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Sample records for sun-tracking system tracking

  1. Design of solar cell lighting and sun tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaing, A.A. [Mandalay Technological Univ., Mandalay (Myanmar); Ministry of Science, Yangon (Myanmar)

    2008-07-01

    A solar cell lighting and sun tracking system was discussed and the characteristics of solar cells were studied. An SM50H solar module was analyzed with a maximum power rating of 50 W and a current rate of 3.15 A. The main components of the system include solar cells, charged controllers, and a sun tracking system. The solar tracker is an automatic control system designed to track the solar modules in relation to the sun's direction. A linear drive actuator was used to track the modules with an energy consumption rate between 24 and 36 DC voltages. Power output solar cell equations were presented along with a review of batteries used for stationary and portable solar energy equipment. Issues related to cost of tracking systems were discussed. System sizing recommendations were provided, and solar cell design requirements were reviewed. A comparison of tracking and fixed solar energy systems was presented for a day in Yangon, Myanmar. It was concluded that solar tracking systems can be used to provide energy in rural and remote areas. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  3. Two Axes Sun Tracking System for Heliostat: Case Study in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mihoub Sofiane; Ali Chermitti

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, using Proteus software, sun tracking system with 2 axes has developped to site of GHARDAIA, in the south of ALGERIA.O2 DC motors have used to move heliostat in N–S and E–W axis polar, in order to tracking the sun path.the distinction between day and night has provided by light dependent resistor (LDR).An algorithm of two axes sun tracking system hab developed and simulated under Proteus software, after DC motor’s parameters have verified and simulated under MATLAB software. The...

  4. Optimization Controller for Mechatronic Sun Tracking System to Improve Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An embedded system that contains hardware and software was developed for two-axis solar tracking system to improve photovoltaic panel utilization. The hardware section of the embedded system consists of a 32-bit ARM core microcontroller, motor driver circuits, a motion control unit, pyranometer, GPS receiver, and an anemometer. The real-time control algorithm enables the solar tracker to operate automatically without external control as a stand-alone system, combining the advantages of the open-loop and the closed-loop control methods. The pyranometer is employed to continuously send radiation data to the controller if the measured radiation is above the lower radiation limit the photovoltaic panel can generate power, guaranteeing the solar tracking process to be highly efficient. The anemometer is utilized in the system to ensure that the solar tracking procedure halts under high wind speed conditions to protect the entire system. Latitude, longitude, altitude, date, and real-time clock data are provided by GPS receiver. The algorithm calculates solar time using astronomical equations with GPS data and converts it to pulse-width modulated motor control signal. The overall objective of this study is to develop a control algorithm that improves performance and reliability of the two-axis solar tracker, focusing on optimization of the controller board, drive hardware, and software.

  5. Development of algorithm for single axis sun tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lim Zi; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan; Jin, Calvin Low Eu

    2016-11-01

    The output power from a solar panel depends on the amount of sunlight that is intercepted by the photovoltaic (PV) solar panel. The value of solar irradiance varies due to the change of position of sun and the local meteorological conditions. This causes the output power of a PV based solar electricity generating system (SEGS) to fluctuate as well. In this paper, the focus is on the integration of solar tracking system with performance analyzer system through the development of an algorithm for optimizing the performance of SEGS. The proposed algorithm displays real-time processed data that would enable users to understand the trend of the SEGS output for maintenance prediction and optimization purposes.

  6. Development of a microprocessor-based Sun-tracking system for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, S. M.; Wilcoxen, J. L.

    1980-04-01

    The development of a prototype Sun-tracking system and the tests performed on it on an east-west trough solar collector array are described. The system includes a controller built around an RCA1802 microprocessor, a digital shaft encoder, and a heat flux sensor. The heat flux sensor consists of a fine resistance wire wrapped around the receiver tube. The wire is used to correct errors in calculated tracking angles arising from reflector imperfections and misalignments.

  7. Development of a microprocessor-based sun-tracking system for solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, S.M.; Wilcoxen, J.L.

    1980-04-01

    The development of a prototype sun-tracking system and the tests performed on it on an east-west trough solar collector array are described. The system includes a controller built around an RCA1802 microprocessor (..mu..P), a digital shaft encoder, and a heat flux sensor. The heat flux sensor consists of a fine resistance wire wrapped around the receiver tube. The wire is used to correct errors in calculated tracking angles arising from reflector imperfections and misalignments.

  8. Disturbance observer-based fuzzy control for flexible spacecraft combined attitude & sun tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Razoumny, Yury

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem in the presence of external disturbances and internal disturbances, caused by flexible appendages. A new method based on Pythagorean trigonometric identity is proposed to drive the solar arrays. Using the control input and attitude output, a disturbance observer is developed to estimate the lumped disturbances consisting of the external and internal disturbances, and then compensated by the disturbance observer-based controller via a feed-forward control. The stability analysis demonstrates that the desired attitude trajectories are followed even in the presence of external disturbance and internal flexible modes. The main features of the proposed control scheme are that it can be designed separately and incorporated into the baseline controller to form the observer-based control system, and the combined attitude and sun-tracking control is achieved without the conventional attitude actuators. The attitude and sun-tracking performance using the proposed strategy is evaluated and validated through numerical simulations. The proposed control solution can serve as a fail-safe measure in case of failure of the conventional attitude actuator, which triggered by automatic reconfiguration of the attitude control components.

  9. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  10. General formula for on-axis sun-tracking system and its application in improving tracking accuracy of solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, K.K.; Wong, C.W. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Off Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-03-15

    Azimuth-elevation and tilt-roll tracking mechanism are among the most commonly used sun-tracking methods for aiming the solar collector towards the sun at all times. It has been many decades that each of these two sun-tracking methods has its own specific sun-tracking formula and they are not interrelated. In this paper, the most general form of sun-tracking formula that embraces all the possible on-axis tracking methods is presented. The general sun-tracking formula not only can provide a general mathematical solution, but more significantly it can improve the sun-tracking accuracy by tackling the installation error of the solar collector. (author)

  11. Two Axes Sun Tracking System for Heliostat: Case Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoub Sofiane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using Proteus software, sun tracking system with 2 axes has developped to site of GHARDAIA, in the south of ALGERIA.O2 DC motors have used to move heliostat in N–S and E–W axis polar, in order to tracking the sun path.the distinction between day and night has provided by light dependent resistor (LDR.An algorithm of two axes sun tracking system hab developed and simulated under Proteus software, after DC motor’s parameters have verified and simulated under MATLAB software. The results show that: in the first, the development of the heliostat control requires the knowledge of the position of each heliostat relative to the tower to ensure the proper operation of the motors, and the uniformity of the reflected beam to the target.Then the choice of the drive motors is based on the useful power, including the weight of the heliostat, and all efforts affects on operation of motors in different seasons of the year, like the wind.And The position of the heliostat depends of chopper duty cycle.Finally,Conducting a power tower with mobile heliostats requires a techno-economic study on all components (heliostats, tower... of the plant, for example weather two motors for each heliostat field.

  12. Design and Manufacturing of a High-Precision Sun Tracking System Based on Image Processing

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    Kianoosh Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration solar arrays require greater solar tracking precision than conventional photovoltaic arrays. This paper presents a high precision low cost dual axis sun tracking system based on image processing for concentration photovoltaic applications. An imaging device is designed according to the principle of pinhole imaging, making sun rays to be received on a screen through pinhole and to be a sun spot. The location of the spot is used to adjust the orientation of the solar panel. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to achieve this goal. A prototype was built, and experimental results have proven the good performance of the proposed system and low error of tracking. The operation of this system is independent of geographical location, initial calibration, and periodical regulations.

  13. Design, Development and Testing of a PC Based One Axis Sun Tracking System for Maximum Efficiency

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    Sonu AGARWAL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is a clean source of energy and the photo-voltaic (PV solar panel converts the solar radiation into voltage. The PV solar panel produces the maximum power when the incident angle of sunlight is 90°. In the present paper a PC based one axis sun tracking system has been described to keep the PV solar panel perpendicular to the incident sunlight and thus to have maximum solar power utilization. A computer controlled stepper motor has been used in the tracking system to provide motion to the photovoltaic panel. LDR has been used as photo sensor to sense the incident solar radiation. The implementation of the system has been realized by designing optical to electrical signal conversion circuit, analog to digital conversion circuit, motor driving circuit and parallel port interfacing with PC. Experimental results are also included in order to validate the system performance.

  14. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  15. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Tian; LIM Boon-Han; LIM Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuthelevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  16. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  17. Thermal evaluation of a sun tracking solar cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous, Omar. O. Badran, Anwar Al-Mofleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of many important types of renewable energy. Jordan is of great needs for renewable energy systems applications since it depends totally in generation of its required energy on imported oil. This study is an experimental work of tracking system developed for enhancing the solar heating using solar cooker. An electronic sun tracking device was used for rotating the solar heater with the movement of the sun. A comparison between fixed and sun tracked cooker showed that the use of sun tracking increased the heating temperature by 36% due to the increase in radiation concentration and using internal mirror reflectors. The programming method used for tracking control works efficiently in all weather conditions regardless of the presence of clouds. It can be used as backup control circuit in which relays are the essential control devices.

  18. Seguidor Solar de Dos Ejes para un Horno Solar Two-Axis Sun Tracking System for a Solar Furnace

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    Gabriel Villeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el diseño y fabricación de un seguidor solar de dos ejes (rotación-elevación, el cual controla un helióstato de un horno solar para la cocción de tabiques de arcilla. El sistema trabaja con motores controlados desde una computadora personal. El algoritmo para el seguidor solar se desarrolló en un lenguaje de programación visual, calcula los ángulos de seguimiento primario y secundario del helióstato y los despliega en una pantalla. El microcontrolador está programado para controlar el funcionamiento de los motores a pasos, los cuales mueven el helióstato del horno solar. El seguimiento primario y secundario es el mismo para los equinoccios, mientras que para los solsticios son diferentes debido a que durante el verano en el hemisferio norte existe mayor altura solar que en invierno. El seguidor solar permite una captación más eficiente de la radiación solar debido a que sigue minuto a minuto el movimiento aparente del Sol.The design and manufacture of a two-axis sun tracking system (rotation-elevation, which controls a heliostat of a solar furnace for clay brick firing is presented. The system works with motors controlled through a personal computen The algorithm for the sun tracking system was developed in a visual programming language, calculates the primary and secondary tracking angles of the heliostat and shows them in a screen. The microcontroller is programmed to control the step driver engines, which move the heliostat of the solar furnace. The primary and secondary tracking is the same for the equinoxes, whereas for the solstices are different because the solar altitude is greater in summer than in winter in the northern hemisphere. The sun tracking system permits a more efficient capture of the solar radiation since it continuously follows the apparent movement of the Sun.

  19. Analysis of the Sun Tracking Systems to Optimize the Efficiency of Solar Panels

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    Ngo Xuan Cuong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to improve the efficiency of solar cells and reduce the price of solar electricity is the use of the tracking system of the sun. Daily and seasonal movement of the Earth affects the intensity of the radiation on the solar panels. The tracking system is the sun moves the solar panels to compensate for these movements, keeping the best orientation to the sun. For small solar panels it is not recommended to use the tracking system because of the high energy losses in the drive. It was found that the power consumption of the servo system is a few % of the increased energy. This article provides a classification system for tracking the sun, considered and their pluses and minuses.

  20. Design of all-weather control system for sun tracking%全天候太阳方位跟踪控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左云波; 徐小力; 白廷柱; 乔道鄂

    2011-01-01

    采用光感跟踪与时间跟踪相结合的方法,设计了全天候太阳方位跟踪控制系统.该系统包括监测装置、跟踪方式转换控制模块和双跟踪方式控制模块.监测装置监测天气状态为跟踪方式转换控制模块提供判断依据,跟踪方式转换控制模块发出指令启动相关跟踪方式,控制传动及支撑装置的运动,以改变太阳能电池板采光面的位置.系统的跟踪精度高,跟踪能耗低.%The efficiency of photovoltaie generation system can be improved by using solar tracking device. But at present, sun tracking methods cannot adapt the change of climate and the energy of the system was wasted. In order to solve this problem, a new tracking method which combined the photovoltaic tracking method and time tracking method was presented and an all-weather control system for sun tracking was designed. The system includes the monitoring device, the switching control module and two-tracking control modules. The monitoring device is used to monitor the status of climate and send the information to the switching control module. The switching control module makes a judge and sends instructions. The two-tracking control modules start the right tracking style and controis the transmission-bracing device to change the position of solar battery unit. The new system can monitor the change of the climate in time and choose the reasonable tracking method according to the status of the climate. It can improve the tracking precision and reduce the energy consumption of sun tracking system.

  1. Design and Implementation of Neuro-Fuzzy Controller Using FPGA for Sun Tracking System

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    Ammar A. Aldair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, renewable energy is being used increasingly because of the global warming and destruction of the environment. Therefore, the studies are concentrating on gain of maximum power from this energy such as the solar energy. A sun tracker is device which rotates a photovoltaic (PV panel to the sun to get the maximum power. Disturbances which are originated by passing the clouds are one of great challenges in design of the controller in addition to the losses power due to energy consumption in the motors and lifetime limitation of the sun tracker. In this paper, the neuro-fuzzy controller has been designed and implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA board for dual axis sun tracker based on optical sensors to orient the PV panel by two linear actuators. The experimental results reveal that proposed controller is more robust than fuzzy logic controller and proportional-integral (PI controller since it has been trained offline using Matlab tool box to overcome those disturbances. The proposed controller can track the sun trajectory effectively, where the experimental results reveal that dual axis sun tracker power can collect 50.6% more daily power than fixed angle panel. Whilst one axis sun tracker power can collect 39.4 % more daily power than fixed angle panel. Hence, dual axis sun tracker can collect 8 % more daily power than one axis sun tracker.

  2. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Linda; Seefeldner, Meinhard; Wiegner, Matthias; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs) indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT) provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  3. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

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    L. Forster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  4. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Taherbaneh; A. H. Rezaie; H. Ghafoorifard; Rahimi, K; M. B. Menhaj

    2010-01-01

    In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar...

  5. An automated method for the evaluation of the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Pötzi, Werner; Freislich, Heinrich; Strutzmann, Heinz; Veronig, Astrid M.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of solar radiation measurements, for direct (DIR) and diffuse (DIF) radiation, depends significantly on the precision of the operational Sun-tracking device. Thus, rigid targets for instrument performance and operation have been specified for international monitoring networks, e.g., the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). Sun-tracking devices that fulfill these accuracy requirements are available from various instrument manufacturers; however, none of the commercially available systems comprise an automatic accuracy control system allowing platform operators to independently validate the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking sensors during operation. Here we present KSO-STREAMS (KSO-SunTRackEr Accuracy Monitoring System), a fully automated, system-independent, and cost-effective system for evaluating the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices. We detail the monitoring system setup, its design and specifications, and the results from its application to the Sun-tracking system operated at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO) Austrian radiation monitoring network (ARAD) site. The results from an evaluation campaign from March to June 2015 show that the tracking accuracy of the device operated at KSO lies within BSRN specifications (i.e., 0.1° tracking accuracy) for the vast majority of observations (99.8 %). The evaluation of manufacturer-specified active-tracking accuracies (0.02°), during periods with direct solar radiation exceeding 300 W m-2, shows that these are satisfied in 72.9 % of observations. Tracking accuracies are highest during clear-sky conditions and on days where prevailing clear-sky conditions are interrupted by frontal movement; in these cases, we obtain the complete fulfillment of BSRN requirements and 76.4 % of observations within manufacturer-specified active-tracking accuracies. Limitations to tracking surveillance arise during overcast conditions and

  6. Maximizing Output Power of a Solar Panel via Combination of Sun Tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking by Fuzzy Controllers

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    Mohsen Taherbaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications with low-energy conversion efficiency, maximizing the output power improves the efficiency. The maximum output power of a solar panel depends on the environmental conditions and load profile. In this paper, a method based on simultaneous use of two fuzzy controllers is developed in order to maximize the generated output power of a solar panel in a photovoltaic system: fuzzy-based sun tracking and maximum power point tracking. The sun tracking is performed by changing the solar panel orientation in horizontal and vertical directions by two DC motors properly designed. A DC-DC converter is employed to track the solar panel maximum power point. In addition, the proposed system has the capability of the extraction of solar panel I-V curves. Experimental results present that the proposed fuzzy techniques result in increasing of power delivery from the solar panel, causing a reduction in size, weight, and cost of solar panels in photovoltaic systems.

  7. Comparison Study of Two Different Sun-Tracking Methods in Optical Efficiency of Heliostat Field

    OpenAIRE

    K.-K. Chong; Tan, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    There are two sun-tracking methods widely used for the heliostat, which are conventional Azimuth-Elevation and revolutionary Spinning-Elevation methods. Following the previous study to compare the range of motion, a comparison study in optical efficiency of heliostat field for the two methods is further explored in this paper. A special algorithm using ray-tracing technique has also been developed to simulate the optical efficiency of heliostat field for both sun-tracking methods in different...

  8. A generic sun-tracking algorithm for on-axis solar collector in mobile platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, An-Chow; Chong, Kok-Keong; Lim, Boon-Han; Ho, Ming-Cheng; Yap, See-Hao; Heng, Chun-Kit; Lee, Jer-Vui; King, Yeong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel dynamic sun-tracking algorithm which allows accurate tracking of the sun for both non-concentrated and concentrated photovoltaic systems located on mobile platforms to maximize solar energy extraction. The proposed algorithm takes not only the date, time, and geographical information, but also the dynamic changes of coordinates of the mobile platforms into account to calculate the sun position angle relative to ideal azimuth-elevation axes in real time using general sun-tracking formulas derived by Chong and Wong. The algorithm acquires data from open-loop sensors, i.e. global position system (GPS) and digital compass, which are readily available in many off-the-shelf portable gadgets, such as smart phone, to instantly capture the dynamic changes of coordinates of mobile platforms. Our experiments found that a highly accurate GPS is not necessary as the coordinate changes of practical mobile platforms are not fast enough to produce significant differences in the calculation of the incident angle. On the contrary, it is critical to accurately identify the quadrant and angle where the mobile platforms are moving toward in real time, which can be resolved by using digital compass. In our implementation, a noise filtering mechanism is found necessary to remove unexpected spikes in the readings of the digital compass to ensure stability in motor actuations and effectiveness in continuous tracking. Filtering mechanisms being studied include simple moving average and linear regression; the results showed that a compound function of simple moving average and linear regression produces a better outcome. Meanwhile, we found that a sampling interval is useful to avoid excessive motor actuations and power consumption while not sacrificing the accuracy of sun-tracking.

  9. 槽式太阳能跟踪控制系统的研制及应用%Development and application of sun-tracking control system for parabolic trough solar collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 王军; 冯炜; 王登文; 张耀明

    2015-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Heat transfer fluid is heated by sun rays through the solar concentrator, then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies has existed; the most developed are parabolic trough collector (PTC), linear fresnel reflector system (LF), power tower, and dish/engine system (DE). Parabolic trough collector is considered as one of the most mature applications of solar energy in these four technologies, which makes it worth developing. Sun-tracking system plays an important role in the development of solar energy applications, especially for the high solar concentration systems that directly convert the solar energy into thermal or electrical energy. High accuracy of sun-tracking is required to ensure that the solar collector is capable of harnessing the maximum solar energy throughout the day. Compared to fixed systems, power output of single-axis and dual-axis tracking systems can increase by 25% and 41% respectively under the same condition. It is clear that an accurate sun-tracking control system can make solar collectors receive more solar radiation energy to improve the solar energy utilization. A good sun-tracking system must be reliable and able to track the sun at the right angle even in the periods of cloud cover. Although the tracking system is more complex and costs higher than the fixed system, increasing the annual output power can reduce cost effectively. As for photoelectric tracking mode, a sun position sensor is used to provide feedback signals to judge where the sun is, but they don’t work on cloudy days because of the lower sensitivity. The stability of the solar tracking system is a key factor to obtain the maximum sunlight from parabolic trough collector. In order to improve tracking stability and accuracy of the parabolic trough collector sun-tracking control

  10. Biomimetic photo-actuation: sensing, control and actuation in sun-tracking plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, M P M; Rossiter, J M; Bond, I P; Weaver, P M

    2014-09-01

    Although the actuation mechanisms that drive plant movement have been investigated from a biomimetic perspective, few studies have looked at the wider sensing and control systems that regulate this motion. This paper examines photo-actuation-actuation induced by, and controlled with light-through a review of the sun-tracking functions of the Cornish Mallow. The sun-tracking movement of the Cornish Mallow leaf results from an extraordinarily complex-yet extremely elegant-process of signal perception, generation, filtering and control. Inspired by this process, a concept for a simplified biomimetic analogue of this leaf is proposed: a multifunctional structure employing chemical sensing, signal transmission, and control of composite hydrogel actuators. We present this multifunctional structure, and show that the success of the concept will require improved selection of materials and structural design. This device has application in the solar-tracking of photovoltaic panels for increased energy yield. More broadly it is envisaged that the concept of chemical sensing and control can be expanded beyond photo-actuation to many other stimuli, resulting in new classes of robust solid-state devices.

  11. Comparison Study of Two Different Sun-Tracking Methods in Optical Efficiency of Heliostat Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-K. Chong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two sun-tracking methods widely used for the heliostat, which are conventional Azimuth-Elevation and revolutionary Spinning-Elevation methods. Following the previous study to compare the range of motion, a comparison study in optical efficiency of heliostat field for the two methods is further explored in this paper. A special algorithm using ray-tracing technique has also been developed to simulate the optical efficiency of heliostat field for both sun-tracking methods in different latitudes. With the new algorithm, comprehensive analysis to compare the optical efficiency of individual heliostat and the overall heliostat field for the two sun-tracking methods has been carried out.

  12. Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR: Instrument Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Shinozuka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution/climate. Direct beam hyper-spectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements will tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/ sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. Technical challenges include compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage. Test results establishing the performance of the instrument against the full range of operational requirements are presented, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and scientific field campaign data and results.

  13. Application of new control strategy for sun tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, F.R.; Ortega, M.G.; Gordillo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, M. [Depto. Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The application of high concentration solar cells technology allows a significant increase in the amount of energy collected by solar arrays per unit area. However, to make it possible, more severe specifications on the sun pointing error are required. In fact, the performance of solar cells with concentrators decreases drastically if this error is greater than a small value. These specifications are not fulfilled by simple tracking systems due to different sources of errors (e.g., small misalignments of the structure with respect to geographical north) that appear in practice in low cost, domestic applications. This paper presents a control application of a sun tracker that is able to follow the sun with high accuracy without the necessity of either a precise procedure of installation or recalibration. A hybrid tracking system that consists of a combination of open loop tracking strategies based on solar movement models and closed loop strategies using a dynamic feedback controller is presented. Energy saving factors are taken into account, which implies that, among other factors, the sun is not constantly tracked with the same accuracy, to prevent energy overconsumption by the motors. Simulation and experimental results with a low cost two axes solar tracker are exposed, including a comparison between a classical open loop tracking strategy and the proposed hybrid one. (author)

  14. Experimental measurements of a prototype high-concentration Fresnel lens and sun-tracking method for photovoltaic panel's efficiency enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaee, Meraj; Ghorashi, Seyed Mohamad Bagher

    2015-08-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic modules are a promising technology for highly efficient solar energy conversion. This system presents several advantages due to additional degrees of freedom that has been provided by the spectral separation such as cost and mass reduction, increase in the incident solar flux on PV cells and performances. This paper has proposed a unique photovoltaic solar cell system that consists of semi-Fresnel lens convergent structure and a novel two axis sun tracking module to enhance the efficiency of solar cell by using less cell area and energy losses. The grooves of this lens are calculated according to the refraction and convergent angles of the light easy for perpendicular incidence angle. The update time interval during tracking causes misalignment of the lens' optical axis versus the sunrays. Then an inventive sun-tracking method is introduced to adjust the module so that the incident rays are always perpendicular to the module's surface. As a result, all rays will be refracted with the predetermined angles. This way the focus area is reduced and smaller cells can be used. We also mentioned different module connections in order to provide compensation method during losses, for networks and power systems. Experimental results show that using semi-Fresnel lens, along with the sun-tracking method increases the efficiency of PV panel.

  15. Mechanical Sun-Tracking Technique Implemented for Maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solar panel is allowed to move from east to west and back forth with a maximum allowable angle of 180o. Its movement is in only one axis. The prototype built carries the panel from eastward to westward tracking the sun movement from ...

  16. Solar panel sun-tracking system based on ARM%基于ARM920T的太阳能电池板自动追光系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文川; 周超超; 刘兴林; 夏田俊

    2012-01-01

    An automatic solar panel light-tracking system based on ARM9 platform was designed to improve the efficiency of solar panels. S3C2440 was used as the controller of the system. Based on the current outputs of the 2D positional sensitive detector (PSD), the directions and angels at which the horizontal and vertical axes should rotated, respectively, were calculated. Two step motors were used to control the two-axis system to trace sun position automatically. Running test shows that the system is stable and reliable, and it has good application prospect.%为了提高太阳能电池板的工作效率,设计了一种基于ARM920T平台的太阳能电池板自动追光系统.系统以ARM920T内核S3C2440处理器为控制器,根据二维光位置敏感探测器PSD的电流输出量确定电池板绕竖直轴和水平轴转动的方向和角度,进而由2个步进电机驱动双轴跟踪系统,以达到自动追光的目的.经测试表明,该系统运行稳定、可靠,具有良好的应用前景.

  17. The Design of Sun-track System Based on PLC Control Technology%基于PLC控制的太阳能追光系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪德俊; 戴亦宗

    2012-01-01

    本系统利用安装在太阳能电池组件的不同方位光敏传感器检测太阳与电池组件相对位置,检测结果传输给PLC,PLC通过变频器、伺服放大器分别驱动三相低速同步电机和伺服电机,实现水平角和俯仰角两轴控制。实验结果表明,该装置工作稳定,实时性好。%This system can check the real time position of the sun with a sun tracing sensor on the solar cell components and transmit the signal to the PLC.PLC can drive the three phase synchronous motor and servo motor through the frequency converter and servo amplifier to control the horizontal angle and pitching angle.The result of the experiment proves that it can work steadily and it can track the sun correctly.

  18. Design of automatic real-time system with solar panels for sun tracking%太阳能电池自动实时逐日系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡荣山; 杨勇; 张虹; 姚桔

    2016-01-01

    采用非易失实时时钟芯片DS12C887配合SPA算法,精确获取所在地实时太阳方位;单片机根据光功率评估电池方位驱动后所获电能及驱动耗电,优化驱动的时间间隔;不驱动时,系统掉电.该方案具有断电重启方便,实时跟踪,太阳能电池效能高的优势,具有一定的应用价值.%This scheme uses a nonvolatile real-time clock chip DS12C887 to precisely obtain realtime position of the sun by adopting SPA algorithm.SCM assesses the obtained electrical energy and driving energy consumption according to the optical power after the direction driving of the solar cell,and then optimizes the intervals of the driving.The system is in a brown-out condition when it is not driving.This scheme has the following advantages:convenient re-initialization after outage,real-time sun-tracking function,efficient solar cells and some application values.

  19. Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) Instrument Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.; Redemann, Jens; Chang, Cecilia; Dahlgren, Robert; Fahey, Lauren; Flynn, Connor; Johnson, Roy; Kacenelenbogen, Meloe; Leblanc, Samuel; Liss, Jordan; text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20170005591'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170005591_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20170005591_hide'); "> hide

    2017-01-01

    The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) combines airborne sun tracking and sky scanning with grating spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air-pollution and climate. Hyper-spectral measurements of direct-beam solar irradiance provide retrievals of gas constituents, aerosol optical depth, and aerosol and thin cloud optical properties. Sky radiance measurements in the principal and almucantar planes enhance retrievals of aerosol absorption, aerosol type, and size mode distribution. Zenith radiance measurements are used to retrieve cloud properties and phase, which in turn are used to quantify the radiative transfer below cloud layers. These airborne measurements tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. In contrast to the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) predecessor instrument, new technologies for each subsystem have been incorporated into 4STAR. In particular, 4STAR utilizes a modular sun-trackingsky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and spectrometerdetector configurations that may be tailored for specific scientific objectives. This paper discusses technical challenges relating to compact optical collector design, radiometric dynamic range and stability, and broad spectral coverage at high resolution. Test results benchmarking the performance of the instrument against the AATS-14 standard and emerging science requirements are presented.

  20. Simplification of Sun Tracking Mode to Gain High Concentration Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Aliman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Power conversion from solar thermal energy to electrical energy is still very cost-intensive. Serious effort has to be given in the development of the concentrator or heliostat structure expenditure which contributing the most expensive component in a central receiver solar power plant. With current development to find alternatives and lower down the capital, a new mode of sun tracking has been developed and feasibility tested. As it applies a single stage collector replacing conventional double stages structure, the new technique has significantly benefits use in high temperature and high concentration solar energy applications. Meanwhile, the stationary or fixed target (receiver offers more convenient working environment for various applications. Large and heavy solar powered Stirling Engine could be placed at the stationary location. On the other advantage offers by the new technique, the optical alignment was reasonably easier and less time consuming.

  1. 万向节式太阳跟踪方法及跟踪装置%Gimbal sun-tracking method and tracking device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左云波; 徐小力; 白廷柱

    2011-01-01

    为了提高光伏发电系统的太阳方位跟踪精度,降低太阳方位跟踪装置的制造成本,提出了一种新的太阳跟踪方法及跟踪装置.该方法通过将太阳方位角及高度角的参数进行换算,得到与之对应的两个驱动转角参数,根据这新的参数驱动太阳能电池板进行万向节式的运动以跟踪太阳.新设计的跟踪装置包括太阳方位监测模块、参数计算模块、驱动装置、自方位误差测定模块以及反馈控制模块,能及时采集太阳方位参数进行换算,并且能够根据太阳能电池板方位误差修正实时联动的频率与步幅.新型太阳方位跟踪装置跟踪精度高,跟踪时间间隔小,结构简单且造价低.%In order to improve sun tracking precision of photovoltaic generating system and reduce the cost of sun tracking device,a new sun tracking method and device are presented,which parameters including sun azimuth angle and sun height angle are converted to new parameters accordingly. These new parameters are used to drive solar battery units to track sun like gimbal rotating.The new tracking device consists of sun orientation monitoring module parameter computation module,driving device, error self-detecting module and feedback module,which can collect the sun orientation information,convert the parameters in time and adjust the driving frequency and steps in time.The new sun tracking device can track sun accurately with short time interval in tracking with simplified structure and less cost.

  2. The optical designing method and the concentrating performance analysis for a toroidal heliostat with spinning-elevation sun tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Minghuan [Himin Solar Energy Group, Dezhou (China); CAS, Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Beijing (China); Lu, Zhenwu [CAS, Changchun Inst. of Optics Fine Mechanics and Physics, Changchun (China). State Key Lab. of Applied Optics; Wang, Zhifeng [Himin Solar Energy Group, Dezhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    A practical optical designing method for and some optical simulation results of a toroidal surface heliostat with the two axis spinning-elevation sun tracking are presented in this paper, which will be used as a concentrator for a hydrogen generation system. As a prototype, this heliostat has a compound toroidal surface, which is composed of the 16 same toroidal mirror facets of 1 meter width and 1 meter height with the focal length 7.4689 meters, and the design concentration power of the heliostat is 6 kilowatts. The sampling ray-tracing method including the solar disk effect is introduced and used to analyze the optical performance of the heliostat. The optical errors of the heliostat and the attenuation of reflected solar irradiance in the air have not been taken into account yet. (orig.)

  3. 基于ARM嵌入式图像处理平台的太阳跟踪系统%Sun-tracking system based on ARM embedded image processing platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娟; 周鑫

    2012-01-01

    基于计算机视觉原理,以ARM微控制器为核心构建嵌入式图像处理平台,实现了对太阳的实时跟踪.系统采用CMOS图像传感器采集太阳图像,通过微控制器计算太阳角度,通过串口控制转台,实现对太阳的高精度跟踪.同时,与视日运动规律相结合,保证系统的可靠性.试验表明,该系统在降低系统能耗的同时,能可靠有效地跟踪太阳运动.%Based on computer vision principle, the real-time tracking of sun was realized by taking ARM microcontroller as the core to construct the embedded image processing platform. The system collects images of sun through CMOS imaging sensor, and computes the sun angles relative to the tracking platform by a microcontroller. With the computed sun angles information, the system controls the turntable through a serial port to make the solar panel perpendicular to the sun radiations. Meanwhile, another tracking mode based on sun trajectory is integrated in the tracking strategy to insure the system reliability. The teat result indicates that the system can reduce the system energy consumption and effectively track sun.

  4. Research on Sun-tracking Control System in Solar Photovoltaic Power and Its Design%太阳能光伏发电中跟踪控制系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁婷婷; 祝雪妹

    2012-01-01

    The solar energy is utilized for protecting the environment of the earth. Photovoltaic power is one way of solar power utilization. It is very important to further improve the efficiency of its device. This is an important question which has need to be solved at present. Through researching on its tracking control system which is widely used, the feed-forward and closed-loop control tracking scheme is proposed to improve the tracking efficiency of solar photovoltaic panel. The solar photovoltaic panel rotation angle for the feed-forward track is obtained according to the trajectory of the sun. The photoelectric sensor is used to detect the photoelectric signal for the closed-loop control of solar photovoltaic panel, so that the errors of the tracking devices of solar photovoltaic panel are o-vercome during the installing, production and processing and the tracking control accuracy is improved greatly.%太阳能的利用有利于世界的环境保护,光伏发电作为太阳能发电的方式之一,无论从科技应用还是从商业开发的角度出发,如何更进一步地提高太阳能光伏发电装置的效率,都是目前有待解决的重要问题.针对目前应用广泛的太阳能光伏发电跟踪控制系统进行了研究,为了提高太阳能光伏板的跟踪效率,提出了前馈加闭环的跟踪控制方案.根据太阳的运动轨迹计算出太阳能光伏板理论上需转动的角度,实现前馈上的跟踪控制;采用光电传感器,将检测到的光电信号作为反馈,实现光伏板的闭环跟踪控制,克服了太阳能光伏发电跟踪控制系统在安装、生产、加工过程中存在的误差,提高了跟踪控制的精度.

  5. 槽式太阳能聚光器太阳跟踪液压驱动系统设计%The Design of Hydraulic Drive Control System For Parabolic Concentrator Sun-tracking Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢超; 罗馨茹; 俞竹青

    2012-01-01

    槽式太阳能热发电系统中,其聚光器太阳跟踪性能是太阳能采集率的重要影响因素.设计了一套槽式太阳能聚光器太阳跟踪机构专用的中高压液压驱动控制系统,并系统采用了比例溢流阀和比例流量阀,因此具有驱动力矩大、启动平稳、跟踪精度高的特点.实验证明了其设计的正确性和可靠性.%In solar parabolic trough thermal power (SPTTP) system, the parabolic concentrator sun— tracking performance has significant influence on solar collection rate. A set of special —purpose hydraulic drive control system is developed for sun—tracking mechanism of Parabolic Concentrator. It has the features of great driving force, stable starting and accurate positioning. Testing and the actual use have proved the correctness, feasibility and reliability of proposed design.

  6. Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR): Airborne Concepts and Ground Prototype Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Flynn, C.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.

    2007-12-01

    A collaboration between NASA Ames Research Center and Battelle Pacific Northwest Division is exploring new instrument concepts that combine sky scanning and spectroscopy with the direct sun transmission measurement capabilities of previous instruments like the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers (AATS). Additional technical goals are to reduce instrument size, weight, and power requirements while increasing autonomy, so as to permit operation on a wider range of aircraft, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The overall science goal for the new instruments is to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to climate using a variety of airborne measurement approaches including satellite validation. The sky scanning capability will enable retrievals of aerosol type (via complex refractive index and shape) and aerosol size distribution extending to larger sizes than attainable by direct-beam sunphotometry alone. The spectroscopic capability will improve measurements of gas constituents (e.g., H2O, O3, NO2, SO2) . Concepts explored to date for an airborne Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR-Air) include using fiber optics to link a spectrometer inside the aircraft to optical entrance ports in a relatively small tracking/scanning head outside the aircraft. 4STAR feasibility depends on overcoming three technological hurdles: 1. Maintaining calibration to 1% stability over a period of months. 2. Demonstrating stray light rejection to permit measuring skylight within a few degrees of the sun. 3. Devising a fiber optic coupling that maintains 1% calibration stability with as many as possible of the following desirable characteristics: detachable during assembly before calibration; detachable between calibration and scientific measurements; rotatable during measurements. To investigate ways to overcome these hurdles we have developed a ground-based prototype, 4STAR-Ground. To date 4STAR-Ground has been

  7. Sun-tracking optical element realized using thermally activated transparency-switching material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Lilliu, Samuele; Chiesa, Matteo

    2015-07-27

    We present a proof of concept demonstration of a novel optical element: a light-responsive aperture that can track a moving light beam. The element is created using a thermally-activated transparency-switching material composed of paraffin wax and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Illumination of the material with a focused beam causes the formation of a localized transparency at the focal spot location, due to local heating caused by absorption of a portion of the incident light. An application is proposed in a new design for a self-tracking solar collector.

  8. A Sun Tracking System for the Focusing Type Photovoltaic Power Generation%聚光型光伏发电的太阳能定位和跟踪系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓滔; 王倩怡; 付有; 马龙; 魏宏魁

    2012-01-01

    在资源紧缺的今天,太阳能以它恒定的来源和高强的辐射能量,日渐成为资源利用的首要选择。聚光型光伏发电的基本原理是采用带有菲尼尔透镜的太阳能电池板,利用图像采集传感器,拍摄参照物的太阳影子长度,并以与垂直投影做出的比较测出太阳的偏转角度,通过高速控制芯片,根据对采集信息的分析,控制传动机构调节太阳能电池板的偏转角度,实现对太阳的定位和跟踪,从而实现太阳能的高效采集。%Nowadays, the resources are precious. Solar energy, with its constant source and high strengthen radiation energy, has become the first choice of resources utility. The basic principle of the focusing type photovoltaic power generation is : ( 1 ) using the so- lar panels with Philip Neil lens, (2) photographing the length of the reference shadow with image acquisition sensor and comparing it with vertical projection to measure the defection angle, (3) controlling the transmission mechanism to adjust the defection angle of solar panels through the high-speed-control chip and the analysis of gathering information, (4) realizing the locating and tracking of the sun, and finally reaching the goal of efficient acquisition of solar energy.

  9. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  10. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  11. Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) Upgrade to Full Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry Capability for Airborne Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. E.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R. R.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument has been developed at NASA Ames in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and NASA Goddard, supported substantially since 2009 by NASA's Radiation Science Program and Earth Science Technology Office. It combines grating spectrometers with fiber optic links to a tracking, scanning head to enable sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith viewing. 4STAR builds on the long and productive heritage of the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers (AATS-6 and -14), which have yielded more than 100 peer-reviewed publications and extensive archived data sets in many NASA Airborne Science campaigns from 1986 to the present. The baseline 4STAR instrument has provided extensive data supporting the TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013), SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys, 2013), and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment, 2014), field campaigns.This poster presents plans and progress for an upgrade to the 4STAR instrument to achieve full science capability, including (1) direct-beam sun tracking measurements to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (2) sky radiance measurements to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index and mode-resolved size distribution), (3) cloud properties via zenith radiance, and (4) trace gas spectrometry. Technical progress in context with the governing physics is reported on several upgrades directed at improved light collection and usage, particularly as related to spectrally and radiometrically stable propagation through the collection light path. In addition, improvements to field calibration and verification, and flight operability and reliability are addressed.

  12. Initial Assessment of the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR-Based Aerosol Retrieval: Sensitivity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sinyuk

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR being developed for airborne measurements will offer retrievals of aerosol microphysical and optical properties from multi-angular and multi-spectral measurements of sky radiance and direct-beam sun transmittance. In this study, we assess the expected accuracy of the 4STAR-based aerosol retrieval and its sensitivity to major sources of anticipated perturbations in the 4STAR measurements. The major anticipated perturbations are (1 an apparent enhancement of sky radiance at small scattering angles associated with the necessarily compact design of the 4STAR and (2 an offset (i.e., uncertainty of sky radiance calibration independent of scattering angle. The assessment is performed through application of the operational AERONET aerosol retrieval and constructed synthetic 4STAR-like data. Particular attention is given to the impact of these perturbations on the broadband fluxes and the direct aerosol radiative forcing. The results from this study suggest that limitations in the accuracy of 4STAR-retrieved particle size distributions and scattering phase functions have diminished impact on the accuracy of retrieved bulk microphysical parameters, permitting quite accurate retrievals of properties including the effective radius (up to 10%, or 0.03, and the radiatively important optical properties, such as the asymmetry factor (up to 4%, or ±0.02 and single-scattering albedo (up to 6%, or ±0.04. Also, the obtained results indicate that the uncertainties in the retrieved aerosol optical properties are quite small in the context of the calculated fluxes and direct aerosol radiative forcing (up to 15%, or 3 W∙m−2.

  13. Upgrade of the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) to its Full Science Capability of Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry in Airborne Science Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P.; Dunagan, S.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this task in the AITT (Airborne Instrument Technology Transition) Program are to (1) upgrade the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument to its full science capability of measuring (a) direct-beam sun transmission to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (b) sky radiance vs scattering angle to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index spectra, shape, and mode-resolved size distribution), (c) zenith radiance for cloud properties, and (d) hyperspectral signals for trace gas retrievals, and (2) demonstrate its suitability for deployment in challenging NASA airborne multiinstrument campaigns. 4STAR combines airborne sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith pointing with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air pollution, radiant energy budgets (hence climate), and remote measurements of Earth's surfaces. Direct beam hyperspectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements are intended to tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. 4STAR test flights, as well as science flights in the 2012-13 TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) and 2013 SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) have demonstrated that the following are essential for 4STAR to achieve its full science potential: (1) Calibration stability for both direct-beam irradiance and sky radiance, (2) Improved light collection and usage, and (3) Improved flight operability and reliability. A particular challenge

  14. Design and Implementation of Neuro-Fuzzy Controller Using FPGA for Sun Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, renewable energy is being used increasingly because of the global warming and destruction of the environment. Therefore, the studies are concentrating on gain of maximum power from this energy such as the solar energy. A sun tracker is device which rotates a photovoltaic (PV) panel to the sun to get the maximum power. Disturbances which are originated by passing the clouds are one of great challenges in design of the controller in addition to the losses power due to energy consumpti...

  15. STUDY AND REALIZATION OF DEVICE OF SOLAR SENSITIVE TRACKING FOR A PROTOTYPE OF CYLINDRO-PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the realization of a new prototype of concentrator through, we have study the realization of a sun tracking system in order to assure the best system efficiency throughout the day. We started in the first step by the blind sun tracking where we have acquired the good results. In this paper we try to speak about the realization of a new system of sun tracking who is the sensitive sun tracking. In this sort of tracking we have used a special telescope, like a sensitive element in for the detection of sun position. An electronic Card based PIC microcontroller is realized to pilot the mechanic system of the san tracking. In order to controlled the prototype we have put on a chain of data acquisition. The results were compared with the results of the blind sun tracking system and the stationary position, it was noted that the results were better this time and the efficiency is very important.

  16. Seguidor Solar de Dos Ejes para un Horno Solar Two-Axis Sun Tracking System for a Solar Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Villeda; Alejandro Castañeda; José T Vega; Jorge Pineda

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta el diseño y fabricación de un seguidor solar de dos ejes (rotación-elevación), el cual controla un helióstato de un horno solar para la cocción de tabiques de arcilla. El sistema trabaja con motores controlados desde una computadora personal. El algoritmo para el seguidor solar se desarrolló en un lenguaje de programación visual, calcula los ángulos de seguimiento primario y secundario del helióstato y los despliega en una pantalla. El microcontrolador está programado para control...

  17. Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Chuan; Song, Yu-Chang; Chang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Bi

    2016-11-25

    Solar energy is certainly an energy source worth exploring and utilizing because of the environmental protection it offers. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy is still low. If the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly tracks the sun, the solar energy conversion efficiency will be improved. In this article, we propose an innovative method to track the sun using an image sensor. In our method, it is logical to assume the points of the brightest region in the sky image representing the location of the sun. Then, the center of the brightest region is assumed to be the solar-center, and is mathematically calculated using an embedded processor (Raspberry Pi). Finally, the location information on the sun center is sent to the embedded processor to control two servo motors that are capable of moving both horizontally and vertically to track the sun. In comparison with the existing sun tracking methods using image sensors, such as the Hough transform method, our method based on the brightest region in the sky image remains accurate under conditions such as a sunny day and building shelter. The practical sun tracking system using our method was implemented and tested. The results reveal that the system successfully captured the real sun center in most weather conditions, and the servo motor system was able to direct the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly to the sun center. In addition, our system can be easily and practically integrated, and can operate in real-time.

  18. Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chuan Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is certainly an energy source worth exploring and utilizing because of the environmental protection it offers. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy is still low. If the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly tracks the sun, the solar energy conversion efficiency will be improved. In this article, we propose an innovative method to track the sun using an image sensor. In our method, it is logical to assume the points of the brightest region in the sky image representing the location of the sun. Then, the center of the brightest region is assumed to be the solar-center, and is mathematically calculated using an embedded processor (Raspberry Pi. Finally, the location information on the sun center is sent to the embedded processor to control two servo motors that are capable of moving both horizontally and vertically to track the sun. In comparison with the existing sun tracking methods using image sensors, such as the Hough transform method, our method based on the brightest region in the sky image remains accurate under conditions such as a sunny day and building shelter. The practical sun tracking system using our method was implemented and tested. The results reveal that the system successfully captured the real sun center in most weather conditions, and the servo motor system was able to direct the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly to the sun center. In addition, our system can be easily and practically integrated, and can operate in real-time.

  19. Solar tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  20. Development of Intelligent Fuzzy Controller for a Two-Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Hui Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of a two-axis sun tracking solar energy system using fuzzy logic as intelligent quality policy. To achieve maximum efficiency for solar panels, it is necessary to follow the sun’s path in the sky. Therefore, the architecture for the two-axis sun tracking solar energy system uses software to control the hardware. The hardware comprises (i solar cells; (ii lead-acid batteries; (iii a gear box; (iv a stepping motor; and (v a light detection circuit, while the software comprises (i a detection system; (ii a fuzzy tracking controller; and (iii a database system. A fuzzy logic controller is designed as the software architecture of the system to decide the timing for tracking the sun. The nearest position that results in receiving direct sunlight is obtained from the database. Our system is fully automatic in a changing environment and takes into account meteorological changes and the effects of the external environment arising from a malfunction. This approach reduces the number of starting motors and results in smaller energy loss in cloudy, cloud mask, or unstable weather conditions.

  1. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  2. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  3. Bewegingsvolgsysteem = Monitor tracking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slycke, Per Johan; Veltink, Petrus Hermanus; Roetenberg, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A motion tracking system for tracking an object composed of object parts in a three-dimensional space. The system comprises a number of magnetic field transmitters; a number of field receivers for receiving the magnetic fields of the field transmitters; a number of inertial measurement units for rec

  4. Bewegingsvolgsysteem = Monitor tracking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slycke, Per Johan; Veltink, Petrus Hermanus; Roetenberg, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    A motion tracking system for tracking an object composed of object parts in a three-dimensional space. The system comprises a number of magnetic field transmitters; a number of field receivers for receiving the magnetic fields of the field transmitters; a number of inertial measurement units for rec

  5. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurement with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.

  6. Function integrated track system

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnecker, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses a function integrated track system that focuses on the reduction of acoustic emissions from railway lines. It is shown that the combination of an embedded rail system (ERS), a sound absorbing track surface, and an integrated mini sound barrier has significant acoustic advantages compared to a standard ballast superstructure. The acoustic advantages of an embedded rail system are particularly pronounced in the case of railway bridges. Finally, it is shown that a...

  7. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  8. Procurement Tracking System (PTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Procurement Tracking System (PTS) is used solely by the procurement staff of the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management...

  9. AIRSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-liang; SHAN Xue-xiong

    2006-01-01

    The attitude tracking control problem for an airship with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances was considered in this paper. The mathematical model of the airship attitude is a multi-input/multi-output uncertain nonlinear system. Based on the characteristics of this system, a design method of robust output tracking controllers was adopted based on the upper-bounds of the uncertainties. Using the input/output feedback linearization approach and Liapunov method, a control law was designed, which guarantees that the system output exponentially tracks the given desired output. The controller is easy to compute and complement. Simulation results show that, in the closed-loop system, precise attitude control is accomplished in spite of the uncertainties and external disturbances in the system.

  10. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with summation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-05-05

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector redirects the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and provides light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting that uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  11. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-06-09

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector directs the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and distributes light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting, uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  12. Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to develop a laboratory prototype of a solar tracking system, which is able to enhance the performance of the photovoltaic modules in a solar energy system. The operating principle of the device is to keep the photovoltaic modules constantly aligned with the sunbeams, which maximises the exposure of solar panel to the Sun’s radiation. As a result, more output power can be produced by the solar panel. The work of the project included hardware design and implemen...

  13. Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to develop a laboratory prototype of a solar tracking system, which is able to enhance the performance of the photovoltaic modules in a solar energy system. The operating principle of the device is to keep the photovoltaic modules constantly aligned with the sunbeams, which maximises the exposure of solar panel to the Sun’s radiation. As a result, more output power can be produced by the solar panel. The work of the project included hardware design and implemen...

  14. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  15. Health Research Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Health Research Information Tracking System (HRIT) is an expansion of the Child Health Research database that collects and maintains categorization, description,...

  16. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  17. Geo Issue Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  18. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  19. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  20. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  1. Case Analysis Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — CATS tracks Public and Federal Agency Reference Requests for OPF (Official Personnel Folder) , EMF (Employee Medical Folder), and eOPF (electronic Official Personnel...

  2. Financial Disclosure Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must take...

  3. Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS Plus) is a planning tool implemented at the ZOA, ZAN, and ZNY ARTCCs. It is utilized by Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel...

  4. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  5. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  6. The ALICE inner tracking system

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The inner tracking system measures the direction of particles produced in the collision of the two beams. Gas in the system is ionised as particles pass through. These ions then drift in a high voltage to strip electrodes where the position is read-off electronically.

  7. Tracking Audit Consolidated System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The TRACS System will be used by Chief Financial Operations (CFO) and Office of Acquisition and Assistance (OAA) (in Washington) and Foreign Missions (FM) (at the...

  8. Students paperwork tracking system (SPATRASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, I. Y.; Othman, M. B.; Talib, Rahmat; Ilyas, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper focused on a system for tracking the status of the paperwork using the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology and mobile apps. Student paperwork tracking system or known as SPATRASE was developed to ease the user to track the location status of the paperwork. The current problem faced by the user is the process of approval paperwork takes around a month or more. The process took around a month to get full approval from the department because of many procedures that need to be done. Nevertheless, the user cannot know the location status of the paperwork immediately because of the inefficient manual system. The submitter needs to call the student affairs department to get the information about the location status of the paperwork. Thus, this project was purposed as an alternative to solve the waiting time of the paperwork location status. The prototype of this system involved the hardware and software. The project consists of NFC tags, RFID Reader, and mobile apps. At each checkpoint, the RFID Reader was placed on the secretary desk. While the system involved the development of database using Google Docs that linked to the web server. After that, the submitter received the URL link and be directed to the web server and mobile apps. This system is capable of checking their location status tracking using mobile apps and Google Docs. With this system, it makes the tracking process become efficient and reliable to know the paperwork at the exact location. Thus, it is preventing the submitter to call the department all the time. Generally, this project is fully functional and we hope it can help Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) to overcome the problem of paperwork missing and location of the paperwork.

  9. Tracking algorithms for multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Jia, Yingmin; Du, Junping; Yu, Fashan

    2013-10-01

    This paper is devoted to the consensus tracking issue on multiagent systems. Instead of enabling the networked agents to reach an agreement asymptotically as the time tends to infinity, the consensus tracking between agents is considered to be derived on a finite time interval as accurately as possible. We thus propose a learning algorithm with a gain operator to be determined. If the gain operator is designed in the form of a polynomial expression, a necessary and sufficient condition is obtained for the networked agents to accomplish the consensus tracking objective, regardless of the relative degree of the system model of agents. Moreover, the H∞ analysis approach is introduced to help establish conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) such that the resulting processes of the presented learning algorithm can be guaranteed to monotonically converge in an iterative manner. The established LMI conditions can also enable the iterative learning processes to converge with an exponentially fast speed. In addition, we extend the learning algorithm to address the relative formation problem for multiagent systems. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of learning algorithms in achieving both consensus tracking and relative formation objectives for the networked agents.

  10. Efficiency of liquid flat-plate solar energy collector with solar tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekerovska Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive testing programme is performed on a solar collector experimental set-up, installed on a location in Shtip (Republic of Macedonia, latitude 41º 45’ and longitude 22º 12’, in order to investigate the effect of the sun tracking system implementation on the collector efficiency. The set-up consists of two flat plate solar collectors, one with a fixed surface tilted at 30о towards the South, and the other one equipped with dual-axis rotation system. The study includes development of a 3-D mathematical model of the collectors system and a numerical simulation programme, based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The main aim of the mathematical modelling is to provide information on conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer, so as to simulate the heat transfer performances and the energy capture capabilities of the fixed and moving collectors in various operating modes. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by experimental verification, showing significant increase of the daily energy capture by the moving collector, compared to the immobile collector unit. The comparative analysis demonstrates a good agreement between the experimental and numerically predicted results at different running conditions, which is a proof that the presented CFD modelling approach can be used for further investigations of different solar collectors configurations and flow schemes.

  11. Automatic tracking sensor camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takao; Kato, Daiichiro; Ishikawa, Akio; Inoue, Seiki

    2001-04-01

    We are developing a sensor camera system for automatically tracking and determining the positions of subjects moving in three-dimensions. The system is intended to operate even within areas as large as soccer fields. The system measures the 3D coordinates of the object while driving the pan and tilt movements of camera heads, and the degree of zoom of the lenses. Its principal feature is that it automatically zooms in as the object moves farther away and out as the object moves closer. This maintains the area of the object as a fixed position of the image. This feature makes stable detection by the image processing possible. We are planning to use the system to detect the position of a soccer ball during a soccer game. In this paper, we describe the configuration of the developing automatic tracking sensor camera system. We then give an analysis of the movements of the ball within images of games, the results of experiments on method of image processing used to detect the ball, and the results of other experiments to verify the accuracy of an experimental system. These results show that the system is sufficiently accurate in terms of obtaining positions in three-dimensions.

  12. Pamela tracking system status report

    CERN Document Server

    Taccetti, F; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Boscherini, M; Castellini, G; D'Alessandro, R; Gabbanini, A; Grandi, M; Papini, P; Piccardi, S; Ricciarini, S; Spillantini, P; Straulino, S; Tesi, M; Vannuccini, E

    2002-01-01

    The Pamela apparatus will be launched at the end of 2002 on board of the Resurs DK Russian satellite. The tracking system, composed of six planes of silicon sensors inserted inside a permanent magnetic field was intensively tested during these last years. Results of tests have shown a good signal-to-noise ratio and an excellent spatial resolution, which should allow to measure the antiproton flux in an energy range from 80 MeV up to 190 GeV. The production of the final detector modules is about to start and mechanical and thermal tests on the tracking tower are being performed according to the specifications of the Russian launcher and satellite.

  13. A tracking system with space virtual feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng MAO; Xiaojun QU; Fuling WEI; Yali WANG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,a tracking system with space virtual feedback(SVF)is presented.The whole tracking system is closed by the space virtual feedback line that is the line of sight(LOS),but the parts in the system,such as the tracking subsystem and the servo subsystem.are in the state of open-loop.Because the SVF tracking model is used.the correcting loops can be removed in this system architecture.So the tracking speed and accuracy of the system are greatly improved.

  14. Audit Follow-up Tracking System (AFTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Audit Follow-up Tracking System (AFTS) is used to track, monitor, and report on audits and open recommendations of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)...

  15. Real Property Project Tracking System (RPPTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Real Property Project Tracking System (RPPTS), formerly known as the Lease/Project Tracking (LEASE) database, contains information about lease and land projects...

  16. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  17. The LVD tracking system chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzivino, G.; Benvenuto, P.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.; Dulach, B.; Fabbri, D.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gatta, M.; Giardoni, M.; Laakso, I.; Lindozzi, M.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.; Sensolini, G.; Ventura, M.; Votano, L.; Zallo, A. (INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)); Mencarini, D. (Univ. Bologna (Italy), INFN, Bologna (Italy)); Pallante, E. (Univ. Rome-1 (Italy)); Aftab, Z.; Ali, M.M.; Chen, K.; Chen, R.; Cong, S.; Cui, X.; Ding, H.; Gao, B.; Li, Y.; Lu, L.; Minhas, B.K.; Shi, Z.; Shah, A.R.; Sun, Y.; Zhou, X. (ICSC World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-06-01

    The LVD detector can be defined as an underground observatory with the main objectives of studying neutrinos from stellar collapse and searching for point-like sources of gammas and neutrinos of very high energy. This multipurpose apparatus is being installed in hall A of the Gran Sasso Laboratory at a vertical depth of 3600 m.w.e. It consists of a large volume of liquid scintillator divided into modules and of a tracking system made of layers of streamer tubes. (orig./HSI).

  18. The coordinate systems used in visual tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howe, P.D.L.; Pinto, Y.; Horowitz, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking moving objects is a fundamental attentional operation. Here we ask which coordinate system is used to track objects: retinal (retinotopic), scene-centered (allocentric), or both? Observers tracked three of six disks that were confined to move within an imaginary square. By moving either the

  19. Models for Gaze Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanueva Arantxa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most confusing aspects that one meets when introducing oneself into gaze tracking technology is the wide variety, in terms of hardware equipment, of available systems that provide solutions to the same matter, that is, determining the point the subject is looking at. The calibration process permits generally adjusting nonintrusive trackers based on quite different hardware and image features to the subject. The negative aspect of this simple procedure is that it permits the system to work properly but at the expense of a lack of control over the intrinsic behavior of the tracker. The objective of the presented article is to overcome this obstacle to explore more deeply the elements of a video-oculographic system, that is, eye, camera, lighting, and so forth, from a purely mathematical and geometrical point of view. The main contribution is to find out the minimum number of hardware elements and image features that are needed to determine the point the subject is looking at. A model has been constructed based on pupil contour and multiple lighting, and successfully tested with real subjects. On the other hand, theoretical aspects of video-oculographic systems have been thoroughly reviewed in order to build a theoretical basis for further studies.

  20. Models for Gaze Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Villanueva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most confusing aspects that one meets when introducing oneself into gaze tracking technology is the wide variety, in terms of hardware equipment, of available systems that provide solutions to the same matter, that is, determining the point the subject is looking at. The calibration process permits generally adjusting nonintrusive trackers based on quite different hardware and image features to the subject. The negative aspect of this simple procedure is that it permits the system to work properly but at the expense of a lack of control over the intrinsic behavior of the tracker. The objective of the presented article is to overcome this obstacle to explore more deeply the elements of a video-oculographic system, that is, eye, camera, lighting, and so forth, from a purely mathematical and geometrical point of view. The main contribution is to find out the minimum number of hardware elements and image features that are needed to determine the point the subject is looking at. A model has been constructed based on pupil contour and multiple lighting, and successfully tested with real subjects. On the other hand, theoretical aspects of video-oculographic systems have been thoroughly reviewed in order to build a theoretical basis for further studies.

  1. Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Information Technology Procurement Authorization (ITPA) Tracking System is used for gathering consistent data from U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) program...

  2. 太阳自动跟踪控制系统的设计%Design of Sun Automatic Tracking Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    默少丽; 王鹏月

    2012-01-01

    This paper designs a sun-tracking system based on photoelectric detection, and longitude and latitude to improve the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar cells. The system can accurately track the sun by utilizing photoelectric conversion equipment and GPS module with STM32 as the control core. At the time of system startup, the system achieves inaccurate track based on the sun angle tracking mode, and then it turns to the mode of photoelectric tracking to complete accurate tracking which makes the sunlight perpendicular to solar cells. Meanwhile, the system has self-diagnosis function that can automatically turn the system to the sun-angle-tracking mode to make the system more stable and reliable when photoelectric detection is abnormal.%为了提高太阳能电池光伏转换效率,通过对目前太阳追踪方式的研究,设计了一种基于光电检测和经纬度双重跟踪的智能追光系统.该系统以5TM32单片机为控制核心,并结合光电转换装置和GPS模块实现了对太阳的精确跟踪.系统启动运行时,通过基于经纬度的视日运动轨迹跟踪实现系统粗调,随后转入光电检测精确跟踪,使太阳能电池与太阳光垂直.系统同时加入光电检测装置的自诊断功能,当光电检测装置异常时,自动切换到视日运动轨迹跟踪模式,使系统运行更加稳定和可靠.

  3. Thinking Tracks for Integrated Systems Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, G.M.; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early

  4. Thinking Tracks for Integrated Systems Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Denkena, B.; Gausemeijer, J.; Scholz-Reiter, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates systems thinking and systems engineering. After a short literature review, the paper presents, as a means for systems thinking, twelve thinking tracks. The tracks can be used as creativity starter, checklist, and as means to investigate effects of design decisions taken early

  5. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  6. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola; Yuri Vorobiev

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs) was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation ...

  7. ANALISIS DAN PERANCANGAN APPLICANT TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Soni

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to design a web-based applicant tracking system to support Human ResourcesManagement system. Research methods were library study and system design. It can be concluded that the applicanttracking system is able to help HRD staff to chose staff candidates, manage recruitment time, create an applicantdatabase, and it can be function as a web bursa kerja site (EE.Keywords: applicant tracking system, candidate selection, employee recruitment

  8. Class 3 Tracking and Monitoring System Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safely, Eugene; Salamy, S. Phillip

    1999-11-29

    The objective of Class 3 tracking system are to assist DOE in tracking and performance and progress of these projects and to capture the technical and financial information collected during the projects' monitoring phase. The captured information was used by DOE project managers and BDM-Oklahoma staff for project monitoring and evaluation, and technology transfer activities. The proposed tracking system used the Class Evaluation Executive Report (CLEVER), a relation database for storing and disseminating class project data; GeoGraphix, a geological and technical analysis and mapping software system; the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) database; and MS-Project, a project management software system.

  9. Visual-tracking-based robot vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Keqiang; Wilson, Joseph N.; Ritter, Gerhard X.

    1992-11-01

    There are two kinds of depth perception for robot vision systems: quantitative and qualitative. The first one can be used to reconstruct the visible surfaces numerically while the second to describe the visible surfaces qualitatively. In this paper, we present a qualitative vision system suitable for intelligent robots. The goal of such a system is to perceive depth information qualitatively using monocular 2-D images. We first establish a set of propositions relating depth information, such as 3-D orientation and distance, to the changes of image region caused by camera motion. We then introduce an approximation-based visual tracking system. Given an object, the tracking system tracks its image while moving the camera in a way dependent upon the particular depth property to be perceived. Checking the data generated by the tracking system with our propositions provides us the depth information about the object. The visual tracking system can track image regions in real-time even as implemented on a PC AT clone machine, and mobile robots can naturally provide the inputs to our visual tracking system, therefore, we are able to construct a real-time, cost effective, monocular, qualitative and 3-dimensional robot vision system. To verify our idea, we present examples of perception of planar surface orientation, distance, size, dimensionality and convexity/concavity.

  10. Evolution of the SOFIA tracking control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Norbert; Jakob, Holger; Pfüller, Enrico; Röser, Hans-Peter; Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    The airborne observatory SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is undergoing a modernization of its tracking system. This included new, highly sensitive tracking cameras, control computers, filter wheels and other equipment, as well as a major redesign of the control software. The experiences along the migration path from an aged 19" VMbus based control system to the application of modern industrial PCs, from VxWorks real-time operating system to embedded Linux and a state of the art software architecture are presented. Further, the concept is presented to operate the new camera also as a scientific instrument, in parallel to tracking.

  11. Visual Tracking System for Welding Seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-shun ZHAO; Ji-zhen WANG; Xue-Zhen CHENG

    2010-01-01

    To track the narrow butt welding seams in container manufacture, a visual tracking system based on smart camera is proposed in this paper. A smart camera is used as the sensor to detect the welding seam. The feature extraction algorithm is designed with the consideration of the characteristics of the smart camera, which is used to compute the error between the welding torch and the welding seam. Visual control system based on image is presented, which employs a programmable controller to control a stepper motor to eliminate the tracking error detected by the smart camera. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the vision system.

  12. Chemical Tracking Systems: Not Your Usual Global Positioning System!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The haphazard storing and tracking of chemicals in the laboratory is a serious safety issue facing science teachers. To get control of your chemicals, try implementing a "chemical tracking system". A chemical tracking system (CTS) is a database of chemicals used in the laboratory. If implemented correctly, a CTS will reduce purchasing costs,…

  13. UWB Tracking System Design with TDOA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John; Schwing, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort using a tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A two-stage weighted least square method is chosen to solve the TDOA non-linear equations. Matlab simulations in both two-dimensional space and three-dimensional space show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. The error analysis reveals various ways to improve the tracking resolution. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWBTDOA tracking capability with fine resolution. This research effort is motivated by a prototype development project Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Tracking system which allows for the input of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request date, compiles the due date, information pertaining to the request, name...

  15. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Former Prisoner of War (POW) Statistical Tracking System database is a registry designed to comply with Public Law 97-37, the Former Prisoner of War Benefits Act...

  16. Spectral Imaging Visualization and Tracking System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Earth Observation Mission need for innovative optical tracking systems, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Spectral...

  17. Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS) is the primary tool for management and oversight of EPA's Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution Control Program. GRTS pulls...

  18. Advanced Alignment of the ATLAS Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Butti, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, the ATLAS experiment exploits a tracking system built using different technologies, planar silicon modules or microstrips (PIX and SCT detectors) and gaseous drift tubes (TRT), all embedded in a 2T solenoidal magnetic field. Misalignments and deformations of the active detector elements deteriorate the track reconstruction resolution and lead to systematic biases on the measured track parameters. The alignment procedures exploits various advanced tools and techniques in order to determine for module positions and correct for deformations. For the LHC Run II, the system is being upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL).

  19. Alignment of the LHCb tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Märki, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC is dedicated to precision measurements of $CP$-violation and rare decays in the $b$ and $c$ sectors. The experiment features a tracking system consisting of silicon strip detectors and straw tube drift chambers up- and downstream of the magnet to precisely measure the vertex position and the momentum resolution of the particles travelling through the detector. An important ingredient to the track parameter resolution is the spatial alignment of the tracking system on which we report here.

  20. Silicon retina for optical tracking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohbehn, K.; Jenkins, R. E.; Sun, X.; Andreou, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    There are a host of position sensors, such as quadcells and CCD's, which are candidates for detecting optical position errors and providing error signals for a mirror positioning loop. We are developing a novel, very high bandwidth, biologically inspired position sensor for optical position tracking systems. We present recent test results and design issues for the use of biologically inspired silicon retinas for spaceborne optical position tracking systems.

  1. Thinking Tracks for Multidisciplinary System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Maarten Bonnema

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems engineering is, for a large part, a process description of how to bring new systems to existence. It is valuable as it directs the development effort. Tools exist that can be used in this process. System analysis investigates existing and/or desired situations. However, how to create a system that instantiates the desired situation depends significantly on human creativity and insight; the required human trait here is commonly called systems thinking. In literature, this trait is regularly used, but information on how to do systems thinking is scarce. Therefore, we have introduced earlier twelve thinking tracks that are concrete and help system designers to make an optimal fit between the system under design, the identified issue, the user, the environment and the rest of the world. The paper provides the scientific rationale for the thinking tracks based on literature. Secondly, the paper presents three cases of application, leading to the conclusion that the tracks are usable and effective.

  2. NASA's GPS tracking system for Aristoteles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E. S.; Hajj, G.; Kursinski, E. R.; Kyriacou, C.; Meehan, T. K.; Melbourne, William G.; Neilan, R. E.; Young, L. E.; Yunck, Thomas P.

    1991-12-01

    NASA 's Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking system for Artistoteles receivers and a GPS flight receiver aboard Aristoteles is described. It will include a global network of GPS ground receivers and a GPS flight receiver aboard Aristoteles. The flight receiver will operate autonomously; it will provide real time navigation solutions for Aristoteles and tracking data needed by ESOC for operational control of the satellite. The GPS flight and ground receivers will currently and continuously track all visible GPS satellites. These observations will yield high accuracy differential positions and velocities of Aristoteles in a terrestrial frame defined by the locations of the globally distributed ground work. The precise orbits and tracking data will be made available to science investigators as part of the geophysical data record. The characteristics of the GPS receivers, both flight and ground based, that NASA will be using to support Aristoteles are described. The operational aspects of the overall tracking system, including the data functions and the resulting data products are summarized. The expected performance of the tracking system is compared to Aristoteles requirements and the need to control key error sources such as multipath is identified.

  3. Persistent Aerial Tracking system for UAVs

    KAUST Repository

    Mueller, Matthias

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we propose a persistent, robust and autonomous object tracking system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) called Persistent Aerial Tracking (PAT). A computer vision and control strategy is applied to a diverse set of moving objects (e.g. humans, animals, cars, boats, etc.) integrating multiple UAVs with a stabilized RGB camera. A novel strategy is employed to successfully track objects over a long period, by ‘handing over the camera’ from one UAV to another. We evaluate several state-of-the-art trackers on the VIVID aerial video dataset and additional sequences that are specifically tailored to low altitude UAV target tracking. Based on the evaluation, we select the leading tracker and improve upon it by optimizing for both speed and performance, integrate the complete system into an off-the-shelf UAV, and obtain promising results showing the robustness of our solution in real-world aerial scenarios.

  4. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  5. A tracking system for mobile FSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Akkoumi, Mouhammad K.; Refai, Hakki; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2008-02-01

    Free-space optics (FSO), or Optical Wireless, is an unlicensed line-of-sight technology that uses modulated lasers to transmit information through the atmosphere. By using light beams, FSO can transmit and receive data, voice, and video, information through the air. FSO provides data rates ranging from 100Mbps to 2.5Gbps. In most applications, FSO transceivers normally remain in a static location to ensure continuous line of sight and to maintain accurate alignment. One current challenge facing FSO technology is the desire to implement mobility. As a potential solution, this study introduces an auto-tracking system that will achieve and maintain alignment between two mobile FSO nodes. This auto-tracking system can be used in many different applications, such as reducing the time needed to achieve alignment of an FSO link, and maintaining a link between an aircraft and a stationary command post to exchange real-time video and data with high-speed laser communications. After link initiation, the auto-tracking system application will send steering commands back to the positioning gimbal. These steering commands are determined by feedback from Position Sensing Diodes (PSDs). The proposed FSO auto-tracking system provides optical beam steering and capturing mechanisms to provide tracking between two transceivers, either fixed or mobile. In this paper, we illustrate the feasibility of such a system and present experimental results for a source aligned with a PSD in a mobile environment.

  6. Color Image Processing and Object Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Ted W.; Sielken, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a personal computer based system for automatic and semiautomatic tracking of objects on film or video tape, developed to meet the needs of the Microgravity Combustion and Fluids Science Research Programs at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The system consists of individual hardware components working under computer control to achieve a high degree of automation. The most important hardware components include 16-mm and 35-mm film transports, a high resolution digital camera mounted on a x-y-z micro-positioning stage, an S-VHS tapedeck, an Hi8 tapedeck, video laserdisk, and a framegrabber. All of the image input devices are remotely controlled by a computer. Software was developed to integrate the overall operation of the system including device frame incrementation, grabbing of image frames, image processing of the object's neighborhood, locating the position of the object being tracked, and storing the coordinates in a file. This process is performed repeatedly until the last frame is reached. Several different tracking methods are supported. To illustrate the process, two representative applications of the system are described. These applications represent typical uses of the system and include tracking the propagation of a flame front and tracking the movement of a liquid-gas interface with extremely poor visibility.

  7. PAMTRAK: A personnel and material tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspach, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anspach, J.P. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Kansas City Operations; Walters, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Crain, B. Jr. [Science Applications International Corp., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-06-01

    There is a need for an automated system for protecting and monitoring sensitive or classified parts and material. Sandia has developed a real-time personnel and material tracking system (PAMTRAK) that has been installed at selected DOE facilities. It safeguards sensitive parts and material by tracking tags worn by personnel and by monitoring sensors attached to the parts or material. It includes remote control and alarm display capabilities and a complementary program in Keyhole to display measured material attributes remotely. This paper describes the design goals, the system components, current installations, and the benefits a site can expect when using PAMTRAK.

  8. Hires and Losses Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database contains data about the hires and losses of employees for the Office of Systems-those who join or leave the Office of Systems and those who transfer...

  9. Tracking-integrated systems for concentrating photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems, which use optical elements to focus light onto small-area solar cells, have the potential to minimize the costs, while improving efficiency, of photovoltaic technology. However, CPV is limited by the need to track the apparent motion of the Sun. This is typically accomplished using high-precision mechanical trackers that rotate the entire module to maintain normal light incidence. These machines are large, heavy and expensive to build and maintain, deterring commercial interest and excluding CPV from the residential market. To avoid this issue, some attention has recently been devoted to the development of tracking-integrated systems, in which tracking is performed inside the CPV module itself. This creates a compact system geometry that could be less expensive and more suitable for rooftop installation than existing CPV trackers. We review the basic tracking principles and concepts exploited in these systems, describe and categorize the existing designs, and discuss the potential impact of tracking integration on CPV cost models and commercial potential.

  10. Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System (EDATS) dynamically tracks and measures target signatures. It consists of an instrumentation van integrated...

  11. Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System - Tactical / Operational Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Reporting data store for the Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System (ACT). ACT automates the assignment and tracking of correspondence processing within the...

  12. Adaptive tracking control of chaotic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢钊; 卢和

    2004-01-01

    It is important to develop control techniques able to control not only known chaos but also chaotic systems with unknown parameters. This paper proposes a novel adaptive tracking control approach for identifying the unknown parameters and controlling the chaos, which is not closely related to the particular chaotic system to be controlled. The global uniform boundedness of estimated parameters and the asymptotical stability of the tracking errors are proved by Lyapunov stability theory and LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The suggested method enables stabilization of chaotic motion to a steady state ad well as tracking of any desired trajectory to be achieved in a systematic way. Computer simulation on a complex chaotic system illustrtes the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  13. Robust Solar Position Sensor for Tracking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes a new solar position sensor used in tracking system control. The main advantages of the new solution are the robustness and the economical aspect. Positioning accuracy of the tracking system that uses the new sensor is better than 1°. The new sensor uses the ancient principle...... of the solar clock. The sensitive elements are eight ordinary photo-resistors. It is important to note that all the sensors are not selected simultaneously. It is not necessary for sensor operating characteristics to be quasi-identical because the sensor principle is based on extreme operating duty measurement...... (bright or dark). In addition, the proposed solar sensor significantly simplifies the operation of the tracking control device....

  14. On the tracking error of a self-contained solar tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baz, A.; Mobarak, A.; Morcos, S.; Sabry, A.

    1984-11-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the tracking errors of a self-contained solar tracking system that is totally powered by solar energy. The effect of the different design parameters of the system on its tracking error is studied in detail, in an attempt to define the important factors that influence the system's performance. The obtained results present valuable design guides for this class of tracking system.

  15. Communications and Tracking Distributed Systems Evolution Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, William

    1990-01-01

    The Communications and Tracking (C & T) techniques and equipment to support evolutionary space station concepts are being analyzed. Evolutionary space station configurations and operational concepts are used to derive the results to date. A description of the C & T system based on future capability needs is presented. Included are the hooks and scars currently identified to support future growth.

  16. Systems and methods of eye tracking calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and systems to facilitate eye tracking control calibration are provided. One or more objects are displayed on a display of a device, where the one or more objects are associated with a function unrelated to a calculation of one or more calibration parameters. The one or more calibration...

  17. Design of a Traditional Solar Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Vasant, Pandian

    2010-06-01

    Solar energy is rapidly advancing as an important means of renewable energy resource. More energy is produced by tracking the solar panel to remain aligned to the sun at a right angle to the rays of light. This paper describes in detail the design and construction of a prototype for solar tracking system with two degrees of freedom, which detects the sunlight using photocells. The control circuit for the solar tracker is based on a PIC16F84A microcontroller (MCU). This is programmed to detect the sunlight through the photocells and then actuate the motor to position the solar panel where it can receive maximum sunlight.

  18. Development of an autonomous target tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidda, Venkata Ramaiah

    In recent years, surveillance and border patrol have become one of the key research areas in UAV research. Increase in the computational capability of the computers and embedded electronics, coupled with compatibility of various commercial vision algorithms and commercial off the shelf (COTS) embedded electronics, and has further fuelled the research. The basic task in these applications is perception of environment through the available visual sensors like camera. Visual tracking, as the name implies, is tracking of objects using a camera. The process of autonomous target tracking starts with the selection of the target in a sequence of video frames transmitted from the on-board camera. We use an improved fast dynamic template matching algorithm coupled with Kalman Filter to track the selected target in consecutive video frames. The selected target is saved as a reference template. On the ground station computer, the reference template is overlaid on the live streaming video from the on-board system, starting from the upper left corner of the video frame. The template is slid pixel by pixel over the entire source image. A comparison of the pixels is performed between the template and source image. A confidence value R of the match is calculated at each pixel. Based on the method used to perform the template matching, the best match pixel location is found according to the highest or lowest confidence value R. The best match pixel location is communicated to the on-board gimbal controller over the wireless Xbee network. The software on the controller actuates the pan-tilt servos to continuously to hold the selected target at the center of the video frame. The complete system is a portable control system assembled from commercial off the shelf parts. The tracking system is tested on a target having several motion patterns.

  19. Communication and tracking system evolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, William

    1990-01-01

    The communications and tracking (C&T) techniques and equipment to support evolutionary space station concepts are being analyzed. Evolutionary space station configurations and operational concepts were used in the analysis to derive the results to date. A description of the C&T system based on future capability needs is presented. Included are the 'hooks and scars' currently identified to support the future growth. Technology transparency and impact of growth on other systems are also addressed.

  20. Airborne Infrared Search and Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Srivastava

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrared search and track (IRST systems are required for fighter aircraft to enable them to passively search, detect, track, classify, and prioritise multiple airborne targets under all aspects, look-up, look-down, and co-altitude conditions and engage them at as long ranges as possible. While the IRST systems have been proven in performance for ground-based and naval-based platforms, it is still facing some technical problems for airborne applications. These problems arise from uncertainty in target signature, atmospheric effects, background clutter (especially dense and varying clouds, signal and data processing algorithms to detect potential targets at long ranges and some hardware limitations such as large memory requirement to store and process wide field of view data. In this paper, an overview of airborne IRST as a system has been presented with detailed comparative simulation results of different detectionitracking algorithms and the present status of airborne IRSTs

  1. Hazardous chemical tracking system (HAZ-TRAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlette, J D; Ewart, S M; Jones, C E

    1990-07-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) developed and implemented a computerized hazardous chemical tracking system, referred to as Haz-Trac, for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Haz-Trac is designed to provide a means to improve the accuracy and reliability of chemical information, which enhances the overall quality and safety of ICPP operations. The system tracks all chemicals and chemical components from the time they enter the ICPP until the chemical changes form, is used, or becomes a waste. The system runs on a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3000 Series 70 computer. The system is written in COBOL and uses VIEW/3000, TurboIMAGE/DBMS 3000, OMNIDEX, and SPEEDWARE. The HP 3000 may be accessed throughout the ICPP, and from remote locations, using data communication lines. Haz-Trac went into production in October, 1989. Currently, over 1910 chemicals and chemical components are tracked on the system. More than 2500 personnel hours were saved during the first six months of operation. Cost savings have been realized by reducing the time needed to collect and compile reporting information, identifying and disposing of unneeded chemicals, and eliminating duplicate inventories. Haz-Trac maintains information required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  2. Hacker tracking Security system for HMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Conventional Supervisory control and data Acquisition (SCADA) systems use PC, notebook, thin client, and PDA as a Client. Nowadays the Process Industries are following multi shift system that's why multi- client of different category have to work at a single human Machine Interface (HMI). They may hack the HMI Display and change setting of the other client. This paper introduces a Hacker tracking security (HTS) System for HMI. This is developed by using the conventional and Biometric authentication. HTS system is developed by using Numeric passwords, Smart card, biometric, blood flow and Finger temperature. This work is also able to identify the hackers.

  3. Long range position and Orientation Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Burks, B.L. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The long range Position and Orientation Tracking System is an active triangulation-based system that is being developed to track a target to a resolution of 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) and 0.009{degrees}(32.4 arcseconds) over a range of 13.72 m (45 ft.). The system update rate is currently set at 20 Hz but can be increased to 100 Hz or more. The tracking is accomplished by sweeping two pairs of orthogonal line lasers over infrared (IR) sensors spaced with known geometry with respect to one another on the target (the target being a rigid body attached to either a remote vehicle or a remote manipulator arm). The synchronization and data acquisition electronics correlates the time that an IR sensor has been hit by one of the four lasers and the angle of the respective mirror at the time of the hit. This information is combined with the known geometry of the IR sensors on the target to determine position and orientation of the target. This method has the advantage of allowing the target to be momentarily lost due to occlusions and then reacquired without having to return the target to a known reference point. The system also contains a camera with operator controlled lighting in each pod that allows the target to be continuously viewed from either pod, assuming their are no occlusions.

  4. Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS) is the primary tool for management and oversight of EPA's Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution Control Program. GRTS pulls grant information from EPA's centralized grants and financial databases and allows grant recipients to enter detailed information on the individual projects or activities funded under each grant. To browse these records, click on Project Records in the left-hand menu.

  5. Optimum Design Of On Grid Pv System Using Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available there are two approaches of photovoltaic system PV without tracking system Fixed System and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

  6. Advanced tracking and data relay satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this communication satellite system are as follows: to provide NASA needs for satellite tracking and communications through the year 2012; to maintain and augment the current TDRS system when available satellite resources are expended in the latter part of the decade; to provide the necessary ground upgrade to support the augmented services; and to introduce new technology to reduce the system life cycle cost. It is concluded that no ATDRS spacecraft requirement for new modulation techniques, that data rate of 650 MBps is required, and that Space Station Freedom requirement is for 650 MBps data some time after the year 2000.

  7. MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System: is the USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS) to assist managers in monitoring their payroll costs for U.S. direct hires....

  8. LHCb : Tracking system of the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Szumlak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment will run at an instantaneous luminosity of 2x10^33 cm^-2 s^-1 with a fully software based trigger, allowing to read out the detector at a rate of 40MHz. For this purpose, the full tracking system will be newly developed: the vertex locator (VELO) will be replaced by a pixel-based detector, withstanding the high radiation dose and providing an excellent track reconstruction with an efficiency of above 99% for all charged particles of interest. Upstream of the magnet, a silicon mico-strip detector with a high granularity and an improved acceptance coverage, called the Upstream Tracker (UT), will replace the current silicon strip tracker, and provide a rough momentum estimate. The tracking system downstream of the magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre tracker (SciFi), which will consist of 12 layers using 2.5m long scintillating fibres read out by silicon photo-multipliers, providing a spatial resolution better than 100 micron and resulting in a total momentum reso...

  9. Innovative control systems for tracked vehicle platforms

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

     This book has been motivated by an urgent need for designing and implementation of innovative control algorithms and systems for tracked vehicles. Nowadays the unmanned vehicles are becoming more and more common. Therefore there is a need for innovative mechanical constructions capable of adapting to various applications regardless the ground, air or water/underwater environment. There are multiple various activities connected with tracked vehicles. They can be distributed among three main groups: design and control algorithms, sensoric and vision based in-formation, construction and testing mechanical parts of unmanned vehicles. Scientists and researchers involved in mechanics, control algorithms, image processing, computer vision, data fusion, or IC will find this book useful.

  10. Two-Axis Solar Heat Collection Tracker System for Solar Thermal Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chieh Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using a continuous operation two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. This heat-collection sun tracking which LDR (light dependent resistor sensors installed on the Fersnel lens was used to control the tracking path of the sun with programming method of control with a closed loop system. The control hardware was connected to a computer through Zigbee wireless module and it also can monitor the whole tracking process information on a computer screen. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of using two-axes tracking on the solar heat energy collected. The results indicate that sun tracking systems are being increasingly employed to enhance the efficiency of heat collection by polar-axis tracking of the sun. Besides, the heating power was also measured by designed power measurement module at the different focal length of Fresnel lens, and the design of shadow mask of LDR sensors is an important factor for solar photothermal applications. Moreover, the results also indicated that the best time to obtain the largest solar irradiation power is during 11:00 –13:00  in Taiwan.

  11. Tracking Control for Switched Cascade Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of H∞ output tracking for switched cascade nonlinear systems is discussed in this paper, where not all the linear parts of subsystems are stabilizable. The conditions of the solvability for the issue are given by virtue of the structural characteristics of the systems and the average dwell time method, in which the total activation time for stabilizable subsystems is longer than that for the unstabilizable subsystems. At last, a simulation example is used to demonstrate the validity and advantages of the proposed approach.

  12. Stochastic analysis model for vehicle-track coupled systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming

    2017-10-01

    This paper devotes to develop a computational model for stochastic analysis and reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities. In this model, the earthquake is expressed as non-stationary random process simulated by spectral representation and random function, and the track random irregularities with ergodic properties on amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities are characterized by a track irregularity probabilistic model, and then the number theoretical method (NTM) is applied to effectively select representative samples of earthquakes and track random irregularities. Furthermore, a vehicle-track coupled model is presented to obtain the dynamic responses of vehicle-track systems due to the earthquakes and track random irregularities at time-domain, and the probability density evolution method (PDEM) is introduced to describe the evolutionary process of probability from excitation input to response output by assuming the vehicle-track system as a probabilistic conservative system, which lays the foundation on reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing to the results of Monte-Carlo method from statistical viewpoint. As an illustrative example, the random vibrations of a high-speed railway vehicle running on the track slabs excited by lateral seismic waves and track random irregularities are analyzed, from which some significant conclusions can be drawn, e.g., track irregularities will additionally promote the dynamic influence of earthquakes especially on maximum values and dispersion degree of responses; the characteristic frequencies or frequency ranges respectively governed by earthquakes and track random irregularities are greatly different, moreover, the lateral seismic waves will dominate or even change the characteristic frequencies of system responses of some lateral dynamic indices at low frequency.

  13. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  14. Eigenstate tracking in open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jun; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Lidar, Daniel A.; Luo, Da-Wei; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-10-01

    Keeping a quantum system in a given instantaneous eigenstate is a control problem with numerous applications, e.g., in quantum information processing. The problem is even more challenging in the setting of open quantum systems, where environment-mediated transitions introduce additional decoherence channels. Adiabatic passage is a well-established solution but requires a sufficiently slow evolution time that is dictated by the adiabatic theorem. Here we develop a systematic projection theory formulation for the transitionless evolution of general open quantum systems described by time-local master equations. We derive a time-convolutionless dynamical equation for the target instantaneous eigenstate of a given time-dependent Hamiltonian. A transitionless dynamics then arises in terms of a competition between the average Hamiltonian gap and the decoherence rate, which implies optimal adiabaticity timescales. We show how eigenstate tracking can be accomplished via control pulses, without explicitly incorporating counter-diabatic driving, thus offering an alternative route to accelerate adiabaticity. We examine rectangular pulses, chaotic signals, and white noise, and find that, remarkably, the effectiveness of eigenstate tracking hardly depends on the details of the control functions. In all cases the control protocol keeps the system in the desired instantaneous eigenstate throughout the entire evolution, along an accelerated adiabatic path.

  15. Quality Assurance Tracking System - R7 (QATS-R7)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is metadata documentation for the Quality Assurance Tracking System - R7, an EPA Region 7 resource that tracks information on quality assurance reviews. Also...

  16. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  17. An improved drone tracking control system transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James J.; Tannenholz, Philip H.

    A small, compact, and inexpensive method of achieving frequency stability of a solid state LO to +/- 1 MHz in the MD700C-1 drone tracking and control system C-band command and control transponder is described. The methodology for realizing improved RF rejection, local oscillator stability, automatic gain control, and power supply efficiency is discussed. A switching mode regulator and a nonsaturating power supply were designed to operate at 80 percent efficiency to reduce power consumption and heat while operating over a wide voltage range.

  18. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Atlas is a multipurpose experiment that records the LHC collisions. In order to reconstruct the trajectories of charged particles, ATLAS is equipped with a tracking system built using distinct technologies: silicon planar sensors (both pixel and microstrips) and drift-tubes (the Inner Detector). The tracking system is embedded in a 2 T solenoid field. In order to reach the track parameter accuracy requested by the physics goals of the experiment, the ATLAS tracking system requires to determine accurately its almost 700,000 degrees of freedom. The demanded precision for the alignment of the silicon sensors is below 10 micrometers. The implementation of the track based alignment within the ATLAS software framework unifies different alignment approaches and allows the alignment of all tracking subsystems together. The alignment software counts of course on the tracking information (track-hit residuals) but also includes the capability to set constraints on the beam spot and primary vertex for the global position...

  19. Stability of miniature electromagnetic tracking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicho, Kurt; Figl, Michael; Donat, Markus; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Seemann, Rudolf; Wagner, Arne; Bergmann, Helmar; Ewers, Rolf

    2005-05-07

    This study aims at a comparative evaluation of two recently introduced electromagnetic tracking systems under reproducible simulated operating-room (OR) conditions: the recently launched Medtronic StealthStation, Treon-EM and the NDI Aurora. We investigate if and to what extent these systems provide improved performance and stability in the presence of surgical instruments as possible sources of distortions compared with earlier reports on electromagnetic tracking technology. To investigate possible distortions under pseudo-realistic OR conditions, a large Langenbeck hook, a dental drill with its handle and an ultrasonic (US) scanhead are fixed on a special measurement rack at variable distances from the navigation sensor. The position measurements made by the Treon-EM were least affected by the presence of the instruments. The lengths of the mean deviation vectors were 0.21 mm for the Langenbeck hook, 0.23 mm for the drill with handle and 0.56 mm for the US scanhead. The Aurora was influenced by the three sources of distortion to a higher degree. A mean deviation vector of 1.44 mm length was observed in the vicinity of the Langenbeck hook, 0.53 mm length with the drill and 2.37 mm due to the US scanhead. The maximum of the root mean squared error (RMSE) for all coordinates in the presence of the Langenbeck hook was 0.3 mm for the Treon and 2.1 mm for the Aurora; the drill caused a maximum RMSE of 0.2 mm with the Treon and 1.2 mm with the Aurora. In the presence of the US scanhead, the maximum RMSE was 1.4 mm for the Treon and 5.1 mm for the Aurora. The new generation of electromagnetic tracking systems has significantly improved compared to common systems that were available in the middle of the 1990s and has reached a high level of technical development. We conclude that, in general, both systems are suitable for routine clinical application.

  20. Constrained tracking control for nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Fatemeh; Haeri, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a tracking control strategy for nonlinear systems without needing a prior knowledge of the reference trajectory. The proposed method consists of a set of local controllers with appropriate overlaps in their stability regions and an on-line switching strategy which implements these controllers and uses some augmented intermediate controllers to ensure steering the system states to the desired set points without needing to redesign the controller for each value of set point changes. The proposed approach provides smooth transient responses despite switching among the local controllers. It should be mentioned that the stability regions of the proposed controllers could be estimated off-line for a range of set-point changes. The efficiencies of the proposed algorithm are illustrated via two example simulations. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Muon tracking system with Silicon Photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Dahal, S. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Di Giovanni, A., E-mail: adriano.digiovanni@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Pazos Clemens, L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Candela, A.; D' Incecco, M.; Sablone, D. [Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN, Assergi (Italy); Franchi, G. [AGE Scientific Srl, Capezzano Pianore (Italy)

    2015-11-01

    We report the characterisation and performance of a low cost muon tracking system consisting of plastic scintillator bars and Silicon Photomultipliers equipped with a customised front-end electronics based on a fast preamplifier network. This system can be used as a detector test bench for astroparticle physics and for educational and outreach purposes. We investigated the device behaviour in self-trigger and coincidence mode, without using LED and pulse generators, showing that with a relatively simple set up a complete characterisation work can be carried out. A high definition oscilloscope, which can easily be found in many university physics or engineering departments, has been used for triggering and data acquisition. Its capabilities have been exploited to discriminate real particles from the background.

  2. The CDF-II silicon tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, T K

    2002-01-01

    The CDF silicon tracking system for Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron consists of eight layers arranged in cylinders spanning radii from 1.35 to 28 cm, and lengths from 90 cm to nearly 2 m for a total of 6 m sup 2 of silicon and 722,000 readout channels. With an innermost layer (Layer 00) utilizing radiation tolerant p sup + -in-n silicon and low-mass readout cables between the sensors and readout electronics, double-sided vertexing layers (SVXII) designed for use with a deadtimeless secondary-vertex trigger, and outermost layers (Intermediate Silicon Layers) utilizing mass-producible modules attached to a carbon fiber spaceframe, this system is a starting point for the next generation of silicon trackers for the LHC and Tevatron.

  3. Real-time vehicle tracking for traffic monitoring systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡硕

    2016-01-01

    A real-time vehicle tracking method is proposed for traffic monitoring system at road intersec-tions, and the vehicle tracking module consists of an initialization stage and a tracking stage .Li-cense plate location based on edge density and color analysis is used to detect the license plate re -gion for tracking initialization .In the tracking stage , covariance matching is employed to track the license plate .Genetic algorithm is used to reduce the computational cost .Real-time image tracking of multi-lane vehicles is achieved .In the experiment , test videos are recorded in advance by record-ers of actual E-police systems at several different city intersections .In the tracking module , the av-erage false detection rate and missed plates rate are 1.19%, and 1.72%, respectively.

  4. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00246160

    2015-01-01

    {During the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2018/2019, the ALICE experiment plans the installation of a novel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The upgraded detector will fully replace the current ITS having six layers by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). The upgraded ITS will have significantly improved tracking and vertexing capabilities, as well as readout rate to cope with the expected increased Pb-Pb luminosity in LHC. The choice of MAPS has been driven by the specific requirements of ALICE as a heavy ion experiment dealing with rare probes at low $p_\\mathrm{T}$. This leads to stringent requirements on the material budget of 0.3$\\%~X/X_{0}$ per layer for the three innermost layers. Furthermore, the detector will see large hit densities of $\\sim 19~\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}/\\mathrm{event}$ on average for minimum-bias events in the inner most layer and has to stand moderate radiation loads of 700 kRad TID and $1\\times 10^{13}$ 1 MeV n$_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$ NIEL at maximum. The MAPS dete...

  5. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is the key ALICE detector for the study of heavy flavour production at LHC. Heavy flavor can be studied via the identification of short-lived hadrons containing heavy quarks which have a mean proper decay length in the order of 100-300 $\\mu$m. To accomplish this task, the ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors (two pixel, two drift and two strip) with a radial coverage from 3.9 to 43 cm and a material budget of 1.1% X0 per layer. %In particular, the properties of the two innermost layers define the ITS performance in measuring the displaced vertex of such short-lived particles. In order to enhance the ALICE physics capabilities, and, in particular, the tracking performance for heavy-flavour detection, the possibility of an ITS upgrade has been studied in great detail. It will make use of the spectacular progress made in the field of imaging sensors over the last ten years as well as the possibility to install a smaller radius beampipe. The upgraded detec...

  6. Automation system for optical counting of nuclear tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Boulyga, S F; Lomonosova, E M; Zhuk, I V

    1999-01-01

    An automation system consisting of the microscope, video camera and Pentium PC with frame recorder was created. The system provides counting of nuclear tracks on the SSNTD surface with a resolution of 752 x 582 points, determination of the surface area and main axis of the track. The pattern recognition program was developed for operation in Windows 3.1 (or higher) ensuring a convenient interface with the user. In a comparison of the results on automatic track counting with the more accurate hand mode it was shown that the program enables the tracks to be detected even on images with a rather high noise level. It ensures a high accuracy of track counting being comparable with the accuracy of manual counting for densities of tracks in the range of up to 2 centre dot 10 sup 5 tracks/cm sup 2. The automatic system was applied in the experimental investigation of uranium and transuranium elements.

  7. Automation system for optical counting of nuclear tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Boulyga, E.G.; Lomonosova, E.M.; Zhuk, I.V

    1999-06-01

    An automation system consisting of the microscope, video camera and Pentium PC with frame recorder was created. The system provides counting of nuclear tracks on the SSNTD surface with a resolution of 752 x 582 points, determination of the surface area and main axis of the track. The pattern recognition program was developed for operation in Windows 3.1 (or higher) ensuring a convenient interface with the user. In a comparison of the results on automatic track counting with the more accurate hand mode it was shown that the program enables the tracks to be detected even on images with a rather high noise level. It ensures a high accuracy of track counting being comparable with the accuracy of manual counting for densities of tracks in the range of up to 2{center_dot}10{sup 5} tracks/cm{sup 2}. The automatic system was applied in the experimental investigation of uranium and transuranium elements.

  8. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Belikov, Iouri

    2016-01-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is built to study the properties of the strongly interacting matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. With the upgrade of its Inner Tracking System (ITS), the ALICE experiment is going to increase the rate of data taking by almost two orders of magnitude. At the same time, the precision of secondary vertex reconstruction will become by at least a factor 3 better than it currently is. In this talk, we briefly show some selected physics results motivating the upgrade of the ITS, describe the design goals and the layout of the new detector, and highlight a few important measurements that will be realized after the completion of this upgrade.

  9. Wireless realtime motion tracking system using localised orientation estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Alexander D.

    2010-01-01

    A realtime wireless motion tracking system is developed. The system is capable of tracking the orientations of multiple wireless sensors, using a semi-distributed implementation to reduce network bandwidth and latency, to produce real-time animation of rigid body models, such as the human skeleton. The system has been demonstrated to be capable of full-body posture tracking of a human subject using fifteen devices communicating with a basestation over a single, low bandwidth, r...

  10. SECURE TRACKING SYSTEM FOR NEXT GENERATION CIT PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmas, Christopher William

    2014-01-01

    The Cash in Transit (CIT) industry demands reliable and innovative products from its suppliers to ensure safety and reliability within the industry. Product innovation has been directed at a bespoke tracking system for the Cash in Transit industry, which can meet its stringent requirements and excel above the capabilities of standard, readily available tracking systems. The presented research has investigated the state of the art in tracking and localisation systems and has highlighted Wi-...

  11. Green electricity: Tracking systems for environmental disclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biewald, B.E.; Ramey, J.A. [Synapse Energy Economics, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    For the first time, electricity consumers in the US are beginning to choose their generation providers. One of the opportunities created by the introduction of retail choice in electricity is the chance for customers to influence the mix of generating resources through their purchasing decisions. Some environmentally aware consumers will want {open_quotes}clean,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}green,{close_quotes} or renewable power. While some suppliers will attempt to differentiate themselves according to their environmental performance, such claims for green electricity can be particularly difficult to verify given the complexity of the interconnected electric system. Because electricity is delivered over an integrated transmission grid and kilowatt-hours at the point of retail sale are indistinguishable from each other; disclosure requires tracking protocols to attribute generation at power plants to sales at the customers` meters. Fortunately, it is possible to implement a workable disclosure system. Some states have already included disclosure requirements in their electric industry restructuring orders and legislation. In this paper, a set of design criteria for an environmental disclosure system are presented along with two methods for disclosure: the company approach and the product approach. In addition, the authors discuss of power pools, data availability issues, and propose a company-based disclosure system using a {open_quotes}wholesale sales first{close_quotes} approach to transaction accounting.

  12. UWB Tracking System Design for Free-Flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Phan, Chan; Ngo, Phong; Gross, Julia; Dusl, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an ultra-wideband (UWB) tracking system design effort for Mini-AERCam (Autonomous Extra-vehicular Robotic Camera), a free-flying video camera system under development at NASA Johnson Space Center for aid in surveillance around the International Space Station (ISS). UWB technology is exploited to implement the tracking system due to its properties, such as high data rate, fine time resolution, and low power spectral density. A system design using commercially available UWB products is proposed. A tracking algorithm TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival) that operates cooperatively with the UWB system is developed in this research effort. Matlab simulations show that the tracking algorithm can achieve fine tracking resolution with low noise TDOA data. Lab experiments demonstrate the UWB tracking capability with fine resolution.

  13. Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS) is a repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee accident data. Many types of...

  14. Electronic Conference Tracking and Approval System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — eCTAS tracks information relevant to attendance and hosting conferences of USAID's Washington offices and Missions worldwide including cost, numbers attending,...

  15. Upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossegger, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is the key ALICE detector for the study of heavy flavor production at LHC. Heavy flavor can be studied via the identification of short-lived hadrons containing heavy quarks which have a mean proper decay length in the order of 100-300 μm. To accomplish this task, the ITS is composed of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors (two pixel, two drift and two strip) with a radial coverage from 3.9 to 43 cm and an average material budget of 1.1% X0 per layer. In order to enhance the ALICE physics capabilities, and, in particular, the tracking performance for heavy-flavor detection, the possibility of an ITS upgrade has been studied in great detail. It will make use of the spectacular progress made in the field of imaging sensors over the last 10 years as well as the possibility to install a smaller radius beampipe. The upgraded detector will have greatly improved features in terms of the impact parameter resolution, standalone tracking efficiency at low pt, momentum resolution and readout capabilities. The usage of the most recent monolithic and/or hybrid pixel detector technologies allows the improvement of the detector material budget and the intrinsic spatial resolution both by a factor of three with respect to the present ITS. The installation of a smaller beam-pipe reduces the distance between the first detector layer and the interaction vertex. Under these assumptions, simulations show that an overall improvement of the impact parameter resolution by a factor of three is possible. The Conceptual Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE ITS, which covers the design and performance requirements, the upgrade options, as well as the necessary R&D efforts, was made public in September 2012. An intensive R&D program has been launched to review the different technological options under consideration. The new detector should be ready to be installed during the long LHC shutdown period scheduled in 2017-2018.

  16. Observable dynamics and coordinate systems for vehicle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Altendorfer, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We investigate several coordinate systems and dynamical vector fields for target tracking to be used in driver assistance systems. We show how to express the discrete dynamics of maneuvering target vehicles in arbitrary coordinates starting from the target's and the own (ego) vehicle's assumed dynamical model in global coordinates. We clarify the notion of "ego compensation" and show how non-inertial effects are to be included when using a body-fixed coordinate system for target tracking. We finally compare the tracking error of different combinations of target tracking coordinates and dynamical vector fields for simulated data.

  17. Demonstrating EnTracked a System for Energy-Efficient Position Tracking for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Jensen, Jakob Langdal; Godsk, Torben

    An important feature of a modern mobile device is that it can position itself. Not only for use on the device but also for remote applications that require tracking of the device. To be useful, such position tracking has to be energy-efficient to avoid having a major impact on the battery life...... of the mobile device. To address this challenge we have build a system named EnTracked that, based on the estimation and prediction of system conditions and mobility, schedules position updates to both minimize energy consumption and optimize robustness. In this demonstration we would like to show how...

  18. Problem reporting and tracking system: a systems engineering challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Vasco; Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas; Price, Roberto; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan; Barrios, Emilio; Alarcon, Hector

    2016-08-01

    The problem reporting and tracking system (PRTS) is the ALMA system to register operational problems, track unplanned corrective operational maintenance activities and follow the investigations of all problems or possible issues arisen in operation activities. After the PRTS implementation appeared several issues that finally produced a lack in the management of the investigations, problems to produce KPIs, loss of information, among others. In order to improve PRTS, we carried out a process to review the status of system, define a set of modifications and implement a solution; all according to the stakeholder requirements. In this work, we shall present the methodology applied to define a set of concrete actions at the basis of understanding the complexity of the problem, which finally got to improve the interactions between different subsystems and enhance the communication at different levels.

  19. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Amish P., E-mail: Amish.Shah@orlandohealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, Orlando, Florida (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still

  20. Tracking Systems and the Value of Inertial Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, F.; Smits, A.T.; Jense, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper intents to add to the literature on 3D position and orientation tracking systems by describing TNO's experience with the InterSense tracking system that uses a combination of inertial and ultra-sound technology. From the results of a performance evaluation study and our practical

  1. Tracking Systems and the Value of Inertial Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, F.; Smits, A.T.; Jense, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper intents to add to the literature on 3D position and orientation tracking systems by describing TNO's experience with the InterSense tracking system that uses a combination of inertial and ultra-sound technology. From the results of a performance evaluation study and our practical experien

  2. Improvement on the stabilization of a precision tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, H.; Koshiba, T.

    A tracking system that operates from nonstationary platforms must be able to stabilize the tracking axis for precision tracking. Implementation of a free gyro pointing assembly which has a momentum wheel as an integral part of the inner gimbal assembly and that is oriented with its spin axis parallel to the line of sight, is the most widely used method for tactical missiles. The paper describes two methods to improve the stabilization of this tracking system by adjusting the gimbal balance during accelerated condition and adjusting gimbal friction torque at an optimium level appropriate to the applied torque. The results show a one-fifth improvement of the drift rate.

  3. The ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Siddhanta, Sabyasachi

    2015-01-01

    The long term plan of ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a detailed investigation and characterisation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). ALICE has devised a comprehensive upgrade strategy to enhance its physics capabilities and to exploit the LHC running conditions after the second long shutdown of the LHC scheduled in 2019-20. The upgraded ALICE will focus on high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta, which will significantly improve the performance with respect to the present experimental set up. The upgrade strategy is based on the fact that after LS2 LHC will progressively increase its luminosity with Pb beams eventually reaching an interaction rate of about 50 kHz. To exploit the new LHC capabilities, several existing detectors will undergo a substantial upgrade and new detectors will be added. Within this upgrade strategy, the Inner Tracking System (ITS) upgrade forms an important cornerstone, providing precise measurements for...

  4. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  5. National Medical Contractors Case Tracking system

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Store information to assist in identifying, tracking and reporting of the various workloads that are carried out by the RMCs within each Region. This tool will also...

  6. Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, P.

    2016-12-01

    During the long shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2019-20 (LS2) the present Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment based on silicon pixel, silicon drift and silicon strip detectors, will be entirely replaced by a new tracker using novel monolithic silicon pixel chips. This new tracker will significantly enhance heavy flavour measurements, which are out of reach for the present system, e.g. charmed baryons, such as the ΛC, and will allow studying hadrons containing a beauty quark. The new tracker will provide an improved pointing resolution in rϕ and z, decreasing the present values by a factor 3 and 5, respectively, to about 40 μm for a pT of 500 MeV/c. Each of the seven layers will be constructed using 50 μm, respectively 100 μm thin silicon chips on a very light weight carbon fibre based support structure for the innermost and the outer layers. The material budget for the first three layers corresponds to 0.3% X0/layer while the four outer layers will have an average material budget of 1% X0/layer. The innermost layer will be placed at 23 mm radius, compared to presently 39 mm. Furthermore, the readout rate of the new ITS will increase from presently 1 kHz to 50 kHz for Pb-Pb collisions and 400 kHz for p-p collisions, thus matching the expected event rate for Pb-Pb collisions after LS2. This contribution will provide an overview of the upgrade of the ALICE ITS and the expected performance improvement and will present the actual status of the R&D.

  7. Tracking control of chaotic dynamical systems with feedback linearization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Dong-lian; MA Guo-jin

    2005-01-01

    A new method was proposed for tracking the desired output of chaotic dynamical system using the feedback linearization and nonlinear extended statement observer method. The feedback linearization was used to convert the nonlinear chaotic system into linear system. The extended Luenberger-like statements observer was designed to reconstructing and observing the unmeasured statements when the tracking controller was designed. By this way, the chaotic system could be forced to track variable desired output, which could be a time variant function or an equilibrium points.Taken the Lorenz chaotic system as example, the simulation results show the validity of the conclusion and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  8. Modeling of miner track system during steering motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 韩庆珏

    2015-01-01

    Equipment for deep sea mining has risen from a position of virtual non-existence to a major industrial significance and in deep sea bed mining, the miner is the key equipment of the whole system that charges with the most complex and dangerous task. Evaluation of trafficability for tracked vehicles for deep sea mining is essential. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in a wide range of modern applications. These applications are highly specific and substitutes are inferior or unknown. One possible source of the REE could be the poly-metallic nodule, at present explored in the tropical part of the Pacific Ocean. In developing miners of high performance, dynamic behaviour should be investigated under various traveling conditions. The mechanics of tracked vehicles is of continuing interest to organizations and agencies that specify design and operate tracked vehicles. Most works done are on the complete track vehicle system but in this work the research activity is aimed only at the track system with the basic aim of optimizing the track system design so that it can be manufactured by using the minimum resources. Equations and models are developed for the track system of a miner during steering motion. These equations and models could further be used for design optimization of the track system.

  9. Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Tracking Systems: Costs & Verification Issues (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-10-01

    This document provides information on REC tracking systems: how they are used in the voluntary REC market, a comparison of REC systems fees and information regarding how they treat environmental attributes.

  10. Gender Track: Research on High School Tracking Systems According to Gender Roles

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sociologists of education have used the concept of tracking to analyze educational and occupational differentiation. Previous researches have been gender-biased and overlooked intragender differentiation. This article aims to show : 1) high schools work as an allocation system based on non-meritocratic factors like gender roles ; and 2) each high school can be seen as a "gender track," which allocates students according to gender roles that schools transmit. The author administered a question...

  11. Standardized evaluation method for electromagnetic tracking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Johann; Maurer, Calvin, Jr.; Figl, Michael; Bax, Michael; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Shahidi, Ramin

    2005-04-01

    The major aim of this work was to define a protocol for evaluation of electromagnetic tracking systems (EMTS). Using this protocol we compared two commercial EMTS: the Ascension microBIRD (B) and NDI Aurora (A). To enable reproducibility and comparability of the assessments a machined base plate was designed, in which a 50 mm grid of holes is precision drilled for position measurements. A circle of 32 equispaced holes in the center enables the assessment of rotation. A small mount which fits into pairs of grid holes on the base plate is used to mount the sensor in a defined and rigid way. Relative positional/orientational errors are found by subtracting the known distances/rotations between the machined locations from the differences of the mean observed positions/rotation. To measure the influence of metallic objects we inserted rods (made of SST 303, SST 416, aluminum, and bronze) into the sensitive volume between sensor and emitter. Additionally the dynamic behavior was tested by using an optical sensor mounted on a spacer in a distance of 150 mm to the EMTS sensors. We found a relative positional error of 0.96mm +/- 0.68mm, range -0.06mm;2.23mm (A) and 1.14mm +/- 0.78mm, range -3.72mm;1.57mm (B) for a give distance of 50 mm. The positional jitter amounted to 0.14 mm(A) / 0.20mm (B). The relative rotation error was found to be 1.81 degrees(A) / 0.63 degrees(B). For the dynamic behavior we calculated an error of 1.63mm(A)/1.93mm(B). The most relevant distortion caused by metallic objects results from SST 416. The maximum error 4.2mm(A)/41.9mm(B) occurs when the rod is close to the sensor(20mm).

  12. In-laboratory development of an automatic track counting system for solid state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık; Ulus, İzzet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an automatic track counting system was developed for solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Firstly the specifications of required hardware components were determined, and accordingly the CCD camera, microscope and stage motor table was supplied and integrated. The system was completed by developing parametric software with VB.Net language. Finally a set of test intended for radon activity concentration measurement was applied. According to the test results, the system was enabled for routine radon measurement. Whether the parameters of system are adjusted for another SSNTD application, it could be used for other fields of SSNTD like neutron dosimetry or heavy charged particle detection.

  13. MICROCONTROLLER BASED SOLAR-TRACKING SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan BİNGÖL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new micro-controller based solar-tracking system is proposed, implemented and tested. The scheme presented here can be operated as independent of the geographical location of the site of setting up. The system checks the position of the sun and controls the movement of a solar panel so that radiation of the sun comes normally to the surface of the solar panel. The developed-tracking system tracks the sun both in the azimuth as well as in the elevation plane. PC based system monitoring facility is also included in the design.

  14. Design of Objects Tracking System Based on ARM Embedded Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mei; SONG Yong-duan; LV Shao-dong; LIU Zhi-long; HUANG Cong-ying

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, according to the need of intelligent video surveillance system increasing rapidly in metropolitan cities ,a design based on S3C2440 microprocessor and embedded Linux operating system is adopted for real-time video target tracking. However, it is very challenging as embedded systems usually afford limited processing power and limited resources. Therefore, to address this problem, a real-time tracking algorithm using multi-features based on compressive sensing is proposed and implemented. The algorithm uses multiple matrix as the projection matrix of the compressive sensing and the compressed date as the multiple features to extract useful information needed by tracking process. Functions and libraries in OpenCV which were developed by Intel Corporation are utilized for building the tracking algorithms. It is tested with variant video sequences and the results show that the algorithm achieves stable tracking for the target moved of the light changed.

  15. CellTracks cell analysis system for rare cell detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagan, Michael T.; Trainer, Michael N.; Bendele, Teresa; Rao, Chandra; Horton, Allen; Tibbe, Arjan G.; Greve, Jan; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The CellTracks system is a Compact Disk-based cell analyzer that, similar to flow cytometry, differentiates cells that are aligned while passing through focused laser beams. In CellTracks, only immuno-magnetically labeled cells are aligned and remain in position for further analysis. This feature is

  16. Advanced spacecraft tracking techniques using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System /TDRSS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, J.; Ayres, C.

    1977-01-01

    The TDRSS will consist initially of two geosynchronous satellites and a common ground station at White Sands, New Mexico. According to current schedules, operations are to begin in November 1980. The overall TDRSS will provide high and low bit-rate telemetry, commands, and satellite-to-satellite tracking services. Each Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) will have four antenna systems for NASA use. The common ground station at White Sands will have three 18-meter K-band antennas. The tracking equipment at the ground station is required to meet the following specifications: (1) 0.1-radian root-mean-square (rms) phase noise on nondestruct Doppler measurements; (2) 10-nanosecond rms range noise; (3) 50-nanosecond maximum systematic range error. Attention is given to two-way range and Doppler measurements, the bilateration tracking of TDRS, and an experiment using differenced one-way Doppler measurements.

  17. Maximum-power-point tracking control of solar heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2012-11-01

    The present study developed a maximum-power point tracking control (MPPT) technology for solar heating system to minimize the pumping power consumption at an optimal heat collection. The net solar energy gain Q net (=Q s-W p/η e) was experimentally found to be the cost function for MPPT with maximum point. The feedback tracking control system was developed to track the optimal Q net (denoted Q max). A tracking filter which was derived from the thermal analytical model of the solar heating system was used to determine the instantaneous tracking target Q max(t). The system transfer-function model of solar heating system was also derived experimentally using a step response test and used in the design of tracking feedback control system. The PI controller was designed for a tracking target Q max(t) with a quadratic time function. The MPPT control system was implemented using a microprocessor-based controller and the test results show good tracking performance with small tracking errors. It is seen that the average mass flow rate for the specific test periods in five different days is between 18.1 and 22.9kg/min with average pumping power between 77 and 140W, which is greatly reduced as compared to the standard flow rate at 31kg/min and pumping power 450W which is based on the flow rate 0.02kg/sm 2 defined in the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 Standard and the total collector area 25.9m 2. The average net solar heat collected Q net is between 8.62 and 14.1kW depending on weather condition. The MPPT control of solar heating system has been verified to be able to minimize the pumping energy consumption with optimal solar heat collection. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  19. Markerless monocular tracking system for guided external eye surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, C; Rupérez, M J; Alcañiz, M; Mataix, J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel markerless monocular tracking system aimed at guiding ophthalmologists during external eye surgery. This new tracking system performs a very accurate tracking of the eye by detecting invariant points using only textures that are present in the sclera, i.e., without using traditional features like the pupil and/or cornea reflections, which remain partially or totally occluded in most surgeries. Two known algorithms that compute invariant points and correspondences between pairs of images were implemented in our system: Scalable Invariant Feature Transforms (SIFT) and Speed Up Robust Features (SURF). The results of experiments performed on phantom eyes show that, with either algorithm, the developed system tracks a sphere at a 360° rotation angle with an error that is lower than 0.5%. Some experiments have also been carried out on images of real eyes showing promising behavior of the system in the presence of blood or surgical instruments during real eye surgery.

  20. 一种简捷的定日镜跟踪角度计算方法%A facility angle calculation of sun tracking for heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严刚峰; 周勇; 石航飞; 张方宇; 李杰; 杨弈昕; 徐宁璟

    2011-01-01

    针对目前各种定日镜跟踪角度计算方法非常复杂的问题,提出一种基于镜场分布坐标的简捷定日镜跟踪角度的计算方法.采用该方法可方便地确定定日镜场中,任意定日镜随太阳运动时,定日镜镜面法线的高度角和方位角.

  1. Active Multimodal Sensor System for Target Recognition and Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yufu; Zhang, Guirong; Zou, Zhaofan; Liu, Ziyue; Mao, Jiansen

    2017-06-28

    High accuracy target recognition and tracking systems using a single sensor or a passive multisensor set are susceptible to external interferences and exhibit environmental dependencies. These difficulties stem mainly from limitations to the available imaging frequency bands, and a general lack of coherent diversity of the available target-related data. This paper proposes an active multimodal sensor system for target recognition and tracking, consisting of a visible, an infrared, and a hyperspectral sensor. The system makes full use of its multisensor information collection abilities; furthermore, it can actively control different sensors to collect additional data, according to the needs of the real-time target recognition and tracking processes. This level of integration between hardware collection control and data processing is experimentally shown to effectively improve the accuracy and robustness of the target recognition and tracking system.

  2. Fuzzy Logic Control for Suspension Systems of Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; WEI Xue-xia; ZHANG Yong-fa

    2009-01-01

    A scheme of fuzzy logic control for the suspension system of a tracked vehicle is presented.A mechanical model for the whole body of a tracked vehicle,which is totally a fifteen-degree-of-freedom system,is established.The model includes the vertical motion,the pitch motion as well as the roll motion of the tracked vehicle.In contrast to most previous studies,the coupling effect among the vertical,the pitch and the roll motions of the suspension system of a tracked vehicle is considered simultaneously.The simulation of fuzzy logic control under road surface with random excitation shows that the acceleration,pitch angle and roll angle of suspension system can be efficiently controlled.

  3. Agency Secure Image And Storage Tracking System (ASIST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Agency Secure Image and Storage Tracking System (Missions): is a Documentum-based user interface developed and maintained by the USAID OCIO (formerly IRM) to improve...

  4. Augmented tracking and acquisition system for GBL satellite illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Aaron; Goodrich, Alan; Lawson, David G.; Holm, Richard W.

    1991-08-01

    The Augmented Tracking and Acquisition System (ATAS) provides the tracking acquisition aids, line-of-sight stabilization, and active closed-loop beam centering functions at two ground-based laser tracking sites for the Relay Mirror Experiment (RME). Simultaneous, steady illumination of the RME spacecraft with both ground beacons allows for successful beam relay between the two sites off of the orbiting mirror. Described in this paper is an overview of the functions, control system architectures, major subsystem components (steering mirrors and sensors), and mission operation of the ATAS subsystems. A brief discussion of ATAS evolution is included to show that versatility is needed for success.

  5. Passive solar tracking system for steerable Fresnel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, R.D.

    1976-10-12

    An angular tracking servo system is described for passive tracking of the sun. Solar radiation is used to control the attitude of a mirror element in an array of Fresnel reflectors. The array collects and focuses solar energy onto a high efficiency conversion device. The energy required to move the mirror element is supplied by a gear system which is attached through a pivot arm to a vertically moving float immersed in a chamber containing water.

  6. Cluster-based localization and tracking in ubiquitous computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Torres-González, Arturo; Ollero, Anibal

    2017-01-01

    Localization and tracking are key functionalities in ubiquitous computing systems and techniques. In recent years a very high variety of approaches, sensors and techniques for indoor and GPS-denied environments have been developed. This book briefly summarizes the current state of the art in localization and tracking in ubiquitous computing systems focusing on cluster-based schemes. Additionally, existing techniques for measurement integration, node inclusion/exclusion and cluster head selection are also described in this book.

  7. Developments for the outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Haas, T; Uwer, U; Walter, M; Wiedner, D

    2004-01-01

    The outer tracking system of the LHCb experiment is discussed. The outer tracking system (OT) is made of three stations and every station is made up of four detecting planes with a double layer of straw tubes. The straw tubes are mounted in detector module boxes made up of sandwich panels. The use of a counting gas with a high drift velocity is suggested to cope with high bunch crossing rate at the LHCb experiment. (Edited abstract) 3 Refs.

  8. Optical Alignment System for the PHENIX Muon Tracking Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, J; Armendariz, R L; Brooks, M L; Horaguchi, T; Kamihara, N; Kobayashi, H; Lee, D M; Shibata, T A; Sondheim, W E

    2003-01-01

    A micron-precision optical alignment system (OASys) for the PHENIX muon tracking chambers is developed. To ensure the required mass resolution of vector meson detection, the relative alignment between three tracking station chambers must be monitored with a precision of 25$\\mu$m. The OASys is a straightness monitoring system comprised of a light source, lens and CCD camera, used for determining the initial placement as well as for monitoring the time dependent movement of the chambers on a micron scale.

  9. Adaptive practical output tracking of a class of nonlinear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiangde WANG; Yuanwei JING; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Focus is laid on the adaptive practical output-tracking problem of a class of nonlinear systems with high-order lower-triangular structure and uncontrollable unstable linearization. Using the modified adaptive addition of a power integrator technique as a basic tool, a new smooth adaptive state feedback controller is designed. This controller can ensure all signals of the closed-loop systems are globally bounded and output tracking error is arbitrary small.

  10. High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Chang, C. S.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Shinozuka, Y.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Pistone, K.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Fahey, L.

    2016-12-01

    High Precision Sunphotometer using Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) Camera TrackingThe NASA Ames Sun-photometer-Satellite Group, DOE, PNNL Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, and NASA Goddard's AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) team recently collaborated on the development of a new airborne sunphotometry instrument that provides information on gases and aerosols extending far beyond what can be derived from discrete-channel direct-beam measurements, while preserving or enhancing many of the desirable AATS features (e.g., compactness, versatility, automation, reliability). The enhanced instrument combines the sun-tracking ability of the current 14-Channel NASA Ames AATS-14 with the sky-scanning ability of the ground-based AERONET Sun/sky photometers, while extending both AATS-14 and AERONET capabilities by providing full spectral information from the UV (350 nm) to the SWIR (1,700 nm). Strengths of this measurement approach include many more wavelengths (isolated from gas absorption features) that may be used to characterize aerosols and detailed (oversampled) measurements of the absorption features of specific gas constituents. The Sky Scanning Sun Tracking Airborne Radiometer (3STAR) replicates the radiometer functionality of the AATS-14 instrument but incorporates modern COTS technologies for all instruments subsystems. A 19-channel radiometer bundle design is borrowed from a commercial water column radiance instrument manufactured by Biospherical Instruments of San Diego California (ref, Morrow and Hooker)) and developed using NASA funds under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The 3STAR design also incorporates the latest in robotic motor technology embodied in Rotary actuators from Oriental motor Corp. having better than 15 arc seconds of positioning accuracy. Control system was designed, tested and simulated using a Hybrid-Dynamical modeling methodology. The design also replaces the classic quadrant detector tracking sensor with a

  11. A novel track imaging system as a range counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Matsufuji, N. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kanayama, S. [Chiba University (Japan); Ishida, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Kohno, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Koba, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    An image-intensified, camera-based track imaging system has been developed to measure the tracks of ions in a scintillator block. To study the performance of the detector unit in the system, two types of scintillators, a dosimetrically tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator EJ-240 and a CsI(Tl) scintillator, were separately irradiated with carbon ion ({sup 12}C) beams of therapeutic energy from HIMAC at NIRS. The images of individual ion tracks in the scintillators were acquired by the newly developed track imaging system. The ranges reconstructed from the images are reported here. The range resolution of the measurements is 1.8 mm for 290 MeV/u carbon ions, which is considered a significant improvement on the energy resolution of the conventional ΔE/E method. The detector is compact and easy to handle, and it can fit inside treatment rooms for in-situ studies, as well as satisfy clinical quality assurance purposes.

  12. Consensus tracking for multiagent systems with nonlinear dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Runsha

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of consensus tracking for multiagent systems with a dynamical leader. In particular, it proposes the corresponding explicit control laws for multiple first-order nonlinear systems, second-order nonlinear systems, and quite general nonlinear systems based on the leader-follower and the tree shaped network topologies. Several numerical simulations are given to verify the theoretical results.

  13. Intelligent Materials Tracking System for Construction Projects Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narimah Kasim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential factor adversely affecting the performance of construction projects is the improper handling of materials during site activities. In addition, paper-based reports are mostly used to record and exchange information related to the material components within the supply chain, which is problematic and inefficient. Generally, technologies (such as wireless systems and RFID are not being adequately used to overcome human errors and are not well integrated with project management systems to make tracking and management of materials easier and faster. Findings from a literature review and surveys showed that there is a lack of positive examples of such tools having been used effectively. Therefore, this research focused on the development of a materials tracking system that integrates RFID-based materials management with resources modelling to improve on-site materials tracking. Rapid prototyping was used to develop the system and testing of the system was carried out to examine the functionality and working appropriately. The proposed system is intended to promote the employment of RFID for automatic materials tracking with integration of resource modelling (Microsoft (R Office Project in the project management system in order to establish which of the tagged components are required resources for certain project tasks. In conclusion, the system provides an automatic and easy tracking method for managing materials during materials delivery and inventory management processes in construction projects.

  14. Improvements to magnetic tracking system for virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Hu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yongtian; Yan, Dayuan

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic tracking system is widely used in a Virtual or Augmented Reality system to track the orientation and position of an object in space. When being applied in medical applications such as surgical navigation or medical image registration, accurate 6 DOF (Degree-of-Freedom) tracking is especially important. In order to compensate the influence of metal object and magnetic fields in the surrounding environments on the accuracy of the measurements, an AC magnetic tracking system whose orientation is obtained with the output of 3-axis orthogonal magnetic sensors and 2-axis accelerometers is designed. On the basis of analyzing the influence of environmental magnetic fields on the measurement accuracy of heading, a compensation algorithm is presented, which fits the outputs of the magnetic sensors to an ellipse with the principle of least square and rotation invariant and calibrates the heading with the parameters of the ellipse to rotate and scale the measurement results. Compared with the existing approach, the proposed method can effectively compensate the influence of environmental interference when the magnetic tracking system moves in horizontal plane and can also be applied in the applications with continuous movements. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively compensate environmental interference and improve the tracking accuracy.

  15. Telecommunication systems engineering. [Book on tracking, command, telemetry, data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Simon, M. K.

    1973-01-01

    Telecommunication network concepts are discussed together with carrier-tracking loops employing the phase-lock principle, phase and Doppler measurements in two-way phase-coherent tracking systems, range measurements by phase-coherent techniques, and questions of phase-coherent detection with perfect reference signals and with noisy reference signals. The design of one-way and two-way phase-coherent communication systems is considered, giving attention to the optimal design of single-channel systems, the design of two-channel systems, and the design of multichannel systems. Other topics explored include the design and the performance of phase-coherent systems preceded by band-pass limiters, symbol synchronization and its effects on data detection, noncoherent communication over the Gaussian channel, and tracking loops with improved performance.

  16. Video-based Chinese Input System via Fingertip Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chang Yu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a system to detect and track fingertips online and recognize Mandarin Phonetic Symbol (MPS for user-friendly Chinese input purposes. Using fingertips and cameras to replace pens and touch panels as input devices could reduce the cost and improve the ease-of-use and comfort of computer-human interface. In the proposed framework, particle filters with enhanced appearance models are applied for robust fingertip tracking. Afterwards, MPS combination recognition is performed on the tracked fingertip trajectories using Hidden Markov Models. In the proposed system, the fingertips of the users could be robustly tracked. Also, the challenges of entering, leaving and virtual strokes caused by video-based fingertip input can be overcome. Experimental results have shown the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed work.

  17. Location Update Accuracy in Human Tracking system using Zigbee modules

    CERN Document Server

    Amutha, B

    2009-01-01

    A location and tracking system becomes very important to our future world of pervasive computing. An algorithm for accurate location information is being incorporated in the human walking model and in the blind human walking model. We want to implement an accurate location tracking mechanism using Zigbee along with GPS, we have incorporated Markov chain algorithm for establishing accuracy. Normal Human and blind human walking steps were actually taken in the known environment within our campus and the Markov chain algorithm was used for smoothening the stepwise variation in location updates. A comparison module is also implemented to show the difference between normal human and blind human walking step variations. This accuracy is used for designing a blind tracking device so that the device can be used by the blind for finding the path without obstacles. We present a system level approach to localizing and tracking Human and blind users on a basis of different sources of location information [GPS plus Zigbee...

  18. On Stabilization and Tracking for Switching Linear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baglietto, Marco; Battistelli, Giorgio; Tesi, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent progress in the study of switching linear systems, i.e. linear systems that can be modeled as a family of subsystems connected by switching between a number of discrete modes. We address the problem of stabilization and tracking for switching linear systems in case where

  19. Photovoltaic System with Smart Tracking of the Optimal Working Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATARAU, T.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic (PV system, based on a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller that extracts the maximum possible output power from the solar panel is described. Output efficiency of a PV energy system can be achieved only if the system working point is brought near the maximum power point (MPP. The proposed system, making use of several MPPT control algorithms (Perturb and Observe, Incremental conductance, Fuzzy Logic, demonstrates in simulations as well as in real experiments good tracking of the optimal working point.

  20. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis.

  1. Navigation and geo-tracking system of UAV EO payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhen, Kang; Xue, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiajiang; Li, Yingjuan; Tang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    A multi-function system based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) is introduced, which can fulfill navigation, attitude measurement of LOS in payload, platform stabilization and tracking control. The IMU is integrated with electro-optical sensors and a laser range finder on gimbals, which performs attitude calculation and navigation by constructing navigation coordinates in a mathematic platform, and the platform navigation information is obtained by transformation matrix between platform and gimbal coordinates. The platform comprising of gyros, electro-optical sensors and servo mechanism is capable of stabilizing line of sight and could be used to geo-tracking in the relevant field of view (FOV).The system can determine geography coordinates of the host platform and target only with navigation information and laser ranging data. The geo-tracking system always locked the target image at the center of FOV by calculating spatial geometry and adjusting LOS attitude. This tracking is different from TV tracking and geographical reference image tracking, which may be influenced by fog and obscurant. When the UAV is flying over urban or mountain areas for rescue missions, it can avoid the loss of targets due to strong maneuver or LOS obscuration, and reduce the operation load and improve rescue efficiency.

  2. LWR and defectivity improvement on EUV track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harumoto, Masahiko; Stokes, Harold; Thouroude, Yan; Kaneyama, Koji; Pieczulewski, Charles; Asai, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is well known to be a strong candidate for next generation, single exposure sub-30nm halfpitch lithography.[1] Furthermore, high-NA EUV exposure tool(s) released two years ago gave a strong impression by finer pattern results. On the other hand, it seems that the coat-develop track process remains very similar and in many aspects returns to KrF or ArF dry process fundamentals, but in practice a 26-32nm pitch patterning coat develop track process also has challenges with EUV resists. As access to EUV lithography exposures has become more readily available over the last five (5) years, several challenges and accomplishments in the track process have been reported, such as the improvement of ultra-thin film coating, CD uniformity, defectivity, line width roughness (LWR), and so on.[2-8] The coat-develop track process has evolved along with novel materials and metrology capability. Line width roughness (LWR) control and defect reduction are demonstrated utilizing the SOKUDO DUO coat-develop track system with ASML NXE:3100 and NXE:3300 exposures in the IMEC (Leuven, Belgium) cleanroom environment. Additionally, we will show the latest lithographic results obtained by novel processing approaches in the EUV coat develop track system.

  3. An autotuning respiration compensation system based on ultrasound image tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Chun; Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Teng, Kuan-Ting; Hsu, Hsiao-Yu; Tien, Der-Chi; Wu, Chih-Jen; Jeng, Shiu-Chen; Chiou, Jeng-Fong

    2016-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to develop an ultrasound image tracking algorithm (UITA) for extracting the exact displacement of internal organs caused by respiratory motion. The program can track organ displacements in real time, and analyze the displacement signals associated with organ displacements via a respiration compensating system (RCS). The ultrasound imaging system is noninvasive and has a high spatial resolution and a high frame rate (around 32 frames/s), which reduces the radiation doses that patients receive during computed tomography and X-ray observations. This allows for the continuous noninvasive observation and compensation of organ displacements simultaneously during a radiation therapy session.This study designed a UITA for tracking the motion of a specific target, such as the human diaphragm. Simulated diaphragm motion driven by a respiration simulation system was observed with an ultrasound imaging system, and then the induced diaphragm displacements were calculated by our proposed UITA. These signals were used to adjust the gain of the RCS so that the amplitudes of the compensation signals were close to the target movements. The inclination angle of the ultrasound probe with respect to the surface of the abdomen affects the results of ultrasound image displacement tracking. Therefore, the displacement of the phantom was verified by a LINAC with different inclination-angle settings of the ultrasound probe. The experimental results indicate that the best inclination angle of the ultrasound probe is 40 degrees, since this results in the target displacement of the ultrasound images being close to the actual target motion. The displacement signals of the tracking phantom and the opposing displacement signals created by the RCS were compared to assess the positioning accuracy of our proposed ultrasound image tracking technique combined with the RCS.When the ultrasound probe was inclined by 40 degrees in simulated respiration experiments using sine

  4. Robust adaptive tracking control of robotic systems with uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaonan WANG; Jinzhu PENG; Wei SUN; Hongshan YU; Hui ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To deal with the uncertainty factors of robotic systems,a robust adaptive tracking controller is Droposed.The knowledge of the uncertainty factors is assumed to be unidentified;the proposed controller can guarantee robustness to parametric and dynamics uncertainties and can also reject any bounded,immeasurable disturbances entering the System.The stability of the proposed controller is proven by the Lyapunov method.The proposed controller can easily be implemented and the stability of the closed system can be ensured;the tracking error and adaptation parameter error are uniformly ultimately bounded(UUB).Finally,some simulation examples are utilized to illustrate the control performance.

  5. Pier scour monitoring system by bed-level image tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yi CHANG; Jihn-Sung LAI; Teng-Yi YU; Franco LIN; Lung-Cheng LEE; Whey-Fone TSAI; Chin-Hsiung LOH

    2014-01-01

    A scour monitoring system with a micro camera tracking the bed-level images is proposed in this study. Two image recognition algorithms have been developed to support the bed-level image tracking approach. Through the laboratory experiments of pier scour, this study demonstrates that the proposed system is able to accurately monitor the scour-depth evolution in real time. In addition, five commonly-used temporal scour models are employed to simulate scour-depth evolution and their results are compared with monitoring data. In general, the results indicate that the proposed scour monitoring system has the potential for further applications in the field.

  6. An Adaptive Tracking Control of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems with Uncertain System Parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Zhou; Rui Ding

    2011-01-01

    An adaptive tracking control scheme is presented for fractional-order chaotic systems with uncertain parameter. It is theoretically proved that this approach can make the uncertain parameter fractional-order chaotic system track any given reference signal and the uncertain system parameter is estimated through the adaptive tracking control process. Furthermore, the reference signal may belong to other integer-orders chaotic system or belong to different fractional-order chaotic system with di...

  7. Predicting Mobility Performance of a Small, Lightweight Track System Using the Computer-Aided Method NTVPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    track system on sandy soil. The cross-country (tractive) performance of the track system predicted by NTVPM is compared with experimental data obtained...of large, heavy tracked vehicles (Wong, 2008; Wong 2010), to predicting the performance of a small, lightweight single track system on sandy soil...and the sprocket at the rear. The track is made of rubber (a 92 shore A durometer toothed rubber belt produced by BrecoFlex). The track (belt) width

  8. Health Track System—An Automated Occupational Medical System

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Jack E.; Hartridge, Anne D.; Maluish, Andrew G.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an automated occupational health and hazards system is being undertaken at the Department of Energy by Electronic Data Systems. This system, called the Health Track System (HTS), involves the integration and collection of data from the fields of occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, health physics, safety and personnel. This in itself is an exciting prospect, however, the scope of the system calls for it to be installed throughout DOE and contractor organizations acros...

  9. Arbitrary Finite-time Tracking Control for Magnetic Levitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Toa Tran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an arbitrary finite-time tracking control (AFTC method is developed for magnetic levitation systems with uncertain dynamics and external disturbances. By introducing a novel augmented sliding-mode manifold function, the proposed method can eliminate the singular problem in traditional terminal sliding-mode control, as well as the reaching-phase problem. Moreover, the tracking errors can reach the reference value with faster convergence and better tracking precision in arbitrarily determined finite time. In addition, a fuzzy-arbitrary finite-time tracking control (F-AFTC scheme that combines a fuzzy technique with AFTC to enhance the robustness and sliding performance is also proposed. A fuzzy logic system is used to replace the discontinuous control term. Thus, the chattering phenomenon is resolved without degrading the tracking performance. The stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by the Lyapunov theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed methods is illustrated by simulation and experimental study in a real magnetic levitation system.

  10. Arbitrary Finite-time Tracking Control for Magnetic Levitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Toa Tran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an arbitrary finite-time tracking control (AFTC method is developed for magnetic levitation systems with uncertain dynamics and external disturbances. By introducing a novel augmented sliding- mode manifold function, the proposed method can eliminate the singular problem in traditional terminal sliding-mode control, as well as the reaching-phase problem. Moreover, the tracking errors can reach the reference value with faster convergence and better tracking precision in arbitrarily determined finite time. In addition, a fuzzy-arbitrary finite-time tracking control (F- AFTC scheme that combines a fuzzy technique with AFTC to enhance the robustness and sliding performance is also proposed. A fuzzy logic system is used to replace the discontinuous control term. Thus, the chattering phenomenon is resolved without degrading the tracking performance. The stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by the Lyapunov theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed methods is illustrated by simulation and experimental study in a real magnetic levitation system.

  11. TILT. Trip Information Log Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.F. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The system is focused on the Employee Business Travel Event. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the Travel Event as well as the ability to CRUD frequent flyer milage associated with airline travel. Additionally the system must provide for a compliance reporting system to monitor reductions in travel costs and lost opportunity costs (i.e., not taking advantage of business class or 7 day advance tickets).

  12. Thinking Tracks for Multidisciplinary System Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Systems engineering is, for a large part, a process description of how to bring new systems to existence. It is valuable as it directs the development effort. Tools exist that can be used in this process. System analysis investigates existing and/or desired situations. However, how to create a

  13. Thinking tracks for multidisciplinary system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, G.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    Systems engineering is, for a large part, a process description of how to bring new systems to existence. It is valuable as it directs the development effort. Tools exist that can be used in this process. System analysis investigates existing and/or desired situations. However, how to create a

  14. Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Alt, T; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bán, J; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; Benhabib, L; Beolé, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bianchi, N; Bielcík, J; Bielcíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bimbot, L; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Bohm, J; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Bondila, M; Borel, H; Borshchov, V; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bosisio, L; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Böttger, S; Bourdaud, G; Boyer, B; Braun, M; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Bruckner, G; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Brun, R; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bugaev, K; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Caines, H; Cai, X; Camacho, E; Camerini, P; Campbell, M; Canoa Roman, V; Capitani, G P; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Catanescu, V; Cattaruzza, E; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chambert, V; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charpy, A; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chuman, F; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Cobanoglu, O; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Colla, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Conner, E S; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Cussonneau, J; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Dash, A; Dash, S; Das, I; Das, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gaspari, M; de Groot, J; De Gruttola, D; de Haas, A P; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; de Vaux, G; Delagrange, H; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dénes, E; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; Derkach, D; Devaux, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Díaz, L; Díaz, R; Dietel, T; Ding, H; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; do Amaral Valdiviesso, G; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dönigus, B; Domínguez, I; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; García Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glässel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez, R; González Santos, H; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guarnaccia, C; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernández, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivnácová, I; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hu, S; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jachokowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurová, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jayananda, K; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalinák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J H; Kim, J; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kiselev, S; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein-Bösing, C; Klein, J; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Králik, I; Kral, J; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravcáková, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Lackner, F; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, C; La Rocca, P; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Leistam, L; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Listratenko, O; Liu, L; Li, Y; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; López Noriega, M; López-Ramírez, R; López Torres, E; Lopez, X; Løvhøiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lu, S; Lutz, J R; Luvisetto, M; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, A; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Ma, K; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Mal'Kevich, D; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martínez, M I; Maruyama, Y; Ma, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Mattos Tavares, B; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Pérez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nianine, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nyiri, A; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Odyniec, G; Oeschler, H; Oinonen, M; Okada, K; Okada, Y; Oldenburg, M; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Orsini, F; Ortíz Velázquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskamp, C; Oskarsson, A; Osmic, F; Österman, L; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Pal, S K; Pal, S; Panse, R; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Pastircák, B; Pastore, C; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pepato, A; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D; Pérez, C; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Peschek, J; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrácek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrovici, M; Petrov, P; Petta, C; Peyré, J; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Platt, R; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta Lerma, P L M; Poggio, F; Poghosyan, M G; Poghosyan, T; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Polozov, P; Polyakov, V; Pommeresch, B; Pop, A; Posa, F; Poskon, M; Pospisil, V; Potukuchi, B; Pouthas, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S; Rashevskaya, I; Rath, S; Read, K F; Real, J; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Røed, K; Röhrich, D; Román López, S; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinský, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safarík, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Dominques da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singhal, V; Singh, R; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; 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Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van den Brink, A; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolsky, A; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, Y; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zinovjev, M; Zoccarato, Y; Zychácek, V

    2010-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment devoted to investigating the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC energies. The ALICE ITS, Inner Tracking System, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors with three different technologies; in the outward direction: two layers of pixel detectors, two layers each of drift, and strip detectors. The number of parameters to be determined in the spatial alignment of the 2198 sensor modules of the ITS is about 13,000. The target alignment precision is well below 10 micron in some cases (pixels). The sources of alignment information include survey measurements, and the reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and from proton-proton collisions. The main track-based alignment method uses the Millepede global approach. An iterative local method was developed and used as well. We present the results obtained for the ITS alignment using about 10^5 charged tracks from cosmic rays that h...

  15. Improvements to the Hunter Dose tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Aucott, T. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-01

    Since 1965, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has conducted deer hunts which are open to the general public. SRS performs field monitoring for cesium-137 (Cs-137) of each harvested animal to determine whether the animal may be released to the hunter. A new field system for measuring Cs-137 in the harvested animals has been developed. The system incorporates numerous enhancements compared to the original system. The original system was composed of two Ludlum Measurements scalar-driven 2 inch x 2 inch sodium iodide counters, while the new system is based on a single Ametek Ortec Digibase-driven 2 inch x 4 inch x 16 inch sodium iodide gamma spectrometer. The new system includes a series of easy-to-assemble stainless steel encapsulated lead shields. The combination of the larger detector size and lead shielding improved the detection limit of the new system by a factor of approximately three compared to the original system. This lower detection limit allows for a larger number of measurements to be directly compared to the laboratory results, in cases where animal portions have been sampled. The results from developing and using this system are presented as well as recommendations on improvements to the overall field monitoring of the SRS hunts.

  16. Tethered Vehicle Control and Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, David D. (Inventor); Aull, Mark J. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A kite system includes a kite and a ground station. The ground station includes a sensor that can be utilized to determine an angular position and velocity of the kite relative to the ground station. A controller utilizes a fuzzy logic control system to autonomously fly the kite. The system may include a ground station having powered winding units that generate power as the lines to the kite are unreeled. The control system may be configured to fly the kite in a crosswind trajectory to increase line tension for power generation. The sensors for determining the position of the kite are preferably ground-based.

  17. Tracking studies of the Compact Linear Collider collimation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, I.; Burkhardt, H.; Schulte, D.; /CERN; Latina, A.; /Fermilab; Blair, G.A.; Malton, S.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Resta-Lopez, J.; /Oxford U., JAI

    2009-08-01

    A collimation system performance study includes several types of computations performed by different codes. Optics calculations are performed with codes such as MADX, tracking studies including additional effects such as wakefields, halo and tail generation, and dynamical machine alignment are done with codes such as PLACET, and energy deposition can be studied with BDSIM. More detailed studies of hadron production in the beam halo interaction with collimators are better performed with GEANT4 and FLUKA. A procedure has been developed that allows one to perform a single tracking study using several codes simultaneously. In this paper we study the performance of the Compact Linear Collider collimation system using such a procedure.

  18. Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System (CMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    System ( CMS ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...www.erdc.usace.army.mil/Missions/WaterResources/CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Particle Tracking Model (PTM) with Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) The...System ( CMS ), which provides coupled wave and current forcing for PTM simulations. CMS -PTM is implemented in the Surface-water Modeling System, a

  19. Blind beamforming techniques for global tracking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.

    2015-01-01

    After the development in the past 120 years since the invention of the first radio transmission, worldwide wireless communication systems are nowadays part of daily life. Behind the shining and astonishing achievement of modern communication systems, the exhaustion of existing frequency spectrum res

  20. Blind beamforming techniques for global tracking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.

    2015-01-01

    After the development in the past 120 years since the invention of the first radio transmission, worldwide wireless communication systems are nowadays part of daily life. Behind the shining and astonishing achievement of modern communication systems, the exhaustion of existing frequency spectrum res

  1. Switching Tracking Control for Planar Systems with Transient Performance Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qing-Yu; SUN Xi-Ming; ZHAO Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the output tracking problem for a class of planar systems with some given transient performance constraints which are determined by the overshoot and the settling time.The problem of switched static output feedback tracking with output constraints (SSOFTOC) is proposed and solved for the first time.The static output feedback controllers and a so-called conic switching law are designed under which the output of the closed-loop switched system can track the step signal asymptotically without violating the transient performance constraints.Furthermore,an optimal weighted transient performance is obtained by.solving a nonlinear programming problem.Finally,a numerical example and an application to aircraft turbofan engine are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the applicability of the proposed method.

  2. A novel open-loop tracking strategy for photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Cătălin

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches a dual-axis equatorial tracking system that is used to increase the photovoltaic efficiency by maximizing the degree of use of the solar radiation. The innovative aspect in the solar tracker design consists in considering the tracking mechanism as a perturbation for the DC motors. The goal is to control the DC motors, which are perturbed with the motor torques whose computation is based on the dynamic model of the mechanical structure on which external forces act. The daily and elevation angles of the PV module represent the input parameters in the mechanical device, while the outputs transmitted to the controller are the motor torques. The controller tuning is approached by a parametric optimization process, using design of experiments and response surface methodology techniques, in a multiple regression. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the operational performance of the tracking system.

  3. A Novel Open-Loop Tracking Strategy for Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a dual-axis equatorial tracking system that is used to increase the photovoltaic efficiency by maximizing the degree of use of the solar radiation. The innovative aspect in the solar tracker design consists in considering the tracking mechanism as a perturbation for the DC motors. The goal is to control the DC motors, which are perturbed with the motor torques whose computation is based on the dynamic model of the mechanical structure on which external forces act. The daily and elevation angles of the PV module represent the input parameters in the mechanical device, while the outputs transmitted to the controller are the motor torques. The controller tuning is approached by a parametric optimization process, using design of experiments and response surface methodology techniques, in a multiple regression. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the operational performance of the tracking system.

  4. Automatic Tracking Evaluation and Development System (ATEDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The heart of the ATEDS network consists of four SGI Octane computers running the IRIX operating system and equipped with V12 hardware graphics to support synthetic...

  5. Biologically inspired neural network controller for an infrared tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigo, Janette R.; Tilden, Mark W.

    1999-01-01

    Many biological system exhibit capable, adaptive behavior with a minimal nervous system such as those found in lower invertebrates. Scientists and engineers are studying biological system because these models may have real-world applications. the analog neural controller, herein, is loosely modeled after minimal biological nervous systems. The system consists of the controller and pair of sensor mounted on an actuator. It is implemented with an electrical oscillator network, two IR sensor and a dc motor, used as an actuator for the system. The system tracks an IR target source. The pointing accuracy of this neural network controller is estimated through experimental measurements and a numerical model of the system.

  6. On-Board Visual Tracking with Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Ashraf; Semke, William

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a real time tracking algorithm that runs on a 1.2 GHz PC/104 computer on-board a small UAV. The algorithm uses zero mean normalized cross correlation to detect and locate an object in the image. A kalman filter is used to make the tracking algorithm computationally efficient. Object position in an image frame is predicted using the motion model and a search window, centered at the predicted position is generated. Object position is updated with the measurement from object detection. The detected position is sent to the motion controller to move the gimbal so that the object stays at the center of the image frame. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and the system is able to work in two different methods. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The system is capable of re-detecting an object, in t...

  7. Research on application of several tracking detectors in APT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi

    2006-01-01

    APT system is the key technology in free space optical communication system, and acquisition and tracking detector is the key component in PAT system. There are several candidate detectors that can be used in PAT system, such as CCD, QAPD and CMOS Imager etc. The characteristics of these detectors are quite different, ie the structures and the working schemes. This paper gives thoroughly compare of the usage and working principle of CCD and CMOS imager, and discuss the key parameters like tracking error, noise analyses, power analyses etc. Conclusion is given at the end of this paper that CMOS imager is a good candidate detector for PAT system in free space optical communication system.

  8. Backstepping tracking control for nonlinear time-delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Weisheng; Li Junmin

    2006-01-01

    Two design approaches of state feedback and output feedback tracking controllers are proposed for a class of strict feedback nonlinear time-delay systems by using backstepping technique. When the states of system cannot be observed, the time-delay state observer is designed to estimate the system states. Domination method is used to deal with nonlinear time-delay function under the assumption that the nonlinear time-delay functions of systems satisfy Lipschitz condition. The global asymptotical tracking of the references signal is achieved and the bound of all signals of the resultant closed-loop system is also guaranteed. By constructing a Lyapunov-Krasoviskii functional, the stability of the closed-loop system is proved. The feasibility of the proposed approach is illustrated by a simulation example.

  9. Track-to-track association for object matching in an inter-vehicle communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ting; Roth, Tobias; Chen, Qi; Breu, Jakob; Bogdanovic, Miro; Weiss, Christian A.

    2015-09-01

    Autonomous driving poses unique challenges for vehicle environment perception due to the complex driving environment the autonomous vehicle finds itself in and differentiates from remote vehicles. Due to inherent uncertainty of the traffic environments and incomplete knowledge due to sensor limitation, an autonomous driving system using only local onboard sensor information is generally not sufficiently enough for conducting a reliable intelligent driving with guaranteed safety. In order to overcome limitations of the local (host) vehicle sensing system and to increase the likelihood of correct detections and classifications, collaborative information from cooperative remote vehicles could substantially facilitate effectiveness of vehicle decision making process. Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) system provides a powerful inter-vehicle wireless communication channel to enhance host vehicle environment perceiving capability with the aid of transmitted information from remote vehicles. However, there is a major challenge before one can fuse the DSRC-transmitted remote information and host vehicle Radar-observed information (in the present case): the remote DRSC data must be correctly associated with the corresponding onboard Radar data; namely, an object matching problem. Direct raw data association (i.e., measurement-to-measurement association - M2MA) is straightforward but error-prone, due to inherent uncertain nature of the observation data. The uncertainties could lead to serious difficulty in matching decision, especially, using non-stationary data. In this study, we present an object matching algorithm based on track-to-track association (T2TA) and evaluate the proposed approach with prototype vehicles in real traffic scenarios. To fully exploit potential of the DSRC system, only GPS position data from remote vehicle are used in fusion center (at host vehicle), i.e., we try to get what we need from the least amount of information; additional feature

  10. Tracking and disturbance rejection for fully actuated mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Weiss, George

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we solve the tracking and disturbance rejection problem for fully actuated passive mechanical systems. We assume that the reference signal r and its first two derivatives r, r are available to the controller and the disturbance signal d can be decomposed into a finite superposition of

  11. An eddy tracking algorithm based on dynamical systems theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Daniel; Orfila, Alejandro; Mason, Evan; Sayol, Juan Manuel; Simarro, Gonzalo; Balle, Salvador

    2016-11-01

    This work introduces a new method for ocean eddy detection that applies concepts from stationary dynamical systems theory. The method is composed of three steps: first, the centers of eddies are obtained from fixed points and their linear stability analysis; second, the size of the eddies is estimated from the vorticity between the eddy center and its neighboring fixed points, and, third, a tracking algorithm connects the different time frames. The tracking algorithm has been designed to avoid mismatching connections between eddies at different frames. Eddies are detected for the period between 1992 and 2012 using geostrophic velocities derived from AVISO altimetry and a new database is provided for the global ocean.

  12. Location tracking system using wearable on-body GPS antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabapathy Thennarasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-body location tracking system is developed and integrated with a wearable GPS antenna. Such system is beneficial in human location tracking of patients and elderly within a radius of 1 km. The system consists of a wearable antenna, a GPS module, a low cost microcontroller, two RF modules and a local monitoring system. A user equipped with the GPS antenna, GPS module and a RF transmitter is able send his/her location to the local monitoring system via a RF receiver. The proposed wearable antenna is validated to be safe for human use in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR. This antenna was then incorporated into the complete prototype and tested. Several suggestions for future improvements are also proposed and discussed.

  13. High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; LaBaw, Clayton; Michael-Morookian, John; Monacos, Steve; Serviss, Orin

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. Like prior commercial noninvasive eye-tracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Relative to the prior commercial systems, the present system operates at much higher speed and thereby offers enhanced capability for applications that involve human-computer interactions, including typing and computer command and control by handicapped individuals,and eye-based diagnosis of physiological disorders that affect gaze responses.

  14. Path-tracking control of a tractor-aircraft system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nengjian; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Wanhui

    2012-12-01

    An aircraft tractor plays a significant role as a kind of important marine transport and support equipment. It's necessary to study its controlling and manoeuvring stability to improve operation efficiency. A virtual prototyping model of the tractor-aircraft system based on Lagrange's equation of the first kind with Lagrange mutipliers was established in this paper. According to the towing characteristics, a path-tracking controller using fuzzy logic theory was designed. Direction control herein was carried out through a compensatory tracking approach. Interactive co-simulation was performed to validate the path-tracking behavior in closed-loop. Simulation results indicated that the tractor followed the reference courses precisely on a flat ground.

  15. Path-tracking Control of a Tractor-aircraft System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nengjian Wang; Hongbo Liu; Wanhui Yang

    2012-01-01

    An aircraft tractor plays a significant role as a kind of important marine transport and support equipment.It's necessary to study its controlling and manoeuvring stability to improve operation efficiency.A virtual prototyping model of the tractor-aircraft system based on Lagrange's equation of the first kind with Lagrange mutipliers was established in this paper.According to the towing characteristics,a path-tracking controller using fuzzy logic theory was designed.Direction control herein was carried out through a compensatory tracking approach.Interactive co-simulation was performed to validate the path-tracking behavior in closed-loop.Simulation results indicated that the tractor followed the reference courses precisely on a flat ground.

  16. Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of the PeTrack motion tracking system for respiratory gating in cardiac PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Spencer; Chamberland, Marc J. P.; Klein, Ran; Xu, Tong; deKemp, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory gating is a common technique used to compensate for patient breathing motion and decrease the prevalence of image artifacts that can impact diagnoses. In this study a new data-driven respiratory gating method (PeTrack) was compared with a conventional optical tracking system. The performance of respiratory gating of the two systems was evaluated by comparing the number of respiratory triggers, patient breathing intervals and gross heart motion as measured in the respiratory-gated image reconstructions of rubidium-82 cardiac PET scans in test and control groups consisting of 15 and 8 scans, respectively. We found evidence suggesting that PeTrack is a robust patient motion tracking system that can be used to retrospectively assess patient motion in the event of failure of the conventional optical tracking system.

  17. Collaborative process control: Observation of tracks generated by PLM system

    CERN Document Server

    Elkadiri, Soumaya; Delattre, Miguel; Bouras, Abdelaziz

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the problems related to collaborative work using a PLM system. This research is mainly focused on the organisational aspects of SMEs involved in networks composed of large companies, subcontractors and other industrial partners. From this analysis, we propose the deployment of an approach based on an observation process of tracks generated by PLM system. The specific contributions are of two fold. First is to identify the brake points of collaborative work. The second, thanks to the exploitation of generated tracks, it allows reducing risks by reacting in real time to the incidents or dysfunctions that may occur. The overall system architecture based on services technology and supporting the proposed approach is described, as well as associated prototype developed using an industrial PLM system.

  18. A complex adaptive system approach to forecasting hurricane tracks

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    , for the life of the storm, perform the best in terms of the distance between forecast and best-track positions. A TAF forecast is developed using a linear combination of the highest weighted predictors. When applied to the 2004 Atlantic hurricane season, the TAF system with a requirement to contain a minimum of three predictors, consistently outperformed, although not statistically significant, the CONU forecast at 72 and 96 hours for a homogeneous data set. At 120 hours, the TAF system s...

  19. A simultaneous localization and tracking method for a worm tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mateusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of worm tracking refers to the path analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes and is an important tool in neurobiology which helps to describe their behavior. Knowledge about nematode behavior can be applied as a model to study the physiological addiction process or other nervous system processes in animals and humans. Tracking is performed by using a special manipulator positioning a microscope with a camera over a dish with an observed individual. In the paper, the accuracy of a nematode’s trajectory reconstruction is investigated. Special attention is paid to analyzing errors that occurred during the microscope displacements. Two sources of errors in the trajectory reconstruction are shown. One is due to the difficulty in accurately measuring the microscope shift, the other is due to a nematode displacement during the microscope movement. A new method that increases path reconstruction accuracy based only on the registered sequence of images is proposed. The method Simultaneously Localizes And Tracks (SLAT the nematodes, and is robust to the positioning system displacement errors. The proposed method predicts the nematode position by using NonParametric Regression (NPR. In addition, two other methods of the SLAT problem are implemented to evaluate the NPR method. The first consists in ignoring the nematode displacement during microscope movement, and the second is based on a Kalman filter. The results suggest that the SLAT method based on nonparametric regression gives the most promising results and decreases the error of trajectory reconstruction by 25% compared with reconstruction based on data from the positioning system

  20. Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Field Support System (FS-AID) and Working Capital Fund Tracking System (WCF-TS) are two modules of a single data management system that share common tables and...

  1. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  2. Studies for the ALICE inner tracking system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Felix

    2016-04-28

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D{sup 0} mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D{sup 0} meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D{sup 0} mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=5.02 TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. In another part of this thesis, several pixel-chip prototypes of the ALPIDE architecture with in-pixel amplification and discrimination as well as in-matrix data reduction were characterised. The pALPIDE-2 prototype was measured to fulfil the requirements in terms of detection efficiency, fake-hit rate, position resolution and tolerance to irradiation with non-ionising energy loss. Based on simulations modelling the tracking and vertex-reconstruction performance of the upgraded Inner Tracking System, the perspective of the feed-down separation using cut variations after the upgrade was assessed within this thesis.

  3. Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) Software Requirements Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    2000-03-22

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) as it is converted to a client-server architecture. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organizations with the requirements for the SWITS in the new environment. This Software Requirement Specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SWITS Project, and follows the PHMC Engineering Requirements, HNF-PRO-1819, and Computer Software Qualify Assurance Requirements, HNF-PRO-309, policies. This SRS includes sections on general description, specific requirements, references, appendices, and index. The SWITS system defined in this document stores information about the solid waste inventory on the Hanford site. Waste is tracked as it is generated, analyzed, shipped, stored, and treated. In addition to inventory reports a number of reports for regulatory agencies are produced.

  4. GPS based Advanced Vehicle Tracking and Vehicle Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashood Mukhtar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Security systems and navigators have always been a necessity of human‟s life. The developments of advanced electronics have brought revolutionary changes in these fields. In this paper, we will present a vehicle tracking system that employs a GPS module and a GSM modem to find the location of a vehicle and offers a range of control features. To complete the design successfully, a GPS unit, two relays, a GSM Modem and two MCU units are used. There are five features introduced in the project. The aim of this project is to remotely track a vehicle‟s location, remotely switch ON and OFF the vehicle‟s ignition system and remotely lock and unlock the doors of the vehicle. An SMS message is sent to the tracking system and the system responds to the users request by performing appropriate actions. Short text messages are assigned to each of these features. A webpage is specifically designed to view the vehicle‟s location on Google maps. By using relay based control concept introduced in this paper, number of control features such as turning heater on/off, radio on/off etc. can be implemented in the same fashion.

  5. Comparative accuracy of radiostereometric and optical tracking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedgley, Angela E; Birmingham, Trevor; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2009-06-19

    This study aims to quantify and compare the accuracy of traditional radiostereometric analysis (RSA), fluoroscopic RSA (fRSA), and optical tracking systems. Three phantoms were constructed, each having three stainless steel spheres and three reflective markers. One phantom was mounted to the base of a precision cross-slide table, one to the base of a precision rotation table, and the third was mounted to each moveable tabletop. Two dial-gauges, rigidly mounted to the cross-slide table and rotation table, quantified translations and rotations. Two fluoroscopy units placed orthogonally tracked the steel spheres while a four-camera optical motion capture system tracked the reflective markers in three-dimensional space. RSA was performed with both digital radiography and fluoroscopy. Three axes of translation were tested: parallel to one fluoroscopy image, parallel to the other fluoroscopy image, and at approximately 45 degrees to each image. One axis of rotation was tested. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated excellent agreement between the actual (dial-gauge) and measured translations for all modalities (ICCs>0.99) and excellent agreement between actual and measured rotations for RSA and fRSA (ICCs>0.99). Standard errors of measurement ranged from 0.032 mm and 0.121 degrees for RSA, to 0.040 mm and 0.229 degrees for fRSA, and to 0.109 mm and 0.613 degrees for optical tracking. Differences between actual and measured translations along the 45 degrees axis were significantly smaller than the two parallel axes. These findings suggest that under ideal conditions, accuracy of fRSA is comparable to traditional RSA, and superior to optical tracking. Accuracy is highest when measured at 45 degrees to the fluoroscopy units.

  6. Development of Solar Tracking System Using Imc-Pid Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamigboye O. Oladayo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, solar cells are hooked with fixed elevating angles, and it does not track the sun. Therefore the efficiency of the power generation is low. A solar panel receives the most sunlight when it is perpendicular to the sun’s rays, but the sunlight direction changes regularly with changing seasons and weather. There is therefore the need to track the solar panel to increase its efficiency. The stability and improved speed of response can only be achieved with appropriate controller to take care of external disturbances and design uncertainty associated with a conventional controller. The IMC controller would be used to allow good tracking ability and good load disturbance rejection Unconventional controller like fuzzy logic can be used to tune the PID controller andthe result compared with using a conventional controller like ZN. The internal model control based proportional integral derivative design procedure can be implemented in industrial processes using existing proportional integral derivative control equipment. Modeling of a dual axis solar tracker. An IMC-PID controller was developed for a dual axis solar tracker. The result of this work showed that the IMC-PID controller provided an efficient and commendable improvement in the relative stability, disturbance attenuation, set point tracking and an improved speed of response for the system

  7. Remote Gaze Tracking System on a Large Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Cha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new remote gaze tracking system as an intelligent TV interface. Our research is novel in the following three ways: first, because a user can sit at various positions in front of a large display, the capture volume of the gaze tracking system should be greater, so the proposed system includes two cameras which can be moved simultaneously by panning and tilting mechanisms, a wide view camera (WVC for detecting eye position and an auto-focusing narrow view camera (NVC for capturing enlarged eye images. Second, in order to remove the complicated calibration between the WVC and NVC and to enhance the capture speed of the NVC, these two cameras are combined in a parallel structure. Third, the auto-focusing of the NVC is achieved on the basis of both the user’s facial width in the WVC image and a focus score calculated on the eye image of the NVC. Experimental results showed that the proposed system can be operated with a gaze tracking accuracy of ±0.737°~±0.775° and a speed of 5~10 frames/s.

  8. Digital Watermark Tracking using Intelligent Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj V. DHARWADKAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has become a huge business and adriving factor in the development of the Internet. Onlineshopping services are well established. Due to the evolution of2G and 3G mobile networks, soon online shopping services arecomplemented by their wireless counterparts. Furthermore, inthe recent years online delivery of digital media, such as MP3audio or video or image is very popular and will become anincreasingly important part of E-commerce. The advantage ofinternet is sharing the valuable digital data which lead to misuseof digital data. To resolve the problem of misuse of digital dataon Internet we need to have strong Digital rights monitoringsystem. Digital Rights Management (DRM is fairly youngdiscipline, while some of its underlying technologies have beenknown from many years. The use of DRM for managing andprotecting intellectual property rights is a comparatively newfield. In this paper we propose a model for online digital imagelibrary copyright protection based on watermark trackingSystem.In our proposed model the tracking of watermarks onremote host nodes is done using active mobile agents. The multiagentsystem architecture is used in watermark tracking whichsupports the coordination of several component tasks acrossdistributed and flexible networks of information sources.Whereas a centralized system is susceptible to system-widefailures and processing bottlenecks, multi-agent systems aremore reliable, especially given the likelihood of individualcomponent failures.

  9. A Target Tracking System for Applications in Hydraulic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qiaonan; AN Xuehui

    2008-01-01

    A new type of digital video monitoring system (DVMS) named user defined target tracking system (UDTTS), was developed based on the digital image processing (DIP) technology and the practice demands of construction site management in hydraulic engineering. The position, speed, and track of moving targets such as humans and vehicles, which could be calculated by their locations at anytime in images basically, were required for management. The proposed algorithm, dependent on the context-sensitive moving infor- mation of image sequences which was much more than one or two images provided, compared the blobs' properties in current frame to the trajectories of targets in the previous frames and then corresponded them. The processing frame rate is about 10fps with the image 240-by-120 pixels. Experimental results show that position, direction, and speed measurements have an accuracy level compatible with the manual work. The user-define process makes the UDTTS available to the public whenever appropriate.

  10. The Integrated Waste Tracking System - A Flexible Waste Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Robert Stephen

    2001-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has fully embraced a flexible, computer-based tool to help increase waste management efficiency and integrate multiple operational functions from waste generation through waste disposition while reducing cost. The Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS)provides comprehensive information management for containerized waste during generation,storage, treatment, transport, and disposal. The IWTS provides all information necessary for facilities to properly manage and demonstrate regulatory compliance. As a platformindependent, client-server and Web-based inventory and compliance system, the IWTS has proven to be a successful tracking, characterization, compliance, and reporting tool that meets the needs of both operations and management while providing a high level of management flexibility.

  11. An Embedded System for Tracking Human Motion and Humanoid Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-June Tsai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is using embedded CPU to develop a human motion tracking system and construct a motion replication interface for a humanoid robot. In the motion tracking system, we use a CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device which is built in a central control unit (CCU to generate synchronous signals for all the periphery devices and control the data flow from CCD boards to a PC via a USB chip. An embedded DSP on the CCD board is adopted to control the CCD exposure and conduct image processing. The peak position of exposure was computed by the on-board DSP within sub-pixel accuracy. In the construction of a motion replication interface, the same CCU is used to generate the PWM signals to drive the motors of the humanoid robot. All of the respective firmware coding methods are discussed in this article.

  12. A novel accurate minioptical tracking system for percutaneous needle placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Jako, Christopher R; Zuk, Yuval; Zur, Oded; Gilboa, Pini

    2013-08-01

    The novel optical tracking system employs a miniature video camera, mounted on the hub of an interventional needle, to determine the location and orientation of the needle relative to a skin-attached sticker with color reference markers. A computed tomography (CT) scan is used to register the same reference markers to the anatomy in the CT images, and thus, register the needle to the anatomy and to a user-selected target. A computer displays a simulation of the interventional needle on the CT images, providing guidance information to assist a user in directing the needle to the target. Bench testing was performed on a custom phantom to determine the accuracy of this minioptical tracking system. The resulting accuracy data demonstrate a good correlation with phantom coordinates and the CT images.

  13. Prototype of a control board solar tracking mechanism on a shaft; Prototipo de una tarjeta de control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar en un eje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Berumen, Carlos; Ramirez Benitez, Juan Rafael; Lopez Perez, Manuel de Jesus; Beltran Adan, Jose; Lagunas Mendoza, Javier [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    A solar concentrator prototype of Parabolic Trough (PT) for solar process heat generation has been designed, manufactured and put into operation by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. By means of a sun tracking mechanism controlled by an automatic device, the PT is moving from East to West during the day then this way the solar energy is focused continually over the lineal receiver. Such movement is reached thanks to the electronic module fitted with special software. In this paper, the design of an electronic module based on calculation algorithm of the sun position along the day and over the year which controls the PT sun tracking is presented. The main purpose of the development is to integrate a control system which is using the algorithm of low cost (it was tested in a commercial system with success). [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha disenado, fabricado y puesto en operacion un prototipo de concentrador solar de canal parabolico para la generacion de calor de proceso. La tecnologia termosolar a concentracion de canal parabolica mantiene el concentrador moviendose de este a oeste durante el dia, enfocando continuamente el sol en el receptor lineal, mediante un mecanismo y un control automatico que permite el seguimiento aparente del sol. Se ha desarrollado el software para el control del mecanismo de seguimiento solar. En este articulo se presenta el diseno de un modulo electronico que controla el mecanismo de seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico, el cual tiene sus bases en un algoritmo que calcula la posicion del sol durante todo el dia y a lo largo del ano. El proposito principal es integrar un sistema de control de bajo costo, que utilice el algoritmo desarrollado por el IIE, el cual fue probado con exito en un sistema comercial para el seguimiento solar de un canal parabolico.

  14. An Adaptive Tracking Control of Fractional-Order Chaotic Systems with Uncertain System Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive tracking control scheme is presented for fractional-order chaotic systems with uncertain parameter. It is theoretically proved that this approach can make the uncertain parameter fractional-order chaotic system track any given reference signal and the uncertain system parameter is estimated through the adaptive tracking control process. Furthermore, the reference signal may belong to other integer-orders chaotic system or belong to different fractional-order chaotic system with different fractional orders. Two examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Tracking unstable fixed points in parametrically dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón, Raúl J.; Arrowsmith, David K.

    1997-02-01

    The method of Ott, Grebogi and Yorke is extended to control a two-parameter system when one of the parameters is time dependent and the other is used as the control-parameter. As one of the parameters changes, the unstable fixed point follows its branch of the bifurcation tree. We control a chaotic orbit such that it tracks this “moving” unstable fixed point using an adaptive control method.

  16. Fast Frequency Offset Acquisition and Accurate Tracking in OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-shan; ZHAO Ming; LIU Yuan-an

    2004-01-01

    A new carrier frequency offset estimation scheme for Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is proposed. The carrier frequency offset estimation includes acquisition and tracking. The acquisition range of the proposed algorithm is as large as one half of the overall signal bandwidth. Comparison of the proposed scheme with Schmidl's algorithm by computer simulation illustrates the superior performance of the proposed scheme with regard to estimation accuracy in both AWGN channel and multipath channels.

  17. Forecasting hurricane tracks using a complex adaptive system

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    Forecast hurricane tracks using a multi-model ensemble that is comprised by linearly combining the individual model forecasts have greatly reduced the average forecast errors when compared to individual dynamic model forecast errors. In this experiment, a complex adaptive system, the Tropical Agent Forecaster (TAF), is created to fashion a 'smart' ensemble forecast. The TAF uses autonomous agents to assess the historical performance of individual models and model combinations, called predicto...

  18. Quantification of intraocular surgery motions with an electromagnetic tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Culjat, Martin O; Nistor, Vasile; Dutson, Erik P; Carman, Gregory P; Hubschman, Jean Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Motion tracking was performed during a combined phacoemulsification (PKE) and pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) procedure on a pig eyeball. The UCLA Laparoscopic Training System (UCLA-LTS), which consists of electromagnetic sensors attached to the surgical tools to measure three-dimensional spatial vectors, was modified to enable quantification of intraocular surgery motions. The range of motion and time taken to complete the given task were successfully recorded.

  19. Global point tracking based panoramic image stabilization system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娟娟; 郭宝龙; 吴宪祥

    2009-01-01

    A novel image stabilization system is presented,which consists of a global feature point tracking based motion estimation,a Kalman filtering based motion smoothing and an image mosaic based panoramic compensation.The global motion is estimated using feature point matching and iteration with the least-square method.Then,the Kalman filter is applied to smooth the original motion vectors to effectively alleviate unwanted camera vibrations and follow the intentional camera scan.Lastly,the loss information of im...

  20. Implementation of an Onboard Visual Tracking System with Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Ashraf; Neubert, Jeremiah

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a visual tracking system that is capable or running real time on-board a small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). The tracking system is computationally efficient and invariant to lighting changes and rotation of the object or the camera. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and there are two different methods for creation of the image patches. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch created prior to flight with previous flight data. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The tracking system is capable of re-detecting the object of interest in the events of tracking failure. Performance of the tracking system was verified both in the lab and during actual flights of the UAV. Results show that the system can run on-board and track a diverse set of objects in real time.

  1. Detector module development for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertini, Olga [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The central detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR, the Silicon Tracking System (STS), is designed to reconstruct hundreds of charged particle tracks produced at rates up to 10 MHz in interactions of ion beams of up to 45 AGeV projectile energies with nuclear targets. The building block of the tracking system is a module suitable for a low-mass detector construction. In a module, the basic functional unit of the STS, radiation tolerant microstrip sensors are read out through low-mass multi-line cables with self-triggering front-end electronics located at the periphery of the system. Light-weight carbon fibre support structures will carry 10 of such modules and build up the STS stations. The performance of module prototypes has been evaluated, resembling the structure of the intended STS module. The shown prototypes comprise a full-size CBM05 sensor and two 128-channel read-out cables attached to the read-out pads on either side of the sensor. The cables end in connector boards interfacing to two front-end boards each hosting one n-XYTER chip.

  2. Ethical Issues In Monitoring And Based Tracking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman O. Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and based tracking systems use a variety of technologies to record and monitor the activities of humans.  This can increase the risks to the privacy and security of individuals. The amount of information gathered about individuals is growing through the proliferation of surveillance cameras, sensors; microchips and Radio Frequency Identification RFID tags embedded in devices and products. Advances in electronic technologies allow companies and government agencies to store and process large amounts of information about individuals. The Internet provides the ultimate copier device, making this information easily available to millions. This paper highlights the ethical issues emerging with the new technologies in the monitoring and base tracking system. New regulations should be proposed to protect the individual privacy.ABSTRAK: Pemantauan dan sistem berasaskan pengesanan menggunakan pelbagai teknologi untuk merakam dan memantau aktiviti manusia. Ini boleh meningkatkan risiko dari segi privasi dan keselamatan individu. Jumlah maklumat yang dikumpulkan tentang individu berkembang melalui proliferasi pengawasan kamera, sensor; mikrocip dan tag frekuensi radio yang diletakkan di dalam peranti dan produk. Kemajuan dalam teknologi elektronik membolehkan syarikat-syarikat dan agensi-agensi kerajaan menyimpan dan memproses sejumlah besar maklumat mengenai individu. Internet menyediakan peranti salinan utama, menjadikan maklumat ini didapati dengan mudah. Kajian ini memaparkan isu-isu etika yang baru muncul dengan teknologi baru dalam pemantauan dan sistem berasaskan pengesanan. Peraturan baru perlu dicadangkan untuk melindungi privasi individu.Keywords: Privacy Implications, Tracking Systems, EthicalIssue, RFID

  3. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vanat, T.

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade to the experimental apparatus. A key element of the upgrade is the construction of a new silicon-based Inner Tracking System containing 12 Gpixels in an area of 10 m2. Its readout system consists of 192 readout units that control the pixel sensors and the power units, and deliver the sensor data to the counting room. A prototype readout board has been designed to test: the interface between the sensor modules and the readout electronics, the signal integrity and reliability of data transfer, the interface to the ALICE DAQ and trigger, and the susceptibility of the system to the expected radiation level.

  4. Automatic control and tracking of periodic orbits in chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hiroyasu; Boccaletti, S; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2007-06-01

    Based on an automatic feedback adjustment of an additional parameter of a dynamical system, we propose a strategy for controlling periodic orbits of desired periods in chaotic dynamics and tracking them toward the set of unstable periodic orbits embedded within the original chaotic attractor. The method does not require information on the system to be controlled, nor on any reference states for the targets, and it overcomes some of the difficulties encountered by other techniques. Assessments of the method's effectiveness and robustness are given by means of the application of the technique to the stabilization of unstable periodic orbits in both discrete- and continuous-time systems.

  5. Studies for the ALICE Inner Tracking System Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079168; Musa, Luciano

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC identifies D0 mesons via secondary-vertex reconstruction and topological cuts to reduce the corresponding combinatorial background in heavy-ion collisions. The D0 meson is produced promptly in initial, hard scatterings via the strong interaction or as feed-down from weakly decaying B hadrons. Within this thesis, a novel method for the separation of prompt and feed-down D0 mesons using cut variations was implemented and applied to data from p–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt(s_\\mathrm{NN})=5.02$ TeV. The effectiveness of the secondary-vertex reconstruction strongly depends on the performance and in particular the pointing resolution of the Inner Tracking System. The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System for the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC in 2019/2020 will significantly improve its vertex-reconstruction and tracking capabilities. It will be equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors manufactured using the TowerJazz 180nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitax...

  6. SECURE TRACKING AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM USING RWP AND GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silky Verma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present era where technology has become a part of our life, every day new applications are developed in every field to serve mankind. Many applications have been developed using GPS (globalpositioning system such as aquatic and spacecraft routing, surveying and mapping, precise time reference etc. GPS (global positioning system enables everyday activities such as banking, mobile phone operations, and even the control of power grids by allowing well harmonized hand-off switching and accurate time. The main contribution of this paper is tracking and transportation of object in a secured way using RWP and GPS. To assure the security of the tracking and tracing application we introduce a method to evaluate the one-hop distance between the target object and all the cooperative nodes in the object’s view. A key factor that increases the project’s accuracy and performance is GPS, a common example of wireless which can be interfaced to provide location and time information in all weather conditions. GPS has become a widely adopted and useful tool for commerce, scientific uses, tracking, and investigation. We control the ground session with RWP (random way point using AODV routing protocol. DOP (dilution of precision.

  7. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Moles-Valls, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is equipped with a tracking system for c harged particles built on two technologies: silicon and drift tube base detectors. These kind of detectors compose the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The Alignment of the ATLAS ID tracking s ystem requires the determination of almost 36000 degrees of freedom. From the tracking point o f view, the alignment parameters should be know to a few microns precision. This permits to att ain optimal measurements of the parameters of the charged particles trajectories, thus ena bling ATLAS to achieve its physics goals. The implementation of the alignment software, its framewor k and the data flow will be discussed. Special attention will be paid to the recent challenges wher e large scale computing simulation of the ATLAS detector has been performed, mimicking the ATLAS o peration, which is going to be very important for the LHC startup scenario. The alignment r esult for several challenges (real cosmic ray data taking and computing system commissioning) will be...

  8. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, Johann M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR, the Silicon Tracking System (STS) will perform track reconstruction and momentum determination of the charged particles created in interactions of heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets. The STS consists of 8 tracking layers located at distances between 30 cm and 100 cm downstream of the target inside the 1 T magnetic dipole field. The required momentum resolution of the order of Δp/p=1% can only be achieved with an ultra-low material budget, imposing particular restrictions on the location of power-dissipating front-end electronics in the fiducial volume. The concept of the STS is based on 300 μm thick double-sided silicon microstrip sensors mounted onto lightweight carbon fiber support ladders. The sensors will be read out through ultra-thin multi-line micro-cables with fast self-triggering electronics at the periphery of the stations where cooling lines and other infrastructure can be placed. The mechanical construction of the STS will allow extracting the detector system and replacing individual ladders e.g. in case of radiation damage. The status of the STS project is summarized in the presentation. An important milestone was achieved in December 2012 with the submission of the STS Technical Design Report to FAIR.

  9. A novel particle tracking algorithm using polar coordinate system similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Ruan; Wenfeng Zhao; Yunming Chen

    2005-01-01

    A new algorithm using polar coordinate system similarity (PCSS) for tracking particle in particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) is proposed. The essence of the algorithm is to consider simultaneously the changes of the distance and angle of surrounding particles relative to the object particle.Monte Carlo simulations of a solid body rotational flow and a parallel shearing flow are used to investigate flows measurable by PCSS and the influences of experimental parameters on the implementation of the new algorithm. The results indicate that the PCSS algorithm can be applied to flows subjected to strong rotation and is not sensitive to experimental parameters in comparison with the conventional binary image cross-correlation (BICC) algorithm. Finally, PCSS is applied to images of a real experiment.

  10. Quality assurance database for the CBM silicon tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System is a main tracking device of the CBM Experiment at FAIR. Its construction includes production, quality assurance and assembly of large number of components, e.g., 106 carbon fiber support structures, 1300 silicon microstrip sensors, 16.6k readout chips, analog microcables, etc. Detector construction is distributed over several production and assembly sites and calls for a database that would be extensible and allow tracing the components, integrating the test data, monitoring the component statuses and data flow. A possible implementation of the above-mentioned requirements is being developed at GSI (Darmstadt) based on the FAIR DB Virtual Database Library that provides connectivity to common SQL-Database engines (PostgreSQL, Oracle, etc.). Data structure, database architecture as well as status of implementation are discussed.

  11. Tracking topological entity changes in 3D collaborative modeling systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengYuan; He Fazhi; HuangZhiyong; Cai Xiantao; and Zhang Dejun

    2012-01-01

    One of the key problems in collaborative geometric modeling systems is topological entity correspondence when topolog- ical structure of geometry models on collaborative sites changes, ha this article, we propose a solution for tracking topological entity alterations in 3D collaborative modeling environment. We firstly make a thorough analysis and detailed categorization on the altera- tion properties and causations for each type of topological entity, namely topological face and topological edge. Based on collabora- tive topological entity naming mechanism, a data structure called TEST (Topological Entity Structure Tree) is introduced to track the changing history and current state of each topological entity, to embody the relationship among topological entities. Rules and algo- rithms are presented for identification of topological entities referenced by operations for correct execution and model consistency. The algorithm has been verified within the prototype we have implemented with ACIS.

  12. Prototype LPDA Tracking System for the Gauribidanur Radioheliograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, G. A. S.; Subramanian, K. R.; Rajan, M. S. S.; Chellaswamy, E. E.; Ramesh, R.

    2005-12-01

    In order to observe transient and time-varying solar coronal events like intense radio bursts and Coronal Mass Ejections at metric wavelengths over a prolonged duration, the current meridian-transit instrument, that is the Gauribidanur Radioheliograph (GRH), requires upgradation to a mode, that would track their spatio-spectral and temporal evolution. The scheme has been deployed on the scale of a prototype to the GRH, so that multi-frequency radio imaging and spectral observations could be carried-out unhindered for about four hours every day, in the 30 - 150 MHz range. The "tracking system" is implemented based on electronic beam-steering techniques, employing the time-delay control concept, at an interference-free frequency of 77.5 MHz

  13. Design of E-City Bus Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available E-city bus tracking system will serve as a viable notification system that will effectively assist passengers in making the decision of whether to wait for the bus or not. This system is a standalone system designed to display the real-time location(s of the buses with the use of GSM module technology. The system will consist of an IR transmitter module installed on the buses, receiver boards installed on the bus stops and GSM receiver connected with PC monitoring the whole arrangement. It will also have passenger information system software installed at the bus stops and which will provide user the relevant information regarding all the bus numbers going for his source to destination along with the route details. It will also transmit its bus numbers and route names, with the help of LED transmitter, continuously as soon as the bus comes within the range of the receiver at the bus stop.

  14. Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization of Automobile Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Al-Khedher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated GPS-GSM system is proposed to track vehicles using Google Earth application. Theremote module has a GPS mounted on the moving vehicle to identify its current position, and to betransferred by GSM with other parameters acquired by the automobile’s data port as an SMS to arecipient station. The received GPS coordinates are filtered using a Kalman filter to enhance theaccuracy of measured position. After data processing, Google Earth application is used to view thecurrent location and status of each vehicle. This goal of this system is to manage fleet, policeautomobiles distribution and car theft cautions.

  15. Electronic image stabilization system based on global feature tracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Juanjuan; Guo Baolong

    2008-01-01

    A new robust electronic image stabilization system is presented, which involves feature-point, tracking based global motion estimation and Kalman filtering based motion compensation. First, global motion is estimated from the local motions of selected feature points. Considering the local moving objects or the inevitable mismatch,the matching validation, based on the stable relative distance between the points set is proposed, thus maintaining high accuracy and robustness. Next, the global motion parameters are accumulated for correction by Kalman filter-ation. The experimental result illustrates that the proposed system is effective to stabilize translational, rotational,and zooming jitter and robust to local motions.

  16. A compact muon tracking system for didactic and outreach activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antolini, R.; Candela, A.; Conicella, V.; De Deo, M.; D' Incecco, M.; Sablone, D. [INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory – Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Di Giovanni, A. [New York University Abu Dhabi - Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Pazos Clemens, L., E-mail: luis.pazclem@nyu.edu [New York University Abu Dhabi - Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Franchi, G.; D' Inzeo, M. [Age Scientific srl – Capezzano Pianore (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We present a cosmic ray telescope based on the use of plastic scintillator bars coupled to ASD-RGB1S-M Advansid Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifter fibers. The system is comprised of 200 electronic channels organized into 10 couples of orthogonal planes allowing the 3D reconstruction of crossing muons. Two monolithic PCB boards have been designed to bias, readout all the SiPMs enclosed in the system, to monitor the working parameters and to remotely connect the detector. To make easier the display of muon tracks to non-expert users, two LED matrices, triggered by particle interactions, have been implemented. To improve the usability of the muon telescope, a controller board unit permits to select different levels of trigger and allows data acquisition for refined analyses for the more proficient user. A first prototype, funded by INFN and deployed in collaboration with NYUAD, is operating at the Toledo Metro station of Naples, while two further detectors will be developed and installed in Abu Dhabi in the next few months. - Highlights: • A compact system for real time displaying of muon tracks is presented. • The system is based on scintillating plates composed of doped polystyrene bars. • By using SiPMs and corresponding LEDs the muon paths can be visualized. • The purpose of this system is to introduce the public to sub-nuclear particles.

  17. Advanced Mobile Surveillance System for Multiple People Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Bandaru

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops an efficient people surveillance system capable of tracking multiple people on different terrains. Recorded video on rough terrains is affected by jitters resulting into significant error between the desired and captured video flow. Video stabilization is achieved by calculating the motion and compensational parameters using the LSE analytical solution to minimize the error between present and desired output video captured from an autonomous robot’s camera moving on a rough terrain used for surveillance of unidentified people. This is the first paper to the best of our knowledge which makes use of this method to design mobile wireless robot for human surveillance applications. As the method used is fast then conventional methods, making the proposed system a highly efficient surveillance system as compared to previous systems. The superiority of the method used is demonstrated using different evaluation parameters like RMCD, variability and reliability. The system can be used for surveillance of people under different environmental conditions.

  18. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  19. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    extracting numerical instrumentation data that are embedded in images. All the results are saved in files for further data reduction and graphing. There are currently three Tracking Systems (workstations) operating near the laboratories and offices of Lewis Microgravity Science Division researchers. These systems are used independently by students, scientists, and university-based principal investigators. The researchers bring their tapes or films to the workstation and perform the tracking analysis. The resultant data files generated by the tracking process can then be analyzed on the spot, although most of the time researchers prefer to transfer them via the network to their offices for further analysis or plotting. In addition, many researchers have installed Tracker on computers in their office for desktop analysis of digital image sequences, which can be digitized by the Tracking System or some other means. Tracker has not only provided a capability to efficiently and automatically analyze large volumes of data, saving many hours of tedious work, but has also provided new capabilities to extract valuable information and phenomena that was heretofore undetected and unexploited.

  20. SCATS: SRB Cost Accounting and Tracking System handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorv, R. B.; Stewart, R. D.; Coley, G.; Higginbotham, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Booster Cost Accounting and Tracking System (SCATS) which is an automatic data processing system designed to keep a running account of the number, description, and estimated cost of Level 2, 3, and 4 changes is described. Although designed specifically for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Program, the ADP system can be used for any other program that has a similar structure for recording, reporting, and summing numbers and costs of changes. The program stores the alpha-numeric designators for changes, government estimated costs, proposed costs, and negotiated value in a MIRADS (Marshall Information Retrieval and Display System) format which permits rapid access, manipulation, and reporting of current change status. Output reports listing all changes, totals of each level, and totals of all levels, can be derived for any calendar interval period.

  1. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  2. Current state in tracking and robotic navigation systems for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, Quirina M B; Moll, Frans L.; Van Herwaarden, Joost A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study reviewed the current developments in manual tracking and robotic navigation technologies for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies reporting manual tracking or robotic navigation systems that are

  3. Current state in tracking and robotic navigation systems for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ruiter, Quirina M B; Moll, Frans L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070246882; Van Herwaarden, Joost A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304814733

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study reviewed the current developments in manual tracking and robotic navigation technologies for application in endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). Methods EMBASE and MEDLINE databases were searched for studies reporting manual tracking or robotic navigation systems that are

  4. The tracking system of the ALICE dimuon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Basciu, S; Atanassov, I; Cicalò, C; De Falco, A; Floris, M; La Delfa, L; Marras, D; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Siddi, E; Tuven, M; Usai, G L; Boudjemline, M K; Carduner, H; Charrier, D; Cussonneau, J P; Dialinas, M; Finck, C; Fresneau, S; Lautridou, P; Luquin, Lionel; Pichot, P; Thers, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Borel, H; Dumonteil, E; Gosset, J; Jourde, Didier; Lugol, J C; Orsini, F; Penichot, Y; Robert, J P; Staley, F; Comets, M P; Courtat, P; Diarra, C; Espagnon, B; Guez, D; Le Bornec, Y; MacCormick, M; Martin, J M; Rousseau, S; Sinha, T; Willis, N; Nikulin, V V

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE Muon Spectrometer is mainly dedicated to the measurement of the production of the J/ psi , and Y families through their decay into muon pairs, in Pb-Pb collisions. In this paper we give a description of the dimuon tracking system, mainly concentrating on the modular CSC chambers which occupy the last three stations. The R&D phase is now almost over and the production of the final modules started. A description of the main performances of the detectors based on test beam results on prototypes will be given. (8 refs).

  5. ISAT: The mega-fauna acoustic tracking system

    KAUST Repository

    De la Torre, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    The acoustic tracking module of the Integrated Satellite and Acoustic Telemetry (iSAT) system is discussed in detail. iSAT is capable of detecting the relative direction of an acoustic source by measuring the order of arrival (OOA) of the acoustic signal to each hydrophone in a triangular array. The characteristics of the hydrophones, the projector, and the target acoustic signal used for iSAT are described. Initially it is designed to study the movements of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus), but it could potentially be used to describe high resolution movements of other marine species. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. The straw tube technology for the LHCb outer tracking system

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Deppe, H; Eisele, F; Haas, T; Hajduk, L; Langenegger, U; Michalowski, J; Nawrot, A; Polok, G; Pellegrino, A; Schuijlenburg, H; Schwierz, R; Sluijk, T; Spelt, J; Spaan, B; Szczekowski, M; Stange, U; Syryczynski, K; Trunk, U; Walter, M; Wiedner, D; Uwer, U; Van Appeldorn, G

    2004-01-01

    For the outer tracking system of the LHCb spectrometer 53.760 straws of 2.5 m length will be used. They are arranged in detector modules of 5 m length and 0.34 m width. The envisaged spatial resolution over the entire active area is 200$mu$m resulting in stringent requirements on the accuracy for the module construction. In this paper we discuss the optimisation of the straws, design and construction of detector modules. The long term operation properties of straws in two different counting gases, Ar/CO$_2$ (70/30) and Ar/CO$_s$/CF$_4$ (75/10/15), is compared.

  7. Design and Implementation of Dual Axis Solar Tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirigauri N,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a promising technology that can have huge long term benefits. Solar cells convert the solar energy into electrical energy. Solar tracking system is the most suited technology to improve the efficiency and enhance the performance by utilizing maximum solar energy through the solar cell. In hardware development we utilize LDR’s as sensors and two servomotors to direct the position of the solar panel. The software part is implemented on a code written using an Arduino Uno controller.

  8. Detector module development for the CBM Silicon Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymanets, Anton [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The central detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR, the Silicon Tracking System (STS), is being designed to reconstruct hundreds of charged particles produced at rates up to 10 MHz in interactions of ion beams of up to 45 AGeV projectile energies with nuclear targets. The building block of the tracking system is a module suitable for a low-mass detector construction. In a module, the basic functional unit of the STS, radiation tolerant microstrip sensors are read out through low-mass multi-line cables with self-triggering front-end electronics located at the periphery of the system. Light-weight carbon fibre support structures will carry 10 of such modules and build up the STS stations. In the presentation, the concept of the detector module construction is presented. Quality assurance tests under development for the module components (double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, stacked polyimide microcables, front-end ASICs and boards) and the assembled structures are discussed.

  9. ARIADNE: a Tracking System for Relationships in LHCb Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, I.; Clemencic, M.; Cattaneo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The data processing model of the LHCb experiment implies handling of an evolving set of heterogeneous metadata entities and relationships between them. The entities range from software and databases states to architecture specificators and software/data deployment locations. For instance, there is an important relationship between the LHCb Conditions Database (CondDB), which provides versioned, time dependent geometry and conditions data, and the LHCb software, which is the data processing applications (used for simulation, high level triggering, reconstruction and analysis of physics data). The evolution of CondDB and of the LHCb applications is a weakly-homomorphic process. It means that relationships between a CondDB state and LHCb application state may not be preserved across different database and application generations. These issues may lead to various kinds of problems in the LHCb production, varying from unexpected application crashes to incorrect data processing results. In this paper we present Ariadne - a generic metadata relationships tracking system based on the novel NoSQL Neo4j graph database. Its aim is to track and analyze many thousands of evolving relationships for cases such as the one described above, and several others, which would otherwise remain unmanaged and potentially harmful. The highlights of the paper include the system's implementation and management details, infrastructure needed for running it, security issues, first experience of usage in the LHCb production and potential of the system to be applied to a wider set of LHCb tasks.

  10. Design of tracking photovoltaic systems with a single vertical axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo, E. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Energeia Solar; Perez, M. [Pol Industrial La Nava, Naavarrsa (Spain). Alternativas Energeticas Solares; Ezpeleta, A. [Energia Hidroelectrica Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Acedo, J. [Ingeteam SA, Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Solar tracking is used in large grid-connected photovoltaic plants to maximise solar radiation collection and, hence, to reduce the cost of delivered electricity. In particular, single vertical axis tracking, also called azimuth tracking, allows for energy gains up to 40%, compared with optimally tilted fully static arrays. This paper examines the theoretical aspects associated with the design of azimuth tracking, taking into account shadowing between different trackers and back-tracking features. Then, the practical design of the trackers installed at the 1.4 MW Tudela PV plant is presented and discussed. Finally, this tracking alternative is compared with the more conventional fully stationary approach. (author)

  11. Mobile system for locating and tracking vehicles in distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giuliano; Stoica, Axente D.

    2000-02-01

    This report relates to a mobile system for tracking and protection of vehicles owned by some banking organizations, security institutions or by some social service for fire, medical rescue or taxicabs, by an operator placed also aboard of a vehicle in which he has at his disposal all the necessary means for precise determination of the position and the state of each vehicle from the fleet that is under his surveying. Therefore in contrast to the operating mode of the localization systems known in present and which have in its composition a stable center for permanent surveying, the operator of the system presented in this report can intervene personally and in an efficient mode in the aid of the vehicle in distress.

  12. The silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Tomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at the highest net-baryon densities in nucleus-nucleus collisions with interaction rates up to 10 MHz. As the core tracking detector of CBM the Silicon Tracking System (STS) will be installed in the gap of the 1 T super conducting dipole magnet for reconstruction of charged particle trajectories and its momenta. The requirement on momentum resolution, Δp/p=1%, can only be achieved with an ultra-low material budget, imposing particular restrictions on the location of 2.5 million channel front-end electronics dissipating 40 KW in the fiducial volume of about 2 m{sup 3}. The concept of the STS is based on a modular structure containing 300 μm thick double-sided silicon microstrip sensors read out through ultra-thin multi-line micro-cables with fast self-triggering electronics. As central building blocks the modules consisting of each a sensor, micro-cable and front-end electronics will be mounted with lightweight carbon fiber support structures onto 8 detector stations. At the station periphery infrastructure such as power and cooling lines will be placed. The status of the STS development is summarized in the presentation, including an overview on sensors, read-out electronics, prototypes, and system integration.

  13. An improved maximum power point tracking method for photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.; Doumbia, M.L.; Cheriti, A. [Institut de recherche sur l' hydrogene, Departement de genie electrique et genie informatique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres (QC) (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In most of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods described currently in the literature, the optimal operation point of the photovoltaic (PV) systems is estimated by linear approximations. However these approximations can lead to less than optimal operating conditions and hence reduce considerably the performances of the PV system. This paper proposes a new approach to determine the maximum power point (MPP) based on measurements of the open-circuit voltage of the PV modules, and a nonlinear expression for the optimal operating voltage is developed based on this open-circuit voltage. The approach is thus a combination of the nonlinear and perturbation and observation (P and O) methods. The experimental results show that the approach improves clearly the tracking efficiency of the maximum power available at the output of the PV modules. The new method reduces the oscillations around the MPP, and increases the average efficiency of the MPPT obtained. The new MPPT method will deliver more power to any generic load or energy storage media. (author)

  14. Prostate tracking feasibility by the BeamCath system; Faisabilite du tracking prostatique par le systeme BeamCath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leysalle, A.; Nickers, P.; Lacornerie, T.; Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Dept. Universitaire de Radiotherapie-Oncologie, Unite Cyberknife nord-ouest, 59 - Lille (France)

    2009-10-15

    The objective is to describe the use of the 'Beamcath', urethra catheter containing opaque radio- tracers, as alternative to the implementation of intra prostate fiducial by perineal ducts for the realisation of a tracking in prostate stereotactic radiotherapy for a patient for whom the stop of anti coagulants is dissuaded. The 'Beamcath' appears as an interesting alternative with an excellent clinical tolerance for the patient. The validation of this repositioning system will be realised in a prospective manner. (N.C.)

  15. A satellite-tracking millimeter-wave reflector antenna system for mobile satellite-tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur C. (Inventor); Jamnejad, Vahraz (Inventor); Woo, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual-band two-way mobile satellite tracking antenna system mounted on a movable ground vehicle includes a miniature parabolic reflector dish having an elliptical aperture with major and minor elliptical axes aligned horizontally and vertically, respectively, to maximize azimuthal directionality and minimize elevational directionality to an extent corresponding to expected pitch excursions of the movable ground vehicle. A feed-horn has a back end and an open front end facing the reflector dish and has vertical side walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a lesser horn angle and horizontal top and bottom walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a greater horn angle. An RF circuit couples two different signal bands between the feed-horn and the user. An antenna attitude controller maintains an antenna azimuth direction relative to the satellite by rotating it in azimuth in response to sensed yaw motions of the movable ground vehicle so as to compensate for the yaw motions to within a pointing error angle. The controller sinusoidally dithers the antenna through a small azimuth dither angle greater than the pointing error angle while sensing a signal from the satellite received at the reflector dish, and deduces the pointing angle error from dither-induced fluctuations in the received signal.

  16. Satellite-Tracking Millimeter-Wave Reflector Antenna System For Mobile Satellite-Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur C. (Inventor); Jamnejad, Vahraz (Inventor); Woo, Kenneth E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A miniature dual-band two-way mobile satellite-tracking antenna system mounted on a movable vehicle includes a miniature parabolic reflector dish having an elliptical aperture with major and minor elliptical axes aligned horizontally and vertically, respectively, to maximize azimuthal directionality and minimize elevational directionality to an extent corresponding to expected pitch excursions of the movable ground vehicle. A feed-horn has a back end and an open front end facing the reflector dish and has vertical side walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a lesser horn angle and horizontal top and bottom walls opening out from the back end to the front end at a greater horn angle. An RF circuit couples two different signal bands between the feed-horn and the user. An antenna attitude controller maintains an antenna azimuth direction relative to the satellite by rotating it in azimuth in response to sensed yaw motions of the movable ground vehicle so as to compensate for the yaw motions to within a pointing error angle. The controller sinusoidally dithers the antenna through a small azimuth dither angle greater than the pointing error angle while sensing a signal from the satellite received at the reflector dish, and deduces the pointing angle error from dither-induced fluctuations in the received signal.

  17. Solar Stirling power generation - Systems analysis and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Wu, Y.-C.; Moynihan, P. I.; Day, F. D., III

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of an electric power generation system utilizing a sun-tracking parabolic concentrator and a Stirling engine/linear alternator is being evaluated. Performance predictions and cost analysis of a proposed large distributed system are discussed. Design details and preliminary test results are presented for a 9.5 ft diameter parabolic dish at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Caltech) Table Mountain Test Facility. Low temperature calorimetric measurements were conducted to evaluate the concentrator performance, and a helium flow system is being used to test the solar receiver at anticipated working fluid temperatures (up to 650 or 1200 C) to evaluate the receiver thermal performance. The receiver body is designed to adapt to a free-piston Stirling engine which powers a linear alternator assembly for direct electric power generation. During the next phase of the program, experiments with an engine and receiver integrated into the concentrator assembly are planned.

  18. TRACKING VEHICLE IN GSM NETWORK TO SUPPORT INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Koppanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA. Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project is presented.

  19. Tracking Vehicle in GSM Network to Support Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppanyi, Z.; Lovas, T.; Barsi, A.; Demeter, H.; Beeharee, A.; Berenyi, A.

    2012-07-01

    The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO) zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA). Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project) is presented.

  20. Hentschel random access tracking system HSG 84.30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Heinz

    1990-08-01

    The development of the Random Access Tracking System was initiated at the University of Muenster, Department of Orthopaedic Physiology by Dr. Theysohn. This system is a real-time high-speed and high-resolution multi-point tracking system. The moving objects are identified with retro-reflective markers which are illuminated by halogen spotlights placed around the camera lens. The video interface generates deflection signals which are fed to unique Random Access Cameras manufactured by Hamamatsu Corporation. These signals perform high speed window scanning and can sample up to 7,500 markers per second. Under certain circumstances this can be increased to 15,000 markers per second. From 1 to 126 markers can be detected in a line scan search mode. Window size may be varied in steps from 0.5% to 4.0% of the field of view. Using a small window it is possible to obtain 1 part in 32,768 in each direction of the field of view. The raw data are reduced to 2-D centroids of the targets. On-line data storage and display are possible using an industry-standard ATPC with DMA interface. Real-time feed-back is also possible. The video interface provides for off-line 3-D reconstructions using the data from two or more synchronized cameras. The system can be adapted to meet the needs of particular applications by modifying sample-rate, data transfer rate, and the number and the dimensions of the windows.

  1. Upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Kofarago, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The upgrade of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE is planned for the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2019-2020. The ALICE physics program after the shutdown requires the ITS to have improved tracking capabilities and improved impact parameter resolution at very low transverse momentum, as well as a substantial increase in the readout rate. To fulfill these requirements the current ITS will be replaced by seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors. The new detector will be moved as close as 23 mm to the interaction point and will have a significantly reduced material budget. Several prototypes of the sensor have been developed to test different aspects of the sensor design including prototypes with analog and digital readout, as well as small and final-size sensors. These prototypes have been thoroughly characterized both in laboratory tests and at test beam facilities including studies on the radiation hardness of the sensors. This contribution gives an overview of the current status of the rese...

  2. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  3. From a 32 m2 system with 90 CPV modules to a 105 m2 system with 12 CPV modules - Soitec's new CPV system CX-S530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas; Wanka, Sven; Gerster, Eckart; van Riesen, Sascha; Neubauer, Martin; Lange, Gerrit; Hamidi, Amir; Burke, Thomas; Stör, Jakob; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Taliercio, Cecile; Mader, Lucas; Valli, Alessandro; Ziegler, Martin; Hepp, Stefan; Heile, Inka; Gerstmaier, Tobias; Haarburger, Karl-Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, Soitec started to launch a 32m2 CPV system which included 90 modules per tracker. In order to realize the fast installation of multi-MW power plants the CPV module CX-M500 with an aperture area of 7,84 m2 was developed together with the new tracker CX-T030 which is optimized for carrying 12 of the new modules. This paper gives an overview over the evolution of this CPV system. The module is based on components of the field proven earlier Concentrix module generations. The tracker is a classical pylon type with two AC motor powered slewing ring drives. A new control device was developed which uses the power-optimized sun tracking algorithm. The major development steps and their results are presented.

  4. The Silicon Tracking System of the CBM Experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuser, Johann M.

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will conduct a systematic research program to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures. These conditions are to be created in collisions of heavy-ion beams with nuclear targets in the projectile beam energy range of 2 to 45 GeV/nucleon, initially coming from the SIS 100 synchrotron (up to 14 GeV/nucleon) and in a next step from SIS 300 enabling studies at the highest net baryon densities. Collision rates up to 107 per second are required to produce very rare probes with unprecedented statistics in this energy range. Their signatures are complex. These conditions call for detector systems designed to meet the extreme requirements in terms of rate capability, momentum and spatial resolution, and a novel data acquisition and trigger concept which is not limited by latency but by throughput. In the paper we describe the concept and development status of CBM's central detector, the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The detector realizes a large, highly granular and redundant detector system with fast read-out, and lays specific emphasis on low material budget in its physics aperture to achieve for charged particle tracks a momentum resolution of δp/p ≈ 1% at p > 1 GeV/c, at >95% track reconstruction efficiency. The detector employs 1220 highly segmented double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors of 300 µm thickness, mounted into 896 modular structures of various types that are aggregated on 106 low-mass carbon fiber ladders of different sizes that build up the tracking stations. The read-out electronics with its supply and cooling infrastructure is arranged at the periphery of the ladders, and provides a total channel count of 1.8 million. The signal transmission from the silicon sensors to the electronics is realized through ultra-thin multi-line aluminum-polyimide cables of up to half a meter length. The electronics generates a free

  5. Target Tracking of a Linear Time Invariant System under Irregular Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xue-Bo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to event-triggered sampling in a system, or maybe with the aim of reducing data storage, tracking many applications will encounter irregular sampling time. By calculating the matrix exponential using an inverse Laplace transform, this paper transforms the irregular sampling tracking problem to the problem of tracking with time-varying parameters of a system. Using the common Kalman filter, the developed method is used to track a target for the simulated trajectory and video tracking. The results of simulation experiments have shown that it can obtain good estimation performance even at a very high irregular rate of measurement sampling time.

  6. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min

    2013-07-01

    In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.

  7. An adaptive tracking observer for failure-detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidar, M.

    1982-01-01

    The design problem of adaptive observers applied to linear, constant and variable parameters, multi-input, multi-output systems, is considered. It is shown that, in order to keep the observer's (or Kalman filter) false-alarm rate (FAR) under a certain specified value, it is necessary to have an acceptable proper matching between the observer (or KF) model and the system parameters. An adaptive observer algorithm is introduced in order to maintain desired system-observer model matching, despite initial mismatching and/or system parameter variations. Only a properly designed adaptive observer is able to detect abrupt changes in the system (actuator, sensor failures, etc.) with adequate reliability and FAR. Conditions for convergence for the adaptive process were obtained, leading to a simple adaptive law (algorithm) with the possibility of an a priori choice of fixed adaptive gains. Simulation results show good tracking performance with small observer output errors and accurate and fast parameter identification, in both deterministic and stochastic cases.

  8. Multi-agent system for target-adaptive radar tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Alan C.

    2012-06-01

    Sensor systems such as distributed sensor networks and radar systems are potentially agile - they have parameters that can be adjusted in real-time to improve the quality of data obtained for state-estimation and decision-making. The integration of such sensors with cyber systems involving many users or agents permits greater flexibility in choosing measurement actions. This paper considers the problem of selecting radar waveforms to minimize uncertainty about the state of a tracked target. Past work gave a tractable method for optimizing the choice of measurements when an accurate dynamical model is available. However, prior knowledge about a system is often not precise, for example, if the target under observation is an adversary. A multiple agent system is proposed to solve the problem in the case of uncertain target dynamics. Each agent has a different target model and the agents compete to explain past data and select the parameters of future measurements. Collaboration or competition between these agents determines which obtains access to the limited physical sensing resources. This interaction produces a self-aware sensor that adapts to changing information requirements.

  9. Visual tracking in stereo. [by computer vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for visual object tracking by a computer vision system using TV cameras and special low-level image processing hardware. The tracker maintains an internal model of the location, orientation, and velocity of the object in three-dimensional space. This model is used to predict where features of the object will lie on the two-dimensional images produced by stereo TV cameras. The differences in the locations of features in the two-dimensional images as predicted by the internal model and as actually seen create an error signal in the two-dimensional representation. This is multiplied by a generalized inverse Jacobian matrix to deduce the error in the internal model. The procedure repeats to update the internal model of the object's location, orientation and velocity continuously.

  10. Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic System Using Intelligent Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathy C.S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems normally use a maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique to continuously give forth the highest probable power to the load when the temperature and solar irradiationchanges occur. This subdues the problem of mismatch between the given load and the solar array. The energy conservation principle is used to obtain small signal model and transfer function. A simulationwork handling with MPPT controller, a DC/DC boost converter feeding a load is achieved. PI controller and fuzzy logic controllers were used as the MPPT controller, which controls the dc/dc converter. Simulations and experimental results showed excellent performance and were used for comparing PI controller and fuzzy logic controller.

  11. Visual tracking in stereo. [by computer vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saund, E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for visual object tracking by a computer vision system using TV cameras and special low-level image processing hardware. The tracker maintains an internal model of the location, orientation, and velocity of the object in three-dimensional space. This model is used to predict where features of the object will lie on the two-dimensional images produced by stereo TV cameras. The differences in the locations of features in the two-dimensional images as predicted by the internal model and as actually seen create an error signal in the two-dimensional representation. This is multiplied by a generalized inverse Jacobian matrix to deduce the error in the internal model. The procedure repeats to update the internal model of the object's location, orientation and velocity continuously.

  12. New Low Cost Structure for Dual Axis Mount Solar Tracking System Using Adaptive Solar Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    A solar tracking system is designed to optimize the operation of solar energy receivers. The objective of this paper is proposing a new tracking system structure with two axis. The success strategy of this new project focuses on the economical analysis of solar energy. Therefore it is important...... to determine the most cost effective design, to consider the costs of production and maintenance, and operating. The proposed tracking system uses a new solar sensor position with an adaptive feature....

  13. Design of the improved cascade ADRC and its application in photoelectric tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Dan; Tang, Tao; Huang, Yongmei; Cai, Huaxiang

    2015-10-01

    According to the larger error when reversing in photoelectric tracking control system, the improved cascade Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC) is put forward to improve the system position tracking performance and tracking precision. First of all, this essay analyses the controlled object model and system control strategy; Then, it gives design method of the improved cascade ADRC; Finally, in order to analyses the improved cascade's better control performance, in the condition of the same input signal ,the improved cascade ADRC, conventional ADRC-ADRC and traditional PI-PI controller are used in photoelectric tracking control system to do comparative experiment. The experiment results show that the improved cascade ADRC's performance is better than other two algorithms, the tracking error and the steady state mean square error are significantly reduced, tracking accuracy is significantly improved. The improved cascade ADRC is an appealing solution in dealing with industrial control system problems where uncertainties and interference abound.

  14. 6DOF optical tracking system using afocal optics for image guided surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae You Seong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image guided surgery using medical robots is becoming popular these days. For image guided surgery, a tracking system is required to provide 6DOF information of patient coordinate, surgical instruments and medical robots used in surgery. To provide 6DOF information, a marker has to be attached to the target. However, it is hard to use many markers all together because the markers will take too much space in the surgical area. The tracking system proposed in this study utilizes down sized markers compared to traditional markers by using micro-engraved data-coded pattern with a lens instead of using geometrically specified marker spheres as a tracking target. A tracking system is developed that has a measurement area of 1m to 2.5m from the tracking system. Experiment has been done for surgical navigation using the proposed tracking system and a medical robot.

  15. Performance Characteristics of Small Global-Positioning-System Tracking Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dennis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances have made possible the development of animal-tracking devices based on the global positioning system (GPS that are much smaller than what were available previously. However, potential limitations in size-dependent technologies and differences in patterns of behavior between small and large animals could mean that miniaturized GPS tracking devices may not function as well as their larger counterparts. Here, we evaluate the performance characteristics of 105-g GPS collars suitable for prolonged use on animals weighing as little as 2.5 kg. We tested 9 collars in stationary trials at a single reference site and in field deployments on common brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula/ , a semi-arboreal, nocturnal marsupial. We found in both trials that individual collars differed in several measures of positional accuracy and precision, yet overall the small collars compared favorably with published results of larger devices in similar habitats. Differences in operational characteristics between the two trials were mainly in the number and spatial configuration of satellites used to calculate position fixes, resulting in an increase in median location error from 9.8 m in the stationary tests to an estimated 14.7 m in the field trials. Most probably, these effects were due to dissimilarities in microhabitat features and variation in the orientation of GPS antennae which occurred when the possums changed their body posture during movement. The collars evaluated in this study promise to be a valuable tool for the study of the ecology, behavior, and conservation of many small-to-medium sized animals.

  16. Tracking Control and Synchronization for Two-Dimension Discrete Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The popular method of tracking control and synchronization for two-dimension discrete chaotic systems is put forward in this paper, and the chaotic system track arbitrarily reference signal is realized. This method is applied to two chaotic systems, and one can get good control result.

  17. Implementation of a vector-based tracking loop receiver in a pseudolite navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hyoungmin; Lee, Taikjin; Jeon, Sanghoon; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon; Kim, Taehee; Lee, Sanguk

    2010-01-01

    We propose a vector tracking loop (VTL) algorithm for an asynchronous pseudolite navigation system. It was implemented in a software receiver and experiments in an indoor navigation system were conducted. Test results show that the VTL successfully tracks signals against the near-far problem, one of the major limitations in pseudolite navigation systems, and could improve positioning availability by extending pseudolite navigation coverage.

  18. Development of seam tracking system with ultrasonic sensor using self-tuning fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One kind of the SAW seam tracking system with contactless ultrasonic sensor is presented in this paper. The new contactless ultrasonic sensor for seam tracking and the working principle of the seam tracking with the sensor are introduced. Based on the experiments, the optimal values of the fuzzy control parameters α and k3 are defined by means of the off-line adjusting method. Because the self-tuning fuzzy control is adopted in the seam tracking system, the overshoot of the system is restrained, the steady-state error is reduced, and the system’s response speed is improved effectively. The results of the SAW seam tracking experiments show that this system’s tracking accuracy is up to ±0.5mm and the system can satisfy the requirements of the engineering application.

  19. Development of requirements tracking and verification system for the software design of distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chul Hwan; Kim, Jang Yeol; Kim, Jung Tack; Lee, Jang Soo; Ham, Chang Shik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper a prototype of Requirement Tracking and Verification System(RTVS) for a Distributed Control System was implemented and tested. The RTVS is a software design and verification tool. The main functions required by the RTVS are managing, tracking and verification of the software requirements listed in the documentation of the DCS. The analysis of DCS software design procedures and interfaces with documents were performed to define the user of the RTVS, and the design requirements for RTVS were developed. 4 refs., 3 figs. (Author)

  20. Approximation-error-ADP-based optimal tracking control for chaotic systems with convergence proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui-Zhuo; Xiao, Wen-Dong; Sun, Chang-Yin; Wei, Qing-Lai

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an optimal tracking control scheme is proposed for a class of discrete-time chaotic systems using the approximation-error-based adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm. Via the system transformation, the optimal tracking problem is transformed into an optimal regulation problem, and then the novel optimal tracking control method is proposed. It is shown that for the iterative ADP algorithm with finite approximation error, the iterative performance index functions can converge to a finite neighborhood of the greatest lower bound of all performance index functions under some convergence conditions. Two examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed optimal tracking control scheme for chaotic systems.

  1. Development and Application of the Stereo Vision Tracking System with Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Sui Wang; Ko-Chun Chen; Tsung Han Lee; Kuei-Shu Hsu

    2015-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) driver tracking verification system is created, of which the application to stereo image tracking and positioning accuracy is researched in depth. In the research, the feature that the stereo vision system has image depth is utilized to improve the error rate of image tracking and image measurement. In a VR scenario, the function collecting behavioral data of driver was tested. By means of VR, racing operation is simulated and environmental (special weathers such as rai...

  2. Analyses and Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Control for Suspension System of a Track Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; WEI Xue-xia; ZHANG Yong-fa

    2008-01-01

    The vibration caused by terrible road excitation affects the ride quality and safety of track vehicles. The vibration control of suspension systems is a very important factor for modern track vehicles. A fuzzy logic control for suspension system of a track vehicle is presented. A mechanical model and a system of differential equations of motion taking account of the mass of loading wheel are established. Then the fuzzy logic control is applied to control the vibration of suspension system of track vehicles for sine signal and random road surfaces. Numerical simulation shows that the maximum acceleration of suspension system can be reduced to 44% of the original value for sine signal road surface, and the mean square root of acceleration of suspension system can be reduced to 21% for random road surface. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy logic control is an efficient method for the suspension systems of track vehicles.

  3. The Control System for the CMS Strip Tracking Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel; Chen, Jie; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Masetti, Lorenzo; Militaru, Otilia; Shah, Yousaf; Stringer, Robert; Tsirou, Andromachi

    2008-01-01

    The Tracker of the CMS silicon strip tracking detector covers a surface of 206 m2. 9648128 channels are available on 75376 APV front-end chips on 15232 modules, built of 24328 silicon sensors. The power supply of the detector modules is split up in 1944 power supplies with two low voltage for front end power and two high voltage channels each for the bias voltage of the silicon sensors. In addition 356 low voltage channels are needed to power the control chain. The tracker will run at -20°C at low relative humidity for at least 10 years. The Tracker Control System handles all interdependencies of control, low and high voltages, as well as fast ramp downs in case of higher than allowed temperatures or currents in the detector and experimental cavern problems. This is ensured by evaluating $10^{4}$ power supply parameters, $10^{3}$ information from Tracker Safety System and $10^{5}$ information from the tracker front end.

  4. A Secure Web Application: E-Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vina M. Lomte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has experienced remarkable growth in recent years hence security is becoming oneof the major promising task in the present scenario of e-business environment. Web attacks can devastatethe system within no time. More than 80% attacks are at application layer and almost 90% applicationsare vulnerable to these attacks. Traditional solution is not capable to protect the web from suchattacks.This paper handles different web attacks and also provide some tricks used by hackers to hack theweb world similarly it contains an attempt has been made to analyze impact of DOS, SQL injection, Crosssite scripting, Sniffing/ Request Encoding on web application in terms of throughput and response time etc.It also provides the best protection mechanisms for the said attacks. Our main aim is to analyze both Eapplication one with security (proposed E –Tracking system and another without security and find theimpact of all above attacks on both in terms of request time, response time & throughput etc.

  5. Optimal MPC for tracking of constrained linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, A.; Limon, D.; Alvarado, I.; Alamo, T.; Castaño, F.; Camacho, E. F.

    2011-08-01

    Model predictive control (MPC) is one of the few techniques which is able to handle constraints on both state and input of the plant. The admissible evolution and asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system is ensured by means of suitable choice of the terminal cost and terminal constraint. However, most of the existing results on MPC are designed for a regulation problem. If the desired steady-state changes, the MPC controller must be redesigned to guarantee the feasibility of the optimisation problem, the admissible evolution as well as the asymptotic stability. Recently, a novel MPC has been proposed to ensure the feasibility of the optimisation problem, constraints satisfaction and asymptotic evolution of the system to any admissible target steady-state. A drawback of this controller is the loss of a desirable property of the MPC controllers: the local optimality property. In this article, a novel formulation of the MPC for tracking is proposed aimed to recover the optimality property maintaining all the properties of the original formulation.

  6. Optimisation of Kinematics for Tracked Vehicle Hydro Gas Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridhar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern-day armoured fighting vehicles (AFVs are basically tracked vehicles equippedwith hydro gas suspensions, in lieu of conventional mechanical suspensions like torsion barand coil spring bogie suspensions. The uniqueness of hydro gas suspension is that it offersa nonlinear spring rate, which is very much required for the cross-country moveability of atracked vehicle. The AFVs have to negotiate different cross-country terrains like sandy, rocky,riverbed, etc. and the road irregularities provide enumerable problems during dynamic loadingsto the design of hydro gas suspension system. Optimising various design parameters demandsinnovative design methodologies to achieve better ride performance. Hence, a comprehensivekinematic analysis is needed. In this study, a methodology has been derived to optimise thekinematics of the suspension by reorienting the cylinder axis and optimising the loadtransferringleverage factor so that the side thrust on the cylinder is minimised to a greaterextent. The optimisation ultimately increases the life of the high-pressure and high-temperaturepiston seals, resulting in enhanced system life for better dependability.

  7. Using Fisher information to track stability in multivariate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrible, Sybil; Eason, Tarsha; Cabezas, Heriberto

    2016-01-01

    With the current proliferation of data, the proficient use of statistical and mining techniques offer substantial benefits to capture useful information from any dataset. As numerous approaches make use of information theory concepts, here, we discuss how Fisher information (FI) can be applied to sustainability science problems and used in data mining applications by analysing patterns in data. FI was developed as a measure of information content in data, and it has been adapted to assess order in complex system behaviour. The main advantage of the approach is the ability to collapse multiple variables into an index that can be used to assess stability and track overall trends in a system, including its regimes and regime shifts. Here, we provide a brief overview of FI theory, followed by a simple step-by-step numerical example on how to compute FI. Furthermore, we introduce an open source Python library that can be freely downloaded from GitHub and we use it in a simple case study to evaluate the evolution of FI for the global-mean temperature from 1880 to 2015. Results indicate significant declines in FI starting in 1978, suggesting a possible regime shift. PMID:28018650

  8. Tracking dynamics of magma migration in open-conduit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Sébastien; Lacanna, Giorgio; Coppola, Diego; Laiolo, Marco; Pistolesi, Marco; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Allocca, Carmine; Cigolini, Corrado; Nishimura, Takeshi; Poggi, Pasquale; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    Open-conduit volcanic systems are typically characterized by unsealed volcanic conduits feeding permanent or quasi-permanent volcanic activity. This persistent activity limits our ability to read changes in the monitored parameters, making the assessment of possible eruptive crises more difficult. We show how an integrated approach to monitoring can solve this problem, opening a new way to data interpretation. The increasing rate of explosive transients, tremor amplitude, thermal emissions of ejected tephra, and rise of the very-long-period (VLP) seismic source towards the surface are interpreted as indicating an upward migration of the magma column in response to an increased magma input rate. During the 2014 flank eruption of Stromboli, this magma input preceded the effusive eruption by several months. When the new lateral effusive vent opened on the Sciara del Fuoco slope, the effusion was accompanied by a large ground deflation, a deepening of the VLP seismic source, and the cessation of summit explosive activity. Such observations suggest the drainage of a superficial magma reservoir confined between the crater terrace and the effusive vent. We show how this model successfully reproduces the measured rate of effusion, the observed rate of ground deflation, and the deepening of the VLP seismic source. This study also demonstrates the ability of the geophysical network to detect superficial magma recharge within an open-conduit system and to track magma drainage during the effusive crisis, with a great impact on hazard assessment.

  9. A compact muon tracking system for didactic and outreach activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, R.; Candela, A.; Conicella, V.; De Deo, M.; D` Incecco, M.; Sablone, D.; Arneodo, F.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Di Giovanni, A.; Pazos Clemens, L.; Franchi, G.; d`Inzeo, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a cosmic ray telescope based on the use of plastic scintillator bars coupled to ASD-RGB1S-M Advansid Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) through wavelength shifter fibers. The system is comprised of 200 electronic channels organized into 10 couples of orthogonal planes allowing the 3D reconstruction of crossing muons. Two monolithic PCB boards have been designed to bias, readout all the SiPMs enclosed in the system, to monitor the working parameters and to remotely connect the detector. To make easier the display of muon tracks to non-expert users, two LED matrices, triggered by particle interactions, have been implemented. To improve the usability of the muon telescope, a controller board unit permits to select different levels of trigger and allows data acquisition for refined analyses for the more proficient user. A first prototype, funded by INFN and deployed in collaboration with NYUAD, is operating at the Toledo Metro station of Naples, while two further detectors will be developed and installed in Abu Dhabi in the next few months.

  10. Microcontroller Based Solar tracking System for enhancing efficiency of a Photovoltaic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaifali Jain,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In today‟s scenario of increasing energy needs, there is a huge dependence on renewable energy sources along with the conventional sources. One of the most important renewable energy resources is the sun. However, the problem with solar power is that it is directly dependent on light intensity. To produce the maximum amount of energy, a solar panel must be perpendicular to the light source. Because the sun moves both throughout the day as well as throughout a year, a solar panel must be able to follow the sun‟s movement to produce the maximum possible power. There are a large number of methods available for solar tracking and hence maximizing the output .This paper proposes an Arduino Uno microcontroller board based solar tracking system. As compared to the conventional solar panels, the one mounted with microcontroller based tracking system will give enhanced output.

  11. Algorithms for High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Lambert, James

    2010-01-01

    Two image-data-processing algorithms are essential to the successful operation of a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. The system was described in High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System (NPO-30700) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 51. To recapitulate from the cited article: Like prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Most of the prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems rely on standard video cameras, which operate at frame rates of about 30 Hz. Such systems are limited to slow, full-frame operation. The video camera in the present system includes a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector plus electronic circuitry capable of implementing an advanced control scheme that effects readout from a small region of interest (ROI), or subwindow, of the full image. Inasmuch as the image features of interest (the cornea and pupil) typically occupy a small part of the camera frame, this ROI capability can be exploited to determine the direction of gaze at a high frame rate by reading out from the ROI that contains the cornea and pupil (but not from the rest of the image) repeatedly. One of the present algorithms exploits the ROI capability. The algorithm takes horizontal row slices and takes advantage of the symmetry of the pupil and cornea circles and of the gray-scale contrasts of the pupil and cornea with respect to other parts of the eye. The algorithm determines which horizontal image slices contain the pupil and cornea, and, on each valid slice, the end coordinates of the pupil and cornea

  12. Optimal Configuration of Human Motion Tracking Systems: A Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Human motion tracking systems represent a crucial technology in the area of modeling and simulation. These systems, which allow engineers to capture human motion for study or replication in virtual environments, have broad applications in several research disciplines including human engineering, robotics, and psychology. These systems are based on several sensing paradigms, including electro-magnetic, infrared, and visual recognition. Each of these paradigms requires specialized environments and hardware configurations to optimize performance of the human motion tracking system. Ideally, these systems are used in a laboratory or other facility that was designed to accommodate the particular sensing technology. For example, electromagnetic systems are highly vulnerable to interference from metallic objects, and should be used in a specialized lab free of metal components.

  13. Alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Gorfine, Grant

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, built at one of the interaction points of the Large Hadron Collider, is operational and has been collecting data from cosmic rays. This paper describes the track based alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracker which was performed using cosmic rays collected in 2008. The alignment algorithms are described and the performance of the alignment is demonstrated by showing the resulting hit residuals and comparing track parameters of upper and lower segments of tracks. The impact of the alignment on physics measurements is discussed.

  14. Adaptive Output Tracking Control for Nonlinear Systems with Failed Actuators and Aircraft Flight System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjing Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive failure compensation scheme using output feedback is proposed for a class of nonlinear systems with nonlinearities depending on the unmeasured states of systems. Adaptive high-gain K-filters are presented to suppress the nonlinearities while the proposed backstepping adaptive high-gain controller guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system and small tracking errors. Simulation results verify that the adaptive failure compensation scheme is effective.

  15. Tenure Track Career System as a Strategic Instrument for Academic Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the purposes for which leaders in universities use academic career systems. It focuses on the tenure track system which is new to Finland. Tenure track represents a newly established internal career path in a situation in which Finnish universities' organizational autonomy increased via new legislation from 2010. Drawing…

  16. 21 CFR 821.25 - Device tracking system and content requirements: manufacturer requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE TRACKING REQUIREMENTS Tracking... procedure for the collection, maintenance, and auditing of the data specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of... recording system, and the file maintenance procedures system; and (3) A quality assurance program...

  17. Capability of patch antennas in a portable harmonic radar system to track insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring technologies are needed to track insects and gain a better understanding of their behavior, population, migration and movement. A portable microwave harmonic-radar tracking system that utilizes antenna miniaturization techniques was investigated to achieve this goal. The system mainly con...

  18. 76 FR 29765 - Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking and Tracing of Prescription Drugs; Reopening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... the Division of Dockets Management (HFA- 305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm... possible approaches to developing a track-and-trace system and (2) input from supply chain partners on... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of System Attributes for the Tracking...

  19. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic system using model predictive control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chao; Li, Ning; Li, Shaoyuan [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of System Control and Information Processing

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, T-G-P model is built to find maximum power point according to light intensity and temperature, making it easier and more clearly for photovoltaic system to track the MPP. A predictive controller considering constraints for safe operation is designed. The simulation results show that the system can track MPP quickly, accurately and effectively.

  20. 28 CFR 16.105 - Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task Force System. 16.105 Section 16.105 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.105 Exemption of Foreign Terrorist Tracking Task...

  1. Solid waste information and tracking system server conversion project management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, D.L.

    1999-04-12

    The Project Management Plan governing the conversion of Solid Waste Information and Tracking System (SWITS) to a client-server architecture. The Solid Waste Information and Tracking System Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the background, planning and management of the SWITS conversion. Requirements and specification documentation needed for the SWITS conversion will be released as supporting documents.

  2. Geometry-Of-Fire Tracking Algorithm for Direct-Fire Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE ...TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS by Caleb K. Khan September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Zachary Staples Co-Advisor: Xiaoping...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GEOMETRY-OF- FIRE TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIRECT- FIRE WEAPON SYSTEMS

  3. An Ion Beam Tracking System based on a Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter I. P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pair of twin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters have been developed at the Australian National University as a tracking system to aid in the further rejection of unwanted beam particles from a 6.5 T super conducting solenoid separator named SOLEROO. Their function is to track and identify each beam particle passing through the detectors on an event-by-event basis. In-beam studies have been completed and the detectors are in successful operation, demonstrating the tracking capability. A high efficiency 512-pixelwide-angle silicon detector array will then be integrated with the tracking system for nuclear reactions studies of radioactive ions.

  4. Stability Analysis and H∞ Output Tracking Control for Linear Systems with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of stability analysis and H∞ output tracking control for linear systems with time-varying delays is studied. First, by construction of a newly augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, a delay-dependent stability criterion for nominal systems with time-varying delays is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Second, based on the H∞ sense, the proposed method is extended to solve the problem of designing an H∞ output tracking controller to track the output of a given reference model. Finally, three examples are included to show the validity and effectiveness of the presented delay-dependent stability and the H∞ output tracking controller design.

  5. A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brad Eppard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Part 1 of this paper, we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS cabled system, a nonproprietary sensing technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Oregon, USA to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the hydroelectric facilities within the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m upstream from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.07 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the 2008 case study at John Day Dam, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities.

  6. Pesticides and Asbestos Programs and Enforcement Branch Case Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracks the entire life cycle of a regulated site from initial inspection through site response to enforcement actions. Separate site action history is maintained for each statute under which the site is regulated.

  7. Pesticides and Asbestos Programs and Enforcement Branch Case Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Tracks the entire life cycle of a regulated site from initial inspection through site response to enforcement actions. Separate site action history is maintained for...

  8. A Formative Program Evaluation of Electronic Clinical Tracking System Documentation to Meet National Core Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynette S; Branstetter, M Laurie

    2016-09-01

    Electronic clinical tracking systems are used in many educational institutions of higher learning to document advanced practice registered nursing students' clinical experiences. Students' clinical experiences are constructed according to the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties core competencies. These competencies form a basis for evaluation of advanced practice registered nursing programs. However, no previous studies have evaluated the use of electronic clinical tracking systems to validate students' clinical experiences in meeting national core competencies. Medatrax, an electronic clinical tracking system, is evaluated using a formative program evaluation approach to determine if students' clinical documentations meet Family/Across the Lifespan Nurse Practitioner Competencies in a midsouthern family nurse practitioner program. This formative program evaluation supports the use of an electronic clinical tracking system in facilitating accreditation and program outcome goals. The significance of this study is that it provides novel evidence to support the use of an electronic clinical tracking system to assist a midsouthern school of nursing in meeting national core competencies.

  9. Robustness-tracking control based on sliding mode and H∞ theory for linear servo system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yan-feng; GUO Qing-ding

    2005-01-01

    A robustness-tracking control scheme based on combining H∞ robust control and sliding mode control is proposed for a direct drive AC permanent-magnet linear motor servo system to solve the conflict between tracking and robustness of the linear servo system. The sliding mode tracking controller is designed to ensure the system has a fast tracking characteristic to the command, and the H∞ robustness controller suppresses the disturbances well within the close loop( including the load and the end effect force of linear motor etc. ) and effectively minimizes the chattering of sliding mode control which influences the steady state performance of the system. Simulation results show that this control scheme enhances the track-command-ability and the robustness of the linear servo system, and in addition, it has a strong robustness to parameter variations and resistance disturbances.

  10. The ARGOS system used for tracking gray whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, B. R.; Beaty, D.; Hoisington, C.; Kutz, R.; Mate, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of satellite whale tags used to track gray whales in the eastern north Pacific Ocean is summarized. Two gray whales were radio-tagged in San Ignacio Lagoon (Mexico) and tracked on their northbound migration. One of the transmitters was modified to record and relay depth-of-dive information at 15 sec intervals throughout the course of the dive. Technical elements of data acquisition and analysis are outlined. The major biological findings are discussed.

  11. Design and Application of a Robust Vision Tracking System for Unmanned Rotorcraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Baojie; DU Yingkui

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the requirements of UAV’s aerial safety monitoring and surveillance of sensitive areas, a robust vision system for the rotor UAV is designed and implemented, which includes visual airborne subsystem, ground station subsystem and wireless communication subsystem. Complete sky-ground and human-computer interaction loops are constructed. Based on the developed UAV vision platform, a real-time target tracking algorithm under the mean shift tracking framework is developed. The joint color-texture histogram is used to represent the target robustly. With the help of moment information, the scale and the orientation of the tracked target is estimated adaptively during the tracking process. A model updating scheme for the target and the background is introduced to reduce the interferences from background and the locating biases. Numerical simulation and real flight tracking experiments demonstrate that the overall visual tracking system is effective and has superior performance against several state-of-the-art algorithms.

  12. Ground Simulation of an Autonomous Satellite Rendezvous and Tracking System Using Dual Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube, Matthew J.; Hyslop, Andrew M.; Carignan, Craig R.; Easley, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A hardware-in-the-loop ground system was developed for simulating a robotic servicer spacecraft tracking a target satellite at short range. A relative navigation sensor package "Argon" is mounted on the end-effector of a Fanuc 430 manipulator, which functions as the base platform of the robotic spacecraft servicer. Machine vision algorithms estimate the pose of the target spacecraft, mounted on a Rotopod R-2000 platform, relay the solution to a simulation of the servicer spacecraft running in "Freespace", which performs guidance, navigation and control functions, integrates dynamics, and issues motion commands to a Fanuc platform controller so that it tracks the simulated servicer spacecraft. Results will be reviewed for several satellite motion scenarios at different ranges. Key words: robotics, satellite, servicing, guidance, navigation, tracking, control, docking.

  13. Impulsive Consensus Tracking of Multiagent Systems with Quantization and Input Delays Using Position-Only Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the consensus tracking problem for second-order multi-agent systems without/with input delays. Randomized quantization scheme is considered in the communication channels, and impulsive consensus tracking algorithms using position-only information are proposed for the consensus tracking of multi-agent systems. Based on the algebraic graph theory and stability theory of impulsive systems, sufficient and necessary conditions for consensus tracking are studied. It is found that consensus tracking for second-order multi-agent systems without/with input delays can be achieved by appropriately choosing the sampling period and control gains which are determined by second/third degree polynomials. Simulations are performed to validate the theoretical results.

  14. Low velocity tracking control-based ADRC for large-scale telescope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huaxiang; Huang, Yongmei; Du, Junfeng; Tang, Tao; Zuo, Dan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an improved Active Disturbance Rejection control (ADRC) method is proposed to enhance the tracking precision of telescope if the telescope runs in a low velocity. Low velocity telescope system usually suffers some obvious nonlinear disturbances, such as nonlinear friction and unknown external disturbance. Thereby, to ensure the tracking precision, multiple loops control structure is a common control method in telescope system, which includes current loop, velocity loop and position loop. The proposed control method is used in the velocity loop which consists of a PD controller and an Extend State Observer (ESO). The ESO is designed to estimate the disturbance involved in the telescope system. Besides, the PD controller is designed to stabilize the closed-loop system. Furthermore, this control method theoretically guarantees a prescribed tracking performance and final tracking accuracy. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed control method has excellent performance for reducing the tracking error of low velocity.

  15. State Authorization Tracking System (StATS) - Data, Charts and Graphs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The State Authorization Tracking System (StATS) is an information management system designed to document the progress of each state and territory in establishing and...

  16. Design of active disturbance rejection controller for space optical communication coarse tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jian; Ai, Yong

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking system in space optical communication, a new control method based on active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) is proposed. Firstly, based on the structure analysis of coarse tracking system, the simplified system model was obtained, and then the extended state observer was designed to calculate state variables and spot disturbance from the input and output signals. Finally, the ADRC controller of coarse tracking system is realized with the combination of nonlinear PID controller. The simulation experimental results show that compared with the PID method, this method can significantly reduce the step response overshoot and settling time. When the target angular velocity is120mrad/s, tracking error with ADRC method is 30μrad, which decreases 85% compared with the PID method. Meanwhile the disturbance rejection bandwidth is increased by 3 times with ADRC. This method can effectively improve the dynamic tracking performance of coarse tracking and disturbance rejection degree, with no need of hardware upgrade, and is of certain reference value to the wide range and high dynamic precision photoelectric tracking system.

  17. AN ADAPTIVE MOVING TARGET TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR SMART ANTENNA SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In wireless communication environment, the time-varying channel and angular spreads caused by multipath fading and the mobility of Mobile Stations (MS) degrade the performance of the conventional Direction-Of-Arrival (DOA) tracking algorithms. On the other hand, although the DOA estimation methods based on the Maximum Likelihood (ML) principle have higher resolution than the beamforming and the subspace based methods, prohibitively heavy computation limits their practical applications. This letter first proposes a new suboptimal DOA estimation algorithm that combines the advantages of the lower complexity of subspace algorithm and the high accuracy of ML based algorithms, and then proposes a Kalman filtering based tracking algorithm to model the dynamic property of directional changes for mobile terminals in such a way that the association between the estimates made at different time points is maintained. At each stage during tracking process, the current suboptimal estimates of DOA are treated as measurements, predicted and updated via a Kalman state equation, hence adaptive tracking of moving MS can be carried out without the need to perform unduly heavy computations. Computer simulation results show that this proposed algorithm has better performance of DOA estimation and tracking of MS than the conventional ML or subspace based algorithms in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  18. Output tracking and regulation of nonlinear system based on Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X J; Sun, Z Q

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model, this paper discusses in detail the following three problems: (1) output tracking of the nonlinear system; (2) output regulation of the nonlinear system via a state feedback; (3) output regulation of the nonlinear system via a error feedback. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the soundness of these results and the effectiveness of the new methodology solving the output tracking and regulation problem of the nonlinear system.

  19. The integrated satellite-acoustic telemetry (iSAT) system for tracking marine megafauna

    KAUST Repository

    De La Torre, Pedro R.

    2012-10-06

    This document describes the integrated satellite-acoustic telemetry (iSAT) system: an autonomous modular system for tracking the movements of large pelagic fish using acoustic telemetry and satellite communications. The sensor platform is described along with the propulsion and navigation systems. An application for tracking the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Red Sea is included along with a discussion of the technical difficulties that such a system faces.

  20. Thermal vision based intelligent system for human detection and tracking in mobile robot control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Ivan T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the authors in thermal vision based mobile robot control. The most important segment of the high level control loop of mobile robot platform is an intelligent real-time algorithm for human detection and tracking. Temperature variations across same objects, air flow with different temperature gradients, reflections, person overlap while crossing each other, and many other non-linearities, uncertainty and noise, put challenges in thermal image processing and therefore the need of computationally intelligent algorithms for obtaining the efficient performance from human motion tracking system. The main goal was to enable mobile robot platform or any technical system to recognize the person in indoor environment, localize it and track it with accuracy high enough to allow adequate human-machine interaction. The developed computationally intelligent algorithms enables robust and reliable human detection and tracking based on neural network classifier and autoregressive neural network for time series prediction. Intelligent algorithm used for thermal image segmentation gives accurate inputs for classification. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005

  1. Tracking parameter simulation for the Turkish accelerator center particle factory tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapan, I., E-mail: ilhan@uludag.edu.tr; Pilicer, E.; Pilicer, F.B.

    2016-09-21

    The silicon tracker part of the Turkish Accelerator Center super charm particle factory detector was designed for effectively tracking charged particles with momentum values up to 2.0 GeV/c. In this work, the FLUKA simulation code has been used to estimate the track parameters and their resolutions in the designed tracker system. These results have been compared with those obtained by the tkLayout software package. The simulated track parameter resolutions are compatible with the physics goals of the tracking detector.

  2. Comparison of external motion tracking systems for PET list-mode reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Keller, Sune H.

    2011-01-01

    attachment of markers to the subject introducing image artifacts on human scans. We have previously designed a camera-based structured light (SL) system for 3D head tracking used with the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT, Siemens, Knoxville, USA) [5]. The system was modified to use invisible light...... markerless tracking system is not trivial to provide and to our knowledge not presently existent. The Polaris Vicra optical tracking system (Northern Digital Inc.) is generally used with PET brain imaging and has been demonstrated to work very well on phantoms [4]. However, it suffers from the necessary...

  3. Research on the laser tracking system for measuring moving target based on APD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Miao, Yinxiao; Gao, Yue

    2016-11-01

    In order to measure the coordinate of moving target, the laser tracking system for moving target was proposed, in which the receiver of four-quadrant APD was adopted as the detector and the DC motor was used to drive the reflector to move in two dimensions. The principle of the measurement system was analyzed first. Then the main part of the system was introduced. The tracking experiment showed that, this system could realized the function of automatic tracking and measuring the coordinate of moving target according to the pulsed laser ranging and angle sensors.

  4. Hybrid-mode Impedance Control for Position/force Tracking in Motor-system Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngwoo Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new robot controller for motor-system rehabilitation. The proposed controller simultaneously realizes rehabilitation motion tracking and force generation, as predefined through a musculoskeletal model-based optimization process. We introduce control parameters of weighted control action priorities for the motion-tracking and force generation tasks, based on the position-tracking error. With the weighted control action priorities, the robot accords higher priority to motion tracking at the robot end point when the position-tracking error is larger than a threshold value, and to force generation when the position-tracking error is smaller than a threshold value. Smooth motion trajectory has to be designed and applied in robot-based rehabilitation. Through simulations and experimental results, we show the usefulness of the proposed control method.

  5. Statewide tracking of crash victims' medical system utilization and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Nicholas; Garthe, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    For the study year, the state of Massachusetts had the lowest fatal motor vehicle crash rate in the nation. The state was interested in exploring new approaches to save additional lives. The study goal was to determine the potential for Massachusetts's medical system to reduce fatalities through alternative utilization of existing transport methods, treatment hospital types, and victim pathways. This was a 1-year retrospective statewide population-based study of all persons involved in a trafficway motor vehicle crash in which at least one person died within 30 days. Database linkage was used to track the pathway and outcome of every involved victim from the crash scene, including air medical and ground ambulance utilization, community or trauma center treatment, and interhospital transfers; air and trauma center (TC) scene triage levels were computed retrospectively. All crash and hospital locations were geomapped and confounding factors were included. Air and ground scene transports to TCs were underutilized by 7:1 and 4.5:1, respectively. No request was the major reason for air underutilization. Underutilization was associated with reduced lived-to-died ratio (L/D) by pathway of up to 10:1. Statewide, air transport to Level I trauma centers had both the highest (1.0, scene) and lowest L/Ds (0.6, interfacility). A 4.5:1 difference in L/D was associated with fulfilled versus unfulfilled air requests. By emergency medical service region, L/D varied by nearly 3:1 and utilization of scene air and TC transports by 5:1 and 4:1. Victim helicopter emergency medical services transport to a TC with an Injury Severity Score > or =19 was identified as critical and was associated with L/D differences of 3.7:1. The paradox of lower L/D for scene air transports to TCs occurring simultaneously with higher overall system L/D was observed and explained. System-based L/D differences of 1.8:1 were observed associated with increases in appropriate triage. Results that explain the

  6. Evaluation of Human Body Tracking System for Gesture-based Programming of Industrial Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Carsten; Krüger, Volker; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Is low-cost tracking precise enough for recognition of pointing actions? We investigate the quality of the human body tracking available with a Kinect camera by comparing it to a state-of-the-art motion capture system. The application is action recognition with parametric hidden Markov Models...

  7. H(infinity) output tracking control for nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chong; Wang, Qing-Guo; Lee, Tong Heng

    2006-04-01

    This paper studies the problem of H(infinity) output tracking control for nonlinear time-delay systems using Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model approach. An LMI-based design method is proposed for achieving the output tracking purpose. Illustrative examples are given to show the effectiveness of the present results.

  8. On the development of inexpensive speed and position tracking system for swimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Søren; Rasmussen, Cuno; Andersen, Thomas Bull

    2016-01-01

    A semi-automated tracking system was developed for the analysis of swimming, using cameras, an LED diode marker, and a red swim cap. Four experienced young swimmers were equipped with a marker and a swim cap and their position and speed was tracked throughout above-water and under-water swimming...

  9. Analysis and Comparison of Electric Drive System Projects of Military Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zi-li; MA Xiao-jun; ZHAO Yu-hui; ZANG Ke-mao

    2007-01-01

    The electric drive system characteristics of different projects for tracked vehicles are analyzed. For the two most typical projects, the parameters of power, torque and rotating speed and others of drive motor are figured out under the condition of satisfying adequate steering performance of the tracked vehicles. General opinions on the two projects are brought forward and conclusions are drawn.

  10. A flexible GPS tracking system for studying bird behaviour at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, W.; Baaij, E.W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking devices and bio-loggers provide crucial information on the ecology and behaviour of birds in their natural environment. An optimal tracking system should be lightweight, measure three-dimensional locations, enable flexible measurement schemes, transmit data remotely and measure

  11. A flexible GPS tracking system for studying bird behaviour at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, W.; Baaij, E.W.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Tracking devices and bio-loggers provide crucial information on the ecology and behaviour of birds in their natural environment. An optimal tracking system should be lightweight, measure three-dimensional locations, enable flexible measurement schemes, transmit data remotely and measure environmenta

  12. Developing The Solar Tracking System for Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Bich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of the trough solar concentrator strongly depends on the position of its absorber surface with the sun.  Controlling the solar radiation concentrated collectors automatically tracking with the sun plays as the key factor to enhance the energy absorption. An automatic controlling device that can rotating the parabolic trough solar concentrator to the sun is calculated, designed, manufactured, and testing successfully. The experimental results show that the device tracks the sun during the day very well. The sensor has adjusted position of collector good when the intensity of solar radiation changes due to weather.

  13. Reconfigurable materials handling system incorporating part tracking, routing and scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidu, P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this regard the tracking of the parts within the manufacturing cycle is important for ascertaining the location of parts within the cycle as well as the history of the completed parts. This paper outlines the development of a reconfigurable manufacturing...

  14. Indoor user zoning and tracking in passive infrared sensing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Pandharipande, A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of indoor user zoning - identifying occupiedspatial regions by users in a room, and tracking using a grid of passive infrared (PIR) sensors. Under the proposed scheme, quantized levels of analog signal output from pairs of PIR sensors are used todetermine an occupied zone. Vi

  15. Remote tracking via encoded information for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isidori, A.; Marconi, L.; De Persis, C.

    2006-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is to control a plant so as to have its output tracking (a family of) reference commands generated at a remote location and transmitted through a communication channel of finite capacity. The uncertainty due to the presence of the communication channel is countera

  16. Remote tracking via encoded information for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isidori, A.; Marconi, L.; De Persis, C.

    2006-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is to control a plant so as to have its output tracking (a family of) reference commands generated at a remote location and transmitted through a communication channel of finite capacity. The uncertainty due to the presence of the communication channel is

  17. APPLICATION OF BINARY DESCRIPTORS TO MULTIPLE FACE TRACKING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  18. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloréns, Roberto; Noé, Enrique; Naranjo, Valery; Borrego, Adrián; Latorre, Jorge; Alcañiz, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking) in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm) while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm). However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm), in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm). Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order). Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system. PMID:25808765

  19. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lloréns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm. However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm, in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm. Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order. Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system.

  20. Object Tracking System Using Approximate Median Filter, Kalman Filter and Dynamic Template Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mallikarjuna Rao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we dealt with the tracking of single object in a sequence of frames either from a live camera or a previously saved video. A moving object is detected frame-by-frame with high accuracy and efficiency using Median approximation technique. As soon as the object has been detected, the same is tracked by kalman filter estimation technique along with a more accurate Template Matching algorithm. The templates are dynamically generated for this purpose. This guarantees any change in object pose which does not be hindered from tracking procedure. The system is capable of handling entry and exit of an object. Such a tracking scheme is cost effective and it can be used as an automated video conferencing system and also has application as a surveillance tool. Several trials of the tracking show that the approach is correct and extremely fast, and it's a more robust performance throughout the experiments.

  1. Design and Performance Evaluation on Ultra-Wideband Time-Of-Arrival 3D Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Dusl, John

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Time--of-Arrival (TOA) tracking system has been studied at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide the tracking capability inside the International Space Station (ISS) modules for various applications. One of applications is to locate and report the location where crew experienced possible high level of carbon-dioxide and felt upset. In order to accurately locate those places in a multipath intensive environment like ISS modules, it requires a robust real-time location system (RTLS) which can provide the required accuracy and update rate. A 3D UWB TOA tracking system with two-way ranging has been proposed and studied. The designed system will be tested in the Wireless Habitat Testbed which simulates the ISS module environment. In this presentation, we discuss the 3D TOA tracking algorithm and the performance evaluation based on different tracking baseline configurations. The simulation results show that two configurations of the tracking baseline are feasible. With 100 picoseconds standard deviation (STD) of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.2392 feet (about 7 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Twisted Rectangle while the average tracking error 0.9183 feet (about 28 centimeters) can be achieved for configuration Slightly-Twisted Top Rectangle . The tracking accuracy can be further improved with the improvement of the STD of TOA estimates. With 10 picoseconds STD of TOA estimates, the average tracking error 0.0239 feet (less than 1 centimeter) can be achieved for configuration "Twisted Rectangle".

  2. Tracking control for first-order multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang LIU; Yingmin JIA

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the conventional tracking control problem is expanded to first-order multi-agent systerns,which can be solved by directly guiding any agent in the group.The following three kinds of desired motions are considered for all agents to track:1)stillness in space,2)variable motion with known acceleration,3) variable motion with partly unknown acceleration.Specifically,fixed networks with time delays and switching networks without delays are both considered in case 1).Switching networks with and without time delays are both studied in case 2),while for 3),switching networks without delays are mainly investigated.A numerical simulation example is included to illustrate the results.

  3. Diagnosis of Autism Using an Eye Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD) are characterized by a deficitin social integration, anguage development, and restricted interests. ASD is defined as a prevalence development life disability. However, children who are early diagnosed and intervention improve long-term prognosis.This project proposes to detect autism in children at a first level (preclinical stage) using a tool "eye tracking" highly cost-effective and mbedded in a tablet. The results obtained with thissy...

  4. Research on regional intrusion prevention and control system based on target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Jieling; Jiang, Ke; He, Yanhui; Wu, Zhilin

    2017-08-01

    In view of the fact that China’s border is very long and the border prevention and control measures are single, we designed a regional intrusion prevention and control system which based on target-tracking. The system consists of four parts: solar panel, radar, electro-optical equipment, unmanned aerial vehicle and intelligent tracking platform. The solar panel provides independent power for the entire system. The radar detects the target in real time and realizes the high precision positioning of suspicious targets, then through the linkage of electro-optical equipment, it can achieve full-time automatic precise tracking of targets. When the target appears within the range of detection, the drone will be launched to continue the tracking. The system is mainly to realize the full time, full coverage, whole process integration and active realtime control of the border area.

  5. H∞ output tracking control of discrete-time nonlinear systems via standard neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiqin; Zhang, Senlin; Chen, Haiyang; Sheng, Weihua

    2014-10-01

    This brief proposes an output tracking control for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems with disturbances. A standard neural network model is used to represent discrete-time nonlinear systems whose nonlinearity satisfies the sector conditions. H∞ control performance for the closed-loop system including the standard neural network model, the reference model, and state feedback controller is analyzed using Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theorem and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The H∞ controller, of which the parameters are obtained by solving LMIs, guarantees that the output of the closed-loop system closely tracks the output of a given reference model well, and reduces the influence of disturbances on the tracking error. Three numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed H∞ output tracking design approach.

  6. Person Tracking System by Fusing Multicues Based on Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A person tracking algorithm by fusing multicues based on patches is proposed to solve the problem of distinguishing person, occlusion, and illumination variations. Kinect is mounted on the robot for providing color images and depth maps. A detector representing a person by using the fusion of multicues based on patches is proposed. The detector divides the person into many patches and then represents each patch by using depth-color histograms and depth-texture histograms. The appearance representation, considering depth, color, and texture information, has powerful discrimination ability to handle the problems of occlusion, illumination changes, and pose variations. Considering the motion of the robot and person, a tracker called motion extended Kalman filter (MEKF is presented to predict the person’s position. The result of the tracker is treated as a candidate sample of the detector, and then the result of the detector is the previous knowledge of the tracker. The detector and tracker supplement each other and improve the tracking performance. To drive the robot towards the given person precisely, a fuzzy based intelligent gear control strategy (FZ-IGS is implemented. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach can track a person in a complex environment and have an optimum performance.

  7. The Solar Tracking System by Using Digital Solar Position Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singthong Pattanasethanon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An optimal control on two axes and design for solar tracker which called altitude and azimuth is challenge. Approach: The phototransistor with the shade that blocks the screen was employed as a detector of solar beam radiation. The height of the screen determined the sensitivity operation or period of tracking in this solar tracker. The phototransistor is particularly designed to detect solar bean radiation thoroughly through the two axes with the operating time. The mechanism of this solar tracker is that it has a capacity of solar tracking in every 10 min, approximately, which respond in terms of time at about 37° sec-1 with and operating point at 0.3 sec. Results: Our solar tracker obtained an average deviation at about 2.5deg;h-1. In weak sunlight however, the value varies and fluctuates rapidly depending on sky condition. Conclusion: The accuracy of solar position tracking function satisfied our goal as well. There is only average of 2.5deg; error shown. The experiment also shows that the error rate diminishes as the solar radiance expand. However, we hope to develop this device to be more exact in the position.

  8. The Integration of GPS Navigator Device with Vehicles Tracking System for Rental Cars Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Omarah O. Alharaki; Fahad S. Alaieri; Akram M. Zeki

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to integrate the GPS tracking system (tracking device and web-based application) with GPS navigator for rental cars, allowing the company to use various applications to monitor and manage the cars. This is enable the firms and customers to communicate with each other via the GPS navigator. The system should be developed by applying new features in GPS tracking application devices in vehicles. This paper also proposes new features that can be applied to the GPS Navi...

  9. Comparison of Efficiencies of Solar Tracker systems with static panel Single- Axis Tracking System and Dual-Axis Tracking System with Fixed Mount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanabal.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electricity plays a key role now in our daily lives but the energy sources to electric power has been used in abundance and so researchers were compelled to find an alternate source of power leading to the discovery of solar energy. Solar energy is inexhaustible and eco-friendly and can be converted into electricityusing photovoltaic panels. These panels can be used in a fixed form or used in a solar tracking system for single axis as well as for dual axis. In a fixed form their efficiency is low since the panels will be tilted in a particular angle whereas in a tracking system the panel is made to move either in single axis or dual axis. In a single axis system the panel is moved in an east to west direction with respect to the sun and it has better efficiency than panels in fixed form. But in a dual axis system the panel is made to rotate in all four directions in accordance with the sun. And dual axis has proved to have more efficiency than both fixed panels and single axis system.

  10. Simulation of spatially coupling dynamic response of train-track time-variant system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向俊; 李德建; 曾庆元

    2003-01-01

    There exist three problems in the calculation of lateral vibration of the train-track time-variant system athome and abroad and the method to solve them is presented. Spatially coupling vibration analysis model of train-track time-variant system is put forward. Each vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 26 degrees of freedomand the action of coupler is also considered. The track structure is modeled as an assembly of track elements with 30degrees of freedom, then the spatially coupling vibration matrix equation of the train-track time-variant system is es-tablished on the basis of the principle of total potential energy with stationary value and the "set-in-right-position"rule. The track vertical geometric irregularity is considered as the excitation source of the vertical vibration of thesystem, and the hunting wave of car bogie frame is taken as the excitation source of lateral vibration of the system.The spatially coupling vibration matrix equation of the system is solved by Wilson-θ direct integration method. Theapproximation of the calculated results to the spot test results demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of thepresented analysis method. Finally, some other vibration responses of the system are also obtained.

  11. Maximum Power Point Tracking and Reactive Power Control of Single Stage Grid Connected Photovoltaic System

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Single-stage grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems have advantages such as simple topology, high efficiency, etc. However, since all the control objectives such as the maximum power point tracking (with the utility voltage, and harmonics reduction for output current need to be considered simultaneously, the complexity of the control scheme is much increased. In this paper a new type of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and reactive power simul...

  12. Coordinated tracking of linear multiagent systems with input saturation and stochastic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingling; Sun, Changyin

    2017-07-21

    This paper addresses the coordinated tracking problem for linear multiagent systems with input saturation and stochastic disturbances. The objective is to construct a class of tracking control laws that achieve consensus tracking in the absence of disturbances, while guaranteeing a bounded variance of the state difference between the follower agent and the leader in the present of disturbances, under the assumptions that each agent is asymptotically null controllable with bounded controls (ANCBC) and the network is connected. By using the low gain feedback technique, a class of tracking control algorithms are proposed, and the coordinated tracking problem is solved through some routine manipulations. Finally, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the theoretical results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Solar Automatic Tracking System that Generates Power for Lighting Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Xun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we design and test a novel solar tracking generation system. Moreover, we show that this system could be successfully used as an advanced solar power source to generate power in greenhouses. The system was developed after taking into consideration the geography, climate, and other environmental factors of northeast China. The experimental design of this study included the following steps: (i the novel solar tracking generation system was measured, and its performance was analyzed; (ii the system configuration and operation principles were evaluated; (iii the performance of this power generation system and the solar irradiance were measured according to local time and conditions; (iv the main factors affecting system performance were analyzed; and (v the amount of power generated by the solar tracking system was compared with the power generated by fixed solar panels. The experimental results indicated that compared to the power generated by fixed solar panels, the solar tracking system generated about 20% to 25% more power. In addition, the performance of this novel power generating system was found to be closely associated with solar irradiance. Therefore, the solar tracking system provides a new approach to power generation in greenhouses.

  14. Track Settling Control System to Reduce Residual Vibration during Track Seek of Magnetic Disk Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    .... These mode switching controllers provide fast access and accurate positioning. The requirement of faster seeking in magnetic disk drives propagates residual vibration during settling due to the mechanical resonance of the positioning system...

  15. Tracking and controlling everything that affects quality is the key to a quality management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Carl; Wray, Bruce; Winslow, Ford; Vilicich, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Every laboratory has a need to track and control the variables that drive the quality of the results. However, each laboratory is unique and what one organization deems to be a critical process to track and control will likely differ from other organizations. Furthermore, there is more than just the end product or result that needs to be tracked and controlled. All of the intermediate products and resources play a significant role in producing the final product and each of these needs to be included in the LIMS. At a high level, this article will present ideas and opinions on the following topics in relation to implementing a LIMS process tracking and control system in a laboratory: The difference between tracking and controlling processes; What to track and control in the lab; The "product" of the laboratory; Preventing mistakes in a laboratory; Comprehensive software platform options; The value of seeing a system as opposed to imagining it; The use of barcodes in the laboratory; and an assessment on using the Risk Based Approach in deciding what to include in the tracking system.

  16. Research and Development of Engine-Generator Set Control System for Tracked Vehicle Electric Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ying; HUANG Qian; SUN Feng-chun; LIU Bo-lan; LIU Jia

    2007-01-01

    As an energy generating equipment, the engine-generator set supplies power to the electric transmission. Therefore, its control is one of the key technologies of electric vehicles. Based on the discussion about the demands to the engine-generator set in tracked vehicles, the detailed function of engine-generator and the control strategy are determined. The hardware and software of the control system are also developed and tested in a prototype vehicle. The experiment results show that the control system has good reliability and can satisfy the power requirements of vehicles under all operating conditions.

  17. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  18. Survey of tracking systems and rotary joints for coolant piping. Final report, August 15, 1978-August 14, 1978. [Includes patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furaus, J P; Gruchalla, M E; Sower, G D

    1980-01-01

    Problems were surveyed and evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms and rotary joints for coolant piping. An analytical development of celestial mechanics, one- and two-axis tracking configurations and the effect of tracking accuracy versus collector efficiency are reported. Daily operational requirements and tracking modes were defined and evaluated. A literature and patent search on solar tracking technology was performed. Tracking system and control system performance specifications were determined. Alternative conceptual tracking approaches were defined and a cost and performance evaluation of a mechanical tracking concept was performed. Fluid coupling service specifications were determined. The cost and performance of several types of actuators and error detectors were evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms.

  19. Procedure for tracking manoeuvring targets with a multi-purpose phased-array radar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a tracking procedure for the FUCAS-experimental multi purpose phased array system. A phased array systems is always very complex. Upto this moment there are just a few systems, the results of experiments with those systems are not yet available. FUCAS is developed to acquire

  20. Procedure for tracking manoeuvring targets with a multi-purpose phased-array radar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes a tracking procedure for the FUCAS-experimental multi purpose phased array system. A phased array systems is always very complex. Upto this moment there are just a few systems, the results of experiments with those systems are not yet available. FUCAS is developed to acquire exp

  1. 星载太阳辐射监测仪的高精度太阳跟踪%High precision sun-tracking of spaceborne solar irradiance monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东军; 方伟; 叶新; 宋宝奇

    2014-01-01

    由于FY-3(01)星和FY-3(02)星宽视场扫描式太阳辐射监测仪(SIM)测量时间短、精度低,本文利用FY-3(03)星SIM实现了太阳的高精度跟踪测量.首先,分析了SIM太阳跟踪精度指标、跟踪转动范围,测试并确定了数字太阳敏感器(DSS)的视场范围、频率、分辨率,标定了DSS在轨像面辐照度.为消除跟踪抖动现象,分析测试了控制时间间隔和跟踪精度的关系,确定了理想控制时间间隔为500ms.外场和在轨实验结果表明,SIM太阳跟踪精度优于±0.1°,俯仰在轨跟踪精度为0.029°,偏航在轨跟踪精度为0.025°,原始太阳总辐照度(TSI)值为1 353.1 W/m2.另外,DSS太阳指向精确,跟踪控制可靠,大幅增加了TSI监测时间.FY-3(03)星SIM在太阳同步轨道卫星上实现了TSI的太阳跟踪测量,跟踪精度是国际空间站(ISS)同类载荷CPD跟踪精度的10倍.

  2. Design of the automatic sun-tracking device for a butterfly concentration photovoltaic generation%蝶式聚光光伏发电自动跟踪太阳装置的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓霞; 殷盼盼; 张国; 孙常生; 朱建衡; 孙利国

    2008-01-01

    在分析太阳运行规律的基础上,描述了蝶式聚光器的机械结构、传动机构及自动跟踪控制的原理、方法,提出了一种在聚光条件下太阳跟踪的新方案.该蝶式反射聚光光伏自动跟踪太阳装置制造和运行成本低,跟踪精度较高,应用前景广阔.

  3. Comparison of Efficiencies of Solar Tracker systems with static panel Single- Axis Tracking System and Dual-Axis Tracking System with Fixed Mount

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanabal R; Bharathi.V; Ranjitha.R; Ponni.A; Deepthi S; Mageshkannan.P

    2013-01-01

    Electricity plays a key role now in our daily lives but the energy sources to electric power has been used in abundance and so researchers were compelled to find an alternate source of power leading to the discovery of solar energy. Solar energy is inexhaustible and eco-friendly and can be converted into electricityusing photovoltaic panels. These panels can be used in a fixed form or used in a solar tracking system for single axis as well as for dual axis. In a fixed form their efficiency is...

  4. Integrated system for point cloud reconstruction and simulated brain shift validation using tracked surgical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Clements, Logan W.; Luo, Ma; Narasimhan, Saramati; Thompson, Reid C.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    Intra-operative soft tissue deformation, referred to as brain shift, compromises the application of current imageguided surgery (IGS) navigation systems in neurosurgery. A computational model driven by sparse data has been used as a cost effective method to compensate for cortical surface and volumetric displacements. Stereoscopic microscopes and laser range scanners (LRS) are the two most investigated sparse intra-operative imaging modalities for driving these systems. However, integrating these devices in the clinical workflow to facilitate development and evaluation requires developing systems that easily permit data acquisition and processing. In this work we present a mock environment developed to acquire stereo images from a tracked operating microscope and to reconstruct 3D point clouds from these images. A reconstruction error of 1 mm is estimated by using a phantom with a known geometry and independently measured deformation extent. The microscope is tracked via an attached tracking rigid body that facilitates the recording of the position of the microscope via a commercial optical tracking system as it moves during the procedure. Point clouds, reconstructed under different microscope positions, are registered into the same space in order to compute the feature displacements. Using our mock craniotomy device, realistic cortical deformations are generated. Our experimental results report approximately 2mm average displacement error compared with the optical tracking system. These results demonstrate the practicality of using tracked stereoscopic microscope as an alternative to LRS to collect sufficient intraoperative information for brain shift correction.

  5. Influence of uneven rail irregularities on the dynamic response of the railway track using a three-dimensional model of the vehicle-track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Meysam; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Esmaeili, Morteza; Shadfar, Morad

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the vehicle-track interaction is developed to investigate the coupled behaviour of vehicle-track system, in the presence of uneven irregularities at left/right rails. The railway vehicle is simplified as a 3D multi-rigid-body model, and the track is treated as the two parallel beams on a layered discrete support system. Besides the car-body, the bogies and the wheel sets, the sleepers are assumed to have roll degree of freedom, in order to simulate the in-plane rotation of the components. The wheel-rail interface is treated using a nonlinear Hertzian contact model, coupling the mathematical equations of the vehicle-track systems. The dynamic interaction of the entire system is numerically studied in time domain, employing Newmark's integration method. The track irregularity spectra of both the left/right rails are taken into account, as the inputs of dynamic excitations. The dynamic responses of the track system induced by such irregularities are obtained, particularly in terms of the vertical (bounce) and roll displacements. The numerical model of the present research is validated using several benchmark models reported in the literature, for both the smooth and unsmooth track conditions. Four sample profiles of the measured rail irregularities are considered as the case studies of excitation sources, examining their influences on the dynamic behaviour of the coupled system. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that the motion of track system is significantly influenced by the presence of uneven irregularities in left/right rails. Dynamic response of the sleepers in the roll direction becomes more sensitive to the rail irregularities, as the unevenness severity of the parallel profiles (quantitative difference between left and right rail spectra) is increased. The severe geometric deformation of the track in the bounce-pitch-roll directions is mainly related to such profile unevenness (cross-level) in left/right rails.

  6. Speed Tracking Control of a Vehicle Robot Driver System Using Multiple Sliding Surface Control Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the drawbacks of using a traditional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control method for a robot driver system, such as requiring preliminary offline learning, big overshoot and large speed fluctuation, a new method for speed tracking of a robot driver system based on sliding mode control is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the coordinated control model of multiple manipulators for the robot driver is built, which achieved coordinated control of the throttle mechanical leg, clutch mechanical leg, brake mechanical leg and shift mechanical arm for the robot driver. On the basis of this, a speed tracking sliding mode controller for a vehicle robot driver is designed using the method of multiple sliding surfaces design, and the variable structure control laws of throttle and brake are designed respectively, which realize the speed tracking of the given driving test cycle. Experimental results demonstrate that compared with the PID control method, the proposed method can obviously reduce the overshoot of vehicle speed tracking control and greatly improve the accuracy of vehicle speed tracking. The vehicle speed tracking accuracy stays within a tolerance band of ±2 km/h, which meets the requirements of national vehicle test standards. Furthermore, the action of the speed tracking control in the same driving test cycle using the proposed method is consistent, so that the robot driver has good repeatability. Therefore, it can ensure the effectiveness of the vehicle emission test.

  7. Accuracy of optical navigation systems for automatic head surgery: optical tracking versus optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Díaz, Jesús; Riva, Mauro H.; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2014-03-01

    The choice of a navigation system highly depends on the medical intervention and its accuracy demands. The most commonly used systems for image guided surgery (IGS) are based on optical and magnetic tracking systems. This paper compares two optical systems in terms of accuracy: state of the art triangulation-based optical tracking (OT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We use an experimental setup with a combined OCT and cutting laser, and an external OT. We simulate a robotic assisted surgical intervention, including planning, navigation, and processing, and compare the accuracies reached at a specific target with each navigation system.

  8. Real-time skeleton tracking for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleca, Foti; Klement, Sascha; Martinetz, Thomas; Barth, Erhardt

    2013-03-01

    Touch-free gesture technology is beginning to become more popular with consumers and may have a significant future impact on interfaces for digital photography. However, almost every commercial software framework for gesture and pose detection is aimed at either desktop PCs or high-powered GPUs, making mobile implementations for gesture recognition an attractive area for research and development. In this paper we present an algorithm for hand skeleton tracking and gesture recognition that runs on an ARM-based platform (Pandaboard ES, OMAP 4460 architecture). The algorithm uses self-organizing maps to fit a given topology (skeleton) into a 3D point cloud. This is a novel way of approaching the problem of pose recognition as it does not employ complex optimization techniques or data-based learning. After an initial background segmentation step, the algorithm is ran in parallel with heuristics, which detect and correct artifacts arising from insufficient or erroneous input data. We then optimize the algorithm for the ARM platform using fixed-point computation and the NEON SIMD architecture the OMAP4460 provides. We tested the algorithm with two different depth-sensing devices (Microsoft Kinect, PMD Camboard). For both input devices we were able to accurately track the skeleton at the native framerate of the cameras.

  9. Connectivity and Set Tracking of Multi-agent Systems Guided by Multiple Moving Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guodong; Johansson, K H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate distributed multi-agent tracking of a convex set specified by multiple moving leaders with unmeasurable velocities. Various jointly-connected interaction topologies of the follower agents with uncertainties are considered in the study of set tracking. Based on the connectivity of the time-varying multi-agent system, necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained for set input-to-state stability and set integral input-to-state stability for a nonlinear neighbor-based coordination rule with switching directed topologies. Conditions for asymptotic set tracking are also proposed with respect to the polytope spanned by the leaders.

  10. Sliding mode control of photoelectric tracking platform based on the inverse system method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photoelectric tracking platform tracking performance, an integral sliding mode control strategy based on inverse system decoupling method is proposed. The electromechanical dynamic model is established based on multi-body system theory and Newton-Euler method. The coupled multi-input multi-output (MIMO nonlinear system is transformed into two pseudo-linear single-input single-output (SISO subsystems based on the inverse system method. An integral sliding mode control scheme is designed for the decoupled pseudo-linear system. In order to eliminate system chattering phenomenon caused by traditional sign function in sliding-mode controller, the sign function is replaced by the Sigmoid function. Simulation results show that the proposed decoupling method and the control strategy can restrain the influences of internal coupling and disturbance effectively, and has better robustness and higher tracking accuracy.

  11. Fuzzy Modeling, Tracking Control and Synchronization of the Rossler's Chaotic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建安; 范丹丹

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method to model, track control and synchronize the Rossler's chaotic system is proposed. The fuzzy logical system is used so that the fuzzy inference rule is transferred into a type of variable coef ficient nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Consequently the model of the chaotic system is obtained. Then a fuzzy tracking control and a fuzzy synchronization for chaotic systems is proposed as well. First, a known tracking control for the Rossler's system is used in this paper. We represent the Rossler's chaotic and control systems into fuzzy inference rules. Then the variable coefficient nonlinear ordinary differential equation is also got. Simulation results show that such an approach is effective and has a high precision.

  12. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd.Ikram Mohd. Rashid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the amount of sunlight captured by the photovoltaic modules/arrays. This paper describes a simple electro-mechanical dual axis solar tracking system designed and developed in a study. The control of the two axes was achieved by the pulses generated from the data acquisition (DAQ card fed into four relays. This approach was so chosen to effectively avoid the error that usually arises in sensor-based methods. The programming of the mathematical models of the solar elevation and azimuth angles was done using Borland C++ Builder. The performance and accuracy of the developed system was evaluated with a PV panel at latitude 3.53o N and longitude 103.5o W in Malaysia. The results obtained reflect the effectiveness of the developed tracking system in terms of the energy yield when compared with that generated from a fixed panel. Overall, 20%, 23% and 21% additional energy were produced for the months of March, April and May respectively using the tracker developed in this study.

  13. Global Practical Tracking by Output Feedback for Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Growth Rate and Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuehua

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the further investigation of work of Yan and Liu, 2011, and considers the global practical tracking problem by output feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with not only unmeasured states dependent growth but also time-varying time delay. Compared with the closely related works, the remarkableness of the paper is that the time-varying time delay and unmeasurable states are permitted in the system nonlinear growth. Motivated by the related tracking results and flexibly using the ideas and techniques of universal control and dead zone, an adaptive output-feedback tracking controller is explicitly designed with the help of a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, to make the tracking error prescribed arbitrarily small after a finite time while keeping all the closed-loop signals bounded. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the results. PMID:25276859

  14. Research on Key Technologies of Network Centric System Distributed Target Track Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize common tactical picture in network-centered system, this paper proposes a layered architecture for distributed information processing and a method for distributed track fusion on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of network-centered systems. Basing on the noncorrelation of three-dimensional measurement of surveillance and reconnaissance sensors under polar coordinates, it also puts forward an algorithm for evaluating track quality (TQ using statistical decision theory. According to simulation results, the TQ value is associated with the measurement accuracy of sensors and the motion state of targets, which is well matched with the convergence process of tracking filters. Besides, the proposed algorithm has good reliability and timeliness in track quality evaluation.

  15. Decision-Directed Frequency Tracking Algorithm for OFDM System in Fast Fading Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bo; LI Jun; LIN Jia-ru; WU Wei-ling

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzed the structure of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) system and presented a new Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) tracking algorithm, which depends on comparability between the decision data and the original data to correct carrier frequency offset. Therefore it is robust during the normal communization process since the Bit Error Rate (BER) of the decision data is low. We can utilize pilot data in time domain for channel estimation to track CFO without reducing system efficient and to enhance the tracking scope largely. Simulation results denote the presented algorithm can track the frequency offset and control it under ±1% using only 1 frame if the original frequency offset is within ±8%.

  16. Design of a holographic tracking module for long-range retroreflector free-space systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, C; Erry, G; Gomez, A; Thueux, Y; Faulkner, G E; O'Brien, D C

    2016-09-01

    Weight reduction and low power consumption are key requirements in the next generation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). To communicate with an operator, a secured link between the UAV and a ground-based station is desirable. To realize these links, retroreflecting free-space optics is potentially attractive as it offers light weight and low complexity at the UAV. However, the base station requires a high-performance tracking module to enable a steady illumination of the UAV retroreflector. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a tracking system, which consists of coarse tracking and holographic fine tracking modules working cooperatively. Using this system, experimental field trials were carried out by mounting a multiple-quantum-well-based modulated retroreflector on a commercial UAV. A 2 Mbps optical link was achieved with a bit error rate of ∼2×10-4 at a link range of 300 m.

  17. Least Squares Approach to the Alignment of the Generic High Precision Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Brückman de Renstrom, P

    2005-01-01

    A least squares method to solve a generic alignment problem of high granularity tracking system is presented. The formalism takes advantage of the assumption that the derived corrections are small and consequently uses the first order linear expansion throughout. The algorithm consists of analytical linear expansion allowing for multiple nested fits. E.g. imposing a common vertex for groups of particle tracks is of particular interest. We present a consistent and complete recipe to impose constraints on any set of either implicit or explicit parameters. The baseline solution to the alignment problem is equivalent to the one described in [1]. The latter was derived using purely algebraic methods to reduce the initial large system of linear equations arising from separate fits of tracks and alignment parameters. The method presented here benefits from wider range of applications including problems with implicit vertex fit, physics constraints on track parameters, use of external information to constrain the geo...

  18. Maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic energy system using neural fuzzy techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-hua; ZHU Xin-jian; SUI Sheng; HU Wan-qi

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the output efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) energy system, the real-time maximum power point (MPP) of the PV array should be tracked closely. The non-linear and time-variant characteristics of the photovoltaic array and the non-linear and non-minimum phase characteristics of a boost converter make it difficult to track the MPP as in traditional control strategies. A neural fuzzy controller (NFC) in conjunction with the reasoning capability of fuzzy logical systems and the learning capability of neural networks is proposed to track the MPP in this paper. A gradient estimator based on a radial basis function neural network is developed to provide the reference information to the NFC. With a derived learning algorithm, the parameters of the NFC are updated adaptively. Experimental results show that, compared with the fuzzy logic control algorithm, the proposed control algorithm provides much better tracking performance.

  19. Research on Single-Variable Current Perturbation Tracking Method for Maximal Power Tracking Control Method of the Solar Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu-xin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the traditional grid-connected PV perturbation method of disturbance near the maximum power point about the problems of shock,introduced a method based on single variable current control thought,established grid-connected PV maximum power tracking control system mathematical model, a novel single-variable current perturbation tracking method was put out, as long as the detected output current of the solar panel power generation system can achieve a stable variable maximum power tracking, through simulation and experimental study to verify the correctness of the model and the effectiveness of control methods.  

  20. Solar follower of two axes for a furnace solar; Seguidor solar de dos ejes para un horno solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeda, G.; Castaneda, A.; Vega, J. T.; Pineda, J.; Contreras, R.

    2008-07-01

    We present the design and manufacture of a two-axis sun tracking system, which controls a heliostats of a solar furnace for clay brick firing. The system works with motors controlled through a PC. The algorithm for the sun tracking system was developed in a visual programming language; it calculates the primary and secondary tracking angles of the heliostats; the PC, using codified data by a serial communication interface is interconnected with the sun tracking system through a microprocessor. The micro controller is programmed to control the step driver engines. (Author)

  1. A system to monitor possible displacements of the inner tracking system of ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Bjorn S. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1117 (United States)], E-mail: nilsen@mps.ohio-state.edu; Truesdale, David [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1117 (United States); Fujita, Jiro [Department of Chemistry, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Cherney, Michael; Gorbunov, Yury [Department of Physics, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States); Humanic, Thomas J. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1117 (United States); Kral, Jiri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Brehova 7, CZ-11519 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); Rizzo, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 (United States)

    2009-02-11

    In a large collider experiment, the precision of the measurements is often limited by the knowledge of the location of the different sub-detectors which make up such an experiment. In A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE), two such critical sub-detectors are the time projection chamber and the inner tracking system. Here is described a system which can monitor the relative position of these two sub-detector systems with the needed accuracy and within the space available. This system utilizes off the shelf USB web-cameras, diode laser light sources, and spherical mirrors. Tests have shown that it can provide a resolution of 9.4{+-}0.3{mu}m for displacements in the plane of the camera and about 78{+-}2{mu}m perpendicular to it.

  2. A new Recommender system based on target tracking: a Kalman Filter approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, Samuel; Boyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach for recommender systems based on target tracking by Kalman filtering. We assume that users and their seen resources are vectors in the multidimensional space of the categories of the resources. Knowing this space, we propose an algorithm based on a Kalman filter to track users and to predict the best prediction of their future position in the recommendation space.

  3. Target tracking in the recommender space: Toward a new recommender system based on Kalman filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Nowakowski, Samuel; Boyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach for recommender systems based on target tracking by Kalman filtering. We assume that users and their seen resources are vectors in the multidimensional space of the categories of the resources. Knowing this space, we propose an algorithm based on a Kalman filter to track users and to predict the best prediction of their future position in the recommendation space.

  4. Tracking method based on separation and combination of the measurements for radar and IR fusion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingchao; Wang Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    A new distributed fusion method of radar/infrared (IR) tracking system based on separation and combination of the measurements is proposed by analyzing the influence of rate measurement. The rate information separated from the radar measurements together with measurements of IR form a pseudo vector of IR, and the corresponding filter is designed. The results indicate that the method not only makes a great improvement to the local tracker's performance, but also improves the global tracking precision efficiently.

  5. CONTINUOUS ROBUST TRACKING CONTROLLERS FOR A CLASS OF UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡剑波; 苏宏业; 柯挺; 褚健; 陈新海

    2001-01-01

    Robust tracking controller for a class of uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems, which are linearizable by input-output feedback with matching uncertainties, was investigated. In this study, uniform ultimate bound or uniformly asymptotic stability of tracking errors were obtained by different choice of the control gain. A simulation to determine the effectiveness of the proposed approach showed that the control performance was better than that of VSC (Variable Structure Control).

  6. A vision-based material tracking system for heavy plate rolling mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnig, Mark; Reisinger, Johann; Hlobil, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    A modern heavy plate rolling mill can process more than 20 slabs and plates simultaneously. To avoid material confusions during a compact occupancy and the permanent discharging and re-entering of parts, one must know the identity and position of each part at every moment. One possibility to determine the identity and position of each slab and plate is the application of a comprehensive visual-based tracking system. Compared to a tracking system that calculates the position of a plate based on the diameter and the turns of the transport rolls, a visual system is not corrupted by a position- and material dependent transmission slip. In this paper we therefore present a vision-based material tracking system for the 2-dimensional tracking of glowing material in harsh environment. It covers the production area from the plant's descaler to the pre-stand of the rolling mill and consists of four independent, synchronized overlapping cameras. The paper first presents the conceptual design of the tracking system - and continues then with the camera calibration, the determination of pixel contours, the data segmentation and the fitting & modelling of the objects bodies. In a next step, the work will then show the testing setup. It will be described how the material tracking system was implemented into the control system of the rolling mill and how the delivered tracking data was checked on its correctness. Finally, the paper presents some results. It will be shown that the position of some moving plates was estimated with a precision of approx. 0.5m. The results will be analyzed and it will be explained where the inaccuracies come from and how they eventually can be removed. The paper ends with a conclusion and an outlook on future work.

  7. CRIM-TRACK - Sensor system for detection of criminal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2014-01-01

    The detection of illegal compounds is an important analytical problem which requires reliable, selective and sensitive detection method that provides the highest level of confidence in the result. Moreover, to contribute in the successful development the automated target acquisition, identification...... and signal processing of data from the sensor is mandatory. Enhancements to sensing methods, recognition ability and target detection time lead with the algorithms improvements in software that is complementary to improving sensor hardware. In the end, the sensing device should be portable, rapid, easy...... in use, highly sensitive, specific (minimal false positives), and low cost. The aim of the CRIM-TRACK project is to demonstrate a working sensing device that can be developed into a portable, miniaturized, automated, rapid, low cost, highly sensitive, and simple “sniffer” and detection unit, based...

  8. Upgrade of the Inner Tracking System Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Musa, L

    2012-01-01

    The present document addresses the question of how to improve the ALICE performance for heavy-flavour detection. It will be shown that it is possible to built a new silicon tracker with greatly improved features in terms of determination of the distance of closest approach (dca) to the primary vertex, standalone tracking efficiency at low pt , momentum resolution and readout rate capabilities. Such a new silicon tracker will allow ALICE to measure charm and beauty production in Pb-Pb collisions with sufficient statistical accuracy down to very low transverse momentum, measure charm baryons and perform precise measurements of beauty production. More in general the proposed upgrade is an important part of the ALICE upgrade conceived to deal with Pb–Pb collisions at interaction rates of up to 50 kHz.

  9. Kalman Filter Based Tracking in an Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIMAN, C.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have developed a Matlab/Simulink based model for monitoring a contact in a video surveillance sequence. For the segmentation process and corect identification of a contact in a surveillance video, we have used the Horn-Schunk optical flow algorithm. The position and the behavior of the correctly detected contact were monitored with the help of the traditional Kalman filter. After that we have compared the results obtained from the optical flow method with the ones obtained from the Kalman filter, and we show the correct functionality of the Kalman filter based tracking. The tests were performed using video data taken with the help of a fix camera. The tested algorithm has shown promising results.

  10. Tracking control and synchronization of chaotic systems based upon sampled-data feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士华; 刘杰; 谢进; 陆君安

    2002-01-01

    A novel tracking control and synchronization method is proposed based upon sampled-data feedback. This methodcan make a chaotic system approach any desired smooth orbit and synchronize the driving system and the responsesystem, both in the same structure and in diverse structures. Finally, a numerical simulation with a Lorenz system isprovided for the purpose of illustration and verification.

  11. The smart IV stand design through human tracking mobile robot system by CDS cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seong-Hyeon; Choe, Jong-Hun; Seo, Suk-Hyun; Kim, Won-Hoe; Lee, Hong-Kyu; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Vision-based recognition of the object as a general interface gives us high cost and complicated problem. This research suggests human tracking system by Arduino, and Laser-CdS cell system track wire that pass laser line. In this paper, we review existing literature on application systems of recognition which involves many interdisciplinary studies. We conclude that our method can only reduce cost, but is easy way to trace people's location with the use of wire. Furthermore, we apply several recognition systems including CdS-based mobile robot that is applied IV stand used at the hospital effectively.

  12. Model emulates human smooth pursuit system producing zero-latency target tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahill, A T; McDonald, J D

    1983-01-01

    Humans can overcome the 150 ms time delay of the smooth pursuit eye movement system and track smoothly moving visual targets with zero-latency. Our target-selective adaptive control model can also overcome an inherent time delay and produce zero-latency tracking. No other model or man-made system can do this. Our model is physically realizable and physiologically realistic. The technique used in our model should be useful for analyzing other time-delay systems, such as man-machine systems and robots.

  13. Minimum-Time Trajectory Tracking of an Under-Actuated System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DRIESSEN,BRIAN; SADEGH,NADER

    1999-10-26

    Minimum-time trajectory tracking of an under-actuated mechanical system called the Acrobot is presented. The success of the controller is demonstrated by the fact that the tracking error is reduced by more than an order of magnitude when compared to the open-loop system response. The control law is obtained by linearizing the system about the nominal trajectory and applying differential dynamic programming to the resulting linear time-varying system, while using a weighted sum of the state-deviation and input-deviation as the cost function.

  14. Long-Term Tracking of a Specific Vehicle Using Airborne Optical Camera Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, F.; Rosenbaum, D.; Runge, H.; Cerra, D.; Mattyus, G.; Reinartz, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present two low cost, airborne sensor systems capable of long-term vehicle tracking. Based on the properties of the sensors, a method for automatic real-time, long-term tracking of individual vehicles is presented. This combines the detection and tracking of the vehicle in low frame rate image sequences and applies the lagged Cell Transmission Model (CTM) to handle longer tracking outages occurring in complex traffic situations, e.g. tunnels. The CTM model uses the traffic conditions in the proximities of the target vehicle and estimates its motion to predict the position where it reappears. The method is validated on an airborne image sequence acquired from a helicopter. Several reference vehicles are tracked within a range of 500m in a complex urban traffic situation. An artificial tracking outage of 240m is simulated, which is handled by the CTM. For this, all the vehicles in the close proximity are automatically detected and tracked to estimate the basic density-flow relations of the CTM model. Finally, the real and simulated trajectories of the reference vehicles in the outage are compared showing good correspondence also in congested traffic situations.

  15. LHCb : Performance of the LHCb tracking system in Run I of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Davis, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb tracking system consists of a Vertex Locator around the interaction point, a tracking station with four layers of silicon strip detectors in front of the magnet, and three tracking stations, using either straw-tubes or silicon strip detectors, behind the magnet. This system allows to reconstruct charged particles with a high efficiency (typically > 95% for particles with momentum > 5 GeV) and an excellent momentum resolution (0.5% for particles with momentum mu mu. Furthermore an optimal decay time resolution is an essential element in the studies of time dependent CP violation. Thanks to the excellent performance of the tracking system, a decay time resolution of ~50 fs is obtained, allowing to resolve the fast B0s oscillation with a mixing frequency of 17.7 ps-1. In this talk, we will give an overview of the track reconstruction in LHCb and review its performance in Run I of the LHC. We will highlight the challenges and improvements of the track reconstruction for the data taking period from 2015 ...

  16. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Shi, Yunbo; Yu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV) systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works. PMID:27327657

  17. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    Full Text Available Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works.

  18. Intelligent Photovoltaic Systems by Combining the Improved Perturbation Method of Observation and Sun Location Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Shi, Yunbo; Yu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Currently, tracking in photovoltaic (PV) systems suffers from some problems such as high energy consumption, poor anti-interference performance, and large tracking errors. This paper presents a solar PV tracking system on the basis of an improved perturbation and observation method, which maximizes photoelectric conversion efficiency. According to the projection principle, we design a sensor module with a light-intensity-detection module for environmental light-intensity measurement. The effect of environmental factors on the system operation is reduced, and intelligent identification of the weather is realized. This system adopts the discrete-type tracking method to reduce power consumption. A mechanical structure with a level-pitch double-degree-of-freedom is designed, and attitude correction is performed by closed-loop control. A worm-and-gear mechanism is added, and the reliability, stability, and precision of the system are improved. Finally, the perturbation and observation method designed and improved by this study was tested by simulated experiments. The experiments verified that the photoelectric sensor resolution can reach 0.344°, the tracking error is less than 2.5°, the largest improvement in the charge efficiency can reach 44.5%, and the system steadily and reliably works.

  19. Installing and Commissioning a New Radioactive Waste Tracking System - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Miklos Garamszeghy; Fred Rodrigues; Ed Nicholls

    2005-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) recognizes the importance of information management particularly with regards to its low and intermediate level waste program. Various computer based waste tracking systems have been used in OPG since the 1980s. These systems tracked the physical receipt, processing, storage, and inventory of the waste. As OPG moved towards long-term management (e.g. disposal), it was recognized that tracking of more detailed waste characterization information was important. This required either substantial modification of the existing system to include a waste characterization module or replacing it entirely with a new system. After a detailed review of available options, it was decided that the existing waste tracking application would be replaced with the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS). Installing and commissioning a system which must receive historical operational waste management information (data) and provide new features, required much more attention than was originally considered. The operational readiness of IWTS required extensive vetting and preparation of historic data (which itself had been created from multiple databases in varied formats) to ensure a consistent format for import of some 30,000-container records, and merging and linking these container records to a waste stream based characterization database. This paper will discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses contributing to project success or hindrance so that others can understand and minimize the difficulties inherent in a project of this magnitude.

  20. Interacting with target tracking algorithms in a gaze-enhanced motion video analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, particularly if real-time analysis is required. It is therefore an important issue how to provide suitable assistance for the human operator. Given that the use of customized video analysis systems is more and more established, one supporting measure is to provide system functions which perform subtasks of the analysis. Recent progress in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms allow, e.g., real-time moving target tracking. Another supporting measure is to provide a user interface which strives to reduce the perceptual, cognitive and motor load of the human operator for example by incorporating the operator's visual focus of attention. A gaze-enhanced user interface is able to help here. This work extends prior work on automated target recognition, segmentation, and tracking algorithms as well as about the benefits of a gaze-enhanced user interface for interaction with moving targets. We also propose a prototypical system design aiming to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms in order to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. In this contribution, we address two novel issues analyzing gaze-based interaction with target tracking algorithms. The first issue extends the gaze-based triggering of a target tracking process, e.g., investigating how to best relaunch in the case of track loss. The second issue addresses the initialization of tracking algorithms without motion segmentation where the operator has to provide the system with the object's image region in order to start the tracking algorithm.

  1. Fault Detection Based on Tracking Differentiator Applied on the Suspension System of Maglev Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fault detection method based on the optimized tracking differentiator is introduced. It is applied on the acceleration sensor of the suspension system of maglev train. It detects the fault of the acceleration sensor by comparing the acceleration integral signal with the speed signal obtained by the optimized tracking differentiator. This paper optimizes the control variable when the states locate within or beyond the two-step reachable region to improve the performance of the approximate linear discrete tracking differentiator. Fault-tolerant control has been conducted by feedback based on the speed signal acquired from the optimized tracking differentiator when the acceleration sensor fails. The simulation and experiment results show the practical usefulness of the presented method.

  2. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.

  3. Development and Validation of a Near-Infrared Optical System for Tracking Surgical Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinyong; Cai, Ken; Yang, Rongqian; Chen, Huazhou; Wang, Zhigang; Zhou, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Surgical navigation systems can help doctors maximize the accuracy of surgeries, minimize operation durations, avoid mistakes, and improve the survival chances of patients. The tracking of device is an important component in surgical navigation systems. However, commercial surgical tracking devices are expensive, thus hindering the development of surgical navigation systems, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, an accurate and low-cost near-infrared optical tracking system is presented in this study for the real-time tracking of surgical tools and for measuring and displaying the positions of these tools relative to lesions and other targets inside a patient's body. A relative algorithm for the registration of surgical tools is also proposed in this paper to yield easy, safe, and precise tracking. Experiments are conducted to test the performance of the system. Results show that the mean square errors of the distances between the light-emitting points on the surgical tools are less than 0.3 mm, with the mean square error of distance between the tip and light-emitting points is less than 0.025 mm and that between two adjacent corner points is 0.2714 mm.

  4. Improved Line Tracking System for Autonomous Navigation of High-Speed Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Zare Khafri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Line tracking navigation is one of the most widely techniques used in the robot navigation. In this paper, a customized line tracking system is proposed for autonomous navigation of high speed vehicles. In the presented system, auxiliary information -in addition to the road path- is added to the tracking lines such as locations of turn and intersections in the real roads. Moreover, the geometric position of line sensors is re-designed enables the high rate sensing with higher reliability. Finally, a light-weight navigation algorithm is proposed allow the high-speed movement using a reasonable processing power. This system is implemented on a MIPS-based embedded processor and experimental results with this embedded system show more than 98% accuracy at 200km/h with a 1GHz processor is viable.

  5. Observation and output adaptive tracking for a class of nonlinear non-minimum phase systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, G.; Estrada, A.; Punta, E.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the output tracking problem for a class of systems with unstable zero dynamics is addressed. The state is assumed not measurable. The output of the dynamical system to be controlled has to track a signal, which is the sum of a known number of sinusoids with unknown frequencies, amplitudes and phases. The non-minimum phase nature of the considered systems prevents the direct tracking by standard sliding mode methods, which are known to generate unstable behaviours of the internal dynamics. The proposed method relies on the availability of a flat output and its time derivatives which are functions of the unavailable state; therefore, a nonlinear observer is needed. Due to the uncertainty in the frequencies and in the parameters defining the relationship between the output of the system and the flat states, adaptive indirect methods are applied.

  6. Recurrent fuzzy neural network backstepping control for the prescribed output tracking performance of nonlinear dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong-Ik; Lee, Jang-Myung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a backstepping control system that uses a tracking error constraint and recurrent fuzzy neural networks (RFNNs) to achieve a prescribed tracking performance for a strict-feedback nonlinear dynamic system. A new constraint variable was defined to generate the virtual control that forces the tracking error to fall within prescribed boundaries. An adaptive RFNN was also used to obtain the required improvement on the approximation performances in order to avoid calculating the explosive number of terms generated by the recursive steps of traditional backstepping control. The boundedness and convergence of the closed-loop system was confirmed based on the Lyapunov stability theory. The prescribed performance of the proposed control scheme was validated by using it to control the prescribed error of a nonlinear system and a robot manipulator.

  7. Design and Development of Mechanical Structure and Control System for Tracked Trailing Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchuan Xu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Along with the science and technology unceasing progress, the uses of tracing robots become more and more widely. Tracked tracing robot was adopted as the research object in this paper, mechanical structure and control system of robot was designed and developmented. In mechanical structure design part, structure designed and positioned  were completed, including design of robot body, wheel, underpan, transmission structure and the positioning of batteries, control panel, sensors, etc, and then robot dynamics was analyzed; In control section, M30245 was used as the core, according to the characteristics of tracked tracing robot differential drive, realization scheme of motion control system was put forward, system drive circuit, detection module, control program were developed. System were discussed and checked through test. From this paper tracked tracing robot was researched, and a certain design and experimental basis can be provided in future research.

  8. Adaptive Neural Network Output Feedback Tracking Control for a Class of Complicated Agricultural Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an adaptive neural network output feedback tracking control scheme for a class of complicated agricultural mechanical systems. The scheme includes a dynamic gain observer to estimate the un-measurable states of the system. The main advantages of the authors scheme are that by introducing non-separation principle design neural network controller and the observer gain are simultaneously tuned according to output tracking error, the semi-globally ultimately bounded of output tracking error and all the states in the closed-loop system can be achieved by Lyapunov approach. With the universal approximation property of NN and the simultaneous parametrisation, no Lipschitz assumption and SPR condition are employed which makes the system construct simple. Finally the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the control scheme.

  9. An adaptive linear combiner for on-line tracking of power system harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, P.K.; Swain, D.P. [Regional Engineering Coll., Rourkela (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Liew, A.C. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Rahman, S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., VA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The paper presents a new approach for the estimation of harmonic components of a power system using a linear adaptive neuron called Adaline. The learning parameters in the proposed neural estimation algorithm are adjusted to force the error between the actual and desired outputs to satisfy a stable difference error equation. The estimator tracks the Fourier coefficients of the signal data corrupted with noise and decaying dc components very accurately. Adaptive tracking of harmonic components of a power system can easily be done using this algorithm. Several numerical tests have been conducted for the adaptive estimation of harmonic components of power system signals mixed with noise and decaying dc components.

  10. The Best Achievable ℋ2 Tracking Performances for SIMO Feedback Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Hara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the inherent ℋ2 tracking performance limitation of single-input and multiple-output (SIMO linear time-invariant (LTI feedback control systems. The performance is measured by the tracking error between a step reference input and the plant output with additional penalty on control input. We employ the plant augmentation strategy, which enables us to derive analytical closed-form expressions of the best achievable performance not only for discrete-time system, but also for continuous-time system by exploiting the delta domain version of the expressions.

  11. A robust optical/inertial data fusion system for motion tracking of the robot manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie CHEN; Can-jun YANG; Jens HOFSCHULTE; Wan-li JIANG; Cha ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    We present an optical/inertial data fusion system for motion tracking of the robot manipulator, which is proved to be more robust and accurate than a normal optical tracking system (OTS). By data fusion with an inertial measurement unit (IMU), both robustness and accuracy of OTS are improved. The Kalman filter is used in data fusion. The error distribution of OTS pro-vides an important reference on the estimation of measurement noise using the Kalman filter. With a proper setup of the system and an effective method of coordinate frame synchronization, the results of experiments show a significant improvement in terms of robustness and position accuracy.

  12. Design of efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Deng, Chao; Tian, Jing; Mao, Yao

    2016-10-01

    Interface testing for opto-electric tracking system is one important work to assure system running performance, aiming to verify the design result of every electronic interface matching the communication protocols or not, by different levels. Opto-electric tracking system nowadays is more complicated, composed of many functional units. Usually, interface testing is executed between units manufactured completely, highly depending on unit design and manufacture progress as well as relative people. As a result, it always takes days or weeks, inefficiently. To solve the problem, this paper promotes an efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system, consisting of optional interface circuit card, processor and test program. The hardware cards provide matched hardware interface(s), easily offered from hardware engineer. Automatic code generation technique is imported, providing adaption to new communication protocols. Automatic acquiring items, automatic constructing code architecture and automatic encoding are used to form a new program quickly with adaption. After simple steps, a standard customized new interface testing equipment with matching test program and interface(s) is ready for a waiting-test system in minutes. The efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system has worked for many opto-electric tracking system to test entire or part interfaces, reducing test time from days to hours, greatly improving test efficiency, with high software quality and stability, without manual coding. Used as a common tool, the efficient and simple interface testing equipment for opto-electric tracking system promoted by this paper has changed traditional interface testing method and created much higher efficiency.

  13. Video Surveillance System for Elderly Person Living Alone by Person Tracking and Fall Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Motonori; Inoue, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yutaro; Oshiro, Osamu

    The detection of accidents on elderly person living alone and the communication between the elderly person and his/her family are very important. This paper describes a new method for tracking and fall detection of elderly person using omni-directional image sensor, and the Itawari-kan communication system that supports their communications and gives alarms for detected accidents on the elderly person. This system tracks the person's head position in real-time by image processing on images captured by some omni-directional image sensor. Then, the system transmits the information of the detected head position to another site. The computer of recipient site generates the computer graphics animation of the tracked person and displays the animation on a monitor. When the system detects an accident from the head position, the system gives an alarm. This method reduces traffic on network and keeps the privacy for the tracked person. We made a prototype system of the Itawari-kan communication system. Experiments on the system showed good feasibility of the proposed system.

  14. the dE / dx Capabilities of the D0 Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The D0 forward tracking system has been extensively calibrated using electron and pion beams in the energy range from 10 GeV to 150 GeV in the neutrino area fixed target beam line at Fermilab. The forward tracking system provides a spatial resolution of 200 $\\mu m$ and a two hit separation of 2.5 mm at 90% efficiency. The chamber provides 32 samples of pulse height information for a given track equivalent to a dEjdx resolution of 12.7%. The energy loss response of the chamber to low energy· beam has been studied. A Monte Carlo simulation program has been developed based on the Photo Absorption Ionization model to simulate the dEjdx response of the chamber. The observations made using low energy test beam are consistent with the model's predictions. The dE/dx measurement in the D0 tracking system provides identification of electrons against gamma conversions resulting from $\\pi^0$ decays. The rejection factor of distinguishing doubly minimum ionizing tracks in the chamber has been measured to be 30.5 with the requirement that singly minimum ionizing tracks be identified with a 90% efficiency. This factor improves with lower multiplicity. Using a Monte Carlo program based on GEANT, the identification efficiency of electrons and $\\pi^0$'S has been determined. Using the capabilities of the outer tracking system alone, the background due to isolated $\\pi^0$ production is reduced by up to a factor of 60 in the central direction based on measurements made on a sample of simulated QCD two jet events.

  15. The dE/dx capabilities of the D0 tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The D0 forward tracking system has been extensively calibrated using electron and pion beams in the energy range from 10 GeV to 150 GeV in the neutrino area fixed target beam line at Fermilab. The forward tracking system provides a spatial resolution of 200 μm and a two hit separation of 2.5 mm at 90% efficiency. The chamber provides 32 samples of pulse height information for a given track equivalent to a dE/dx resolution of 12.7%. The energy loss response of the chamber to low energy-beam has been studied. A Monte Carlo simulation program has been developed based on the Photo Absorption Ionization model to simulate the dE/dx response of the chamber. The observations made using low energy test beam are consistent with the model`s predictions. The dE/dx measurement in the D0 tracking system provides identification of electrons against gamma conversions resulting from π0 decays. The rejection factor of distinguishing doubly minimum ionizing tracks in the chamber has been measured to be 30.5 with the requirement that singly minimum ionizing tracks be identified with a 90% efficiency. This factor improves with lower multiplicity. Using a Monte Carlo program based on GEANT, the identification efficiency of electrons and π0`s has been determined. Using the capabilities of the outer tracking system alone, the background due to isolated π0 production is reduced by up to a factor of 60 in the central direction based on measurements made on a sample of simulated QCD two jet events.

  16. Terminal sliding mode tracking control for a class of SISO uncertain nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mou; Wu, Qing-Xian; Cui, Rong-Xin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the terminal sliding mode tracking control is proposed for the uncertain single-input and single-output (SISO) nonlinear system with unknown external disturbance. For the unmeasured disturbance of nonlinear systems, terminal sliding mode disturbance observer is presented. The developed disturbance observer can guarantee the disturbance approximation error to converge to zero in the finite time. Based on the output of designed disturbance observer, the terminal sliding mode tracking control is presented for uncertain SISO nonlinear systems. Subsequently, terminal sliding mode tracking control is developed using disturbance observer technique for the uncertain SISO nonlinear system with control singularity and unknown non-symmetric input saturation. The effects of the control singularity and unknown input saturation are combined with the external disturbance which is approximated using the disturbance observer. Under the proposed terminal sliding mode tracking control techniques, the finite time convergence of all closed-loop signals are guaranteed via Lyapunov analysis. Numerical simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed terminal sliding mode tracking control.

  17. RFID Based e-quality tracking in service-oriented manufacturing execution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yingbin; Jiang, Pingyu

    2012-09-01

    The method of acquiring the real-time data has influenced the implementation of the manufacturing execution system (MES). Accompanied with turning the MES into service-oriented manufacturing execution system (so-MES), real-time e-quality tracking (e-QT), in which real-time data are computed, has played more and more important roles in manufacturing. This paper presents an e-QT model through the study of real-time status data tracking and quality data collecting. An implementing architecture of the e-QT model is constructed on the basis of radio frequency identification devices (RFID) data-tracking network. In order to develop the e-QT system, some key enabling technologies, such as configuration, data collection, and data processing, etc, are studied. The relation schema between hardware is built for the RFID data-tracking network based on the configuration technique. Real-time data are sampled by using data collecting technique. Furthermore, real-time status and quality data in a shop-floor can be acquired in terms of using the real-time data computing method. Finally, a prototype system is developed and a running example is given so as to verify the feasibility of methods proposed in this paper. The proposed research provides effective e-quality tracking theoretical foundation through the use of RFID technology for the discrete manufacturing.

  18. Development and Application of the Stereo Vision Tracking System with Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Sui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A virtual reality (VR driver tracking verification system is created, of which the application to stereo image tracking and positioning accuracy is researched in depth. In the research, the feature that the stereo vision system has image depth is utilized to improve the error rate of image tracking and image measurement. In a VR scenario, the function collecting behavioral data of driver was tested. By means of VR, racing operation is simulated and environmental (special weathers such as raining and snowing and artificial (such as sudden crossing road by pedestrians, appearing of vehicles from dead angles, roadblock variables are added as the base for system implementation. In addition, the implementation is performed with human factors engineered according to sudden conditions that may happen easily in driving. From experimental results, it proves that the stereo vision system created by the research has an image depth recognition error rate within 0.011%. The image tracking error rate may be smaller than 2.5%. In the research, the image recognition function of stereo vision is utilized to accomplish the data collection of driver tracking detection. In addition, the environmental conditions of different simulated real scenarios may also be created through VR.

  19. System Design and Implementation of the Virginia Tech Optical Satellite Tracking Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, D.; Black, J.

    2016-09-01

    The Virginia Tech Optical Satellite Tracking Telescope (VTOST) aims to test the feasibility of a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) designed tracking system for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data contribution. A novel approach is considered, combining two COTS systems, a high-powered telescope, built for astronomy purposes, and a larger field of view (FOV) camera. Using only publicly available two-line element sets (TLEs), orbital propagation accuracy degrades quickly with time from epoch and is often not accurate enough to task a high-powered, small FOV telescope. Under this experimental approach, the larger FOV camera is used to acquire and track the resident space object (RSO) and provide a real-time pointing update to allow the high-powered telescope to track the RSO and provide possible resolved imagery. VTOST is designed as a remotely taskable sensor, based on current network architecture, capable of serving as a platform for further SSA studies, including unresolved and resolved imagery analysis, network tasking, and orbit determination. Initial design considerations are based on the latest Raven class and other COTS based telescope research, including research by the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), ExoAnalytic Solutions, and other university level telescope projects. A holistic system design, including astronomy, image processing, and tracking methods, in a low-budget environment is considered. Method comparisons and results of the system design process are presented.

  20. Feedback strategy on real-time multiple target tracking in cognitive vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jie; Jia, Zhen; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Fuqiang; Zhao, Jianwei; Peng, Pei-Yuan

    2011-10-01

    Under pedestrian and vehicle mixed traffic conditions, the potential accident rate is high due to a complex traffic environment. In order to solve this problem, we present a real-time cognitive vision system. In the scene-capture level, foreground objects are extracted based on the combination of spatial and temporal information. Then, a coarse-to-fine algorithm is employed in tracking. After filtering-based normal tracking, problems of the target blob missing, merging, and splitting are resolved by the adaptive tracking modification method in fine tracking. For greater robustness, the key idea of our approach is adaptively adjusting the classification sensibility of each pixel by employing tracking results as feedback cues for target detection in the next frame. On the basis of the target trajectories, behavior models are evaluated according to a decision logic table in the behavior-evaluation level. The decision logic table is set based on rules of real scenes. The resulting system interprets different kinds of traffic behavior and warns in advance. Experiments show robust and accurate results of abnormality detection and forewarning under different conditions. All the experimental results run at real-time frame rates (>=25 fps) on standard hardware. Therefore, the system is suitable for actual Intelligent Traffic System applications.

  1. Control Interface and Tracking Control System for Automated Poultry Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new visible/near-infrared inspection system interface was developed in order to conduct research to test and implement an automated chicken inspection system for online operation on commercial chicken processing lines. The spectroscopic system demonstrated effective spectral acquisition and data ...

  2. Assessing Your Assets: Systems for Tracking and Managing IT Assets Can Save Time and Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    The average school district loses more than $80,000 per year because of lost or damaged IT assets, according to a QED survey cosponsored by Follett Software Company. And many districts--59 percent--still use manual systems to track assets. Enter asset management systems. Software for managing assets, when implemented properly, can save time,…

  3. Automated tracking and grasping of a moving object with a robotic hand-eye system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P.K.; Timcenko, A.; Yoshimi, B.; Michelman, P. (Columbia Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1993-04-01

    Most robotic grasping tasks assume a stationary or fixed object. In this paper, the authors explore the requirements for tracking and grasping a moving object. The focus of the work is to achieve a high level of interaction between a real-time vision system capable of tracking moving objects in 3-D and a robot arm with gripper that can be used to pick up a moving object. There is an interest in exploring the interplay of hand--eye coordination for dynamic grasping takes such as grasping of parts on a moving conveyor system, assembly of articulated parts, or for grasping from a mobile robotic system. Coordination between an organisms sensing modalities and motor control system is a hallmark of intelligent behavior, and they are pursuing the goal of building an integrated sensing and actuation system that can operate in dynamic as opposed to static environments. The system they have built addresses three distinct problems in robotic hand--eye coordination for grasping moving objects: fast computation of 3-D motion parameters from vision, predictive control of a moving robotic arm to track a moving object, and interception and grasping. The system is able to operate at approximately human arm movement rates, and experimental results in which a moving model train is tracked is presented, stably grasped, and picked up by the system. The algorithms they have developed that relate sensing to actuation are quite general and applicable to a variety of complex robotic tasks that require visual feedback for arm and hand control.

  4. Design of tracking and detecting lens system by diffractive optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiang; Qi, Bo; Ren, Ge; Zhou, Jianwei

    2016-10-01

    Many target-tracking applications require an optical system to acquire the target for tracking and identification. This paper describes a new detecting optical system that can provide automatic flying object detecting, tracking and measuring in visible band. The main feature of the detecting lens system is the combination of diffractive optics with traditional lens design by a technique was invented by Schupmann. Diffractive lens has great potential for developing the larger aperture and lightweight lens. First, the optical system scheme was described. Then the Schupmann achromatic principle with diffractive lens and corrective optics is introduced. According to the technical features and requirements of the optical imaging system for detecting and tracking, we designed a lens system with flat surface Fresnel lens and cancels the optical system chromatic aberration by another flat surface Fresnel lens with effective focal length of 1980mm, an F-Number of F/9.9 and a field of view of 2ωω = 14.2', spatial resolution of 46 lp/mm and a working wavelength range of 0.6 0.85um. At last, the system is compact and easy to fabricate and assembly, the diffuse spot size and MTF function and other analysis provide good performance.

  5. A Multi-Agent System for Tracking the Intent of Surface Contacts in Ports and Waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    identify asymmetric maritime threats in port and waterways. Each surface track is monitored by a compound multi - agent system that comprise of the several...intent models, each containing a nested multi - agent system . The attributes that define intent models of friendly, neutral, unknown and potentially

  6. User Resistance and Trust in a Clinical RFID Employee Location Tracking Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    User resistance has been identified as a factor in information systems implementation failures in the health care industry. RFID, radio frequency identification, is being incorporated into new health care information systems in order to effect cost reductions by tracking, identifying and monitoring individuals and medical items. This is the first…

  7. User Resistance and Trust in a Clinical RFID Employee Location Tracking Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    User resistance has been identified as a factor in information systems implementation failures in the health care industry. RFID, radio frequency identification, is being incorporated into new health care information systems in order to effect cost reductions by tracking, identifying and monitoring individuals and medical items. This is the first…

  8. Numerical simulation of active track tensioning system for autonomous hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mȩżyk, Arkadiusz; Czapla, Tomasz; Klein, Wojciech; Mura, Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important components of a high speed tracked vehicle is an efficient suspension system. The vehicle should be able to operate both in rough terrain for performance of engineering tasks as well as on the road with high speed. This is especially important for an autonomous platform that operates either with or without human supervision, so that the vibration level can rise compared to a manned vehicle. In this case critical electronic and electric parts must be protected to ensure the reliability of the vehicle. The paper presents a dynamic parameters determination methodology of suspension system for an autonomous high speed tracked platform with total weight of about 5 tonnes and hybrid propulsion system. Common among tracked vehicles suspension solutions and cost-efficient, the torsion-bar system was chosen. One of the most important issues was determining optimal track tensioning - in this case an active hydraulic system was applied. The selection of system parameters was performed with using numerical model based on multi-body dynamic approach. The results of numerical analysis were used to define parameters of active tensioning control system setup. LMS Virtual.Lab Motion was used for multi-body dynamics numerical calculation and Matlab/SIMULINK for control system simulation.

  9. The linear position tracking servo system using a linear voice-coil motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    More and more linear servo systems have been used in servo applications. Direct drive technology can greatly increase the bandwidth and the tracking accuracy. A position servo-system based on linear voice-coil motor was designed for one linear oscillation movement application. Besides the conventional position, speed and current control loops, the speed and acceleration feed-forward control of command position signal were also used. The experimental test proved the correctness of the design, and the system can track the given periodic sinnsoid position command signal of 15Hz with high accuracy. The linear voice-coil motor is very suitable for short stroke position tracking application with high dynamic response.

  10. Tracking Controller for Intrinsic Output Saturated Systems in Presence of Amplitude and Rate Input Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, E.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling plants that are subject to multiple saturation constraints. Especially, we are interested in linear systems whose input is subject to amplitude and rate constraints of saturation type. Furthermore, the considered systems output is also subject to an intrinsic......-loop control system is analyzed using input-output stability tools. Thus, conditions guaranteeing l2-tracking performances are formally defined. Interestingly, the proposed controller is shown to ensure perfect output-reference tracking in presence of varying with l2-vanishing rate inputs. On the other hand......, in the case of arbitrary inputs, the proposed controller guarantees that the less changing the inputs are the better the output-reference tracking....

  11. Real-time surface tracking system using common-path spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keo-Sik; Park, Hyoung-Jun; Kang, Hyun Seo; Kang, Jin U.; Song, Chul-Gyu

    2012-11-01

    An enhanced surface tracking system based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) modality has been developed and tested for use in a surgical guidance system. A surface detection algorithm based on a Savitzky-Golay filter of A-scan data and thresholding was applied to real-time depth tracking. The algorithm output controlled a motorized stage to adjust the probe position according to the sample's topological variance in real-time. As a result, the root mean square error (RMSE: 4.2 μm) of our algorithm was relatively lower than the conventional method (RMSE: 16.6 μm). Also, OCT images obtained using the algorithm showed a significantly extended imaging range and active surface tracking in real time. Consequently, the devised method demonstrated potential for use in systems for guiding surgical robots and endoscopic OCT.

  12. Mixed Tracking and Projective Synchronization of 5D Hyperchaotic System Using Active Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Kayode; Ogunjo, Samuel T.; Williams, Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines mixed tracking control and hy- brid synchronization of two identical 5-D hyperchaotic Lorenz systems via active control technique. The de- signed control functions for the mixed tracking enable each of the system state variables to stabilize at differ- ent chosen positions as well as control each state vari- ables of the system to track different desired smooth function of time. Also, the active control technique is used to design control functions which achieve projec- tive synchronization between the slave state variables and the master state variables. We also show that the coupling strength is inversely proportional to the syn- chronization time. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the analytical tech- nique.

  13. A real-time cardiac surface tracking system using Subspace Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vimal; Tewfik, Ahmed H; Gowreesunker, B

    2010-01-01

    Catheter based radio frequency ablation of atrial fibrillation requires real-time 3D tracking of cardiac surfaces with sub-millimeter accuracy. To best of our knowledge, there are no commercial or non-commercial systems capable to do so. In this paper, a system for high-accuracy 3D tracking of cardiac surfaces in real-time is proposed and results applied to a real patient dataset are presented. Proposed system uses Subspace Clustering algorithm to identify the potential deformation subspaces for cardiac surfaces during the training phase from pre-operative MRI scan based training set. In Tracking phase, using low-density outer cardiac surface samples, active deformation subspace is identified and complete inner & outer cardiac surfaces are reconstructed in real-time under a least squares formulation.

  14. Overview of Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Energy Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    of photovoltaic sources during stochastically varying solar irradiation and ambient temperature conditions. Thus, the overall efficiency of the photovoltaic energy production system is increased. Numerous techniques have been presented during the last decade for implementing the maximum power point tracking......A substantial growth of the installed photovoltaic systems capacity has occurred around the world during the last decade, thus enhancing the availability of electric energy in an environmentally friendly way. The maximum power point tracking technique enables maximization of the energy production...... process in a photovoltaic system. This article provides an overview of the operating principles of these techniques, which are suited for either uniform or non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. The operational characteristics and implementation requirements of these maximum power point tracking...

  15. Design of a Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Method Used for an Automatic Bearing Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Liu, Huawei; Huang, Jingchang; Zhang, Xin; Zu, Xingshui; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a sub-band direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method suitable for employment within an automatic bearing tracking system. Inspired by the magnitude-squared coherence (MSC), we extend the MSC to the sub-band and propose the sub-band magnitude-squared coherence (SMSC) to measure the coherence between the frequency sub-bands of wideband signals. Then, we design a sub-band DOA estimation method which chooses a sub-band from the wideband signals by SMSC for the bearing tracking system. The simulations demonstrate that the sub-band method has a good tradeoff between the wideband methods and narrowband methods in terms of the estimation accuracy, spatial resolution, and computational cost. The proposed method was also tested in the field environment with the bearing tracking system, which also showed a good performance. PMID:27455267

  16. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real‐time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real‐ time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study.By neglecting the high‐order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input‐ output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  17. Visual Servoing Tracking Control of a Ball and Plate System: Design, Implementation and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tzu Ho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, implementation and validation of real-time visual servoing tracking control for a ball and plate system. The position of the ball is measured with a machine vision system. The image processing algorithms of the machine vision system are pipelined and implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device to meet real-time constraints. A detailed dynamic model of the system is derived for the simulation study. By neglecting the high-order coupling terms, the ball and plate system model is simplified into two decoupled ball and beam systems, and an approximate input-output feedback linearization approach is then used to design the controller for trajectory tracking. The designed control law is implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP. The validity of the performance of the developed control system is investigated through simulation and experimental studies. Experimental results show that the designed system functions well with reasonable agreement with simulations.

  18. H∞ reference tracking control design for a class of nonlinear systems with time-varying delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-qin LIU; Hai-yang CHEN; Sen-lin ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the H∞ trajectory tracking control for a class of nonlinear systems with time-varying delays by virtue of Lyapunov-Krasovskii stability theory and the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. A unifi ed model consisting of a linear delayed dynamic system and a bounded static nonlinear operator is introduced, which covers most of the nonlinear systems with bounded nonlinear terms, such as the one-link robotic manipulator, chaotic systems, complex networks, the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and the standard genetic regulatory network (SGRN). First, the defi nition of the tracking control is given. Second, the H∞ performance analysis of the closed-loop system including this unifi ed model, reference model, and state feedback controller is presented. Then criteria on the tracking controller design are derived in terms of LMIs such that the output of the closed-loop system tracks the given reference signal in the H∞ sense. The reference model adopted here is modifi ed to be more fl exible. A scaling factor is introduced to deal with the disturbance such that the control precision is improved. Finally, a CSTR system is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the established control laws.

  19. Robot tracking system improvements and visual calibration of orbiter position for radiator inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkay, Gregory

    1990-01-01

    The following separate topics are addressed: (1) improving a robotic tracking system; and (2) providing insights into orbiter position calibration for radiator inspection. The objective of the tracking system project was to provide the capability to track moving targets more accurately by adjusting parameters in the control system and implementing a predictive algorithm. A computer model was developed to emulate the tracking system. Using this model as a test bed, a self-tuning algorithm was developed to tune the system gains. The model yielded important findings concerning factors that affect the gains. The self-tuning algorithms will provide the concepts to write a program to automatically tune the gains in the real system. The section concerning orbiter position calibration provides a comparison to previous work that had been performed for plant growth. It provided the conceptualized routines required to visually determine the orbiter position and orientation. Furthermore, it identified the types of information which are required to flow between the robot controller and the vision system.

  20. Gold Standard Testing of Motion Based Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th Air Base Wing Public Affairs Office and is available...systems against a ‘Gold Standard’ on-field measurement system for human physiological performance monitoring. Data shows that the accuracy of the...Zebra (RFID-based) system is very good, due to its high sampling frequency, with most measurements being within ~2% for distance and ~4% for velocity