also assessed. Proportional UV pigmentation is additively controlled by six moderate effect QTL that are predictive of this phenotype in natural populations. In contrast, UV bullseye size is controlled by a single large effect QTL that also controls flowerhead size and co-localizes with a major flowering time QTL in Helianthus . The co-localization of the UV bullseye size QTL, flowerhead size QTL and a previously known flowering time QTL may indicate a single highly pleiotropic locus or several closely linked loci, which could inhibit UV bullseye size from responding to selection without change in correlated characters. The genetic architecture of proportional UV pigmentation is relatively simple and different from that of UV bullseye size, and so should be able to respond to natural or artificial selection independently. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Effect of the partial substitution of meat with irradiated sunflower meal on the quality of sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0, 4, 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphcnol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined. The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation . dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the, removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level. The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties

  1. Effect of the Partial Substitution of Meat with Irradiated Sunflower Meal on the Quality of Sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E. A.M.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0 , 4 , 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphenol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined .The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level .The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties.

  2. Allelopathic Effects of Four Chickpea Cultivars on Vegetative Growth of Sunflower and Corn under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of four chickpea cultivar (Cicer arietinum L. on vegetative growth of sunflower (Helianthus annus and corn (Zea mays, two separate experiments was conducted at Research Greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2005. Experiments were done in a factorial arrangement of treatments with two factors based on completely randomized design with 4 replications. Factors included chickpea cultivars (Karag12-60-31, Filip 84-482, Gam, ILC 482, and no residue control and planting date of corn and sunflowers within root residues of chick pea (seeds planted simultaneously, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after harvesting of chickpea shoots. Seeds of corn and sunflower were planted within root residues of chickpea. Results showed that root residues of chickpea cultivars influenced height and shoot weight of sunflower significantly. The lowest sunflower height was obtained when they were planted within root residues of Flip and ILC cultivars, which decreased 13.7 and 11.1% relative to control, respectively. Planting date of sunflower within root residues of chick pea cultivars had a significant effect on sunflower leaf area, shoot weight, and its root/shoot ratio. So that, lowest leaf area, shoot weight, and also highest root/shoot ratio was obtained in third planting date. Results showed that lowest plant height, leaf area, root weight, shoot weight, and also highest root/shoot ratio of corn (6 weeks after planting was obtained after planting within chickpea cultivars, Gam and ILC. Also the effect of corn planting date was significant. The lowest root and shoot weight, and root/shoot ratio of corn was obtained in the earliest corn planting date. Therefore, corn plants showed more sensitive than sunflower after planting within chickpea cultivars, and the highest inhibitory effects resulted in the earliest corn planting date. Keywords: Pea cultivars, Integrated management, Crop rotation

  3. Changes of fatty acids content and vigor of sunflower seed during natural aging

    OpenAIRE

    Balešević-Tubić S.; Tatić M.; Miladinović J.; Pucarević M.

    2007-01-01

    Sunflower seed aging during storage affects seed vigor and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigor tests were applied: standard laboratory germination test, cold test and Hiltner test. Five sunflower lines submitted to natural aging process for six and 12 months were tested under conventional storage and controlled conditions. The obtained results revealed that seed aging damaged the seed, which adversely affected seed vigor; most reliable r...

  4. Influence of the sunflower rhizosphere on the biodegradation of PAHs in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tejeda Agredano, M. C.; Gallego, Sara; Vila, Joaquim; Ortega Calvo, J. J.; Cantos, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Reduced bioavailability to soil microorganisms is probably the most limiting factor in the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH-polluted soils. We used sunflowers planted in pots containing soil to determine the influence of the rhizosphere on the ability of soil microbiota to reduce PAH levels. The concentration of total PAHs decreased by 93% in 90 days when the contaminated soil was cultivated with sunflowers, representing an improvement of 16% compared to contaminated soi...

  5. Chromosomal evolution in tortricid moths: Conserved karyotypes with diverged features

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2013), e64520 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/2106; GA AV ČR IAA600960925 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) GAJU 059/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) GAJU137/2010/P; IAEA, Viennna(AT) 15838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tortricid moths Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0064520

  6. Effect of 60Co γ-ray radiation on bud proliferation of oriental lily scales cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dan; Zhang Zhiwei; Zhang Dongxue

    2009-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-ray radiation on the bud proliferation of the oriental lily scales cultured in vitro were studied. The results show that the irradiation significantly inhibits bud proliferation, but the effects of radiation on the number of bud proliferation and the bud proliferation rate are obviously depressed along with the increasing of times of bud proliferation. The effect of radiation on the bud proliferation is repressive during the first time of bud proliferation and the effect is more significant in the higher radiation dosage treatment. The repressive effect of radiation on the bud proliferation disappears during the third time of bud proliferation, but the physiologic status is in the telophase of the damage repair action. The contents of protein and MDA of the bud were influenced differently depending on the radiation dosage and on the types of medium and positions of scales. (authors)

  7. Saponins from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongzhu; Koike, Kazuo; Li, Wei; Satou, Tadaaki; Guo, Dean; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-01-01

    Five new saponins, mimengosides C-G (1-5), were isolated from the flower buds of Buddleja officinalis along with five known compounds, namely, songaroside A, acteoside, phenylethyl 2-glucoside, echinacoside, and phenylethyl alcohol 8-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated using spectroscopic and chemical methods, and these compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against HL-60 leukemia cells.

  8. Clonal and bud bank traits: patterns across temperate plant communities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Herben, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2015), s. 243-253 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR GA13-17118S; GA ČR GAP505/12/1007 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : clonal and bud bank traits * vegetation * central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2015

  9. Regulation of homologous recombination at telomeres in budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Lisby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is suppressed at normal length telomere sequences. In contrast, telomere recombination is allowed when telomeres erode in the absence of telomerase activity or as a consequence of nucleolytic degradation or incomplete replication. Here, we review the mechanisms that contr...... that contribute to regulating mitotic homologous recombination at telomeres and the role of these mechanisms in signalling short telomeres in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae....

  10. Endogenous peripheral neuromodulators of the mammalian taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin

    2010-10-01

    The sensitivity of the mammalian taste system displays a degree of plasticity based on short-term nutritional requirements. Deficiency in a particular substance may lead to a perceived increase in palatability of this substance, providing an additional drive to redress this nutritional imbalance through modification of intake. This alteration occurs not only in the brain but also, before any higher level processing has occurred, in the taste buds themselves. A brief review of recent advances is offered.

  11. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  12. Taste isn't just for taste buds anymore

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is a discriminative sense involving specialized receptor cells of the oral cavity (taste buds) and at least two distinct families of G protein-coupled receptor molecules that detect nutritionally important substances or potential toxins. Yet the receptor mechanisms that drive taste also are utilized by numerous systems throughout the body. How and why these so-called taste receptors are used to regulate digestion and respiration is now a matter of intense study. In this article we provi...

  13. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELLEN L. LIMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05 by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day. There was no significant effect (P>0.05 for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41. For contents of ruminal NH3-N was a significant effect (P <0.05 only for collection time, and ammonia peaks occurred between 2 and 4 h after feeding, with values of 22.56 and 21.40 mg/dL. The total concentration of short chain fatty acids and the C2:C3 ratio was reduced in 9.6 and 15.43%. The ruminal degradability of NDF was not affected by the supplements. The supplementation with sunflower crushed to beef steers grazing, in partial replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  14. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

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    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  15. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC 1 F 2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC 2 F 3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  16. Selection and estimation of the heritability of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollen collection behavior in Apis mellifera colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Rodríguez, E M; Bedascarrasbure, E; De Jong, D

    2007-06-20

    We selected honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) with a high tendency to collect sunflower pollen and estimated the heritability of this trait. The percentage of sunflower pollen collected by 74 colonies was evaluated. Five colonies that collected the highest percentages of sunflower pollen were selected. Nineteen colonies headed by daughters of these selected queens were evaluated for this characteristic in comparison with 20 control (unselected) colonies. The variation for the proportion of sunflower pollen was greater among colonies of the control group than among these selected daughter colonies. The estimated heritability was 0.26 +/- 0.23, demonstrating that selection to increase sunflower pollen collection is feasible. Such selected colonies could be used to improve sunflower pollination in commercial fields.

  17. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Bud dormancy in apple trees after thermal fluctuations

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    Rafael Anzanello

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of heat waves on the evolution of bud dormancy, in apple trees with contrasting chilling requirements. Twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' were collected in orchards in Papanduva, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and were exposed to constant (3°C or alternating (3 and 15°C for 12/12 hours temperature, combined with zero, one or two days a week at 25°C. Two additional treatments were evaluated: constant temperature (3°C, with a heat wave of seven days at 25°C, in the beginning or in the middle of the experimental period. Periodically, part of the twigs was transferred to 25°C for daily budburst evaluation of apical and lateral buds. Endodormancy (dormancy induced by cold was overcome with less than 330 chilling hours (CH of constant cold in 'Castel Gala' and less than 618 CH in 'Royal Gala'. A daily 15°C-temperature cycle did not affect the endodormancy process. Heat waves during endodormancy resulted in an increased CH to achieve bud requirements. The negative effect of high temperature depended on the lasting of this condition. Chilling was partly cancelled during dormancy when the heat wave lasted 36 continuous hours or more. Therefore, budburst prediction models need adjustments, mainly for regions with mild and irregular winters, such as those of Southern Brazil.

  19. Immunocytochemical analysis of syntaxin-1 in rat circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruibiao; Ma, Huazhi; Thomas, Stacey M; Kinnamon, John C

    2007-06-20

    Mammalian buds contain a variety of morphological taste cell types, but the type III taste cell is the only cell type that has synapses onto nerve processes. We hypothesize that taste cell synapses utilize the SNARE protein machinery syntaxin, SNAP-25, and synaptobrevin, as is used by synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) for Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. Previous studies have shown that taste cells with synapses display SNAP-25- and synaptobrevin-2-like immunoreactivity (LIR) (Yang et al. [2000a] J Comp Neurol 424:205-215, [2004] J Comp Neurol 471:59-71). In the present study we investigated the presynaptic membrane protein, syntaxin-1, in circumvallate taste buds of the rat. Our results indicate that diffuse cytoplasmic and punctate syntaxin-1-LIR are present in different subsets of taste cells. Diffuse, cytoplasmic syntaxin-1-LIR is present in type III cells while punctate syntaxin-1-LIR is present in type II cells. The punctate syntaxin-1-LIR is believed to be associated with Golgi bodies. All of the synapses associated with syntaxin-1-LIR taste cells are from type III cells onto nerve processes. These results support the proposition that taste cell synapses use classical SNARE machinery such as syntaxin-1 for neurotransmitter release in rat circumvallate taste buds. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Fungiform Taste Bud Degeneration in C57BL/6J Mice Following Chorda-Lingual Nerve Transection

    OpenAIRE

    Guagliardo, Nick A.; Hill, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Taste buds are dependent on innervation for normal morphology and function. Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils. The current study examines fungiform taste bud distribution and structure in adult C57BL/6J mice from both intact taste systems and after unilateral chorda-lingual nerve transection. Fungiform taste buds were visualized and measured with the aid of cytokeratin 8. In control mice, taste buds were ...

  1. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. 15th International Sunflower Conference Synthesis of new derivatives from vegetable sunflower oil methyl esters via epoxydation and oxirane opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epoxides have received increased attention because they are of interest both as end-products and as chemical intermediates; epoxidized oils, mainly High Oleic Sunflower Oil, and their ester derivatives have thus found important applications as plasticizers and additives for polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Epoxidized esters have been produced classically from High Oleic Sunflower Methyl Esters (HOSME using H2O2 and formic acid. The epoxidation reaches 90% on pilot scale (5kg. Epoxidized esters produced from HOSME have respectively hydroxyl values of 0, oxirane values of 5.2/4.5 and iodine values of 1.7/1.5. Cleavage trials of the oxirane group of the epoxidized esters with different reactants have been undertaken in order to produce on pilot scale new derivatives to be characterized and tested in different fields of application (lubrication, detergency and as chemical intermediates. Reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with an excess of oleic acid was conducted under atmospheric pressure without any catalyst and solvent. The oxirane opening leads to complete estolide formation: after neutralization, analytical controls (chemical values, GC and HPLC analysis indicate that the estolides are composed of a mixture of C36 (oleate of methyl hydroxystearate and C54 (di-oleate of methyl dihydroxystearate. Oxirane opening with alcohols (ethanol and octanol was preferentially performed by acid catalysis at 100°C under atmospheric pressure. Analytical controls show the formation of different etheralcohols and secondary products resulting from dehydration, transesterification and dimerization side-reactions. Cleavage reaction of Epoxy-HOSME with a primary amine (butylamine was conducted under pressure, at high temperature (180/200°C. Both transesterification and opening of the oxirane group occur under these conditions. Reaction products are composed of amides formed by transesterification and a mixture of fatty amines/imines obtained by ring opening as established

  3. Ice nucleation activity in various tissues of Rhododendron flower buds: their relevance to extraorgan freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya eIshikawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wintering flower buds of cold hardy Rhododendron japonicum cooled slowly to subfreezing temperatures are known to undergo extraorgan freezing, whose mechanisms remain obscure. We revisited this material to demonstrate why bud scales freeze first in spite of their lower water content, why florets remain deeply supercooled and how seasonal adaptive responses occur in regard to extraorgan freezing in flower buds. We determined ice nucleation activity (INA of various flower bud tissues of using a test tube-based assay. Irrespective of collection sites, outer and inner bud scales that function as ice sinks in extraorgan freezing had high INA levels whilst florets that remain supercooled and act as a water source lacked INA. The INA level of bud scales was not high in late August when flower bud formation was ending, but increased to reach the highest level in late October just before the first autumnal freeze. The results support the following hypothesis: the high INA in bud scales functions as the subfreezing sensor, ensuring the primary freezing in bud scales at warmer subzero temperatures, which likely allows the migration of floret water to the bud scales and accumulation of icicles within the bud scales. The low INA in the florets helps them remain unfrozen by deep supercooling. The INA in the bud scales was resistant to grinding and autoclaving at 121°C for 15 min, implying the intrinsic nature of the INA rather than of microbial origin, whilst the INA in stem bark was autoclaving labile. Anti-nucleation activity (ANA was implicated in the leachate of autoclaved bud scales, which suppresses the INA at millimolar levels of concentration and likely differs from the colligative effects of the solutes. The tissue INA levels likely contribute to the establishment of freezing behaviors by ensuring the order of freezing in the tissues: from the primary freeze to the last tissue remaining unfrozen.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  5. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proverbs, M.D.; Newton, J.R.; Logan, D.M.; Brinton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  6. Fungiform taste bud degeneration in C57BL/6J mice following chorda-lingual nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardo, Nick A; Hill, David L

    2007-09-10

    Taste buds are dependent on innervation for normal morphology and function. Fungiform taste bud degeneration after chorda tympani nerve injury has been well documented in rats, hamsters, and gerbils. The current study examines fungiform taste bud distribution and structure in adult C57BL/6J mice from both intact taste systems and after unilateral chorda-lingual nerve transection. Fungiform taste buds were visualized and measured with the aid of cytokeratin 8. In control mice, taste buds were smaller and more abundant on the anterior tip (taste buds were smaller and fewer on the side of the tongue ipsilateral to the transection and continued to decrease in both size and number until 15 days posttransection. Degenerating fungiform taste buds were smaller due to a loss of taste bud cells rather than changes in taste bud morphology. While almost all taste buds disappeared in more posterior fungiform papillae by 15 days posttransection, the anterior tip of the tongue retained nearly half of its taste buds compared to intact mice. Surviving taste buds could not be explained by an apparent innervation from the remaining intact nerves. Contralateral effects of nerve transection were also observed; taste buds were larger due to an increase in the number of taste bud cells. These data are the first to characterize adult mouse fungiform taste buds and subsequent degeneration after unilateral nerve transection. They provide the basis for more mechanistic studies in which genetically engineered mice can be used. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  8. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angéla eRouyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior towards the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e. single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone.

  9. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-07

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  11. Effect of Cocoa Butter and Sunflower Oil Supplementation on Performance, Immunoglobulin, and Antioxidant Vitamin Status of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yıldırım

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone and in combination on performance, some biochemical parameters, immunoglobulin, and antioxidant vitamin status in Wistar rats. Forty-eight male rats were assigned to four groups, consisting of 12 rats with 3 replicates. Control received balanced rat diet without oil, cocoa butter group received 3.5% cocoa butter, sunflower oil group received 3.5% sunflower oil, the last group received 1.75% sunflower oil + 1.75% cocoa butter supplementation in the rat diet for 8 weeks. The total feed consumption in sunflower oil group was statistically lower than in the other groups. The serum creatinine level was decreased in cocoa butter group compared to control. Triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels were decreased in only sunflower oil and only cocoa butter groups as compared to control. The level of Ig M was statistically lower in cocoa butter and cocoa butter + sunflower oil groups than in control and sunflower oil groups. There were no statistically important difference in vitamin concentrations among trial groups. It was concluded that the supplementation of cocoa butter in diet decreased Ig M level, while the supplementation of cocoa butter and sunflower oil alone decreased the triglyceride and VLDL cholesterol levels.

  12. Commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis for control of Indian meal moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schesser, J H

    1976-10-01

    Doses of four commercial formulations and one experimental formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner were mixed with the diet used to rear colonies of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). Indian meal moth eggs were introduced to the treated diet, and the resultant adult emergence was tabulated. The experimental formulations ranked as follows in efficacy in controlling the Indian meal moth: Dipel (50% lethal concentration [LC50], 25 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine WP (LC50, 100 mg/kg) greater than Thuricide (LC50, 150 mg/kg) greater than IMC 90007 (LC30, 180 mg/kg) greater than Bactospeine Flowable (LC50, 440 mg/kg).

  13. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Warrant

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September, Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m. In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”. Towards the end of the summer (February and March, the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes

  14. Effects of light and growth regulators on adventitious bud formation in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, H; Tachikawa, Y; Saitou, T; Harada, H

    1995-07-01

    To clarify that the presence of Ri T-DNA genes are not prerequisite for the light-induced bud formation in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy roots, leaf and root segments of nontransformed horseradish plants were used as explants. Bud formation from nontransformed tissues was observed in hormone-free medium under 16 h daylight conditions, but not under continuous darkness. To investigate the effects of growth regulators on bud formation, leaf and root explants were treated with auxin (1-naphthaleneacetic acid; NAA) and / or cytokinin (6-benzyl-aminopurine; BA). The most effective treatment in the dark to stimulate bud formation was BA at 1 mg·1(-1). These results show that adventitious bud formation in horseradish can be induced by light and growth regulators, and especially cytokinin, may be involved in bud formation, irrespective of whether the tissues were transformed with Ri T-DNA.

  15. Bud irradiation to obtain resistence to citrus canker through induction of mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, J.O.M.; Pompeu Junior, J.; Dragone, P.; Sobrinho, J.T.; Prada, V.A.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.

    1989-01-01

    The radiosensitivity to gamma rays of the bud of the orange cultivar Pera is determined through irradiation of buds with several doses; the irradiated buds were grafted onto rootstocks of lemon cu. Cravo. The grafting percentage and the development of the V 1 stem from the irradiated buds are analysed; it is concluded that the best dose for induction of mutation is 4,0 OK. New buds are irradiated and grafted with this dose. The V 1 stems are Separeted into 3 Groups, according to the position of the buds on the stem. The V 2 stems are analysed according to the morphological alteraTions due to irradiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Fgf16 is essential for pectoral fin bud formation in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Ryohei; Kamei, Eriko; Hotta, Yuuhei; Konishi, Morichika; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Zebrafish pectoral fin bud formation is an excellent model for studying morphogenesis. Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and sonic hedgehog (shh) are essential for pectoral fin bud formation. We found that Fgf16 was expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) of fin buds. A knockdown of Fgf16 function resulted in no fin bud outgrowth. Fgf16 is required for cell proliferation and differentiation in the mesenchyme and the AER of the fin buds, respectively. Fgf16 functions downstream of Fgf10, a mesenchymal factor, signaling to induce the expression of Fgf4 and Fgf8 in the AER. Fgf16 in the AER and shh in the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) interact to induce and/or maintain each other's expression. These findings have revealed that Fgf16, a newly identified AER factor, plays a crucial role in pectoral fin bud outgrowth by mediating the interactions of AER-mesenchyme and AER-ZPA

  17. Regularities of filtration of sunflower oil with the use of vibroacoustic exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Bredikhin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue in sunflower oil is a dispersed phase consisting of particulate products grinding sunflower seeds in the form of particles of the pulp, oil cake, meal, residual quantities of metals, pesticides. In the recycling process they are in the oil in suspension and negatively affect its quality. For research an experimental setup was developed allowing to change the angle of inclination of the filter element. The regularities of filtration were determined without preliminary purification of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. It is established, the contamination of centrifuged oil in the initial period is 14.6 times lower. After 10 minutes of treatment, it decreases by 62%, after 20 minutes – by 79.4%. With a 30-minute treatment, particles of 0.005-0.1 mm in size are removed to 90%, which is approximated to the refined oil in terms of contamination. The influence of vibration-acoustic action on sunflower oil during its filtration is shown. At the last stage of production, the peroxide index is reduced to 2-3 moles of active oxygen, and after 3 months of storage – from 11.8 to 7.7, which according to GOST corresponds to the highest-grade oil. The regularities of the filtration without pre-treatment of sunflower oil by centrifugation and after centrifugation. Shows the effect of vibroacoustic exposure on sunflower oil when filtering. The obtained data on the change of qualitative parameters of sunflower oil during its filtration in the field of vibroacoustic impact.

  18. Mature forms of the major seed storage albumins in sunflower: A mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Bastian; Colgrave, Michelle L; Mylne, Joshua S; Rosengren, K Johan

    2016-09-16

    Seed storage albumins are abundant, water-soluble proteins that are degraded to provide critical nutrients for the germinating seedling. It has been established that the sunflower albumins encoded by SEED STORAGE ALBUMIN 2 (SESA2), SESA20 and SESA3 are the major components of the albumin-rich fraction of the common sunflower Helianthus annuus. To determine the structure of sunflowers most important albumins we performed a detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization to assess what post-translational processing they receive prior to deposition in the protein storage vacuole. We found that SESA2 and SESA20 each encode two albumins. The first of the two SESA2 albumins (SESA2-1) exists as a monomer of 116 or 117 residues, differing by a threonine at the C-terminus. The second of the two SESA2 albumins (SESA2-2) is a monomer of 128 residues. SESA20 encodes the albumin SESA20-2, which is a 127-residue monomer, whereas SESA20-1 was not abundant enough to be structurally described. SESA3, which has been partly characterized previously, was found in several forms with methylation of its asparagine residues. In contrast to other dicot albumins, which are generally matured into a heterodimer, all the dominant mature sunflower albumins SESA2, SESA20-2, SESA3 and its post-translationally modified analogue SESA3-a are monomeric. Sunflower plants have been bred to thrive in various climate zones making them favored crops to meet the growing worldwide demand by humans for protein. The abundance of seed storage proteins makes them an important source of protein for animal and human nutrition. This study explores the structures of the dominant sunflower napin-type seed storage albumins to understand what structures evolution has favored in the most abundant proteins in sunflower seed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of some Evaporation Matters on Storability of Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saidy, Aml E A; El-Hai, K M Abd

    This study focuses on finding compounds that are safe to humans and environment, such as propionic and acetic acids that may provide an alternative control of seed-borne pathogens and decrease seed deterioration during storage. The objectives of this study were to reduce sunflower seed deterioration and improve the viability of sunflower seed using environmentally safe organic acids. Propionic and acetic acids were applied on sunflower seed at different concentrations under laboratory conditions during different storage periods. After 6 months storage period, the viability of sunflower seed as well as morphological and physiological characteristics of seedlings were evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial completely randomized design and randomized complete block design for greenhouse experiment. Propionic and acetic acids at different concentrations showed inhibitory effects on the presence of different fungal genera in all storage periods. Propionic acid was most effective followed by acetic acid. Increasing storage periods from 0-6 months significantly decreased germination percentage, germination energy, seedling characters, survived healthy seedlings and seed oil and protein percentages but dead and rotted seeds, as well as rotted seedlings were increased. Treating sunflower seeds with propionic acid (100%) improved germination criteria, seedling characters and seed chemical characters as well as survival seedlings and minimized the dead seeds, rotted seeds and rotted seedlings as compared with the control under all storage periods. Under greenhouse conditions, the maximum growth parameter and physiological characters (chlorophylls a, b, carotenoids and total phenols) were recorded from seed treated with 100% propionic acid after 6 months of storage. It may be concluded that propionic and acetic acids vapors can have considerable fungicidal activity against sunflower pathogens and improve seed viability

  20. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Actin Filaments of Taste Buds in the Goldfish and Parrot

    OpenAIRE

    Yuko, SUZUKI

    1996-01-01

    The filaments in the apical region of the taste bud cells of both goldfish and parrot were examined by fluorescence histochemistry and electron microscopy. The apical cytoplasm of goldfish taste buds terminated in long, slender processes and microvilli, and contained thin and straight filaments composed of f-actin, as detected by fluorecein-labeled phalloidin binding. In the parrot, the apical cytoplasm of taste buds terminating in microvilli also showed phalloidin fluorescence. The result su...

  2. Labeling and analysis of chicken taste buds using molecular markers in oral epithelial sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Wang, Zhonghou; Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Tehrani, Kayvan F.; Payne, Jason; Swetenburg, Raymond L.; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Mortensen, Luke J.; Stice, Steven L.; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In chickens, the sensory organs for taste are the taste buds in the oral cavity, of which there are ~240?360 in total number as estimated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There is not an easy way to visualize all taste buds in chickens. Here, we report a highly efficient method for labeling chicken taste buds in oral epithelial sheets using the molecular markers Vimentin and ?-Gustducin. Immediate tissue fixation following incubation with sub-epithelially injected proteases enabled us t...

  3. SUNflower +6 : estudio comparativo sobre el desarrollo de la seguridad vial en los países SUNflower +6 : informe final.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. Eksler, V. Hayes, S. Lynam, D. Morsink, P. & Oppe, S. (eds.)

    2007-01-01

    This project has developed the SUNflower approach, originally used to assess Sweden, Great Britain and the Netherlands, for comparing safety programmes and records between countries. The approach has been applied to nine countries, adding three Central European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary

  4. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies and European silver fir (Abies alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eDhuli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species and Abies alba (temperate species to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle over a nine week period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids. Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming.

  5. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep Gill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  7. Sequence-Based Analysis of Structural Organization and Composition of the Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Navdeep; Buti, Matteo; Kane, Nolan; Bellec, Arnaud; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Berges, Hélène; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is an important oilseed crop, as well as a model system for evolutionary studies, but its 3.6 gigabase genome has proven difficult to assemble, in part because of the high repeat content of its genome. Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. Our data confirm previous reports in suggesting that the sunflower genome is >78% repetitive. Sunflower repeats share very little similarity to other plant repeats such as those of Arabidopsis, rice, maize and wheat; overall 28% of repeats are “novel” to sunflower. The repetitive sequences appear to be randomly distributed within the sequenced BACs. Assuming the 96 BACs are representative of the genome as a whole, then approximately 5.2% of the sunflower genome comprises non TE-related genic sequence, with an average gene density of 18kbp/gene. Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. The assembled BACs will also be useful for assessing the quality of several different draft assemblies of the sunflower genome and for annotating the reference sequence. PMID:24833511

  8. Qualitative and quantitative differences between taste buds of the rat and mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Huazhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous electrophysiological, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical studies on rodent taste buds have been carried out on rat taste buds. In recent years, however, the mouse has become the species of choice for molecular and other studies on sensory transduction in taste buds. Do rat and mouse taste buds have the same cell types, sensory transduction markers and synaptic proteins? In the present study we have used antisera directed against PLCβ2, α-gustducin, serotonin (5-HT, PGP 9.5 and synaptobrevin-2 to determine the percentages of taste cells expressing these markers in taste buds in both rodent species. We also determined the numbers of taste cells in the taste buds as well as taste bud volume. Results There are significant differences (p 3 is smaller than a rat taste bud (64,200 μm3. The numerical density of taste cells in mouse circumvallate taste buds (2.1 cells/1000 μm3 is significantly higher than that in the rat (1.2 cells/1000 μm3. Conclusion These results suggest that rats and mice differ significantly in the percentages of taste cells expressing signaling molecules. We speculate that these observed dissimilarities may reflect differences in their gustatory processing.

  9. Distribution of α-Gustducin and Vimentin in premature and mature taste buds in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Rajapaksha, Prasangi; Payne, Jason; Goodfellow, Forrest; Wang, Zhonghou; Kawabata, Fuminori; Tabata, Shoji; Stice, Steven; Beckstead, Robert; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The sensory organs for taste in chickens (Gallus sp.) are taste buds in the oral epithelium of the palate, base of the oral cavity, and posterior tongue. Although there is not a pan-taste cell marker that labels all chicken taste bud cells, α-Gustducin and Vimentin each label a subpopulation of taste bud cells. In the present study, we used both α-Gustducin and Vimentin to further characterize chicken taste buds at the embryonic and post-hatching stages (E17-P5). We found that both α-Gustduci...

  10. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh+ placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh+ precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  11. Low volume undiluted Btk application against heavy gypsy moth population densities in southern Corsica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Fusco; Jean-Claude Martin

    2003-01-01

    Low volume undiluted applications of Bacillus thuringiensis are common and efficacious against coniferous forest pests such as pine processionary moth and spruce budworm, but have not been common practice against deciduous forest pests due to coverage issues.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on reducing the several inhibitors in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The medium for Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L) was sterilized using ionizing radiation (0, 5, 15 and 25 KGy) or heat (cooking for 40 minutes.). inhibitors were also added either on the top of the diet or by mixing it with the diet. The results showed that all Codling moth larvae in the ionizing radiation sterilized diet died before reaching the 4th larval instar. Results of using both radiation and cooking for sterilizing the diet gave variable results; those treated with 15 KGy gave significantly more moths with higher weight and more fecundity. The results also showed that increasing the amount of microbial inhibitors in diet negatively affected the number of produced moth and their biological characteristics. Consequently irradiation could be a mean for reducing the amount of chemical inhibitors added to the diet. (author)

  13. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  14. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  15. Area-wide population suppression of codling moth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calkins, C.O.; Knight, A.L.; Richardson, G.; Bloem, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The area-wide pest population control concept began with E.F. Knipling (1979) in the 1970s. Control of a pest population on individual fields does little to control the overall pest population because only a portion of the population is being affected. Expanding control tactics beyond individual farms tends to suppress the population on a wider scale and frequently results in suppression of the population for more than one year. The Agriculture Research Service (ARS) believes that this concept has not been addressed with the focus and support that it deserves. The ARS Administration made a conscious decision in 1994 to create a series of area-wide programmes funded out of ARS-based funds that had previously been used for pilot tests. These programmes involve a coordinated effort among ARS and university scientists, growers, and fieldmen for agriculture supply centres and fruit packing houses. The first area-wide programme supported by ARS was the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) suppression programme. The codling moth is the key pest of pome fruit throughout the western United States (Beers et al. 1993). About half of the insecticides applied on these crops are directed toward this pest. A non-insecticidal control technique, mating disruption (MD), is available to replace the organophosphates. Removal of the hard pesticides directed against this pest would do the most to allow natural enemies to survive and reproduce in the orchards, which in turn would have the effect of reducing secondary pests. Elimination of the pesticides would also remove much of the health risks to workers and would minimise buildup of pesticide resistance. The objectives of the Codling Moth Area-wide Program are to enhance the efficacy of the non-pesticide approach, to demonstrate that mating disruption will work if conducted properly, to develop biological technology to lower costs of control that complement mating disruption, to implement effective

  16. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Crabbé

    Full Text Available This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation, which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p. infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the

  17. Expression of sall4 in taste buds of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robyn; Braubach, Oliver R; Bilkey, Jessica; Zhang, Jing; Akimenko, Marie-Andrée; Fine, Alan; Croll, Roger P; Jonz, Michael G

    2013-07-01

    We characterized the expression of sall4, a gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, in taste buds of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Using an enhancer trap line (ET5), we detected enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in developing and adult transgenic zebrafish in regions containing taste buds: the lips, branchial arches, and the nasal and maxillary barbels. Localization of EGFP to taste cells of the branchial arches and lips was confirmed by co-immunolabeling with antibodies against calretinin and serotonin, and a zebrafish-derived neuronal marker (zn-12). Transgenic insertion of the ET construct into the zebrafish genome was evaluated and mapped to chromosome 23 in proximity (i.e. 23 kb) to the sall4 gene. In situ hybridization and expression analysis between 24 and 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) demonstrated that transgenic egfp expression in ET5 zebrafish was correlated with the spatial and temporal pattern of expression of sall4 in the wild-type. Expression was first observed in the central nervous system and branchial arches at 24 hpf. At 48 hpf, sall4 and egfp expression was observed in taste bud primordia surrounding the mouth and branchial arches. At 72 and 96 hpf, expression was detected in the upper and lower lips and branchial arches. Double fluorescence in situ hybridization at 3 and 10 dpf confirmed colocalization of sall4 and egfp in the lips and branchial arches. These studies reveal sall4 expression in chemosensory cells and implicate this transcription factor in the development and renewal of taste epithelia in zebrafish. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  19. Standardised methods for the GMO monitoring of butterflies and moths: the whys and hows

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Andreas; Theißen, Bernhard; Dolek, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are correlated with many biotic and abiotic characteristics of the environment, and are widely accepted as relevant protection goals. Adverse effects on butterflies and moths through genetically modified (GM) crops have been demonstrated, by both insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant events. Thus, Lepidoptera are considered suitable bio-indicators for monitoring the potential adverse effects due to the cultivation of GM crops, and guidelines were develope...

  20. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  1. Studies on population fluctuation of diamondback moth, plutella xylostella L. at the Khao khor high-land agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawchoung, P.; Limohpasmanee, W.; Malakrong, A.; Kodcharint, P.

    1994-01-01

    The population Fluctuation of diamondback moth were studied by using the yellow sticky trap at Khao Khor high-land Agricultural Research Station during August-October 1993 and February-April 1994. The maximum and minimum number of diamondback moth were 24.89 and 0.1 adult/trap/6 days. When number of diamondback moth was low, they distributed in clump pattern. But the distribution would change to be clump or random pattern when number of diamondback moth was high. Temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and age of cabbage had no effects on number of caugh moth. The number of moth was highly relative with number of larva 7th day later

  2. Tocopherols in Sunflower Seedlings under Light and Dark Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Moral, Lidia; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of tocopherols in cotyledons and radicles from sunflower seeds with high and low total tocopherol content, mainly in the α-tocopherol form, and from seeds with increased proportions of β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, both under dark and light conditions. Tocopherol content was measured every 24 h from 1 to 12 days after sowing. In all cases, the content of individual tocopherol forms in the cotyledons and radicles was reduced along the sampling period, which was more pronounced under light conditions. The presence of light had a slightly greater effect on α- and γ-tocopherol than on β- and δ-tocopherol. A marked light effect was also observed on total tocopherol content, with light promoting the reduction of tocopherol content in cotyledons and radicles. The study revealed only slight differences in the patterns of tocopherol losses in lines with different tocopherol profiles, both under dark and light conditions, which suggested that the partial replacement of α-tocopherol by other tocopherol forms had no great impact on the protection against oxidative damage in seedlings.

  3. Degradation of soil fertility can cancel pollination benefits in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; Berti, Antonio; Morari, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2016-02-01

    Pollination and soil fertility are important ecosystem services to agriculture but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We explored the combined effects of pollination and soil fertility in sunflower using soils from a trial characterized by different long-term input management in order to recreate plausible levels of soil fertility. Pollinator exclusion was used as a proxy for a highly eroded pollination service. Pollination benefits to yield depended on soil fertility, i.e., insect pollination enhanced seed set and yield only under higher soil fertility indicating that limited nutrient availability may constrain pollination benefits. Our study provides evidence for interactions between above- and belowground ecosystem services, highlighting the crucial role of soil fertility in supporting agricultural production not only directly, but also indirectly through pollination. Management strategies aimed at enhancing pollination services might fail in increasing yield in landscapes characterized by high soil service degradation. Comprehensive knowledge about service interactions is therefore essential for the correct management of ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes.

  4. Borneo: The new NS sunflower confectionary type hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, beside the basic direction in sunflower breeding, the creation of standard hybrids with high oil content with high seed and oil yield, hybrids are being created for special confectionery purposes directed towards the final kernel products. In this program, apart from breeding in order to improve main seed yield components, special attention is given to the increase of protein content and the quality with the decrease of seed oil content, to the increase of the weight of 1000 seeds and to the decrease of content of the shell. Two-line SC hybrid was created by crossing the cytoplasmatic male sterile line of the mother with a father line with fertility restoration genes. Borneo is a high protein confectionary type hybrid that has been registered in Slovakia (EU in 2009. It contains successfully combined genes responsible for high genetic potential for yield and valuable technical and technological seed traits. The hybrid is adequate for nutrition, dehuling and kernel production. Borneo is a medium early hybrid with the genetic potential for yield of over 4,5t/ha and its seed oil content is under 43%. .

  5. Interrelationship of pollination conditions, fertilization and sunflower seed yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Four commercially important sunflower hybrids (NS-H-45, NS-H-l 11, NS-H-702 and Velja and their parental components (Ha-74B, Ha-98B, CMS-3-8B, Ha-26B, RHA-583, RHA-R-PI-2/1 and RHA-113N were used over a period of two years to study the following traits: disk flower corolla length, nectar content, pollen viability, bee visitation, fertilization percentage and seed yield. Relations among the traits were determined by path coefficient analysis. The simple correlation coefficients showed that fertilization percentage and bee visitation had a highly significant influence on seed yield. The corolla length had a positive effect on nectar content, while nectar content had a significant negative influence on pollen viability. The highest significant direct influence on seed yield was that of fertilization percentage, while the effect on nectar content on seed yield was negative but not significant. The coefficient of determination was 0.8071.

  6. EXPRESSION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANT GENES IN SUNFLOWER INFECTED WITH BROOMRAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Shestakova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Expression levels of ROS-scavenging genes (MnSODI, APX3 and AOX1A in leaves (R5 stage; 90 days after sowing of seven sunflower genotypes infected with three Orobanche cumana Wallr. populations were assayed in plants with/without broomrape aerial shoots and control group. Five lines were highly susceptible to all three populations. MS-2161A was resistant and MS-2039A was tolerant to broomrape populations. The expression of studied genes was much more altered in highly susceptible genotypes than in those resistant. Significant differences in number of cases of ROS-scavenging genes with modified transcriptional activity in infected and non-symptomatic plants were not ascertained. The transcriptional activity of MnSODI, APX3 and AOX1A genes was weakly influenced by infection with broomrape (67 % cases or was down-regulated (24 % cases. Some up-regulation cases (9 % for MnSODI (MS-2039 and AOX1A gene (MS-2067 were revealed. AOX1A was the most responsive gene, especially when infection was produced by population from Anenii Noi. 

  7. Alternative potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower

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    Sabrina Thereza dos Santos Torqueti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is dependent on importation of fertilizers, especially the potassics. Rocks and minerals that contain nutrients have a potential for use in agriculture as fertilizer, especially those of slow solubilization and that exhibit residual effect. In this context, the objective was to assess the feasibility of glauconite rock as potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions arranged in an entirely randomized design, in a 4x4 + 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates and one plant per plot. Four glauconite-based fertilizers were used as a potassium source: fine grained glauconite, fine grained organo-mineral glauconite, coarse grained glauconite and coarse grained organo-mineral glauconite, in four doses, as well as an additional treatment with four doses of KCl, the principal conventional source of the nutrient. The height of the flower stalks, the diameter of the stem and floral capitulum, the number of cultivation days and post-harvest durability were evaluated. The application of KCl yielded the production of flower stems with greater height and larger capitulum diameter in relation to the supply of glauconite. Among the glauconite based fertilizers, the fine grained organo-mineral product provided the best flower charateristics. The postharvest commercial durability of the flower stalks was higher in plants that received the glauconite and fine grained organo-mineral glauconite. The fine grained organo-mineral glauconite surpasses all other alternative sources of potassium in relation to the agronomic characteristics evaluated.

  8. Anti-Neuroblastoma Properties of a Recombinant Sunflower Lectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pinedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to their sugar recognition specificity, plant lectins are proposed as bioactive proteins with potential in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Helja is a mannose-specific jacalin-like lectin from sunflower which was shown to inhibit the growth of certain fungi. Here, we report its recombinant expression in a prokaryotic system and its activity in neurobalstoma cells. Helja coding sequence was fused to the pET-32 EK/LIC, the enterokinase/Ligation-independent cloning vector and a 35 kDa protein was obtained in Escherichia coli representing Helja coupled to thioredoxin (Trx. The identity of this protein was verified using anti-Helja antibodies. This chimera, named Trx-rHelja, was enriched in the soluble bacterial extracts and was purified using Ni+2-Sepharose and d-mannose-agarose chromatography. Trx-rHelja and the enterokinase-released recombinant Helja (rHelja both displayed toxicity on human SH-SY5Y neuroblastomas. rHelja decreased the viability of these tumor cells by 75% according to the tetrazolium reduction assay, and microscopic analyses revealed that the cell morphology was disturbed. Thus, the stellate cells of the monolayer became spheroids and were isolated. Our results indicate that rHelja is a promising tool for the development of diagnostic or therapeutic methods for neuroblastoma cells, the most common solid tumors in childhood.

  9. Interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard and sunflower grown in the hydroponic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirong Tang; Xiaochang Wang

    2002-01-01

    Both Indian mustard and sunflower were grown in a hydroponic solution treated with different concentration activities of 134 Cs or with different amounts of copper or with both in order to investigate the interaction between copper and radiocesium. It was found that 134 Cs activity concentration applied in the nutrient solution exerted more influence on the uptake and translocation of copper by Indian mustard than by sunflower. Indian mustard grown in hydroponic solution containing certain levels of copper and being treated with higher 134 Cs activity concentration showed higher uptake of copper than sunflower. However, in the case of root copper concentrations, sunflower showed significantly higher copper immobilization by roots than Indian mustard. It was also found that the presence of copper the the hydroponic solution did modify radiocesium uptake by both species. The application of 1 mg/l in the growth medium could greatly increase the uptake of 134 Cs by both species. With 3 mg/l concentration of copper amended to the solution, the accumulation of 134 Cs by both species was decreased compared to the 1 mg/l copper treatment. These lines of evidence show that there is stronger interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard than in sunflower during the root uptake through nutrient solution. (author)

  10. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  11. Water footprint and carbon footprint of the energy consumption in sunflower agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the energy requirements, carbon footprint, and water footprint of sunflower production in Kermanshah province, western Iran. Data were collected from 70 sunflower production agroecosystems which were selected based on random sampling method in summer 2012. Results indicated that total input and output energy in sunflower production were 26,973.87 and 64,833.92 MJha -1 , respectively. The highest share of total input energy in sunflower agroecosystems was recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 35, 19, and 17%, respectively. Also, energy use efficiency, water footprint, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and carbon footprint were calculated as 2.40, 3.41 m 3  kg -1 , 2042.091 kg CO 2eq ha -1 , and 0.875 kg CO 2eq kg -1 , respectively. 0.18 of sunflower water footprint was related to green water footprint and the remaining 82% was related to blue water footprint. Also, the highest share of carbon footprint was related to electricity power (nearby 80%). Due to the results of this study, reducing use of fossil fuel and non-renewable energy resource and application of sufficient irrigation systems by efficient use of water resource are essential in order to achieve low carbon footprint, environmental challenges, and also sustainability of agricultural production systems.

  12. The effects of agricultural subsidies on sunflower cultivation and farmers income: evidence from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effects of both premium support application on sunflower cultivation area, production amount and support payments on producer income are investigated. In this study it is concluded that premium supports are inefficient on increasing sunflower cultivation area and production whereas it is concluded that it has an important role on producer income and in the determination of the market price. In fact, from a survey that we have carried out, it emerges that the area-based support (diesel oil, fertilizer etc. support) together with premium support increase the revenue of sunflower up to 27.74% per unit area and the gross profit in the proportion of 98.87%. This study indicates that in order to increase the sunflower production in Turkey the amounts of sunflower premium support, diesel oil and fertilizer should be rearranged in compliance with current market conditions. Moreover, for other agricultural products, the use of certified seed should also be included into agricultural support programmes. Production on well irrigated areas should be widened and the use of oil crops varieties with high oil ratio should be extended. (author)

  13. Nutritional parameters of steers receiving different levels of sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Hellen L; Goes, Rafael H T B de; Cerilo, Sara L N; Oliveira, Euclides R de; Gressler, Maria G M; Brabes, Kelly C S

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate of the sunflower crushed in nutritional parameters in steers, supplemented at pasture, we used four steers in 4×4 Latin square design. The supplements were provided in 6 g/kg of body weight/animal/day, consisting of sunflower crushed, corn, soybean meal and mineral. All the supplements was isonitrogenous and soybean meal was replaced in 0, 20, 40, and 60% for sunflower crushed. The determination of ruminal pH and ammonia was at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. after feeding and for short-chain fatty acids it was collected at 0 and 6 h. post-feeding. The dry matter intake was not affected (P>0.05) by inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.59 kg/day). There was no significant effect (P>0.05) for pH for the inclusion of sunflower crushed (mean=6.41). For contents of ruminal NH₃-N was a significant effect (P replacement of soybean meal did not alter nutrition parameters.

  14. The Application of Neural Networks in Balancing Production of Crude Sunflower Oil and Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Ivetic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to predict specific output characteristics of half finished goods (crude sunflower oil and meal on the basis of specific input variables (quality and composition of sunflower seeds, with the help of artificial neural networks. This is an attempt to predict the amount much more precisely than is the case with technological calculations commonly used in the oil industry. All input variables are representing the data received by the laboratory, and the output variables except category % of oil which is obtained by measuring the physical quantity of produced crude sunflower oil and sunflower consumed quantity of the processing quality. The correct prediction of the output variables contributes to better sales planning, production of sunflower oil, and better use of storage. Also, the correct prediction of technological results of the quality of crude oil and meal provides timely response and also preventing getting rancid and poor-quality oil, timely categorizing meal, which leads to proper planning and sales to the rational utilization of storage space, allows timely response technologists and prevents the growth of microorganisms in the meal.

  15. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Technical efficiency analysis for oilseed sunflower farms: a case study in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külekçi, Murat

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the technical efficiency of farms producing sunflower in Erzurum, Turkey and to identify factors that might be causing inefficiency. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to measure technical efficiency. One hundred and seventeen randomly selected farms were interviewed for farm-level data in the 2004-2005 production period. Results revealed that the mean technical efficiency for the sunflower farms, estimated by the stochastic production frontier, is 64%. At full technical efficiency, on average, the farmers could reduce their inputs by around 56% without reducing their sunflower production, simply by improving technical efficiency. In the inefficiency model the parameter estimates showed that older farmers, higher level of farmer's education, more experienced farmers, larger farm size and higher information score resulted in lower technical inefficiency, while bigger family size and more credit usage resulted in higher technical inefficiency. This study proposes strategies such as providing better extension services and farmer-training programmes, including more educated people in sunflower farming and also expanding the sunflower-growing area through provision of adequate facilities in order to increase technical efficiency.

  17. Theoretical growth of framboidal and sunflower pyrite using the R-package frambgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinero, Raul; Cárdenes, Víctor

    2017-12-01

    Framboids and sunflowers are the most ubiquitous shapes of sedimentary pyrite. Framboids are spherical aggregates of nanocrystals, while sunflowers are formed by overgrowth of framboids and represent intermediate stages in the transformation of framboids into euhedrae. The characterization of the size populations of these shapes provides critical information about the paleoredox conditions at time of formation and the subsequent changes in these conditions. This paper describes in detail an algorithm designed to model the growth and generate significant populations of both framboids and sunflowers, using functions of the statistical software R. The source code is provided as supplementary material to this paper. The algorithm uses several growth mechanisms based on dependence on or independence of the number of nanocrystals for framboids and the external diameter for sunflowers. Variability in the generated size populations depends on several parameters of the algorithm, such as the diameter of the nanocrystals, the initial diameter of the framboids and the maximum value of the random numbers. The resulting populations of framboids and sunflowers can be compared with data obtained from analysis of real samples in order to understand and model the genetic paleo-processes.

  18. Atmospheric non-thermal argon-oxygen plasma for sunflower seedling growth improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matra, Khanit

    2018-01-01

    Seedling growth enhancement of sunflower seeds by DC atmospheric non-thermal Ar-O2 plasma has been proposed. The plasma reactor was simply designed by the composition of multi-pin electrodes bonded on a solderable printed circuit board (PCB) anode. A stable plasma was exhibited in the non-periodical self-pulsing discharge mode during the seed treatment. The experimental results showed that non-thermal plasma treatment had a significant positive effect on the sunflower seeds. Ar-O2 mixed gas ratio, treatment time and power source voltage are the important parameters affecting growth stimulation of sunflower sprouts. In this research, the sunflower seeds treated with 3:3 liters per minute (LPM) of Ar-O2 plasma at a source voltage of 8 kV for 1 min showed the best results in stimulating the seedling growth. The results in this case showed that the dry weight and average shoot length of the sunflower sprouts were 1.79 and 2.69 times higher and heavier than those of the untreated seeds, respectively.

  19. Biosorption behaviors of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution by sunflower straw and insights of binding mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Ai; Xuegang Luo; Xiaoyan Lin; Sizhao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (VI)-containing water has been recognized as a potential longer-term radiological health hazard. In this work, the sorptive potential of sunflower straw for U (VI) from aqueous solution was investigated in detail, including the effect of initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature, contact time and initial U (VI) concentration. A dose of 2.0 g L -1 of sunflower straw in an initial U (VI) concentration of 20 mg L -1 with an initial pH of 5.0 and a contact time of 10 h resulted in the maximum U (VI) uptake (about 6.96 mg g -1 ) at 298 K. The isotherm adsorption data was modeled best by the nonlinear Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The equilibrium sorption capacity of sunflower straw was observed to be approximately seven times higher than that of coconut-shell activated carbon as 251.52 and 32.37 mg g -1 under optimal conditions, respectively. The positive enthalpy and negative free energy suggested the endothermic and spontaneous nature of sorption, respectively. The kinetic data conformed successfully to the pseudo-second-order equation. Furthermore, energy dispersive X-ray, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that U (VI) adsorption onto sunflower straw was predominantly controlled by ion exchange as well as complexation mechanism. The study revealed that sunflower straw could be exploited for uranium remediation of aqueous streams as a promising adsorbent. (author)

  20. Sunflower meal for broilers of 22 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Francelino Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the inclusion of sunflower meal in diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis fed to broilers of 22 to 42 days of age. Nine hundred and sixty birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (two formulation criteria - digestible or total amino acids; two sunflower meal inclusion levels - 0 or 15%, with six replicates of 40 broilers each. Performance (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion and data from carcass characteristics (eviscerated carcass and commercial cuts were evaluated. On day 42, six birds from each pen were sacrificed to determine digesta viscosity, and litter samples from each replicate pen were collected to determine litter moisture. The inclusion of 15% sunflower meal in broiler diets formulated on total amino acid basis worsens feed conversion ratio. Diets formulated on digestible amino acid basis are adequate when alternative feedstuffs, such as sunflower meal, are included. The use of sunflower meal in the diet does not influence carcass and cuts yields, but digesta viscosity increases when 15% of that feedstuff is included in the diet.

  1. Pre-haustorial resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cytochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría-Zomeño, Sira; Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Jorrín, Jesús; Maldonado, Ana M

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a root holoparasitic angiosperm considered as one of the major constraints for sunflower production in Mediterranean areas. Breeding for resistance is regarded as the most effective, feasible, and environmentally friendly solution to control this parasite. However, the existing sources of genetic resistance are defeated by the continuous emergence of new more virulent races of the parasite. In this work, the interaction between sunflower and O. cumana has been analysed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms involved in resistance. Two sunflower genotypes were selected showing different behaviour against the new race F of O. cumana, HE-39998 (susceptible) and HE-39999 (resistant), and both compatible and incompatible interactions were compared. Pot and Petri dish bioassays revealed that only HE-39998 plants were severely affected, supporting a high number of successfully established broomrapes to mature flowering, whereas in HE-39999 root tubercles were never observed, resistance being associated with browning symptoms of both parasite and host tissues. Histological aspects of the resistance were further investigated. Suberization and protein cross-linking at the cell wall were seen in the resistant sunflower cells in contact with the parasite, preventing parasite penetration and connection to the host vascular system. In addition, fluorescence and confocal laser microscopy (CLM) observations revealed accumulation of phenolic compounds during the incompatible reaction, which is in agreement with these metabolites playing a defensive role during H. annuus-O. cumana interaction.

  2. Economic analysis of sunflower production in the view of orobanche resistance conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the use of production factors in 3 different types of sunflower production with respect to orobanche resistance in the agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region which is located at European continent of Turkey. The data used in this research have been obtained through questionnaire technique from 571 agricultural enterprises which were determined by Stratified Random Sampling Method in 2009. It has been reached to the highest yield by 189.30 kg da-1 and the highest gross profit by 37.91 US$ da-1 in the production of sunflower, resistant to orobanche. In the research, it has been determined that the rate of soil testing among the sunflower producers is considerably low and almost the whole of the production has been made under rainfed conditions. As a result of the research, it has been concluded that orobanche resistant sunflower, which has higher water productivity than other cultivars by 367.13 g m/sup 3/, will have a higher proportion in the sunflower cultivation areas in future because of its higher contribution to producer welfare. (author)

  3. [Use of flour from sunflower oil cake in the biosynthesis of antigungal antibiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharevich, V M; Shvetsova, N N; Prodan, S I; Malkov, M A

    1977-04-01

    The possibility of replacing soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by food wastes of the oilpress industry and the meal of the sunflower oil cake in particular is discussed as applied to the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics, such as levorin, mycoheptin, amphotericin. The studies showed that replacement of soybean meal by sunflower oil cake meal with simultaneous increasing of the amount of carbohydrates in the medium increased the levorin levels by 60--70 per cent as compared to the media used at present. When soybean meal and corn-steep liquor were simultaneously replaced by sunflower oil cake meal in amounts of 3--4 per cent the levels of mycoheptin in the fermentation broth increased by 30--65 per cent respectively. Replacement of soybean meal and corn-steep liquor by 3 per cent of sunflow oil cake meal in the medium used presently increased the amphotericin levels by 27 percent as compared to the control. Therefore, sunflower oil cake meal is a substitute of full value for soybean meal and corn-steep liquor in the fermentation media for production of antifungal antibiotics.

  4. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  5. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  6. Comparative life tables of leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), in its native range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, W H; Kuhlmann, U; Mason, P G; Cappuccino, N

    2010-02-01

    Leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), is an invasive alien species in eastern Canada, the larvae of which mine the green tissues of Allium spp. This study was designed to construct and analyse life tables for leek moth within its native range. Stage-specific mortality rates were estimated for the third leek moth generation at three sites in Switzerland from 2004 to 2006 to identify some of the principle factors that inhibit leek moth population growth in areas of low pest density. The contribution of natural enemies to leek moth mortality was measured by comparing mortality on caged and uncaged leeks. Total pre-imaginal mortality on uncaged plants was 99.6%, 99.1% and 96.4% in 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Variation in mortality was greater among years than among sites. Total larval mortality was greater than that in the eggs and pupae. This was due largely to the high mortality (up to 83.3%) of neonates during the brief period between egg hatch and establishment of the feeding mine. Leek moth pupal mortality was significantly greater on uncaged than on caged leeks, indicating an impact by natural enemies, and this pattern was consistent over all three years of study. In contrast, the other life stages did not show consistently higher mortality rates on uncaged plants. This observation suggests that the pupal stage may be particularly vulnerable to natural enemies and, therefore, may be the best target for classical biological control in Canada.

  7. Development of synthetic volatile attractant for maleEctropis obliqua moths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-ling; LI Xi-wang; XIN Zhao-jun; HAN Juan-juan; RAN Wei; LEI Shu

    2016-01-01

    The tea geometridEctropis obliquais one of the most serious leaf-feeding insect pests in tea (Camelia sinensis) in East Asia. Although several volatile chemicals emitted from tea plants have been reported to be attractive toE. obliqua moths, no synthetic attractants for E. obliqua moths have been developed. By measuring the behavioral responses of the moth to a series of chemicals in the lab, we found that a blend containing a ternary mixture containing (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate and benzyl alcohol clearly attracted toE. obliqua moths of both sex and that (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate could enhance the attractiveness of the ternary blend. Moreover, we found that the volatiles emitted from the plant-E. obliqua larva com-plex have the same attractiveness as: 1) the blend of volatiles containing the ternary mixture and 2) the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture to both male and female moths. In a ifeld bioassay, more male moths were observed on traps that were baited with the blend containing (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate plus the ternary mixture than on control traps. Our study raises the tantalizing possibility that synthetic blends could be deployed as attractants for pests in the ifeld.

  8. Candidate gene analysis and identification of TRAP and SSR markers linked to the Or5 gene, which confers sunflower resistance to race E of broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) is a root holoparasitic angiosperm considered as being one of the major constraints for sunflower production in Mediterranean areas. Breeding for resistance has been crucial for protecting sunflowers from broomrape damage. The Or5 gene, which confers re...

  9. Atmospheric pollution and melanic moths in Manchester and its environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askew, R R; Cook, L M; Bishop, J A

    1971-01-01

    Samples of moths have been taken in the Manchester area at sites in localities with moderate to extreme atmospheric pollution. The majority of species collected are dark in color, many typically pale species being represented by dark variants. Four species polymorphic for melanic and non-melanic morphs have been examined in more detail. In Biston betularia the melanic frequency is over 93% at all stations, but the frequency of typicals appears to have increased over the past 15 years. This coincides with a period of extensive smoke control zonation. Gondontis bidentata has a higher frequency of melanics than has been recorded elsewhere in the country. There is significant variation between sites, the higher frequencies occurring in the more polluted localities. Non-melanics segregate into a pale and a dark category. In reared samples males exhibit a greater frequency of melanics than females.

  10. SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, Kenneth A.; Bloem, Stephanie

    2000-01-01

    The codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is considered the key pest of apples and pears in the fruit growing regions of south central British Columbia. This region includes about 18,000 acres of commercial production, as well as several urban centres with abundant backyard fruit trees and ornamental crab apples. Now, after 30 years of research and planning, an eradication programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented against CM. This article reviews the progress that the programme has made and how well reality has met expectations in key areas. Proverbs (1982) and Proverbs et al. (1982) reviewed the techniques for mass rearing, sterilising and releasing CM, DeBiasio (1988) developed the initial implementation plan and Dyck et al. (1993) reviewed the history and development of the programme up to 1992 when it became operational

  11. Root colonization and growth promotion of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by phosphate solubilizing Enterobacter sp. Fs-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Ali, Saira; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    An Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 was isolated from sunflower rhizosphere, identified on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (GeneBank accession no. GQ179978) and studied for its root colonization and growth promotion ability in sunflower. Morphologically, it was rod shaped Gram-negative, motile

  12. Somatic embryogenesis from corolla tubes of interspecific amphiploids between cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its wild species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatic embryogenesis in vitro provides an efficient means of plant multiplication, facilitating sunflower improvement and germplasm innovation. In the present study, using interspecific amphiploids (2n=4x=68) between cultivated sunflower and wild perennial Helianthus species as explant donors, soma...

  13. Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassova, Mariana; Moneger, Françoise; Leaver, Christopher J.; Petrov, Peter; Atanassov, Atanas; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterile sunflower, CMS3, was characterised in relation to the Petiolaris (PET1) cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower, CMS89. Southern blot analysis showed that the mitochondrial genome of CMS3 contains unique rearrangements in at least five loci (atp6, atp9, atpA, nad1 + 5 and

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered whorled sunflower, Helianthus verticillatus, at two sites in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helianthus verticillatus, the whorled sunflower, is an endangered species endemic to only a few locations in Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia. This sunflower is an aggressive grower and attractive to both plant enthusiasts and pollinators with its multiple, small yellow flowers in late fall. There is...

  15. Registration of an oilseed sunflower germplasm line HA-BSR1 highly tolerant to Sclerotinia basal stalk rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a devastating disease that causes a significant damage to worldwide sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production by reducing seed yield and quality. The objective of this research was to develop highly BSR tolerant sunflower g...

  16. PRODUCTIVITY OF SUNFLOWER DEPENDING ON PROCESSING METHOD OF SOIL IN THE AREA OF UNSTABLE MOISTENING ON BLACK LEACHED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Kasmynin G. G.

    2014-01-01

    The basic amount of oilseeds in the Russian Federation, including the Stavropol region is produced by sunflowers. Using the best ways and methods of soil cultivation and improving the technology of sunflower cultivation in relation to specific growing conditions - the main way to increase the yield and gross yield of seeds of this valuable crop

  17. Development of a Set of Chromosome-Specific Cytogenetic DNA Markers in Sunflower Using BAC-FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In diploid sunflower (2n=34), conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established. However, the relationship between genetic linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific BAC and BIBAC clones were identifi...

  18. Morphological characterization and gene expression profiling during bud development in a tropical perennial, Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huifeng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tropical evergreen perennials undergo recurrent flush growth, and their terminal buds alternate between growth and dormancy. In sharp contrast to intensive studies on bud development in temperate deciduous trees, there is little information about bud development regulation in tropical trees. In this study, litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn. was used as a model tropical perennial for morphological characterization and transcriptomic analysis of bud development. Litchi buds are naked with apical meristem embraced by rudimentary leaves, which are brown at dormant stage (Stage I. They swell and turn greenish as buds break (Stage II, and as growth accelerates, the rudimentary leaves elongate and open exposing the inner leaf primodia. With the outgrowth of the needle-like leaflets, bud growth reaches a maximum (Stage III. When leaflets expand, bud growth cease with the abortion of the rudimentary leaves at upper positions (Stage IV. Then buds turn brown and reenter dormant status. Budbreak occurs again when new leaves become hard green. Buds at four stages (Stage I to IV were collected for respiration measurements and in-depth RNA sequencing. Respiration rate was lowest at Stage I and highest at Stage II, decreasing towards growth cessation. RNA sequencing obtained over 5 Gb data from each of the bud samples and de novo assembly generated a total of 59999 unigenes, 40119 of which were annotated. Pair-wise comparison of gene expression between stages, gene profiling across stages, GO/KEGG enrichment analysis, and the expression patterns of 17 major genes highlighted by principal component (PC analysis displayed significant changes in stress resistance, hormone signal pathways, circadian rhythm, photosynthesis, cell division, carbohydrate metabolism, programmed cell death during bud development, which might be under epigenetic control involving chromatin methylation. The qPCR results of 8 selected unigenes with high PC scores agreed with the RPKM values

  19. BudBurst Buddies: Introducing Young Citizen Scientists to Plants and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Gardiner, L. S.; Henderson, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of Project BudBurst, the BudBurst Buddies recently moved to the National Ecological Network (NEON) as part of its Education and Public Engagement efforts. The BudBurst Buddies (www.budburstbuddies.org) were created to engage elementary school age children in the science of observing plants and the timing of phenological (life cycle) events. BudBurst Buddies is a part of the Project BudBurst national citizen science initiative (www.budburst.org), which allows individuals to engage in the scientific process, contributing to a better understanding of climate change while increasing public awareness of phenology and the impacts of climate change on plants. As a first step towards engaging the next generation of citizen scientists, BudBurst Buddies provides the opportunity for children to gain experience with scientific research and increases awareness of how plants change throughout the year. Hundreds of young students have participated in the inaugural year of BudBurst Buddies. Children can participate in BudBurst Buddies on their own, with their families, or in formal or informal education settings. The program was recently highlighted by education staff at the New York Hall of Science and numerous classrooms have been implementing this resource as part of their curriculum. Each child who participates creates a journal about a plant of his or her choosing, makes observations of the plant over the growing season and submits findings online, earning an official BudBurst Buddies certificate. An online storybook for kids tells how two children, Lily and Sage, observed plants in their neighborhood and became BudBurst Buddies. This presentation will provide an overview of the BudBurst Buddies resources including a new implementation guide and will also share feedback from the first year of implementation.

  20. Ontogeny and innervation of taste buds in mouse palatal gustatory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Ahmed; Konishi, Hiroyuki; El-Sharaby, Ashraf; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mouse taste bud development and innervation of the soft palate. We employed scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 and peripherin to detect sensory nerves, and cytokeratin 8 and α-gustducin to stain palatal taste buds. At E14, nerve fibers were observed along the medial border of the palatal shelves that tracked toward the epithelium. At E15.5, primordial stages of taste buds in the basal lamina of the soft palate first appeared. At E16, the taste buds became large spherical masses of columnar cells scattered in the soft palate basal lamina. At E17, the morphology and also the location of taste buds changed. At E18-19, some taste buds acquired a more elongated shape with a short neck, extending a variable distance from the soft palate basal lamina toward the surface epithelium. At E18, mature taste buds with taste pores and perigemmal nerve fibers were observed on the surface epithelium of the soft palate. The expression of α-gustducin was demonstrated at postnatal day 1 and the number of pored taste buds increased with age and they became pear-shaped at 8 weeks. The percent of pored fungiform-like papillae at birth was 58.3% of the whole palate; this increased to 83.8% at postnatal day 8 and reached a maximum of 95.7% at 12 weeks. The innervation of the soft palate was classified into three types of plexuses in relation to taste buds: basal nerve plexus, intragemmal and perigemmal nerve fibers. This study reveals that the nerve fibers preceded the development of taste buds in the palate of mice, and therefore the nerve fibers have roles in the initial induction of taste buds in the soft palate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  2. A study on the spreading ability of radiation-sterilized male moth of bombyx mandarin in field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Rongxin; Xia Darong; Gu Weiping; Zhang Yanjun

    1998-01-01

    The mulberry wild silkworm (MWS), belong to the Bombycidae of Lepidoptera, is serious pest of sericulture. The female moth of MWS is sterile and the male moth is sub-sterile when they were treated with 250 Gy 60 Co γ-ray (dose rate: 1.05 Gy/min), and their filial generations was sterile. The spreading ability of male moth of MWS in field and retrieving the marked MWS male moth with the trapping method was studied. The trapping solution was composed of sugar, vinegar, wine and alive female moth. The retrieving rate of MWS male moth amounted to 12.6%∼13.5% of released moth in field. The spreading range in 24 hours for sterile MWS male moth reached to 700 m, and 90.8% of MWS male moth was in an area of 5 m radius from the releasing centre. It is concluded that thirty releasing centres per hectare are needed to make the irradiated sterilized insects spread for controlling the MWS in field

  3. Lung bud anomalies: Radiologic findings in 30 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kyung Myung; Yang, Hae Ryoun; Jeon, Jeong Su; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Choon Yul; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Bronchogenic cyst, pulmonary sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and congenital lobar emphysema are four major congenital cystic pulmonary diseases that represent a spectrum of closely related anomalies arising at early stage of embryonic lung bud maturation. Most of them present with recurrent pulmonary infections or chest pain since childhood and usually the diagnosis is made at this age. Sometimes the lesions are silent and found at adult age. We retrospectively analyzed the pain chest radiograms of 30 patients with a lung bud anomaly. The diagnosis was established by surgery and biopsy, but bronchography, computed tomography and ultrasonography aided in the diagnosis, seventeen bronchogenic cysts, 8 pulmonary sequestrations, 2 congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations, 2 congenital lobar emphysema and 1 congenital bronchial stenosis are included in this study. Nine out of 13 intrapulmonary bronchogenic cysts involved the lower lobes: thin-walled cysts with or without air-fluid level were the characteristic chest roentgenographic finding. However, mediastinal bronchogenic cysts showed well-marginated mass. The pulmonary sequestration showed similar cysts mass with or without air-fluid levels in five out of eight patients, but the cyst wall was not so sharply defined as in the bronchogenic cyst. In two patients of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, a large thin-walled cyst with air fluid level was noted and differentiation from intrapulmonary bronchogenic cyst was difficult both by chest roentgenogram and computed tomography. Two patients of congenital lobar emphysema and one patient of bronchial stenosis showed unilateral hyperlucent lung without discrete cystic mass formation

  4. Micropropagation of Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig through rhizome bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pritam; Behera, Shashikanta; Swain, Swasti S; Barik, Durga P; Naik, Soumendra K

    2013-10-01

    An optimized protocol was developed for in vitro plant regeneration of a medicinally important herb Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig using sprouted buds of rhizomes. The rhizomes with sprouted bud were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) medium (MS) supplemented with either N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) alone (1.0-4.0 mg L(-1)) or in combination with 0.5 mg L(-1) naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Of these combinations, MS supplemented with a combination of 2.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA was most effective. In this medium, best shoots (3.6) and roots (4.0) regeneration was observed simultaneously with an average shoot and root length of 4.7 cm and 4.2 cm respectively. Regeneration of shoots and roots in the same medium at the same time (One step shoot and root regeneration) reduced the time for production of in vitro plantlets and eliminates the media cost of rooting. Cent-percent (100 %) success in plant establishment was observed in both gradual acclimatization process as well as when plants were directly transferred to outdoor in clay pots containing a mixture of garden soil and sand (2:1) without any sequential acclimatization stage.

  5. Naumovozyma castellii: an alternative model for budding yeast molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir Andersson, Ahu; Cohn, Marita

    2017-03-01

    Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii) is a member of the budding yeast family Saccharomycetaceae. It has been extensively used as a model organism for telomere biology research and has gained increasing interest as a budding yeast model for functional analyses owing to its amenability to genetic modifications. Owing to the suitable phylogenetic distance to S. cerevisiae, the whole genome sequence of N. castellii has provided unique data for comparative genomic studies, and it played a key role in the establishment of the timing of the whole genome duplication and the evolutionary events that took place in the subsequent genomic evolution of the Saccharomyces lineage. Here we summarize the historical background of its establishment as a laboratory yeast species, and the development of genetic and molecular tools and strains. We review the research performed on N. castellii, focusing on areas where it has significantly contributed to the discovery of new features of molecular biology and to the advancement of our understanding of molecular evolution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Receptosecretory nature of type III cells in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Sumio

    2009-01-01

    Type III cells in taste buds form chemical synapses with intragemmal afferent nerve fibers and are characterized by the presence of membrane-bound vesicles in the cytoplasm. Although the vesicles differ in shape and size among species, they are primarily categorized into small clear (40 nm in diameter) and large dense-cored (90-200 nm) types. As such vesicles tend to be closely juxtaposed to the synaptic membrane of the cells, it is reasonable to consider that the vesicles include transmitter(s) towards the gustatory nerve. In the guinea-pig taste bud, stimulation with various taste substances (sucrose, sodium chloride, quinine hydrochloride, or monosodium L-glutamate) causes ultrastructural alterations of the type III cells. At the synapse, the presynaptic plasma membrane often displays invaginations of 90 nm in a mean diameter towards the cytoplasm, which indicates the dense-cored vesicles opening into the synaptic cleft by means of exocytosis. The vesicles are also exocytosed at the non-synaptic region into the intercellular space. These findings strongly suggest that the transmitters presumably contained in the vesicles are released to conduct the excitement of the type III cells to the nerves and also to exert their paracrine effects upon the surroundings, such as the Ebner's salivary gland, acting as local hormones.

  7. Changes in taste bud volume during taste disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srur, Ehab; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Just, Tino

    2011-08-01

    On-line mapping and serial volume measurements of taste buds with confocal laser scanning microscopy provide information on the peripheral gustatory organ over time. We report the volumetric measurements of four selected fungiform papillae over 8 weeks in a 62-year-old man with taste disturbance, which was more apparent on the right than on the left side. In the two papillae on the right side, no taste buds were detected within the fungiform papillae in the sixth and eighth week. During sixth and eighth week, there was no response to the highest presented stimuli in electrogustometry (1 mA) on the right-sided tongue tip nor at the tongue edge. The morphology (shape, diameter) of the fungiform papillae on both sides remained unchanged. Comparison of the time course of the volume changes revealed differences corresponding to gustatory sensitivity. These findings suggest that the time course of volume changes indicated taste disturbance in our patient, rather than morphological changes in the fungiform papillae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A computational clonal analysis of the developing mouse limb bud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marcon

    Full Text Available A comprehensive spatio-temporal description of the tissue movements underlying organogenesis would be an extremely useful resource to developmental biology. Clonal analysis and fate mappings are popular experiments to study tissue movement during morphogenesis. Such experiments allow cell populations to be labeled at an early stage of development and to follow their spatial evolution over time. However, disentangling the cumulative effects of the multiple events responsible for the expansion of the labeled cell population is not always straightforward. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel computational method that combines accurate quantification of 2D limb bud morphologies and growth modeling to analyze mouse clonal data of early limb development. Firstly, we explore various tissue movements that match experimental limb bud shape changes. Secondly, by comparing computational clones with newly generated mouse clonal data we are able to choose and characterize the tissue movement map that better matches experimental data. Our computational analysis produces for the first time a two dimensional model of limb growth based on experimental data that can be used to better characterize limb tissue movement in space and time. The model shows that the distribution and shapes of clones can be described as a combination of anisotropic growth with isotropic cell mixing, without the need for lineage compartmentalization along the AP and PD axis. Lastly, we show that this comprehensive description can be used to reassess spatio-temporal gene regulations taking tissue movement into account and to investigate PD patterning hypothesis.

  9. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jacqueline P; Hartnett, David C

    2015-09-01

    Tiller recruitment from the belowground bud bank of caespitose grasses influences their ability to monopolize local resources and, hence, their genet fitness. Differences in bud production and outgrowth among tiller types within a genet and among species may explain co-occurrence of caespitose grasses. This study aimed to characterize genet bud-bank and tiller production and dynamics in two co-occurring species and compare their vegetative reproductive strategies. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of Hesperostipa comata and Nassella viridula, dominant C3 caespitose grasses in the northern mixed-grass prairie of North America, were assessed throughout an annual cycle. The two species showed similar strategies, maintaining polycyclic tillers and thus creating mixed-age genet bud banks comprising multiple bud cohorts produced in different years. Vegetative tillers produced the majority of buds, whereas flowering tillers contributed little to the bud bank. Buds lived for at least 2 yr and were maintained in multiple developmental stages throughout the year. Because bud longevity rarely exceeded tiller longevity, tiller longevity drove turnover within the bud bank. Tiller population dynamics, more than bud production per tiller, determined the differential contribution of tiller types to the bud bank. Nassella viridula had higher bud production per tiller, a consistent annual tiller recruitment density, and greater longevity of buds on senesced and flowering tillers than H. comata. Co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses had similar bud-bank and tiller dynamics contributing to genet persistence but differed in bud characteristics that could affect genet longevity and species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  10. INFLUENCE OF BIOPREPARATIONS FROM DRY SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER LECITHINS ON SERUM LIPIDS COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Dziak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry lecithin, which is a mixture of polar phospholipids, neutral lipids, free fatty acids, glycolipids, carbohydrates, and small amounts of moisture, is a promising object for biologic-hepatoprotectors creation. One of its pharmacological activity displays is its influence on serum lipids, in particular transport forms of these lipids. The influence of dry soy lecithin and sunflower on hyperlipoproteinemia ratio and other lipid disorders is studied. It is shown that low-fat dry soybean lecithin showed hypocholesterolemic activity against all studied forms of serum cholesterol. Nonfat dry sunflower lecithin had similar but somewhat less prominent effect. However reduced concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol under sunflower lecithin developed right before soya lecithin. Both lecithin prevented the development of dyslipidemia induced carbon tetrachloride.

  11. Comparison of auxin activty in tumourous and normal callus cultures from sunflower and tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Chirek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal and tumourous calluses of sunflower and tobacco the level of extractable auxins was determined by Avena coleoptile straight growth test. Auxin activity was detected practically in two zones: I - at position with Rf 0.2-0.4 and II - at position with Rf 0.6-0.9. The tumour tissues of sunflower and tobacco plants, representing different types of neoplastic growth exhibit a 3 times higher auxin activity as compared with that of the corresponding normal tissues. Tobacco tissues, on the other hand, had a higher auxin level than the corresponding sunflower tissues and they exhibited different proportions in the activity of zones I and II, which points to a dominance of genetic regulation of hormone metabolism in these plants.

  12. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  13. Exogenous ascorbic acid improves defence responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) exposed to multiple stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Armagan

    2017-09-01

    Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant that plays role both on growth and development and also stress response of the plant. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbate on physiological and biochemical changes of sunflower that was exposed to multiple stresses. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased and glutathione, ascorbate and malondialdehyde contents as well as antioxidant enzyme activities increased for sunflower plant that was exposed to 50 mM NaCl and pendimethalin at different concentrations. These changes were found to be more significant in groups simultaneously exposed to both stress factors. While malondialdehyde content decreased, chlorophyll, carotenoid, ascorbate, glutathione contents and antioxidant enzyme activities increased in plants treated exogenously with ascorbate, compared to the untreated samples. According to the findings of our study; compared to individual stress, the effect of stress is more pronounced in sunflower exposed to multiple stresses, and treatment with exogenous ascorbate reduces the negative effects of stress.

  14. Sunflower mega-environments in Serbia revealed by GGE biplot analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balalić Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower mega-environment analysis was conducted for the grain yield data of 20 hybrids and 19 test locations during 2006, and 20 hybrids and 16 test locations during 2007. Combined data included 15 hybrids and 9 test locations common for both years and it was analyzed as balanced experiment. The analysis of variance components showed that hybrid by location interaction explained 2.74, 5.8, and 3.72 times more variation than hybrid, for grain yield, for 2006, 2007, combined data, respectively, and indicated potential mega-environment existence. Our results showed the existence of two mega-environments in Serbia sunflower growing region: (1 Kula Vitovnica, Aleksa Šantić, Sombor and (2 Rimski Šančevi, Kikinda. It has been concluded that if we want promising sunflower hybrids to be optimally used, they should be cropped differently for the two determined mega-environments.

  15. Occurrence and transport of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River, northwestern Mississippi, October 2009-June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie R.B.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    The Big Sunflower River Basin, located within the Yazoo River Basin, is subject to large annual inputs of nitrogen from agriculture, atmospheric deposition, and point sources. Understanding how nutrients are transported in, and downstream from, the Big Sunflower River is key to quantifying their eutrophying effects on the Gulf. Recent results from two Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes (SPARROW models), which include the Big Sunflower River, indicate minimal losses of nitrogen in stream reaches typical of the main channels of major river systems. If SPARROW assumptions of relatively conservative transport of nitrogen are correct and surface-water losses through the bed of the Big Sunflower River are negligible, then options for managing nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico may be limited. Simply put, if every pound of nitrogen entering the Delta is eventually delivered to the Gulf, then the only effective nutrient management option in the Delta is to reduce inputs. If, on the other hand, it can be shown that processes within river channels of the Mississippi Delta act to reduce the mass of nitrogen in transport, other hydrologic approaches may be designed to further limit nitrogen transport. Direct validation of existing SPARROW models for the Delta is a first step in assessing the assumptions underlying those models. In order to characterize spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen in the Big Sunflower River Basin, water samples were collected at four U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations located on the Big Sunflower River between October 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. Nitrogen concentrations were generally highest at each site during the spring of the 2010 water year and the fall and winter of the 2011 water year. Additionally, the dominant form of nitrogen varied between sites. For example, in samples collected from the most upstream site (Clarksdale), the concentration of organic nitrogen was generally higher than the concentrations of

  16. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  17. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Kilic, Murat; Pütün, Ersan; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  18. Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage with pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Everett R

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring 1999 and 2000 to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The liquid, viscous, slow-release formulation contained a combination of diamondback moth pheromone, a blend of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, 27%:Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, 1%:Z-11-tetradecen-1-ol, 9%:Z-11-hexadecenal, 63%, and the insecticide permethrin (0.16% and 6% w/w of total formulated material, respectively). Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.05 g droplet of formulated material per trap; and the permethrin insecticide had no apparent influence on response of moths to lure baited traps. Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0.44 and 0.05 g each applied to cabbage in a grid pattern at densities ranging from 990 to 4396 droplets/ha to evaluate the potential for disrupting sexual communication of diamondback moth. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone-baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size (0.05 or 0.44 g) or number of droplets applied per ha. Plots treated with the smallest droplet size (0.05 g) and with the fewest number of droplets per ha (990) suppressed captures of male diamondback moths > 90% for up to 3 weeks post treatment. Although laboratory assays showed that the lure-toxicant combination was 100% effective at killing the diamondback moth, the mode of action in the field trials was not determined. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual

  19. Sunflower petals: Some physical properties and modeling distribution of their number, dimensions, and mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mirzabe

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower petal is one of the parts of the sunflower which has drawn attention and has several applications these days. These applications justify getting information about physical properties, mechanical properties, drying trends, etc. in order to design new machines and use new methods to harvest or dry the sunflower petals. For three varieties of sunflower, picking force of petals was measured; number of petals of each head was counted; unit mass and 1000-unit mass of fresh petals were measured and length, width, and projected area of fresh petals were calculated based on image processing technique; frequency distributions of these parameters were modeled using statistical distribution models namely Gamma, Generalized Extreme Value (G. E. V, Lognormal, and Weibull. Results of picking force showed that with increasing number of days after appearing the first petal on each head from 5 to 14 and decreasing loading rate from 150 g min−1 to 50 g min−1 values of picking force were decreased for three varieties, but diameter of sunflower head had different effects on picking force for each variety. Length, width, and number of petals of Dorsefid variety ranged from 38.52 to 95.44 mm, 3.80 to 9.28 mm and 29 to 89, respectively. The corresponding values ranged from 34.19 to 88.18 mm, 4.28 to 10.60 mm and 21 to 89, respectively for Shamshiri variety and ranged from 44.47 to 114.63 mm, 7.03 to 20.31 mm and 29 to 89 for Sirena variety. Results of frequency distribution modeling indicated that in most cases, G. E. V and Weibull distributions had better performance than other distributions. Keywords: Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. petal, Picking force, Image processing, Fibonacci sequence, Lucas sequence

  20. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.