WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun-illuminated sea floor

  1. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  2. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  3. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  4. Image of the 4-m Sun-illuminated Topography of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTHSUN_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes sun-illuminated of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  5. Sea floor maps showing topography, sun-illuminated topography, and backscatter intensity of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, P.C.; Middleton, T.J.; Fuller, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains the sea floor topographic contours, sun-illuminated topographic imagery, and backscatter intensity generated from a multibeam sonar survey of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts, an area of approximately 1100 square nautical miles. The Stellwagen Bank NMS Mapping Project is designed to provide detailed maps of the Stellwagen Bank region's environments and habitats and the first complete multibeam topographic and sea floor characterization maps of a significant region of the shallow EEZ. Data were collected on four cruises over a two year period from the fall of 1994 to the fall of 1996. The surveys were conducted aboard the Candian Hydrographic Service vessel Frederick G. Creed, a SWATH (Small Waterplane Twin Hull) ship that surveys at speeds of 16 knots. The multibeam data were collected utilizing a Simrad Subsea EM 1000 Multibeam Echo Sounder (95 kHz) that is permanently installed in the hull of the Creed.

  6. Maps Showing Sea Floor Topography, Sun-Illuminated Sea Floor Topography, and Backscatter Intensity of Quadrangles 1 and 2 in the Great South Channel Region, Western Georges Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Page C.; Middleton, Tammie J.; Malczyk, Jeremy T.; Fuller, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    The Great South Channel separates the western part of Georges Bank from Nantucket Shoals and is a major conduit for the exchange of water between the Gulf of Maine to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. Water depths range mostly between 65 and 80 m in the region. A minimum depth of 45 m occurs in the east-central part of the mapped area, and a maximum depth of 100 m occurs in the northwest corner. The channel region is characterized by strong tidal and storm currents that flow dominantly north and south. Major topographic features of the seabed were formed by glacial and postglacial processes. Ice containing rock debris moved from north to south, sculpting the region into a broad shallow depression and depositing sediment to form the irregular depressions and low gravelly mounds and ridges that are visible in parts of the mapped area. Many other smaller glacial featuresprobably have been eroded by waves and currents at worksince the time when the region, formerly exposed bylowered sea level or occupied by ice, was invaded by the sea. The low, irregular and somewhat lumpy fabric formed by the glacial deposits is obscured in places by drifting sand and by the linear, sharp fabric formed by modern sand features. Today, sand transported by the strong north-south-flowing tidal and storm currents has formed large, east-west-trending dunes. These bedforms (ranging between 5 and 20 m in height) contrast strongly with, and partly mask, the subdued topography of the older glacial features.

  7. Seabed photographs, sediment texture analyses, and sun-illuminated sea floor topography in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Twomey, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Sanctuary Program, conducted seabed mapping and related research in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region from 1993 to 2004. The mapped area is approximately 3,700 km (1,100 nmi) in size and was subdivided into 18 quadrangles. An extensive series of sea-floor maps of the region based on multibeam sonar surveys has been published as paper maps and online in digital format (PDF, EPS, PS). In addition, 2,628 seabed-sediment samples were collected and analyzed and are in the usSEABED: Atlantic Coast Offshore Surficial Sediment Data Release. This report presents for viewing and downloading the more than 10,600 still seabed photographs that were acquired during the project. The digital images are provided in thumbnail, medium (1536 x 1024 pixels), and high (3071 x 2048) resolution. The images can be viewed by quadrangle on the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center's photograph database. Photograph metadata are embedded in each image in Exchangeable Image File Format and also provided in spreadsheet format. Published digital topographic maps and descriptive text for seabed features are included here for downloading and serve as context for the photographs. An interactive topographic map for each quadrangle shows locations of photograph stations, and each location is linked to the photograph database. This map also shows stations where seabed sediment was collected for texture analysis; the results of grain-size analysis and associated metadata are presented in spreadsheet format.

  8. A Sea Floor Penetrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    processed through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, and stored in the memory of a mini-computer. Computer algorithms are applied to the deceleration data to provide real-time sea floor classification.

  9. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  10. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10......,497 m. In 1951, the Danish Galathea Deep Sea Expedition from 1950 to 1952 verified the result of the Cape Johnson sounding. Today, the greatest depth in the Philippine Trench is the Galathea Depth of 10,540 m. The Galathea Expedition produced several echograms of the deepest parts of the Philippine...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition...

  11. NOAA NDBC SOS - sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_floor_depth_below_sea_surface data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  12. Estimating sea floor dynamics in the Southern North Sea to improve bathymetric survey planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, Leendert Louis

    2009-01-01

    Safe nautical charts require a carefully designed bathymetric survey policy, especially in shallow sandy seas that potentially have dynamic sea floor patterns. Bathymetric resurveying at sea is a costly process with limited resources, though. A pattern on the sea floor known as tidal sand waves is c

  13. Sea floor engineering geomorphology: recent achievements and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, David B.; Hooper, James R.

    1999-12-01

    New mapping technology is providing perspectives of the sea floor "as if there were no ocean", revealing that ocean floors exhibit a wide variety of relief, sediment properties, and active geologic processes such as erosion, faulting, fluid expulsion, and landslides. The development of coastal and offshore resources, such as oil and gas and minerals, involves sea floor engineering in remote, complex, and sometimes hazardous environments. Optimum engineering design and construction practice require detailed surveys of sea floor geomorphology, geologic conditions on the sea bed and to various depths beneath it, combined with geotechnical properties of the sediments and oceanographic information. Integrated site survey models attempt to predict conditions and process frequencies and magnitudes relevant to the engineering design lifetimes of sea floor installations, such as cables, pipelines, production platforms, as well as supporting coastal infrastructure such as jetties, wharves, bridges and harbors. Recent use of deep water areas for oil and gas production, pipelines, and cable routes are also showing that the "world's greatest slopes", beyond the continental shelves contain exciting, exotic, and enigmatic geomorphological features and processes. Safe and cost-effective engineering use of these regions depends upon exciting new technical and conceptual advances for understanding sea floor geomorphology — a task which has barely begun.

  14. Improving a bathymetric resurvey policy with observed sea floor dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, L.L.; Roos, P.C.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Bathymetric resurveying in shallow seas is a costly process with limited resources, yet necessary for adequate nautical charts and therefore crucial for safe navigation. An important factor in an efficient resurvey policy is the type and size of sea floor dynamics. We propose four indicators, which

  15. Views of the Sea Floor in Northern Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2008-01-01

    A sonar survey that produced unprecedented high-resolution images of the sea floor in northern Monterey Bay was conducted in 2005 and 2006. The survey, performed over 14 days by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consisted of 172 tracklines and over 300 million soundings and covered an area of 12.2 km2 (4.7 mi2). The goals of this survey were to collect high-resolution bathymetry (depth to the sea floor) and acoustic backscatter data (amount of sound energy bounced back from the sea floor, which provides information on sea-floor hardness and texture) from the inner continental shelf. These data will provide a baseline for future change analyses, geologic mapping, sediment- and contaminant-transport studies, benthic-habitat delineation, and numerical modeling efforts. The survey shows that the inner shelf in this area is extremely varied in nature, encompassing flat sandy areas, faults, boulder fields, and complex bedrock ridges that support rich marine ecosystems. Furthermore, many of these complex bedrock ridges form the ?reefs? that result in a number of California?s classic surf breaks.

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Sun Illuminated Bathymetry for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Sun Illuminated Bathymetry GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image- 5m Bathymetry (Sun Illuminated- Azimuth 225) of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This georeferenced image represents 5 meter resolution bathymetry (sun illuminated with azimuth 225 and incline 45) of the north shore of St. Croix, US Virgin...

  18. Remote Sensing of shallow sea floor for digital earth environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. N.; Hashim, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the sea floor biodiversity requires spatial information that can be acquired from remote sensing satellite data. Species volume, spatial patterns and species coverage are some of the information that can be derived. Current approaches for mapping sea bottom type have evolved from field observation, visual interpretation from aerial photography, mapping from remote sensing satellite data along with field survey and hydrograhic chart. Remote sensing offers most versatile technique to map sea bottom type up to a certain scale. This paper reviews the technical characteristics of signal and light interference within marine features, space and remote sensing satellite. In addition, related image processing techniques that are applicable to remote sensing satellite data for sea bottom type digital mapping is also presented. The sea bottom type can be differentiated by classification method using appropriate spectral bands of satellite data. In order to verify the existence of particular sea bottom type, field observations need to be carried out with proper technique and equipment.

  19. Automated sea floor extraction from underwater video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren; Rahmes, Mark; Stiver, James; McCluskey, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Ocean floor mapping using video is a method to simply and cost-effectively record large areas of the seafloor. Obtaining visual and elevation models has noteworthy applications in search and recovery missions. Hazards to navigation are abundant and pose a significant threat to the safety, effectiveness, and speed of naval operations and commercial vessels. This project's objective was to develop a workflow to automatically extract metadata from marine video and create image optical and elevation surface mosaics. Three developments made this possible. First, optical character recognition (OCR) by means of two-dimensional correlation, using a known character set, allowed for the capture of metadata from image files. Second, exploiting the image metadata (i.e., latitude, longitude, heading, camera angle, and depth readings) allowed for the determination of location and orientation of the image frame in mosaic. Image registration improved the accuracy of mosaicking. Finally, overlapping data allowed us to determine height information. A disparity map was created using the parallax from overlapping viewpoints of a given area and the relative height data was utilized to create a three-dimensional, textured elevation map.

  20. Environmental security of the Adriatic coastal sea floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, V.; Kollar, R. [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, D. [Institute for for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Zagreb (Croatia); Obhodas, J.; Sudac, D. [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-07-01

    The coastal sea floor is littered with many of man made objects and materials including a variety of ammunition. In addition, sediments in ports, harbors and marinas have increased concentrations of chemicals used as biocides in anti-fouling paints. This report presents locations within the Adriatic Sea and Mediterranean as a whole, that are found to be contaminated by different ammunition. In order to be able to establish if an object on the sea floor contains some sort of threat material (explosives, chemical agent), a system using a neutron sensor installed within an unmanned underwater vessel has been developed and tested. When positioned above an object such a system can inspect the object for the presence of a threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from a sealed tube d+t neutron generator and a gamma detector. The same system can also be used to inspect ship hulls, either to detect potential anomalies attached to the hull, or to determine the nature of materials within the hull, especially of sunken ships. (authors)

  1. Deep oceanic currents and sea floor interactions offshore SE Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisson, François; Cazzola, Carlo; Ferry, Jean-Noel

    2016-04-01

    The Pamela Research program, which involves Total and Ifremer and their associated partners (French Universities, CNRS, IFPEN), is currently working to acquire new multidisciplinary data in the Mozambique Channel, in order to improve our knowledge and use this area as "laboratory" for comprehension of sedimentary/stratigraphical/geodynamical/structural and biological processes. The area comprised between the austral ocean and the southern tip of the African continent is a major place for Atlantic and Indian waters exchange, with high impact on the global climate (de Rujiter et al., 1999, Beal et al., 2011). Its prolongation toward the Mozambique Channel is a great playground to study effects of bottom currents on the sea floor. In this synthesis, we compile information about the major oceanic currents that occur at different water depth in the area, and we started listing the main published or ongoing studies, some of them in the scope of the Pamela project, related to sea floor interactions with bottom currents. These interactions are characterized by erosional features: submarine erosions, truncations, stratigraphic hiatuses, associated to depositional features: various types of contouritic drifts, sediment waves, asymmetric turbiditic levees etc. (Simpson et al., 1974, Uenzelmann-Neben et al., 2007, Uenzelmann-Neben & Huhn, 2009, Palermo et al., 2014). Movements of the main water masses in the Mozambique basin are strongly driven by thermohaline circulation but also sea floor topography and coast configuration: the Mozambique Current is not a persistent current but composed by southward moving anticyclonic eddies (De Rujiter et al., 2002, Ridderinkhof & de Rujiter, 2003, Swart et al., 2010, Halo et al., 2014). Deep currents flow northward along the western edge of the Mozambique basin: the North Atlantic Deep Waters (NADW) and the Antarctic Intermediate Waters (AAIW) flow along the Mozambican continental slope and form the Mozambique Undercurrent. A portion of

  2. Episodic sea-floor spreading in the Southern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Khalid A.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    The Red Sea represents the most spectacular example of a juvenile ocean basin on the modern Earth. Synthesis of regional aeromagnetic data, gravity data, seismic refraction data coupled with structural mapping from the Farasan Islands suggest that the opening of the Red Sea is complex and episodic. Modeling of magnetic and gravity data constrained by seismic refraction data reveals the Arabian Shelf is underlain by oceanic and transitional crust and that mafic diking and intrusions are focused at the continental-transitional crust boundary. This relationship is interpreted to indicate that early Miocene diking along the Arabian Escarpment heralded termination of oceanic basin formation and a shift in the locus of extension focused from a central mid-ocean ridge spreading center to the continental-transitional crust zone. Uplift along the Arabian Escarpment caused erosion and Middle to Late Miocene sedimentation of the Farasan Bank onto existing oceanic crust, suggesting that the extensive sedimentary banks of the southern Red Sea are not passive margins. Re-initiation of spreading occurred at ca 5 Ma. Pliocene to Pleistocene Shelf reef systems (Farasan Islands), developed on the flanks of the spreading ridge, are extensively overprinted by normal faults, suggesting that not all crustal extension is accommodated by active spreading.

  3. The deep structure of a sea-floor hydrothermal deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Fouquet, Y.; Miller, D.J.; Bahr, J.M.; Baker, P.A.; Bjerkgard, T.; Brunner, C.A.; Duckworth, R.C.; Gable, R.; Gieskes, J.; Goodfellow, W.D.; Groschel-Becker, H. M.; Guerin, G.; Ishibashi, J.; Iturrino, G.; James, R.H.; Lackschewitz, K.S.; Marquez, L.L.; Nehlig, P.; Peter, J.M.; Rigsby, C.A.; Schultheiss, P.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Summit, M.; Teagle, D.A.H.; Urbat, M.; Zuffa, G.G.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrothermal circulation at the crests of mid-ocean ridges plays an important role in transferring heat from the interior of the Earth. A consequence of this hydrothermal circulation is the formation of metallic ore bodies known as volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits. Such deposits, preserved on land, were important sources of copper for ancient civilizations and continue to provide a significant source of base metals (for example, copper and zinc). Here we present results from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 169, which drilled through a massive sulphide deposit on the northern Juan de Fuca spreading centre and penetrated the hydrothermal feeder zone through which the metal-rich fluids reached the sea floor. We found that the style of feeder-zone mineralization changes with depth in response to changes in the pore pressure of the hydrothermal fluids and discovered a stratified zone of high-grade copper-rich replacement mineralization below the massive sulphide deposit. This copper-rich zone represents a type of mineralization not previously observed below sea-floor deposits, and may provide new targets for land-based mineral exploration.

  4. Sea Floor Analyses Based On Multibeam Backscatter Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A.

    Measurements of acoustic backscatter strength can be applied to analyse sea floor coverage on a spatial extent. They provide consistent coverage compared to analy- ses based on only a few surface samples. In particular the spatial validity of surface samples can be determined by analyses based on acoustic backscatter strength and sampling locations representative for the surrounding area can be determined. Dur- ing the cruise ANTXVII/4 of the German RV "Polarstern", a high precision swath bathymetry survey was performed along the European continental margin in the Por- cupine Seabight off southwest Ireland. Within the Porcupine Seabight a number of mound structures have been discovered earlier, most of them being carbonate mounds. The structure and genesis of these mounds are the main objective of recent investiga- tions. The cruise and the subsequent investigations are part of the EU project GEO- MOUND. They focus on the Belgica mound province. Besides the depth measure- ments, the acoustic intensities of the received echos have been recorded. Taking into account the transmitted and received sound level, acoustic beam patterns, and acous- tic attenuation in the water column, the backscatter strength of the ensonified area was calculated. This backscatter information is used to analyse the sea floor cover- age. Based on the data of the systematic survey the spatial variation of the backscatter strength was derived. Regions of equal backscatter characteristic can be combined and functions showing the dependency between backscatter strength and incidence angle of the acoustic wave can be determined. These functions help interpreting sea floor coverage. The mapping of the backscatter strength of the mound area indicates clear changes in backscatter strength. Small and shallow channels show a lower backscat- ter strength than their surroundings. That means the surface coverage of the channels is smooth with respect to the surroundings. One interpretation of this

  5. Sea Floor Topography and Backscatter Intensity of the Historic Area Remediation Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes topography and backscatter intensity of the sea floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS), located offshore of New York and New...

  6. High resolution hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor maps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, C.; Inglis, G.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract presents a method for creating hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor reconstructions at centimeter scale grid resolutions with robotic vehicles. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are two common sensing modalities with complementary strengths that are well suited for data fusion. We have recently developed an automated two stage pipeline to create such maps. The steps can be broken down as navigation refinement and map construction. During navigation refinement a graph-based optimization algorithm is used to align 3D point clouds created with both the multibeam sonar and stereo cameras. The process combats the typical growth in navigation error that has a detrimental affect on map fidelity and typically introduces artifacts at small grid sizes. During this process we are able to automatically register local point clouds created by each sensor to themselves and to each other where they overlap in a survey pattern. The process also estimates the sensor offsets, such as heading, pitch and roll, that describe how each sensor is mounted to the vehicle. The end results of the navigation step is a refined vehicle trajectory that ensures the points clouds from each sensor are consistently aligned, and the individual sensor offsets. In the mapping step, grid cells in the map are selectively populated by choosing data points from each sensor in an automated manner. The selection process is designed to pick points that preserve the best characteristics of each sensor and honor some specific map quality criteria to reduce outliers and ghosting. In general, the algorithm selects dense 3D stereo points in areas of high texture and point density. In areas where the stereo vision is poor, such as in a scene with low contrast or texture, multibeam sonar points are inserted in the map. This process is automated and results in a hybrid map populated with data from both sensors. Additional cross modality checks are made to reject outliers in a robust manner. The final

  7. Modeling of methane bubbles released from large sea-floor area: Condition required for methane emission to the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Tajika, E.

    2009-01-01

    Massive methane release from sea-floor sediments due to decomposition of methane hydrate, and thermal decomposition of organic matter by volcanic outgassing, is a potential contributor to global warming. However, the degree of global warming has not been estimated due to uncertainty over the proportion of methane flux from the sea-floor to reach the atmosphere. Massive methane release from a large sea-floor area would result in methane-saturated seawater, thus some methane would reach the atm...

  8. Sea-floor geology in northwestern Block Island Sound, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Woods, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 69-square-kilometer area of northwestern Block Island Sound, are used with sediment samples, and still and video photography of the sea floor, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at 43 stations within this area, to interpret the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. Features on the sea floor include boulders, sand waves, scour depressions, modern marine sediments, and trawl marks. Boulders, which are often several meters wide, are found in patches in the shallower depths and tend to be overgrown with sessile flora and fauna. They are lag deposits of winnowed glacial drift, and reflect high-energy environments characterized by processes associated with erosion and nondeposition. Sand waves and megaripples tend to have crests that either trend parallel to shore with 20- to 50-meter (m) wavelengths or trend perpendicular to shore with several-hundred-meter wavelengths. The sand waves reflect sediment transport directions perpendicular to shore by waves, and parallel to shore by tidal or wind-driven currents, respectively. Scour depressions, which are about 0.5 m lower than the surrounding sea floor, have floors of gravel and coarser sand than bounding modern marine sediments. These scour depressions, which are conspicuous in the sidescan-sonar data because of their more highly reflective coarser sediment floors, are likely formed by storm-generated, seaward-flowing currents and maintained by the turbulence in bottom currents caused by their coarse sediments. Areas of the sea floor with modern marine sediments tend to be relatively flat to current-rippled and sandy.

  9. Sea-floor geology of Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection are mapping the sea floor in coastal areas of the northeastern United States. As part of the project, more than 100 square kilometers of multibeam-echosounder data, 23 sediment samples, bottom video, and 86 still photographs were obtained from an area in Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York, in the study area of NOAA survey H11999. This report delineates the sediment types and sea-floor features found within this area in order to better understand the sea-floor processes occurring in this part of Long Island Sound. The sea floor in the study area is dominated by ubiquitous sand-wave fields and three northeast-southwest trending bathymetric depressions. Barchanoid and transverse sand waves, including sinusoidal, bifurcating, arced, and straight-crested morphologies, are variably present. Asymmetrical sand-wave profiles indicate a westward to southwestward direction of sediment transport in most of the study area; current ripples and megaripples on the stoss slopes of the sand waves indicate transport is ongoing. The majority of the sediment on the sea floor is sand, although bouldery, gravelly, and muddy sediments are also present. Gray, cohesive mud crops out on the walls of some of the scour depressions associated with the troughs of large sand waves. Clasts of the muddy sediment scattered on the sea floor around the depressions demonstrate the intensity of the scour and suggest erosion of the underlying distal deltaic sediments.

  10. Detection and mapping of shipwrecks embedded in sea-floor sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, O.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Cvikel, D.;

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the detection of shipwrecks embedded in sea-floor sediments using a Chirp sub-bottom profiler. From a methodological-historical perspective it presents four examples of recent chirp recordings of verified shipwrecks embedded in different types of sediment environments, from...... than present 3D systems. Chirp data are therefore of great value in identifying and outlining shipwrecks hidden in the sea floor in survey situations where larger areas must be covered. The overall conclusion is that there are grounds for optimism with regard to this method of detection of maritime...

  11. Tectonic microplates in a wax model of sea-floor spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard F.; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Rotating, growing microplates are observed in a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. Based on the wax observations, a theory for the nucleation of overlapping spreading centres, the precursors of tectonic microplates, is developed.

  12. Duel frequency echo data acquisition system for sea-floor classification

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Chakraborty, B.

    An echo data acquisition system is designed to digitize echo signal from a single beam shipboard echo-sounder for use in sea-floor classification studies using a 12 bit analog to digital (A/D) card with a maximum sampling frequency of 1 MHz. Both 33...

  13. The estimation of sea floor dynamics from bathymetric surveys of a sand wave area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, Leendert; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Lindenbergh, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of series of offshore bathymetric surveys provides insight into the morphodynamics of the sea floor. This knowledge helps to improve resurvey policies for the maintenance of port approaches and nautical charting, and to validate morphodynamic models. We propose a method for such an anal

  14. Sea-Floor geology and character of Eastern Rhode Island Sound West of Gay Head, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Irwin, B.J.; Schaer, J.D.; Forrest, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 102 square kilometers of sea floor in eastern Rhode Island Sound west of Gay Head, Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H11922, these acoustic data and the sea-floor stations subsequently occupied to verify them (1) show the composition and terrain of the seabed, (2) provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and (3) are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities (for example, windfarms and fisheries) along the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. Most of the sea floor in the study area has an undulating to faintly rippled appearance and is composed of bioturbated muddy sand, reflecting processes associated with sediment sorting and reworking. Shallower areas are composed of rippled sand and, where small fields of megaripples are present, indicate sedimentary environments characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport. Boulders and gravel were found on the floors of scour depressions and on top of an isolated bathymetric high where erosion has removed the Holocene marine sediments and exposed the underlying relict lag deposits of Pleistocene drift. The numerous scour depressions, which formed during storm-driven events, result in the juxtaposition of sea-floor areas with contrasting sedimentary environments and distinct gravel, sand, and muddy sand textures. This textural heterogeneity in turn creates a complex patchwork of habitats. Our observations of local variations in community structure suggest that this small-scale textural heterogeneity adds dramatically to the sound-wide benthic biological diversity.

  15. Bubbled lava from the floor of the Sea of Okhotsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, G. N.; Dubinchuk, V. T.; Rashidov, V. A.

    2014-05-01

    A sample of bubbled lava raised from a submarine volcano in the Sea of Okhotsk was analyzed by means of electron microscopy and the ICP-MS technique. The outside of the sample is flecked with rounded micro- and macrocavities, and the inner part is characterized by a liquation structure. Along with this, the unstructured mass of the rock contains globular particles of nearly the same diameters as the cavities. The lava is close to andesites and volcanic ashes of Kamchatka Peninsula in the macro- and microelemental composition but different in the somewhat increased content of barium, strontium, lithium, niobium, tungsten, uranium, and thorium. It is suggested that the cavities were formed during the eruption of the submarine volcano owing to contact of the boiling gas-saturated lava with seawater accompanied by the ejection of ash, which was spread by marine currents over long distances.

  16. Sea-Floor Mapping and Benthic Habitat GIS for the Elwha River Delta Nearshore, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Sagy, Yael; Finlayson, David; Harney, Jodi

    2008-01-01

    From March 1531, 2005, more than 252 km (19.5 km2) of seafloor offshore of the Elwha River Delta in the central Strait of Juan de Fuca was mapped by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. The purpose of this nearshore mapping was to (1) obtain high resolution bathymetry and acoustic reflectance properties of the seabed, (2) examine and record geologic characteristics of the seafloor, and (3) construct maps of sea-floor geomorphology and habitat. Substrate distribution was characterized with video-supervised statistical classification of the sonar data. Substrate of the survey was dominated by mixed sand-gravel and sand. Numerous boulder reefs were observed west of the river mouth within Freshwater Bay, whereas the sea-floor immediately adjacent to the river mouth was dominated by sand.

  17. Global rates of marine sulfate reduction and implications for sub-sea-floor metabolic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Marshall W.; Mogollón, José M.; Kasten, Sabine; Zabel, Matthias; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Sulfate reduction is a globally important redox process in marine sediments, yet global rates are poorly quantified. We developed an artificial neural network trained with 199 sulfate profiles, constrained with geomorphological and geochemical maps to estimate global sulfate-reduction rate distributions. Globally, 11.3 teramoles of sulfate are reduced yearly (~15% of previous estimates), accounting for the oxidation of 12 to 29% of the organic carbon flux to the sea floor. Combined with global cell distributions in marine sediments, these results indicate a strong contrast in sub-sea-floor prokaryote habitats: In continental margins, global cell numbers in sulfate-depleted sediment exceed those in the overlying sulfate-bearing sediment by one order of magnitude, whereas in the abyss, most life occurs in oxic and/or sulfate-reducing sediments.

  18. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Guberski, M.R.; Wood, D.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CT DEP) are working cooperatively to map and interpret features of the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. This report presents multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar data obtained during NOAA survey H11446, which was conducted in a 12-km2 area in Long Island Sound offshore of Orient Point, NY. In addition, sediment and photographic data from 26 stations obtained during a USGS verification cruise are presented. Overall, the sea floor slopes gently seaward, but topography is more complex in sand-wave and boulder areas, which are evident in the multibeam and sidescan-sonar data from the study area. Sand waves generally have north-south-oriented crests with 10- to 20-m wavelengths. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates eastward net sediment transport in the east and westward net sediment transport in the northern and western parts of the study area. Areas with boulders on the sea floor are typically hummocky and are part of a glacial moraine system. Boulders are typically encrusted with seaweed, sponges, and anemones as shown in the bottom photography.

  19. Geologic interpretation and multibeam bathymetry of the sea floor in southeastern Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Doran, Elizabeth F.; Moser, Marc S.; Stewart, Helen F.; Forfinski, Nicholas A.; Gardner, Uther L.; Keene, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Digital terrain models (DTMs) produced from multibeam echosounder (MBES) bathymetric data provide valuable base maps for marine geological interpretations (e.g. Todd and others, 1999; Mosher and Thomson, 2002; ten Brink and others, 2004; Poppe and others, 2006a,b). These maps help define the geological variability of the sea floor (one of the primary controls of benthic habitat diversity); improve our understanding of the processes that control the distribution and transport of bottom sediments, the distribution of benthic habitats and associated infaunal community structures; and provide a detailed framework for future research, monitoring, and management activities. The bathymetric survey interpreted herein (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) survey H11255) covers roughly 95 km? of sea floor in southeastern Long Island Sound (fig. 1). This bathymetry has been examined in relation to seismic reflection data collected concurrently, as well as archived seismic profiles acquired as part of a long-standing geologic mapping partnership between the State of Connecticut and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The objective of this work was to use these geophysical data sets to interpret geomorphological attributes of the sea floor in terms of the Quaternary geologic history and modern sedimentary processes within Long Island Sound.

  20. Interpretation of sea floor geologic units for Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile; Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived...

  1. Sediment-Texture Units of the Sea Floor for Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived...

  2. Sedimentary Environments of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_ENVIRON.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the sedimentary environments for the sea floor offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data...

  3. Physiographic Zones of the Sea Floor for Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived...

  4. Physiographic Zones of the Sea Floor for Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived...

  5. Sedimentary Environments of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (CC_ENVIRON.SHP, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the sedimentary environments for the sea floor offshore of northern and eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This interpretation is based on data...

  6. Nahant_NH_Pzones: Physiographic Zones of the Sea Floor from Nahant to Salisbury, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles defining sediment type and distribution, and physiographic zones of the sea floor from Nahant to...

  7. Gas seepage on the sea floor of Okinawa Trough Miyako Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Xiwu; QIN Yunshan

    2005-01-01

    A marine geophysical survey was carried out, on the R/V Science 1 of the Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS), in 2000, at the Miyako Section of Okinawa Trough. Here we present seismic and acoustic evidence of a gas seep on the sea floor on the western part of the Okinawa Trough, near the lower slope of the East China Sea Slope and discuss the possibility of related formation of gas hydrate. A gas column reflection was observed in echo-sounder data above a section where the sea floor reflector was missing, on both the echo-sounder and the seismic data for line H14. The seismic data also show an acoustic curtain reflection and a turbidity reflection at this section. These anomalies are the evidence of the existence of a gas seep, which occupies an area 2.2 km in diameter. Based on the acoustic curtain on line H14, we believe that the amount of gas contained in the sediments below the gas seep is larger than 1% by volume of sediment. Tectonically, the gas seep developed in a small basin controlled by basement uplift in the north, south and east. The thickness of the sediment layer can be greater than 3.5 km. A mud diapir structure was found in layer D beneath the gas seep. Over-pressure may occur due to the large sediment thickness and also the tectonic basement uplift in the north, south, and east. The mud diapir could be the preferential pathway for methane-rich fluids. The acoustic curtain may indicate that free gas related to the gas seep can be formed on the sea floor. We also note that the layer above the acoustic curtain on profile H14 may contain gas hydrate.

  8. Scientific Drilling with the Sea Floor Drill Rig MeBo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Wefer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2007 the sea floor drill rig MeBo (short for “Meeresboden-Bohrgerät”, ‘sea floor drill rig’ in German returned from a 17-day scientific cruise with the new German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Four sites between 350 m and 1700 m water depth were sampled at the continental slope off Morocco by push coring and rotary drilling. Up to 41.5-m-long sediment cores were recovered from Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene marls. MeBo bridges the gapbetween conventional sampling methods from standard multipurpose research vessels (gravity corer, piston corer, dredges and drill ships. Most bigger research vessels will be able to support deployment of the MeBo. Since the drill system can be easily transported within 20-ft containers, worldwide operation from vessels of opportunity is possible. With the MeBo a new system is available for marine geosciences that allows the recovery of high quality samples from soft sediments and hard rock from the deep sea withoutrelying on the services of expensive drilling vessels.

  9. Sea-floor features on Mississippi and Alabama outer Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezak, R.; Sager, W.W.; Laswell, J.S.; Gittings, S.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Approximately 400 mi{sup 2} were surveyed on the Alabama outer continental shelf during October 1987 and March 1988 using an Edo-Western 4 kHz High Resolution Subbottom Profiler, an EG and G Model 260 Seafloor Mapping System and Starfix Navigation. The mapping is part of a larger project, The Mississippi-Alabama Marine Ecosystems Study, funded by the US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico Regional Office. Bathymetric maps and side-scan mosaics are being prepared from the raw data. Sea-floor features recognized on the side-scan and subbottom records include: (1) low topographic features - possibly bed-rock outcrops, and an enigmatic feature the authors are calling footprints, (2) moderate topographic features - low reefs or bed-rock outcrops, (3) major topographic features - pinnacles and large reefal masses, (4) pox - patches of closely spaced strong reflections with no relief, (5) ridges - closely spaced outcrops along clearly defined features such as shorelines and scarps (possibly truncated dunes or beach ridges), (6) patch reefs, closely spaced, which look like pox but have relief, (7) wave fields - closely spaced sand or gravel waves, and (8) wrecks - sunken rigs or platforms. Except for the wave fields, they believe that the remaining sea-floor features are relict and related to the post-Pleistocene rise of sea level.

  10. Processing of airborne lidar bathymetry data for detailed sea floor mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael

    2014-10-01

    Airborne bathymetric lidar has proven to be a valuable sensor for rapid and accurate sounding of shallow water areas. With advanced processing of the lidar data, detailed mapping of the sea floor with various objects and vegetation is possible. This mapping capability has a wide range of applications including detection of mine-like objects, mapping marine natural resources, and fish spawning areas, as well as supporting the fulfillment of national and international environmental monitoring directives. Although data sets collected by subsea systems give a high degree of credibility they can benefit from a combination with lidar for surveying and monitoring larger areas. With lidar-based sea floor maps containing information of substrate and attached vegetation, the field investigations become more efficient. Field data collection can be directed into selected areas and even focused to identification of specific targets detected in the lidar map. The purpose of this work is to describe the performance for detection and classification of sea floor objects and vegetation, for the lidar seeing through the water column. With both experimental and simulated data we examine the lidar signal characteristics depending on bottom depth, substrate type, and vegetation. The experimental evaluation is based on lidar data from field documented sites, where field data were taken from underwater video recordings. To be able to accurately extract the information from the received lidar signal, it is necessary to account for the air-water interface and the water medium. The information content is hidden in the lidar depth data, also referred to as point data, and also in the shape of the received lidar waveform. The returned lidar signal is affected by environmental factors such as bottom depth and water turbidity, as well as lidar system factors such as laser beam footprint size and sounding density.

  11. Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David S.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Schwab, William C.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Andrews, Brian D.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-07

    Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples. The interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.

  12. Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2016-09-02

    Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs/video, and surficial sediment samples collected within the 494-square-kilometer study area. Interpretations of seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.

  13. High-resolution area-wide sea-floor mapping: The paleo Elbe valley (S North Sea) revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenmeier, Svenja; Hass, H. Christian

    2014-05-01

    The North Sea Basin is shaped by multiple glacial advances and retreats that left complex sequences of glacio-fluvial and sub-glacial deposits, cut by sub-glacial tunnel valleys. Today, the submerged valley of the Elbe forms one of the most prominent structures of the southern North Sea. Flanked by huge moraine deposits of older glacials, the valley developed to its present form during the Weichselian sea-level lowstand (-130 m below present). Melt waters that discharged in north-westerly directions along the Scandinavian Ice Sheet fed the paleo Elbe at that time. During the Holocene the valley drowned in the rising sea. Here we present an area-wide high-resolution map of the seafloor and high-resolution shallow seismic data covering 1,600 km2 of the paleo Elbe valley (PEV) including its eastern levee. The data allow to shed new light on the PEV development including the historical process of sedimentary infill with the successive Holocene sea level rise in detail. Shallow seismic data with transect distances of 400 m and several cross sections allow 3-D visualization. The eastern flank of the valley is characterized by a relatively steep slope with one or more terraces. At its levee a significant sediment change is present on the modern sea floor, representing moraine and marine deposits. High resolution sidescan sonar data of this area show a much higher heterogeneity and complexity in sediment and habitat distribution as assumed before. Holocene marine sediments form a patchy and thin drape east of the valley floor. The western slip-off slope of the valley slope is much smoother than the eastern undercut slope. As yet, significant sedimentological changes at the present seafloor are not known for the western side of the PEV. Shallow seismic data show the base of the PEV. There are conspicuous internal seismic reflectors above the base, inclined in northeastern direction. They indicate a sedimentary infill of the valley from the southwest when the southern part

  14. Morphologie radar de fonds marins Radar Morphology of Some Sea Floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadsworth A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les radars latéraux sont des instruments de télédétection, fournissant des images de la surface terrestre survolée par pratiquement tout temps, c'est-à-dire de jour ou de nuit, par temps clair ou à travers de la brume, du brouillard, des nuages ou de la pluie. Dans le cadre de l'utilisation de ces instruments pour l'acquisition de données en mer, afin de quantifier les vagues ou la houle, des visualisations annexes, involontaires à l'origine, ont été réalisées. C'est le cas, par exemple, de certains fonds marins, que l'on peut voirlorsque quelques éléments opérationnels sont bien choisis. De plus, une certaine idée de leur morphologie peut être atteinte. Divers exemples sont présentés dans le cas de faibles fonds. Une approche des causes de cette visualisation est proposée, les grandes limites en sont fixées. Side-looking radars are remote-sensing instruments providing images of the ground surface overflown in almost all weather, i. e. day or night, with clear weather or through mist, fog, clouds or rain. These equipments, previously used to quantify sea waves and swell produced, in sonie cases, a noise which was later understood as being a signal, an expression of sea bottom features. This is the case, for example, for sonie sea floors which can be seenwhen a few operational elements have been carefully chosen. Likewise, some idea of the morphology of sea floors can be obtained. This article gives different examples for shallow depths. An approach to the causes of this visualization is proposed, and the major limitations are determined.

  15. Mapping the Sea Floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS) Offshore of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    The area offshore of New York City has been used for the disposal of dredged material for over a century. The area has also been used for the disposal of other materials such as acid waste, industrial waste, municipal sewage sludge, cellar dirt, and wood. Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (MDS), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of dredged material annually. In September 1997 the MDS was closed as a disposal site, and it and the surrounding area were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, currently is being remediated by placing a minimum 1-m-thick cap of clean dredged material on top of the surficial sediments that are contaminated from previous disposal of dredged and other materials. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to map the sea floor geology of the HARS and changes in the characteristics of the surficial sediments over time.

  16. Sea-floor geology and topography offshore in Eastern Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Forrest, M.R.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    A gridded multibeam bathymetric dataset covers approximately 133.7 square kilometers of sea floor offshore in eastern Long Island Sound. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H11997, these acoustic data, and the sea-floor sampling and photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them during USGS cruise 2010-015-FA, are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and resource management (for example, cables, pipelines, and dredging) activities in this major East Coast estuary. Results show the composition and terrain of the seabed and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. Bedrock outcrops, erosional outliers, lag deposits of boulders, scour depressions, and extensive gravel pavements are common in the eastern part of the study area. These features, which result from the near-constant exposure to strong tidal currents, indicate sedimentary environments dominated by processes associated with erosion. Large fields of transverse and barchanoid sand waves in the western part of the study area reflect slightly lower energy levels and sedimentary environments where processes associated with coarse bedload transport prevail.

  17. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Long Island Sound offshore of Plum Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  18. Sea-floor geology and character offshore of Rocky Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Irwin, B.J.; Schaer, J.D.; Lewit, P.G.; Doran, E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working cooperatively to interpret surficial sea-floor geology along the coast of the Northeastern United States. NOAA survey H11445 in eastern Long Island Sound, offshore of Plum Island, New York, covers an area of about 12 square kilometers. Multibeam bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery from the survey, as well as sediment and photographic data from 13 stations occupied during a USGS verification cruise are used to delineate sea-floor features and characterize the environment. Bathymetry gradually deepens offshore to over 100 meters in a depression in the northwest part of the study area and reaches 60 meters in Plum Gut, a channel between Plum Island and Orient Point. Sand waves are present on a shoal north of Plum Island and in several smaller areas around the basin. Sand-wave asymmetry indicates that counter-clockwise net sediment transport maintains the shoal. Sand is prevalent where there is low backscatter in the sidescan-sonar imagery. Gravel and boulder areas are submerged lag deposits produced from the Harbor Hill-Orient Point-Fishers Island moraine segment and are found adjacent to the shorelines and just north of Plum Island, where high backscatter is present in the sidescan-sonar imagery.

  19. The sea-floor spreading history of the eastern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Thomas S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    1982-09-01

    The geologic history of the eastern Indian Ocean between northwest Australia and the Java Trench is known to involve two separate events of rifting and sea-floor spreading. Late Jurassic spreading in the Argo Abyssal Plain off northwest Australia was followed by Early Cretaceous spreading in the Cuvier and Perth Abyssal Plains off west Australia. However, the evolution and interaction of these events has not been clear. Mesozoic sea-floor spreading anomalies have been identified throughout the Argo Abyssal Plain that define a rifting event and subsequent northward spreading on the northwestern Australian margin at 155 m.y.b.p. Magnetic anomalies northwest of the Argo Abyssal Plain indicate a ridge jump to the south at about 130 m.y.b.p. that is approximately synchronous with east-west rifting along the southwestern Australian margin. The Joey Rise in the Argo Plain was probably formed by volcanism at the intersection of this new rift and the spreading ridge to the north. The southern and northern spreading systems were connected through the Exmouth Plateau which was stretched and faulted as spreading progressed. The RRR triple junction was formed at the intersection of the two spreading systems and appears to have migrated west along the northern edge of the Gascoyne Abyssal Plain. Spreading off northwest Australia cannot be easily related to simultaneous spreading in the west central Pacific via any simple tectonic scheme.

  20. Widespread methane leakage from the sea floor on the northern US Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarke, Adam; Ruppel, Carolyn; Kodis, Mali'o; Brothers, Daniel S.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from the sea floor affect methane inputs into the atmosphere, ocean acidification and de-oxygenation, the distribution of chemosynthetic communities and energy resources. Global methane flux from seabed cold seeps has only been estimated for continental shelves, at 8 to 65 Tg CH4 yr−1, yet other parts of marine continental margins are also emitting methane. The US Atlantic margin has not been considered an area of widespread seepage, with only three methane seeps recognized seaward of the shelf break. However, massive upper-slope seepage related to gas hydrate degradation has been predicted for the southern part of this margin, even though this process has previously only been recognized in the Arctic. Here we use multibeam water-column backscatter data that cover 94,000 km2 of sea floor to identify about 570 gas plumes at water depths between 50 and 1,700 m between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank on the northern US Atlantic passive margin. About 440 seeps originate at water depths that bracket the updip limit for methane hydrate stability. Contemporary upper-slope seepage there may be triggered by ongoing warming of intermediate waters, but authigenic carbonates observed imply that emissions have continued for more than 1,000 years at some seeps. Extrapolating the upper-slope seep density on this margin to the global passive margin system, we suggest that tens of thousands of seeps could be discoverable.

  1. Monitoring of Sea Floor Dynamics by the Application of Geodetic Deformation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorst, L.

    2003-04-01

    The hydrographic vessels of the Royal Netherlands Navy survey the Dutch part of the North Sea to ensure the navigation safety at sea, by e.g. the publication of those surveys in nautical charts. Those charts show the least expected depths at sea, reduced for tides and sea floor dynamics. The current bathymetric survey frequency depends e.g. on water depth and shipping intensity. The Hydrographic Service (HS) feels a need to include more detailed information about sea floor dynamics in future survey plannings, especially in areas where sand waves are present. Sand waves which have a wavelength of several hundred meters are present in many areas of the Southern North Sea [Hulscher and Van den Brink, 2001]. Areas with sand waves that grow in amplitude and areas showing other upward movements of the sea floor influence the charted depths, and therefore have to be surveyed more frequently. The HS is developing a method to extract those dynamics from their bathymetric archives. Scientists that study marine geomorphology can benefit from this method for many other applications as well. The approach is stochastic: bathymetric surveying, as all measurement processes, has some uncertainty by nature. Questions can be answered like: What conclusions on movements of the sea floor can be drawn safely from bathymetric data sets? How can these conclusions be drawn more accurately? What is the risk that the wrong conclusion is drawn, because of the stochastic influences? The proposed method needs a standard deviation of every sounding value in a survey. The values are selected (multibeam surveys), or interpolated (singlebeam surveys) into a regular grid by 'geostatistics' [Chilès and Delfiner, 1999]. Geostatistics consists of the determination of the spatial variability in a 'variogram', followed by the 'Kriging' interpolation technique. The result is a grid of depth values and their variances, which include both the sounding precision and the interpolation quality. The next phase

  2. The Sea-Floor Mapping Facility at the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Field Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusser, Rebecca E.; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers of the sea-floor mapping facility at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Field Center in Woods Hole, Mass., use state-of-the-art technology to produce accurate geologic maps of the sea floor. In addition to basic bathymetry and morphology, sea-floor maps may contain information about the distribution of sand resources, patterns of coastal erosion, pathways of pollutant transport, and geologic controls on marine biological habitats. The maps may also show areas of human impacts, such as disturbance by bottom fishing and pollution caused by offshore waste disposal. The maps provide a framework for scientific research and provide critical information to decisionmakers who oversee resources in the coastal ocean.

  3. Modelling of sea floor spreading initiation and rifted continental margin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymms, V. J.; Isimm Team

    2003-04-01

    Recent observations of depth dependent (heterogeneous) stretching where upper crustal extension is much less than that of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle at both non-volcanic and volcanic margins plus the discovery of broad domains of exhumed continental mantle at non-volcanic rifted margins are not predicted by existing quantitative models of rifted margin formation which are usually based on intra-continental rift models subjected to very large stretching factors. New conceptual and quantitative models of rifted margin formation are required. Observations and continuum mechanics suggest that the dominant process responsible for rifted continental margin formation is sea-floor spreading of the young ocean ridge, rather than pre-breakup intra-continental rifting. Simple fluid flow models of ocean ridge processes using analytical iso-viscous corner-flow demonstrate that the divergent motion of the upwelling mantle beneath the ocean ridge, when viewed in the reference frame of the young continental margin, shows oceanward flow of the lower continental crust and lithospheric mantle of the young rifted margin giving rise to depth dependent stretching as observed. Single-phase fluid-models have been developed to model the initiation of sea-floor spreading and the thermal, stretching and thinning evolution of the young rifted continental margin. Finite element fluid-flow modelling incorporating the evolving temperature dependent viscosity field on the fluid flow also show depth dependent stretching of the young continental margin. Two-phase flow models of ocean ridges incorporating the transport of both solid matrix and melt fluid (Spiegelman &Reynolds 1999) predict the divergent motion of the asthenosphere and lithosphere matrix, and the focusing of basaltic melt into the narrow axial zone spreading centre at ocean ridges. We are adapting two-phase flow models for application to the initiation of sea-floor spreading and rifted continental margin formation. i

  4. Under the Golden Gate bridge: views of the sea floor near the entrance to San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, Patrick L.; Chin, John L.; Hanes, Daniel; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Iampietro, Pat J.; Gardner, James V.

    2006-01-01

    San Francisco Bay in Northern California is one of the largest and most altered estuaries within the United States. The sea floor within the bay as well as at its entrance is constantly changing due to strong tidal currents, aggregate mining, dredge disposal, and the creation of new land using artificial fill. Understanding this dynamic sea floor is critical for addressing local environmental issues, which include defining pollution transport pathways, deciphering tectonics, and identifying benthic habitats. Mapping commercial interests such as safe ship navigation and dredge disposal is also significantly aided by such understanding. Over the past decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) and the Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education (CICORE) have partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. These sonar systems can continuously map to produce 100 percent coverage of the sea floor at meter-scale resolution and thus produce an unprecedented view of the floor of the bay. This poster shows views of the sea floor in west-central San Francisco Bay around Alcatraz and Angel Islands, underneath the Golden Gate Bridge, and through its entrance from the Pacific Ocean. The sea floor is portrayed as a shaded relief surface generated from the multibeam data color-coded for depth from light blues for the shallowest values to purples for the deepest. The land regions are portrayed by USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). The water depths have a 4x vertical exaggeration while the land areas have a 2x vertical exaggeration.

  5. Large-scale patterns in biodiversity of microbial eukaryotes from the abyssal sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckenbach, Frank; Hausmann, Klaus; Wylezich, Claudia; Weitere, Markus; Arndt, Hartmut

    2010-01-05

    Eukaryotic microbial life at abyssal depths remains "uncharted territory" in eukaryotic microbiology. No phylogenetic surveys have focused on the largest benthic environment on this planet, the abyssal plains. Moreover, knowledge of the spatial patterns of deep-sea community structure is scanty, and what little is known originates primarily from morphology-based studies of foraminiferans. Here we report on the great phylogenetic diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities of all 3 abyssal plains of the southeastern Atlantic Ocean--the Angola, Cape, and Guinea Abyssal Plains--from depths of 5,000 m. A high percentage of retrieved clones had no close representatives in genetic databases. Many clones were affiliated with parasitic species. Furthermore, differences between the communities of the Cape Abyssal Plain and the other 2 abyssal plains point to environmental gradients apparently shaping community structure at the landscape level. On a regional scale, local species diversity showed much less variation. Our study provides insight into the community composition of microbial eukaryotes on larger scales from the wide abyssal sea floor realm and marks a direction for more detailed future studies aimed at improving our understanding of deep-sea microbes at the community and ecosystem levels, as well as the ecological principles at play.

  6. USGS advances in integrated, high-resolution sea-floor mapping: inner continental shelf to estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Twichell, D.C.; O'Brien, T.F.; Danforth, W.W.; Foster, D.S.; Bergeron, E.; Worley, C.W.; Irwin, B.J.; Butman, B.; Valentine, P.C.; Baldwin, W.E.; Morton, R.A.; Thieler, E.R.; Nichols, D.R.; Andrews, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been involved in geological mapping of the sea floor for the past thirty years. Early geophysical and acoustic mapping efforts using GLORIA (Geologic LOng Range Inclined ASDIC) a long-range sidescan-sonar system, provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments to address pertinent coastal research and resource management issues. Use of shallow-water, high-resolution geophysical systems has enhanced our understanding of the processes shaping shallow marine environments. However, research within these shallow-water environments continues to present technological challenges.

  7. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA,abundant microbe "bodies" and clear microbic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor.The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules.According to their morphological features,the microbes are classified into two types:one is named clumpy microbe,which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral,resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe,which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer,leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces.It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together,resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  8. New evidence of microbe origin for ferromanganese nodules from the East Pacific deep sea floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文宣; 周怀阳; 顾连兴; 张文兰; 陆现彩; 符琦; 潘建明; 张海生

    2000-01-01

    Using a fluorescence microscope and EPMA, abundant microbe "bodies" and clear mi-crobic fluorescent microstructure are determined in the ferromanganese nodules recently collected from the East Pacific deep sea floor. The microbic fluorescent structure shows a close relation to the formation of the ferromanganese nodules. According to their morphological features, the microbes are classified into two types: one is named clumpy microbe, which takes a bar-shaped manganese mineral as a pillar and grows like fasciculate coral, resulting in irregular cauliflorate nodules with rough surfaces; the other is called filamentous microbe, which grows in very thin arcuate and/or concentric circular laminae composed of a microbe layer and a metal (manganese and iron)-rich layer, leading to potato-shaped nodules with relatively smooth surfaces. It also can be seen that the two types of microbes are intergrown together, resulting in nodules complicated in compositions and shapes.

  9. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  10. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPESOUTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  11. 4-m Image of the Northern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPENORTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor...

  12. CAPENORTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT: ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the northern half of USGS survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  13. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPESOUTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping...

  14. ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the northern half of USGS survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  15. 4-m Image of the Northern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPENORTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor...

  16. ASCII formatted file of the 4-m bathymetry from the southern half of USGS Survey 98015 of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTH_GEO4M_XYZ.TXT, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor mapping system...

  17. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Backscatter Intensity Mosaic of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod from USGS Cruise 98015 (CAPESOUTHMOS_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a multibeam sea floor...

  18. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  19. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  20. Microbial control of silver mineralization at a sea-floor hydrothermal site on the northern Gorda Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierenberg, R.A.; Schiffman, P.

    1990-01-01

    THE Sea Cliff hydrothermal field, on the northern Gorda Ridge, contains mounds and chimneys of hydrothermally precipitated sulphide and sulphate minerals typical of sea-floor hydrothermal vent sites1. In addition, large areas of the sea floor are covered by subhorizontal hydrothermal crusts. Samples of the crust recovered by submersible are composed of intensely altered fragments of basalt and basaltic hyaloclastite cemented by amorphous silica and chalcedony with less abundant barite, and minor amounts of base-metal sulphide minerals2. Some surfaces of the crust were formerly colonized by bacterial mats, which are locally preserved by replacement and overgrowth of the bacterial filaments by metal sulphide minerals and amorphous silica. The bacterial filaments are selectively replaced by prousite (Ag3AsS3), pearceite3 (Ag14.7-XCu1.3+xAs2S11), chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and rarely by galena (PbS). Our observations suggest that bacterially mediated processes selectively precipitate silver, arsenic and copper, and that biological processes may contribute to precious-metal enrichment in some sea-floor hydrothermal base-metal sulphide deposits.

  1. Sea-Floor Character and Sedimentary Processes in the Vicinity of Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; McMullen, Katherine Y.; Foster, David S.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Ackerman, Seth D.; Barnum, Steven R.; Brennan, Rick T.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous-coverage multibeam bathymetric models and sidescan-sonar imagery have been verified with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, sediment sampling, and bottom photography. Together these data layers provide detailed base maps that yield topographic, compositional, and environmental perspectives of the sea floor in the vicinity of Woods Hole, an important harbor and major passage between the Elizabeth Islands and Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Tidally dominated high-energy environments within Woods Hole have prevented deposition of Holocene marine sediments, exposed underlying glacial drift of the Buzzards Bay moraine, and winnowed finer grained sediments, leaving lag deposits of boulders and gravel. These conditions have also enlarged and preserved depressions in the moraine surface that were originally kettle holes and formed ebb-tidal deltas at the entrances to passages. Fields of transverse and barchanoid sand waves dominate across the southern part of the study area in Vineyard Sound, where benthic environments are characterized by processes associated with coarse-bedload transport. Transverse sand waves dominate near shoals where sediment supply is greater and have asymmetries that indicate that the shoals are shaped and maintained by clockwise gyres of net sediment transport. Barchanoid sand waves, which are most common where Holocene sediments are thinner, commonly align into elongate fields that have smaller isolated waves concentrated at the eastern ends and that progressively widen and have waveforms that increase in amplitude, wavelength, and complexity westward. The northern, protected parts of the Little and Inner Harbors are characterized by muddy sediment and processes associated with deposition. A pockmark field in Little Harbor and the muddy, organic-rich sediments that form a scarp along the edge of Parker Flat are evidence for the presence of submerged marsh deposits formed during the Holocene rise in sea level.

  2. High-Frequency CTD Measurements for Accurate GPS/acoustic Sea-floor Crustal Deformation Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Taniguchi, S.; Uemura, Y.; Matsuhiro, K.

    2015-12-01

    The GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement system has developed as a useful tool to observe tectonic deformation especially at subduction zones. One of the factors preventing accurate GPS/acoustic sea-floor crustal deformation measurement is horizontal heterogeneity of sound speed in the ocean. It is therefore necessary to measure the gradient directly from sound speed structure. We report results of high-frequency CTD measurements using Underway CTD (UCTD) in the Kuroshio region. We perform the UCTD measurements on May 2nd, 2015 at two stations (TCA and TOA) above the sea-floor benchmarks installed across the Nankai Trough, off the south-east of Kii Peninsula, middle Japan. The number of measurement points is six at each station along circles with a diameter of 1.8 nautical miles around the sea-floor benchmark. The stations TCA and TOA are located on the edge and the interior of the Kuroshio current, respectively, judging from difference in sea water density measured at the two stations, as well as a satellite image of sea-surface temperature distribution. We detect a sound speed gradient of high speeds in the southern part and low speeds in the northern part at the two stations. At the TCA station, the gradient is noticeable down to 300 m in depth; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 5 m/s. The sound speed difference is as small as +/- 1.3 m/s at depths below 300 m, which causes seafloor benchmark positioning error as large as 1 m. At the TOA station, the gradient is extremely small down to 100 m in depth. The maximum difference in sound speed is less than +/- 0.3 m/s that is negligible small for seafloor benchmark positioning error. Clear gradient of high speed is observed to the depths; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 0.8-0.9 m/s, causing seafloor benchmark positioning error of several tens centimeters. The UCTD measurement is effective tool to detect sound speed gradient. We establish a method for accurate sea-floor

  3. Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Worley, C.R.; Nadeau, M.A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

  4. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  5. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Y Arnould

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus was investigated. For 9 (25% of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability. A total of 26 (72% individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35% of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  6. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) Predictions for a Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software founded on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) and Energy Boundary Element Analysis (EBEA). Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) was validated on a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and experimental results. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions were made using the commercial software program VA One 2009 from ESI Group. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.

  7. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  8. Relationships among sea-floor structure and benthic communities in Long Island Sound at regional and benthoscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Roman N.; Lewis, Ralph S.; Poppe, Larry J.; Twichell, David C.; Vozarik, Joseph; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2000-01-01

    Long Island Sound is comprised of a rich and spatially heterogeneous mix of sea-floor environments which provide habitat for an equally diverse set of assemblages of soft-sediment communities. Information from recent research on the geomorphological and chemical attributes of these environments, as well as from studies of the hydrodynamics of the Sound, provide the opportunity to develop a landscape, or "benthoscape" framework for understanding the soft-sediment ecology of this estuary and for guiding future research focusing on structure and function at multiple spatial scales. This contribution reviews past research on benthic communities in Long Island Sound and addresses how they may be shaped by sea-floor characteristics at regional and benthoscape scales. At the regional scale (i.e. the entire Sound), differences in benthic community composition correspond to the distribution of general sedimentary environments. However, significant variation in community structure also occurs at the benthoscape scale (within regions) related to local variations in sediment properties, and physical and biogenic topographic features. Several topical areas in particular need further research in Long Island Sound, including temporal dynamics of benthic communities relative to sea-floor structure and the interaction between the dynamics of benthoscapes and hydrologic seascapes.

  9. Surficial geology of the sea floor in Central Rhode Island Sound Southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Nadeau, M.A.; Wood, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study sea-floor environments off the northeast coast of the United States. During 2008, NOAA survey H11996 collected multibeam echosounder data in a 65-square kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, southeast of Point Judith, Rhode Island. During 2010, the USGS collected bottom photographs and sediment samples from 25 stations in this study area. The bathymetry, photography, and sediment data are used to interpret sea-floor features including scour depressions, sand waves, trawl marks, and dredge spoils. Scour depressions cover the bathymetric highs in much of the study area. Sand waves are located mostly in the southwest, and trawl marks tend to be in the northern regions. Dredge spoils are located at a disposal site in a bathymetric low in the western end of the study area. Most stations have a sea-floor surface of sand or silty sand, but eight of the stations have boulders to pea-sized gravel or gravelly sediment on the surface. Photographs show sandy areas typically have scattered burrows, shells, amphipod communities, and worm tubes. Boulders and cobbles are commonly overgrown with hydrozoans and anemones.

  10. Tracklines of a multibeam survey of the sea floor offshore of Fire Island Inlet, New York, in 1998 (polyline shapefile, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  11. Grid of the sea-floor bathymetry offshore of Fire Island Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution Esri binary grid, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  12. GeoTIFF image of the backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of Moriches Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  13. GeoTIFF image of the backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of Fire Island Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  14. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry of the sea floor southwest of Montauk Point, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  15. GeoTIFF image of the backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of Shinnecock Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  16. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of Fire Island Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  17. Grid of the sea-floor bathymetry offshore of Shinnecock Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution Esri binary grid, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  18. Tracklines of a multibeam survey of the sea floor southwest of Montauk Point, New York, in 1998 (polyline shapefile, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  19. GeoTIFF image of the backscatter intensity of the sea floor southwest of Montauk Point, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  20. Tracklines of a multibeam survey of the sea floor offshore of Shinnecock Inlet, New York, in 1998 (polyline shapefile, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  1. Grid of the sea-floor bathymetry offshore of Moriches Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution Esri binary grid, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  2. Grid of the sea-floor bathymetry southwest of Montauk Point, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution Esri binary grid, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  3. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of Shinnecock Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  4. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry of the sea floor offshore of Moriches Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  5. Tracklines of a multibeam survey of the sea floor offshore of Moriches Inlet, New York, in 1998 (polyline shapefile, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  6. Sea-floor classification using multibeam echo-sounding angular backscatter data: A real-time approach employing hybrid neural network architecture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.; Baracho, J.

    The presently studied numerical model, e.g., composite roughness, is successful for the purpose of sea-floor classification employing processed multibeam angular backscatter data from manganese-nodule-bearing locations of the Central Indian Ocean...

  7. Location of Sea-Floor Photographs acquired during USGS cruise 04011 (RAFA04011) from off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (RAFA04011_BOTPHOTOS.SHP, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the locations and identifiers of 240 bottom photographs collected at 89 stations on topographic and backscatter data of the sea floor offshore...

  8. Nahant_NH_sedcover: Sediment Texture Units of the Sea Floor from Nahant to Salisbury, Massachusetts (polygon shapefile, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles defining sediment type and distribution, and physiographic zones of the sea floor from Nahant to...

  9. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the

  10. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  11. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  12. Feasibility study of a semi floating spar buoy wind turbine anchored with a spherical joint to the sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Martinez, Maria; Natarajan, Anand; Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of a semi floating platform offshore wind turbine system is investigated at 120m water depth. The semi floating system consists of a 5MW wind turbine on a floater with mooring lines similar to a spar buoy and strongly anchored with a spherical joint to the sea soil. The stability...... of the newly designed floater and mooring assembly are analyzed from static and dynamic simulations of the wind turbine. The design loads on the universal joint on the sea floor are tuned with the needs for a ballast chamber. Using load simulations in the HAWC2 software, ultimate and equivalent fatigue loads...... are obtained and compared with the corresponding loads from the same wind turbine mounted on a spar buoy and as a land based wind turbine. The results show a reduction in the ultimate and equivalent fatigue loads for the new system....

  13. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The primary objective of the group has been to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently achieved reality via the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology's (NIUST) solicitation for proposals for research to be conducted at the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, have had to be postponed and the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles sacrificed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort is

  14. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

  15. Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, C G; Chadwick, W W; Embley, R W

    2001-08-16

    Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to then respond rapidly with synoptic surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations after the event. In contrast, the 1998 eruption of Axial volcano on the Juan de Fuca ridge was monitored by in situ sea-floor instruments. One of these instruments, which measured bottom pressure as a proxy for vertical deformation of the sea floor, was overrun and entrapped by the 1998 lava flow. The instrument survived-being insulated from the molten lava by the solidified crust-and was later recovered. The data serendipitously recorded by this instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion rate of a sheet flow eruption on a mid-ocean ridge, and document over three metres of lava-flow inflation and subsequent drain-back. After the brief two-hour eruption, the instrument also measured gradual subsidence of 1.4 metres over the next several days, reflecting deflation of the entire volcano summit as magma moved into the adjacent rift zone. These findings are consistent with our understanding of submarine lava effusion, as previously inferred from seafloor observations, terrestrial analogues, and laboratory simulations.

  16. {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar dating of terrestrial and exterrestrial materials. Basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and meteorites from Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneoka, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Earthquake Research Inst.; Takigami, Yutaka

    1994-09-01

    Through a series of {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar dating for terrestrial and exterrestrial samples, the results for basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and for meteorites from Antarctica give significant information concerning their formation histories. {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar ages of basalts from the Japan Sea floor give a constraint that the Japan Sea floor was formed at least 20 Ma. {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar ages for dyke samples from the Deccan Plateau indicate a possibility for the occurrence of a little younger ages than that of the main plateau formations by a few million years. Meteorites collected from Antarctica show some variable {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar ages reflecting their different thermal histories. (author).

  17. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  18. Star-shaped feeding traces produced by echiuran worms on the deep-sea floor of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Suguru

    1984-12-01

    Many star-shaped foraging traces were observed in bottom photographs of the deep-sea floor taken in the Bay of Bengal between the depths of 5025 and 2635 m. They were classified into 10 types according to their dimensions, aspect ratios (length/width) of their spokes, features of the central structure, and possible production mechanisms. The proboscis of a deep-sea bonellid echiuran worm was photographed at a depth of 2635 m in the act of producing one of the star-shaped foraging traces. On the basis of photographic observations and observations of shallow-water forms, several types of the feeding traces can be ascribed to the foraging of deep-sea echiuran worms on surface detritus. At least four types of the star-shaped trace are probably produced by deep-sea bonellid worms, and a linear correlation could be found between the aspect ratios of the spokes and maximum number of spokes around the central hole. A geometrical model experiment stimulating the feeding behavior of a bonellid worm suggested simple behavioral principles which afford maximum utilization of the surface area around a central hole with least expenditure of energy. The prediction of the maximum number of spokes for a given aspect of spokes by the model experiment agreed well with those observed, both utilizing about 76% of the fresh sediment surface within the span of the probiscis around a central hole. This efficient feeding pattern may have adaptive value in deep-sea environments such as the central part of the Bay of Bengal, where energy input is limited.

  19. Structural analysis of benthic communities on the secondary hard sea-floor in the pollution gradient of the Kiel Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, U.

    1981-01-01

    The benthic communities on the secondary hard sea-floor of the Kiel Bay have been investigated over a period of 30 months. The sampling stations were arranged within the pollution gradient along the Kiel Bay. On the basis of physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters, the Kiel Bay has been characterized as a medium-pollution part of the Belt Sea. Pollution parameters are lower in the Belt Sea direction. The water quality in the Bay is influenced by the Schwentine and some minor rivers; this influence has been proved in exemplary analyses. Pollution is due to intensive agricultural utilisation and to insufficient sewage treatment plants. Marine growth on man-made substrates was investigated by determining species diversity, number of organisms, weight and size of organisms. The occurrence of mesoplanctic larvae was closely related to the fastening of organisms on the substrate; it influenced spatial distribution and abundancy. The growth, which differed between sampling stations, was discussed on the basis of literature data, and possible explanations were given. Oxygen and the degree of exposure are possible causes. The types of macrofauna and some groups of meiofauna have been investigated. Population density, biomass and, in some cases, proliferation periods have been determined. The tolerance of organic pollution has been established by observing the distribution of organisms in the Kiel Bay. Differences and similarities between sampling stations have been discussed. The findings have been compared with data of the years 1974/75. It was found that the situation has improved since then.

  20. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  1. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  2. Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal systems in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, L.S.; Blum, J.D.; Nordstrom, D.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Barkay, T.; Vetriani, C.

    2009-01-01

    To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal systems we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal systems that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in δ202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in δ202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of Hg from the vent (δ202Hg = 0.10‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) to the end of the outflow channel (&delta202Hg = 0.58‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) in conjunction with a decrease in Hg concentration from 46.6pg/g to 20.0pg/g. Although a small amount of Hg is lost from the fluids due to co-precipitation with siliceous sinter, we infer that the majority of the observed MDF and Hg loss from waters in Ojo Caliente is due to volatilization of Hg0(aq) to Hg0(g) and the preferential loss of Hg with a lower δ202Hg value to the atmosphere. A small amount of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) was observed in all samples from Ojo Caliente (Δ199Hg = 0.13‰ ±1 0.06‰, 2SD) but no significant MIF was measured in the sea-floor rift samples from Guaymas Basin. This study demonstrates that several different hydrothermal processes fractionate Hg isotopes and that Hg isotopes may be used to better understand these processes.

  3. Travelling to a former sea floor: colonization of forests by understorey plant species on land recently reclaimed from the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, M.; Van Ruijven, J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What are important forest characteristics determining colonization of forest patches by forest understorey species? Location: Planted forests on land recently reclaimed from the sea, the Netherlands. Methods: We related the distribution of forest specialist species in the understorey of 5

  4. Carbon processing at the deep-sea floor of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: A tracer approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzato, L.; van Oevelen, D.; Moodley, L.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have elucidated the trophic interactions in the foodweb of sediments from and close to the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Arabian Sea. Sediment cores from inside (885 m depth) and outside (1791 m depth) the OMZ were manipulated onboard by adding 13C-enriched phytodetritus. The incorporation of

  5. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub

  6. Automated gas bubble imaging at sea floor – a new method of in situ gas flux quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thomanek

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automated in situ gas quantification by photo-optical detection. The design for an in situ high-speed image acquisition and automated data processing system is reported ("Bubblemeter". New strategies have been followed with regards to back-light illumination, bubble extraction, automated image processing and data management. This paper presents the design of the novel method, its validation procedures and calibration experiments. The system will be positioned and recovered from the sea floor using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. It is able to measure bubble flux rates up to 10 L/min with a maximum error of 33% for worst case conditions. The Bubblemeter has been successfully deployed at a water depth of 1023 m at the Makran accretionary prism offshore Pakistan during a research expedition with R/V Meteor in November 2007.

  7. Automated gas bubble imaging at sea floor – a new method of in situ gas flux quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bohrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automated in situ gas quantification by photo-optical detection. The design for an in situ high-speed image acquisition and automated data processing system is reported ("Bubblemeter". New strategies have been followed with regards to back-light illumination, bubble extraction, automated image processing and data management. This paper presents the design of the novel method, its validation procedures and calibration experiments. The system will be positioned and recovered from the sea floor using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. It is able to measure bubble flux rates up to 10 L/min with a maximum error of 33% for worst case conditions. The Bubblemeter has been successfully deployed at a water depth of 1023 m at the Makran accretionary prism offshore Pakistan during a research expedition with R/V Meteor in November 2007.

  8. Indicators for the Sea-floor Integrity of the Hellenic Seas under the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: establishing the thresholds and standards for Good Environmental Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A data set of 625 samples of benthic macroinvertebrates collected from the Hellenic Seas (Ionian and Aegean was used to establish thresholds and reference standards for two of the indicators addressing the descriptors of Sea-floor Integrity under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD: species diversity and richness and the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species. The dataset was categorised according to the baseline ecological status assessment of the respective water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Species diversity and richness were characterised using the Shannon diversity and species richness indices, respectively, and were analysed for three pre-defined substrate types, three depth zones and three sample-size categories, and the significant categories were statistically validated. Good Environmental Status (GEnS threshold and reference values were established for the valid combinations of categories denoted as ‘ecotypes’ through the use of a boxplot and an analysis of variance. The limitations and specifications for an overall GEnS assessment using the above indices are highlighted based on the WFD experience. For the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species, the BENTIX index classification scale is proposed for GEnS assessment, and an integrated approach to the assessment of diversity and species richness is suggested. Finally, the regionality of the tested indices in relation to the two Mediterranean sub-regions, including the Hellenic area, was tested.

  9. Sidescan-Sonar Imagery and Surficial Geologic Interpretations of the Sea Floor in Central Rhode Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Denny, J.F.; Haupt, T.A.; Crocker, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been working with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to interpret the surficial geology of areas along the northeastern coast of the United States. During 2004, the NOAA Ship RUDE conducted Hydrographic Survey H11321 in Rhode Island Sound. This sidescan-sonar and bathymetry survey covers an area of 93 km? located 12 km southeast of Brenton Point, RI in water depths of 28-39 m (fig. 1). The purpose of this report is to delineate sea floor features and sedimentary environments of this area in central Rhode Island Sound using sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA Survey H11321 and seismic-reflection data from a previous USGS field study (Needell and others, 1983a). This is important for the study of benthic habitats and provides a framework for future research. Prior work in this area includes the mapping of surface sediments and surficial geology. McMaster (1960) collected sediment samples from Rhode Island Sound and Narragansett Bay and mapped our study area as having a sandy sea floor. In addition, one sample of sand from the National Ocean Service (NOS) Hydrographic Database came from a location in the northeast part of our study area in 1939 (fig. 2; Poppe and others, 2003). McMaster and others (1968) used seismic-reflection profiles to map the locations of a cuesta of Cretaceous sediments crossing Rhode Island Sound and post-Cretaceous drainage channels. Knebel and others (1982) identified sedimentary environments in Rhode Island Sound using sidescan sonographs. Needell and others (1983b) studied the Quaternary geology and mapped the structure, sedimentary environments, and geologic hazards in Rhode Island Sound using sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection data. Sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA Survey H11320, which overlaps the far eastern edge of our study area, was interpreted to consist of basins surrounded by a moraine and bathymetric highs composed of till with areas of rocks

  10. High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Twichell, David C.; Foster, David S.; Worley, Charles R.; Irwin, Barry J.; Danforth, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in the nearshore area surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael during September 2010 in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts, Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes the results of the short-term goals of this collaborative effort, which were to map the geology of the inner shelf zone of the western Elizabeth Islands and study the geologic processes that have contributed to its evolution. Data collected during the survey include: Bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, chirp seismic-reflection data , sound velocity profiles, and navigation data. The long-term goals of this project are to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and inventory subtidal marine habitat type and distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

  11. In situ experimental evidence of the fate of a phytodetritus pulse at the abyssal sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, U.; Wenzhofer, F.; Sommer, S.

    2003-01-01

    , and a large fraction of the annual food load can arrive in pulses within a few days(1,2). Owing to logistical constraints, the available data concerning the fate of such a pulse are scattered(3,4) and often contradictory(5-10), hampering global carbon modelling and anthropogenic impact assessments. We...... quantified (over a period of 2.5 to 23 days) the response of an abyssal benthic community to a phytodetritus pulse, on the basis of 11 in situ experiments. Here we report that, in contrast to previous hypotheses(5-11), the sediment community oxygen consumption doubled immediately, and that macrofauna were...... very important for initial carbon degradation. The retarded response of bacteria and Foraminifera, the restriction of microbial carbon degradation to the sediment surface, and the low total carbon turnover distinguish abyssal from continental-slope 'deep-sea' sediments....

  12. Floor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin;

    2005-01-01

    Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three...... different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors....

  13. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry, colored by backscatter intensity, of the sea floor southwest of Montauk Point, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  14. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry, colored by backscatter intensity, of the sea floor offshore of Moriches Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  15. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry, colored by backscatter intensity, of the sea floor offshore of Shinnecock Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  16. GeoTIFF image of shaded-relief bathymetry, colored by backscatter intensity, of the sea floor offshore of Fire Island Inlet, New York, in 1998 (3-m resolution, Mercator, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Surveys of the bathymetry and backscatter intensity of the sea floor south of Long Island, New York, were carried out in November 1998 using a Simrad EM1000...

  17. 4-m Image of the Southern Half of the Pseudo-colored Backscatter Intensity of the Sea Floor off Eastern Cape Cod (CAPESOUTHPSEUDO_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes pseudo-colored backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northeastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a...

  18. 4-m Image of the Northern Half of the Pseudo-colored Backscatter Intensity of the Sea Floor off Northeastern Cape Cod (CAPENORTHPSEUDO_GEO4M_WGS84.TIF, Geographic, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes pseudo-colored backscatter intensity of the sea floor offshore of northeastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The data were collected with a...

  19. Evaluation de la morphodynamique sous-marine en Mer du Nord méridionale au cours de la période 1985-1995 = Evaluation of sea-floor sediment dynamics in the Flemish Banks (southern North Sea) between 1985 and 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Moor, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate and map changes in sea-floor elevation in a marine sandy epeiric environment as a tool in research on present-day sea floor sediment dynamics, especially of bank summits and swale floors, and to assess the mobility of banks and sand waves from sounding and hydrographic maps and from hypsometric profiles provided by sequential bathymetric campaigns along fixed tracks. It provides a review of data acquisition techniques and data processing methods. It focuses...

  20. Linking benthic biodiversity and environmental conditions at the sea floor combining statistical and mechanistic modeling. Case study on the Black Sea's northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drion, Roxanne; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2014-05-01

    The preservation of the health and biodiversity of benthic ecosystems is a crucial priority in order to achieve the Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine waters. The multiple pressures acting on the ocean, and in particular, on the coastal zone may prevent the maintenance of biodiversity either directly (e.g. trawling, dredging) or indirectly by modifying environmental conditions at the sea floor (e.g. eutrophication, pollution, acidification, warming). The management of the GES of the benthos in a changing environment and the definition of management strategies (e.g. nutrient reduction) that would preserve GES require tools able to predict the modifications of environmental conditions and to link these modifications to the status of the benthic system. Coupled biogeochemical-circulation models provide a large amount of information on physical (e.g. currents, salinity, temperature, shear stress) and biochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen, inorganic nutrients, sinking detritus) but cannot provide an information on species richness. We propose to link these aspects by applying canonical ordination techniques (e.g. Redundancy Analysis, CoInertia Analysis) on a large data set on macrobenthos collected on the Black Sea's north-western shelf with in-situ sediment data (e.g. granulometry, carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, CaCO3 content) and bottom conditions (e.g. shear stress, level of oxygen stress, flux of organic matter to the sediments) provided by a three dimensional model. Beyond taxonomic description, the analysis is performed on the functional composition of the macrobenthos: A trait-based approach is used to assess the functional composition of the macrobenthos by associating the considered species to a list of biological, ecological and behavioral traits. This approach allows to appraise how local conditions determine the functional and taxonomical diversity and provides a mean to evaluate the impact of habitat alteration on the ecological role of

  1. Opening of the Amerasian Basin: A model based on sea-floor morphology, magnetic anomalies and paleomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D. B.; Brumley, K.

    2010-12-01

    There are numerous models for the origins of the Amerasia Basin. The model we present here is based on sea-floor morphology, magnetic anomaly signatures and evidence derived from dredge hauls which indicate that the Arctic Alaska block traveled to its present location from a location close to the Canadian and Lomonosov margins. This location is further east than is called for by the conventional “windshield wiper” model. The paleomagnetic database that relates directly to the origins of the Arctic Ocean consists of a study of Cretaceous sediments (135Ma) from the northern coastal region of Alaska (Kuparuk oil field drill core) and younger sediments (100Ma) from the west end of the Arctic coastal plain (Utukok River area) plus volcanic rocks from the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (67-90Ma). The pole positions derived from the sedimentary sequences from Alaska require a model involving both rotation and translation. We have also incorporated paleomagnetic paleolatitudes derived from borehole cores (no declination control), and inferred paleolatitudes based on the pervasive magnetic overprint found throughout Arctic Alaska. These data sets are also consistent with the translation plus rotation model presented. In most models the location of Chukotka is depicted as being more or less fixed with respect to Arctic Alaska, but the paleomagnetic poles determined for the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic suites are hard to reconcile with the paleogeography proposed here if Chukotka remains firmly attached to Arctic Alaska. The Chukotka data require that the volcanic belt was erupted at more northerly latitudes than its present location, thus it appears to have moved somewhat independently from Alaska. Looking to the future it would seem that the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt should be a prime target for paleomagnetic work. It is relatively accessible, and in contrast to the bulk of the sedimentary sections sampled in Northern Alaska, these rocks have proven to be good

  2. Disappearance of Sea Floor of the Paleo-asian Ocean: Geological Evidence from the Dong Ujimqin, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, T.; Wang, B.; Yu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    -collisional characteristics. The discovery of the Cathaysia flora fossils, the NW to SE thrust faults, the syn-collisional magmatic rocks plus the shift of magmatic activities from NW to SE all indicate that the sea floor of the Paleo-Asian Ocean must located somewhere to the north of our research area, which could be the proposed Main Mongolian Lineament area.

  3. Sea floor geomorphology: Discussion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Evsykov, Y.D.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Experimental study on particulate materials collected by a concave of sea floor; Kaitei kubochi ni hoshusareru ryujobutsu ni kansuru jikkenteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshika, A.; Tanimoto, T. [Government Industrial Research Chugoku, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    As one of the method of sea cleaning method, an idea where concave is dredged on the sea floor and suspended substances and polluted sediment particles are collected, is popular. In this research, simple experiment was carried out for collecting the materials by using a polyvinylchloride cylindrical vessel (50cm in diameter, 70cm in depth) set on the sea floor of Osaka Bay area and fundamental study about the quality of collected materials, collection effectiveness and so forth was carried out. Further, along with the collection experiment, measurement of degree of pollution and investigation of bottom laminar flow which is thought to be the direct outer force for particulate material movement were carried out in order to study the flow mechanism of particulate materials. As a result, with the setting of collection vessel, particulate materials about 9 times more than that of estimated natural sedimentation amount were collected. This corresponds to the 5% of the horizontal flux of suspended substances in the bottom layer water. Among the collected particulate materials, about 30% are suspended substances, about 70% are surface sediment substances. This kind of method, when combined suitably with the method for removing collected particulate materials, can be one of the effective method for the purification of polluted sediment materials. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Characterization of Dissolved Organic Matter from Deep-sea Floor Hydrothermal Vents in South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, F.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-12-01

    In South Mariana Backarc Spreading Center, a few active hydrothermal fields are located. We investigated a characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from hydrothermal vents in this area, in order to clarify the biosphere beneath deep-sea floor. Hot water sample was collected from a drilled hole (APM01 located in Fryer site, 12o 55.22fN, 143o 37.16fE, depth 2850m) during the ROPOS/TN167A cruise in March 2004. The hole had been drilled during Hakurei-Maru 2 cruise in January 2004. Another hot water sample was collected from a natural black smoker located in Pika site (12o 55.15fN, 143o 36.96fE, depth 2773m) during YK03-09 cruise. In this investigation, we developed a standalone filtration system in order to collect and enrich dissolved organic matter of quite low concentration. This system was designed to be put near hydrothermal vents for at least 24h. This system has an ODS disk (EmporeTM High Performance Extraction Disk C18 90mmφ) with a pre-filter (Whatman GMF 1 μ)m filter paper) to adsorb dilute organics. We collected DOM from the APM01 casing pipe for about 30h (Tmax = 25-30 o C, the estimated volume of filtrated water is max. 300L) using this filtration system. Adsorbed organics were eluted with methanol for 12h twice and toluene once using soxhlet extractor. Recovered amounts of methanol eluents are 72.8mg for APM01, and 89.7mg for the black smoker. Prior to GCMS analysis, we carried out high resolution 1 H-NMR measurement (400MHz), together with the DOM samples collected from the Suiyo Seamount in July-August 2001 and August 2002. Most of the samples show signals in the region of 3-4 ppm, and the samples from the vents of relatively low temperatures (APM01 and AP04: the natural vent at the Suiyo Seamount, temperature 8-48o C ) show signals also in the region of 0.8-1.6 ppm.

  6. Large-scale scour of the sea floor and the effect of natural armouring processes, land reclamation Maasvlakte 2, port of Rotterdam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, S.; Elias, E.; Aarninkhof, S.; Roelvink, D.; Vellinga, T.

    2007-01-01

    Morphological model computations based on uniform (non-graded) sediment revealed an unrealistically strong scour of the sea floor in the immediate vicinity to the west of Maasvlakte 2. By means of a state-of-the-art graded sediment transport model the effect of natural armouring and sorting of bed material on the scour process has been examined. Sensitivity computations confirm that the development of the scour hole is strongly reduced due to the incorporation of armouring processes, suggesting an approximately 30% decrease in terms of erosion area below the -20m depth contour. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  7. Sea-Floor Images and Data from Multibeam Surveys in San Francisco Bay, Southern California, Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Gardiner, James V.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate base maps are a prerequisite for any geologic study, regardless of the objectives. Land-based studies commonly utilize aerial photographs, USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle maps, and satellite images as base maps. Until now, studies that involve the ocean floor have been at a disadvantage due to an almost complete lack of accurate marine base maps. Many base maps of the sea floor have been constructed over the past century but with a wide range in navigational and depth accuracies. Only in the past few years has marine surveying technology advanced far enough to produce navigational accuracy of 1 meter and depth resolutions of 50 centimeters. The Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project of the U.S. Geological Survey's, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Menlo Park, California, U.S.A., in cooperation with the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada, is using this new technology to systematically map the ocean floor and lakes. This type of marine surveying, called multibeam surveying, collects high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data that can be used for various base maps, GIS coverages, and scientific visualization methods. This is an interactive CD-ROM that contains images, movies, and data of all the surveys the Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project has completed up to January 1999. The images and movies on this CD-ROM, such as shaded relief of the bathymetry, backscatter, oblique views, 3-D views, and QuickTime movies help the viewer to visualize the multibeam data. This CD-ROM also contains ARC/INFO export (.e00) files and full-resolution TIFF images of all the survey sites that can be downloaded and used in many GIS packages.

  8. Evidence for the seasonal deposition of detritus to the deep-sea floor and its subsequent resuspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampitt, R. S.

    1985-08-01

    A free-fall benthic time-lapse camera and current meter system has been used to examine changes in the appearance of the sea bed in the Porcupine Seabight 50°N, 13°W — northeast Atlantic). Changes in the benthic environment due to rapid deposition of phytodetritus occur down to 4000 m. Photograhs taken every 8 h from 1 May to mid-August showed dramatic changes in the appearance of the sea bed between mid-June and mid-July. The sinking rate of the detritus was calculated from the time of the spring bloom until its arrival on the sea bed. In both 1982 and 1983, year which differed greatly in the timing of the spring bloom, the sinking rates were probably between 100 and 150 m d -1. Individual aggregates up to 12 mm diameter arrived between frames at all depths and up to 50 mm at 4000 m. Their subsequent disintegration was monitored over the few days following arrival on the sea bed. Some such aggregates were collected from the sea bed and a sinking rate experiment was carried out on them. Once on the sea bed, the detrital carpet moves over the sediment surface due to bottom currents; when currents exceed about 7 cm s -1 (at 1 m altitude), the material is resuspended. Increases in the quantity in suspension occur at the same time as decreases in the quantity visible on the sea bed. The tidal nature of the current gives a strong tidal component to the variation in suspended particles near the sea bed. The significance of a detrital critical erosion threshold to the structure of benthic and benthopelagic communities is discussed.

  9. Methodological Studies on Estimates of Abundance and Diversity of Heterotrophic Flagellates from the Deep-Sea Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schoenle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme environmental conditions in the deep sea hamper access to protist communities. In combination with the potentially highly diverse species composition, it demands a wide range of methods to be applied at the same time to guarantee a high resolution of quantitative and qualitative studies of deep-sea heterotrophic flagellates (HF. Within this study, we present a possible combination of several culture-independent and culture-dependent methods available for investigating benthic deep-sea HF communities. Besides live-counting and fixation of HF, we refer to cultivation methods and molecular surveys using next generation sequencing. Laboratory ecological experiments under deep-sea conditions (high pressure, low temperature could allow the approval of the potential deep-sea origin of sampled HF. The combination of different methods offers a unique possibility to receive detailed information on nanofaunal life in the deep sea. Specific fixation techniques to preserve samples directly at the sampling depth must be applied in further studies to reflect the real biodiversity of the largest habitat on earth.

  10. Sea-floor texture and physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf from Salisbury to Nahant, Massachusetts, including the Merrimack Embayment and Western Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-10-26

    A series of maps that describe the distribution and texture of sea-floor sediments and physiographic zones of Massachusetts State waters from Nahant to Salisbury, Massachusetts, including western Massachusetts Bay, have been produced by using high-resolution geophysical data (interferometric and multibeam swath bathymetry, lidar bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection profiles), sediment samples, and bottom photographs. These interpretations are intended to aid statewide efforts to inventory and manage coastal and marine resources, link with existing data interpretations, and provide information for research focused on coastal evolution and environmental change. Marine geologic mapping of the inner continental shelf of Massachusetts is a statewide cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management.

  11. A major upgrade of the sediment echosounder ATLAS PARASOUND and the digital acquisition software ParaDigMA for high-resolution sea floor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, A.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Zwanzig, C.; Bruns, R.

    2003-04-01

    The combination of the ATLAS PARASOUND sediment echosounder, designed by ATLAS Hydrographic, and the digital recording software package ParaDigMA (commercially available as ATLAS PARASTORE-3) for online digitisation, preprocessing and visualisation of recorded seismograms has proven to be a reliable system for high-resolution acoustic sea floor studies. During 10 years of successful operation aboard several research vessels, including R/V Meteor, R/V Sonne and R/V Polarstern, the system has been only slightly modified. Based on this experience, today's PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has accomplished the step from DOS towards Windows platform and network capability. In cooperation of ATLAS Hydrographic and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen a major upgrade of the PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has been developed that adds significant functionality for surveys of sediment structures and sea floor morphology. The innovations primarily concern the control section of the ATLAS PARASOUND echosounder and the ParaDigMA user front end. The previous analogue PARASOUND control terminal has been replaced by a small real time control PC responsible for the control of the echosounder as well as for the continuous digitisation of the data. The control PC communicates via standard network protocols metadata and data with client applications that can display and store the acquired data on different computers on the network. The new network capabilities of the system overcome former limitations and admit a high flexibility with respect to numbers and locations of operator and recording/display PCs. The system now offers a simultaneous parallel registration of the 2.5-5.5kHz parametric signal and the 18kHz NBS signal. This feature in combination with the recording of complete soundings including the entire water column provides the basis for evolving scientific research topics e. g. gas venting. The ParaDigMA recording software now operates on Windows platforms which

  12. The mineralogy of Fe/Mg-clays formed in low-temperature hydrothermal sea floor environments and possible formation mechanisms on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Cuadros, J.; Glotch, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    Infrared remote sensing results from the OMEGA and CRISM experiments have revealed 1000s of exposures of Fe/Mg-rich phyllosilicates on Mars, including many smectite compositions intermediate between nontronite (Fe3+ endmember) and saponite (Mg2+ endmember). In addition, many of the deposits contain spectral evidence for putative higher temperature phases such as chlorite, chlorite-smectite, and other interlayered clays. In this work, we are exploring the mineralogy of the saponite-nontronite crystal chemical series, as well the interlayered smectite-talc, and smectite-chlorite systems. Previously collected sea-floor samples originate from the East Pacific Rise, Gulf of California, and Red Sea Southwest Basin. Bulk sample mineralogy revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of randomly oriented powder-mounts shows that the Fe/Mg-clay minerals occur with various proportions of poorly crystalline Fe/MnOOH and NaCl, and minor sulfates and sulfides, which can be removed through washing or various treatments. XRD of oriented, air-dried and glycolated mounts reveals the presence of di- and trioctohedral smectites, talc with varied Fe content, interlayered talc-smectite, chlorite, chlorite-smectite, and poorly crystalline clays that could be considered proto-smectites. Mid-infrared and visible/near infrared reflectance spectra of the samples display clear evidence for chemical and structural variation among the samples, and subtle differences related to interlayering and crystallinity relevant to understanding infrared observations of Martian clays. The sea-floor clays likely formed in low-temperature hydrothermal settings, in some cases as direct precipitates close to hydrothermal vents, and in other cases as proximal sediments. Hydrated talc with low crystalline order and frequent Fe substitution is commonly found interlayered with smectites. The chemical and structural variation in these samples produces a range of spectral features in the 2.27-2.33 micron (wavelength) range

  13. Sedimentological and paleontological features of sea floor sediments of Penta Palummo and Miseno volcanic highs, Gulf od Naples (South-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, L.; Molisso, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca Geomare Sud

    2000-07-01

    A sedimentological and paleontological study has been carried out on surficial sediments of Penta Palummo and Miseno volcanic banks, in the Gulf of Naples (South-eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The deposits consist of bioclastic sand (coralline algae, bryozoans, gastropods, bivalvs and echinoderms). The benthic foraminiferal assemblage is mainly characterized by epiphytic species. Bioclastics sand is autochtonous and derived from breakdown of algal buildups. [Italian] Uno studio sedimentologico e paleontologico e' stato condotto sui sedimenti superficiali dei banchi vulcanici di Penta Palummo e di Miseno (Golfo di Napoli, Mar Tirreno sudorientale). I depositi sono costituiti da sabbie bioclastiche (alghe coralline, briozoi, gasteropodi, bivalvi ed echonodermi). L'associazione a foraminiferi bentonici e' caratterizzata principalmente da specie epifite. Le sabbie bioclastiche sono autoctone e derivano dal disfacimento di biocostruzioni algali.

  14. Manganese mineralization in andesites of Brestovačka Banja, Serbia: evidence of sea-floor exhalations in the Timok Magmatic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pačevski, Aleksandar; Cvetković, Vladica; Šarić, Kristina; Banješević, Miodrag; Hoefer, Heidi Eva; Kremenović, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    Andesites near Brestovačka Banja belong to the Late Cretaceous Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC), which hosts the world-class Bor metallogenic zone including numerous porphyry-copper and epithermal deposits. Two main volcanic phases are recognized in the TMC. The newly discovered Mn mineralization reported here is associated with the second volcanic phase of Turonian-Campanian age. Manganese mineralization containing 58 % MnO on average, occurs as black veins, lumps and nests filling cracks and cavities within an autoclastic andesite, which was deposited in a subaqueous environment. This rock also contains minor Fe mineralization, which is contemporaneous with the manganese mineralization. Manganese mineralization predominantly consists of Mn-Ca silicates (macfallite, pumpellyite-Mn, orientite, bustamite) and Mn oxides (pyrolusite, manganite). Micrometer-scale mineral intergrowths and locally preserved botryoidal and colloform textures are characteristic features of this uncommon mineral assemblage. The features could indicate that the mineralization was formed by deposition from a primary colloidal assemblage and is of sub-marine hydrothermal origin. Orientite is the only Mn mineral with grain size reaching several tenths of micrometers and showing prismatic crystal habit. Scarce to rare associated minerals are hollandite, crednerite, an unknown REE mineral, powellite, pyrite, barite and galena, in decreasing abundance. Trace element analyses of the Mn mineralization show different element contents and REE patterns compared to those of the volcanic host-rock. Manganese mineralization shows relatively high contents of Cu - 1784 ppm, Mo - 20 ppm and As - 268 ppm. These elements are commonly enriched in the Cu deposits of the Bor zone and their relatively high contents in the studied Mn crusts indicate sea-floor hydrothermal vents as a source of the metals.

  15. HYDRATE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES THAT BOTH SUPPORT AND DERIVE FROM THE MONITORING STATION/SEA-FLOOR OBSERVATORY, MISSISSIPPI CANYON 118, NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station

  16. Pelvic Floor Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is the pelvic floor? The term "pelvic floor" refers to the group ...

  17. Introductory guide to floors and flooring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Billingham, PA

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ........................................................................ Soft floor coverings 39 Carpets ......................................................................................... 40 Laying carpets ............................................................................. 44 Wooden floors... the glue that holds the finish, causing woodwork to swell and some carpets to rot. It can carry with it dissolved salts from thesoil and thegarden and deposit theseon the floor, spoiling the finish and even flaking stonework. Water vapour can sometimes...

  18. NRL’s Deep Sea Floor Search ERA: A Brief History of the NRL/MIZAR Search System and Its Major Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-29

    Edgerton, H. E., SPIE Journal 2, 3 (1963). 10. Patterson, R. B. and Brundage. W. L.. Trans.Ocean Sci. Figure 13. Comparison of Processing Techniques and Engr...PSA journal . Sept.. 48 (1963). satisfactory results, but there is always room for improve- S. s Cruickshank.M. J., Trans.Ocean Sci. and Engr. Conf... csea - floor transooncer that serves a bench mar, 37 or "bench mark." for local navigation in the area. mure sophisticated signal-processing techniques

  19. Vertical hydraulic transport for deep sea mining: A study into flow assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea mining activities require excavation of material at the sea floor, transport of the material from the sea floor to the sea surface and processing of the material afterwards. One way to transport the material from the sea floor to sea surface is by means of a riser with centrifugal pump

  20. Vertical hydraulic transport for deep sea mining: A study into flow assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea mining activities require excavation of material at the sea floor, transport of the material from the sea floor to the sea surface and processing of the material afterwards. One way to transport the material from the sea floor to sea surface is by means of a riser with centrifugal pump boos

  1. Mixed-Up Floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials revealing the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Also highlighted is a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University (Ohio). (GR)

  2. SUSTAINABLE TRAILER FLOORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Different trailer flooring materials, including wood-based, aluminum, steel, and synthetic plastic floors, were evaluated in accordance with their durability and sustainability to our natural environment. Wood-based trailer flooring is an eco-friendly product. It is the most sustainable trailer flooring material compared with fossil fuel-intensive steel, aluminum, and plastics. It is renewable and recyclable. Oak, hard maple, and apitong are strong and durable hardwood species that are currently extensively used for trailer flooring. For manufacture, wood-based flooring is higher in energy efficiency and lower in carbon emission than steel, aluminum and plastics. Moreover, wood per se is a natural product that sequesters carbon. Accordingly, using more wood-based trailer flooring is effective to reduce global warming.

  3. Supporting shop floor intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Schmidt, Kjeld; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    1999-01-01

    Many manufacturing enterprises are now trying to introduce various forms of flexible work organizations on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become r......-to-day production planning by supporting intelligent and responsible workers in their situated coordination activities on the shop floor....

  4. School Flooring Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  5. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  6. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  7. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Faults and fractures in central West Greenland: onshore expression of continental break-up and sea-floor spreading in the Labrador – Baffin Bay Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalmers, James A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex Ungava fault zone lies in the Davis Strait and separates failed spreading centres in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. This study focuses on coastal exposures east of the fault-bound Sisimiut basin, where the onshore expressions of these fault systems and the influence of pre-existing basement are examined. Regional lineament studies identify five main systems: N–S, NNE–SSW, ENE–WSW, ESE–WNW and NNW–SSE. Field studies reveal that strike-slip movements predominate, and are consistent with a ~NNE–SSW-oriented sinistral wrench system. Extensional faults trending N–S and ENE–WSW (basement-parallel, and compressional faults trending E–W, were also identified. The relative ages of these fault systems have been interpreted using cross-cutting relationships and by correlation with previously identified structures. A two-phase model for fault development fits the development of both the onshore fault systems observed in this study and regional tectonic structures offshore. The conclusions from this study show that the fault patterns and sense of movement on faults onshore reflect the stress fields that govern the opening of the Labrador Sea – Davis Strait – Baffin Bay seaway, and that the wrench couple on the Ungava transform system played a dominant role in the development of the onshore fault patterns

  8. [Pelvic floor and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritel, X

    2010-05-01

    Congenital factor, obesity, aging, pregnancy and childbirth are the main risk factors for female pelvic floor disorders (urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, dyspareunia). Vaginal delivery may cause injury to the pudendal nerve, the anal sphincter, or the anal sphincter. However the link between these injuries and pelvic floor symptoms is not always determined and we still ignore what might be the ways of prevention. Of the many obstetrical methods proposed to prevent postpartum symptoms, episiotomy, delivery in vertical position, delayed pushing, perineal massage, warm pack, pelvic floor rehabilitation, results are disappointing or limited. Caesarean section is followed by less postnatal urinary incontinence than vaginal childbirth. However this difference tends to disappear with time and following childbirth. Limit the number of instrumental extractions and prefer the vacuum to forceps could reduce pelvic floor disorders after childbirth. Ultrasound examination of the anal sphincter after a second-degree perineal tear is useful to detect and repair infra-clinic anal sphincter lesions. Scientific data is insufficient to justify an elective cesarean section in order to avoid pelvic floor symptoms in a woman without previous disorders.

  9. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  10. Transform faults and large horizontal displacements of the ocean floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. RANALLI

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available The evidence concerning the existence of transform
    faults and the occurrence of sea-floor spreading is reviewed and discussed.
    Available fault-plane solutions indicate that the direction of motion along
    some oceanic fracture zones is opposite to that which would be expected
    in case of transcurrent faults. The support for the sea-floor spreading hypothesis
    comes mainly from magnetic investigations. The problem, however,
    presents formidable dynamic and rheological aspects, and is far from being
    completely solved.

  11. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) referred by gynaecologists and urologists for in-hospital pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), and to identity associated factors for a low level of PFM fu...

  12. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  13. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  14. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse.

  15. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  16. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  17. Anorectal and pelvic floor anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stoker

    2009-01-01

    The anorectum and pelvic floor are crucial in maintaining continence, facilitating evacuation, providing pelvic organ support while in females the pelvic floor is part of the birth canal. The anal sphincter is a multilayered cylindrical structure, including the smooth muscle internal sphincter and t

  18. Laparoscopy for pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geluwe, B; Wolthuis, A; D'Hoore, A

    2014-02-01

    Surgical treatment of pelvic floor disorders has significantly evolved during the last decade, with increasing understanding of anatomy, pathophysiology and the minimally-invasive 'revolution' of laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair requires a thorough knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy and its supportive components before repair of defective anatomy is possible. Several surgical procedures have been introduced and applied to treat rectal prolapse syndromes. Transabdominal procedures include a variety of rectopexies with the use of sutures or prosthesis and with or without resection of redundant sigmoid colon. Unfortunately there is lack of one generally accepted standard treatment technique. This article will focus on recent advances in the management of pelvic floor disorders affecting defecation, with a brief overview of contemporary concepts in pelvic floor anatomy and different laparoscopic treatment options.

  19. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  20. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    2007-12-01

    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  1. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  2. Channel Floor Yardangs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from

  3. The shop floor scheduling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, Jan; Slomp, Jannes

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the shop floor scheduling game is getting participants acquainted with: - developing robust planning and scheduling procedures; - accepting orders under uncertainty and competition; - using information from cost accounting in scheduling; - creating an adequate communication structure

  4. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti

    2016-01-01

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its mul...

  5. Tangential Floor in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Leyla

    2012-01-01

    This article examines floor management in two classroom sessions: a task-oriented computer lesson and a literature lesson. Recordings made in the computer lesson show the organization of floor when a task is given to students. Temporary or "incipient" side floors (Jones and Thornborrow, 2004) emerge beside the main floor. In the literature lesson,…

  6. Magnetic studies in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Grahm, B.; Welsh, R.; Pathak, M.C.

    longitude. The mid-Cayman spreading centre is characterized by a rift valley with 4000 m depth. Sea-floor spreading-type linear magnetic anomalies have been observed in the Cayman Trough. A synthetic sea-floor-spreading model is generated across...

  7. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  8. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  9. A Distal Record of Large Hawaiian Submarine Landslides: the Lithology of Sediments Obtained From the Deep-sea Floor Adjacent to the Hawaiian Islands, KR01-K12 Cruise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamatsu, T.; Naka, J.; Kubo, Y.; Champion, D.; Coombs, M.; Moore, J. G.; Sugiyama, K.; Muraki, H.; Ishimori, M.

    2001-12-01

    To understand the timing and emplacement processes of giant Hawaiian submarine landslide, a series of piston coring was performed in the adjacent area of Hawaii islands by R/V KAIREI, JAMSTEC in the summer of 2001. Long-distance volcaniclastic sediment transport generated by Hawaiian submarine landslides has been suggested by several previous studies (e.g. Garcia and Hull, 1994). Stratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochemical studies on the cores obtained by systematic sampling will make to understand for origins and ages of volcaniclastics emplacement to the ocean-floor. Nine cores were collected from the north of Oahu, the southwest and south of Hawaii Island, the south of Oahu. The major lithology is brown pelagic clay with abundant volcanic sand layers. Off Hawaiian Arch of the north of Oahu, pelagic clay with distinct 195cm-thick volcanic sand layer was recovered. The thick sand should be related to Nuuanu landslide, which debris avalanches were derived from Oahu Island. In the north of Haleakala rift, the alternation of brown colored clay and volcanic sand layer were obtained. Haleakala rift and Kohala slump are possible origins for these frequent occurrences of volcanic sand. In the south of Hawaii Island, we recovered alternations of volcanic sand and pelagic clay. The previous study suggested that volcaniclastic material in this area were derived from the Kilauea and older volcanoes of Hawaii Island. The obtained cores will provide stratigraphic information for volcanic history of Hawaii Island. The lower sequence below the alternation consists of radiolarian ooze, suggest the age of Eocene by on-board inspection. Two piston cores were obtained in the front of Waianae Landslide. The lithology of cores shows that the much volcaniclastics are interbeded in the upper sequence, and the massive clay in the lower.

  10. Steel-board composite floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couchman, G.H.; Tomà, A.W.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.; Brande, E.L.M.G. van den

    1999-01-01

    Work currently underway in Holland aDd the UK aims to increase the already considerable potential for light steel framing in buildings by developing rules for so-called "dry composites". This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental work to develop validated design mies for floor systems co

  11. Branding on the Shop Floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jonas, Louise Rygaard

    2010-01-01

    , a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performed. By documenting the disloyal behaviour of butchers, we demonstrate that the affective commitment...

  12. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research progr

  13. Steel-board composite floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couchman, G.H.; Tomà, A.W.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.; Brande, E.L.M.G. van den

    1999-01-01

    Work currently underway in Holland aDd the UK aims to increase the already considerable potential for light steel framing in buildings by developing rules for so-called "dry composites". This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental work to develop validated design mies for floor systems

  14. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research

  15. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  16. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Commonly Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are pelvic floor disorders commonly treated? Skip sharing on social media ... Treatment Nonsurgical treatments commonly used for PFDs include: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Also called Kegel (pronounced KEY- ...

  17. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are pelvic floor disorders diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... fee ). This test is used to evaluate the pelvic floor and rectum while the patient is having a ...

  18. 7 CFR 2902.39 - Floor strippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Floor strippers. (a) Definition. Products that are formulated to loosen waxes, resins, or varnishes from floor surfaces. They can be in either liquid or gel form, and may also be used with or without... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor strippers. 2902.39 Section 2902.39...

  19. Obesity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Kalaivani; Monga, Ash

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders. Patients with obesity present with a range of urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction problems as well as uterovaginal prolapse. Urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are more prevalent in patients with obesity. Uterovaginal prolapse is also more common than in the non-obese population. Weight loss by surgical and non-surgical methods plays a major role in the improvement of these symptoms in such patients. The treatment of symptoms leads to an improvement in their quality of life. However, surgical treatment of these symptoms may be accompanied by an increased risk of complications in obese patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of obesity-associated pelvic floor dysfunction is essential.

  20. [Surgical dilemmas. Sinus floor elevation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Bruggenkate, C M; Schulten, E A J M; Zijderveld, S A

    2008-12-01

    Limited alveolar bone height prevents the placement of dental implants. Sinus floor elevation is an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus that allows implants to be placed. The principle of this surgical procedure is the preparation of a 'top hinge door', that is raised together with the Schneiderian membrane in the cranial direction. The space which created under this lid is filled with a bone transplant. Autogenous bone is the standard transplant material, despite the fact that a second surgery site is necessary. Under certain circumstances bone substitutes can be used, with a longer healing phase. If sufficient alveolar bone height is available to secure implant stability, simultaneous implantation and sinus floor elevation are possible. Considering the significant anatomical variation in the region of the maxillary sinus, a sound knowledge of the anatomy is of great importance.

  1. Branding on the Shop Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Szilvia Gyimóthy; Louise Rygaard Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Service branding is a particular form of emotional management, where employees are regarded as adaptable media, who can be trained to convey corporate values while interacting with customers. This paper examines the identity work of butchers during the brand revitalisation campaign of Kvickly, a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performe...

  2. Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates in indoor Floor Dust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkoff, Peder; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1999-01-01

    The amount of Linear Alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS) in the particle fraction of floor dust sampled from 7 selected public buildings varied between 34 and 1500 microgram per gram dust, while the contents of the fibre fractions generally were higher with up to 3500 microgram LAS/g dust. The use...... of a cleaning agent with LAS resulted in an increase of the amount of LAS in the floor dust after floor wash relative to just before floor wash. However, the most important source of LAS in the indoor floor dust appears to be residues of detergent in clothing. Thus, a newly washed shirt contained 2960 microgram...

  3. Measurements of NO{sub 2} using MAX-DOAS observations of sun-illuminated targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Umar; Kirk, Henning; Richter, Andreas; Schoenhardt, Anja; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P. [Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Universitaet Bremen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen oxide radicals (NO+NO{sub 2}) are important trace gases in the atmosphere. They originate from combustion processes, lightning and soil emissions and largely control the tropospheric ozone production Since several decades it is possible to measure NO{sub 2} with different techniques. However, for the spatial distribution in the troposphere considerable uncertainty exists. Here we present measurements of NO{sub 2} on and close to the campus of the University of Bremen applying a novel technique: Topographic Target Light scattering Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS, Frins et al.). The basic idea is to collect scattered sunlight reflected from natural and artificial targets (e.g. high buildings) at different distances from the measuring device. Then recorded spectra are analyzed for NO{sub 2} applying the DOAS method. Simple geometric treatments of the light-path reveal NO{sub 2} concentrations in the boundary layer as a final data set. This study presents NO{sub 2} data in 2008 in the surrounding of the University of Bremen. In addition for some days the ZARM Drop Tower has been used as illuminated target to investigate the vertical distribution of NO{sub 2}. Selected data sets have been compared to complementary measurements of the regular iup Bremen MAX-DOAS setup and to the Bremian BLUES air pollution network.

  4. [Functional aspects of pelvic floor surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Gunnemann, A; Liedl, B; Weidner, W

    2009-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunctions are frequently seen in females. The human pelvic floor is a complex structure and heavily stressed throughout female life. Recent findings in the functional anatomy of the pelvic floor have led to a much better understand-ing, on the basis of which enormous improvements in the therapeutic options have arisen. The pelvic floor activity is regulated by three main muscular forces that are responsible for vaginal tension and suspension of the pelvic floor -organs, bladder and rectum. For different reasons laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments as a result of altered connective tissue can distort this functional anatomy. A variety of symptoms can derive from these pelvic floor dysfunctions, such as urinary urge and stress incontinence, abnormal bladder emptying, faecal incontinence, obstructive bowel disease syndrome and pelvic pain. Pelvic floor reconstruction is nowadays driven by the concept that in the case of pelvic floor symptoms restoration of the anatomy will translate into restoration of the physiology and ultimately improve the patients' symptoms. The exact surgical reconstruction of the anatomy is there-fore almost exclusively focused on the restoration of the lax pelvic floor ligaments. An exact identification of the anatomic lesions preoperatively is eminently necessary, to allow for an exact anatomic reconstruction with respect to the muscular forces of the pelvic floor.

  5. The pelvic floor in health and disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, A A; Welton, M L

    1997-01-01

    Normal pelvic floor function involves a set of learned and reflex responses that are essential for the normal control and evacuation of stool. A variety of functional disturbances of the pelvic floor, including incontinence and constipation, are not life threatening, but can cause significant distress to affected patients. Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the pelvic floor is essential to understanding and treating these disorders of defecation. This article describes the nor...

  6. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training.

  7. LDEO Carbon 14 Data from Selected Sea floor Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Carbon-14 data in this file were compiled by W.F. Ruddiman and staff at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. Data include 974 carbon-14 dates...

  8. Sea floor geomorphology: Bathymetry investigations in the S22 cruise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Evsykov, Y.D.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S; Rai, S

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_29.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_29.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Effects of floor design and floor cleaning on ammonia emission from cubicle houses for dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, C.R.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Smits, M.C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The traditional slatted floor was compared with 2 different solid floor systems: a non-sloped (L) and a 3% one-sided sloped floor (S), combined with a highly frequent (96 times/day) or normal (12 times/day) removal of manure by a scraper. NH3 emissions were measured continuously over 2 separate 2-we

  10. Branding on the Shop Floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilvia Gyimóthy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Service branding is a particular form of emotional management, where employees are regarded as adaptable media, who can be trained to convey corporate values while interacting with customers. This paper examines the identity work of butchers during the brand revitalisation campaign of Kvickly, a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performed. By documenting the disloyal behaviour of butchers, we demonstrate that the affective commitment towards corporate brand values is closely related with self-enactment opportunities of occupational communities. Total service-orientation threatens butchers’ perception of autonomy and may therefore result in the emergence of resistant sub-cultures.

  11. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a ve

  12. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000 psi...

  13. Floor vibrations due to walking loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkervoort, D.R.; Hoenderkamp, J.C.D.; Oosterhout, G.P.C. van

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally floors are designed for static strength and stiffness. Improved methods of construction and design, using high strength-lightweight materials, have resulted in strong and stiff floors that display unsatisfactory dynamic behaviour when exposed to walking loads. The paper discusses a met

  14. [Functional rehabilitation of the pelvic floor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minschaert, M

    2003-09-01

    Pelvic floor revalidation is devoted to conserve perineal functions as statics, urinary continence and sexual harmony. The therapeutics includes preventive and curative actions, and is based upon muscular and neuromuscular properties of pelvic floor. The different steps are: information, local muscular work, behavioral education, biofeedback, functional electrostimulation, intraabdominal pressure control. The therapeutics is only continued if clinical improvement is demonstrated after 10 sessions.

  15. Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shien Weng

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  16. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Specialist X-Ray; DeLancey, John O.L. (eds.) [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). L4000 Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  17. Investigation of floor heating with thermal storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-guo; ZHANG Su-yun; FU Xiang-zhao; WANG Yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on experimental data, the energy storage performances of floor radiant heating system were investigated.Based on experimental data, the energy storage performances of floor radiant heating system were investigated. The decrease of indoor air temperature after the stopping of floor heating was compared with that of fan-coil heating system. The increase of indoor air temperature after the stopping of floor cooling system was analyzed. The results show that the floor heating system has good thermal storage performance, which can be used to a night-running model to obtain the energy-saving benefits efficient and economic running cost, and still can be used for "shifting peak load to off-peak" macroscopically.

  18. Pelvic floor and sexual male dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pischedda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito- urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life.

  19. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized.

  20. Parameters determination and bolting control of gateway floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Pan-feng; XlN Ya-jun

    2011-01-01

    Gateway floor heave control is the key to guarantee mine safe and efficient production.Through analysis of floor instability characteristics and bolting control,gateway floor strata show second level stress under abutment pressure,which causes plastic flow failure in floor strata; gateway floor instability shows mainly shear-break slippage of “triangle sliding body”.Mechanics of floor bolting is mainly a function of connection and combination.Main area of bolting control lies in two gateway floor angles.The paper analyzes mechanics principle of gateway floor instability,constructs stability mechanics model of gateway floor bolting,obtains gateway floor stability criterion of different bolting angles and optimum formula of bolting parameters,carries out the engineering example,and guides better field application.It provides theoretical base for bolting gateway floor instability control.

  1. Do Open Floor Plans Invite Overeating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among American adults. Rollings and Wells suggested that future studies might explore the effect of floor plan openness in settings where overeating can occur, such as residential kitchens; college, school and workplace cafeterias; and buffet-style ...

  2. Constructing international floors for language learning ends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... international floors for language learning ends: reflectng on a teacher upgrading course. ... The researcher, who participated as a teacher trainer in the TRANSNET-RIEP project, used ... Both dialogues were based on pre-reading activities.

  3. Vaginal childbirth and pelvic floor disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Memon, Hafsa U.; Handa, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is an important event in a woman’s life. Vaginal childbirth is the most common mode of delivery and it has been associated with increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders later in life. In this article, the authors review and summarize current literature associating pelvic floor disorders with vaginal childbirth. Stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse are strongly associated with vaginal childbirth and parity. The exact mechanism of injury associating vaginal deli...

  4. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  5. WOODEN FLOORING – BETWEEN PRESENT AND FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan CISMARU; Marius FILIPAȘCU; Olimpia-Minerva ȚURCAȘ (DIACONU); Adriana FOTIN

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims at presenting a systematization of the wood floors, both in terms of the areas of application, and in terms of the fastening solutions and structures in constructions. In this respect, an extensive bibliographic research was achieved, on the researchers’ preoccupations. Starting from the current situation and forecasting the future, from the point of view of the chances held by wooden flooring, in competition with other types of materials, we dare say the wooden flo...

  6. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  7. A novel & affordable interactive floor for educational applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Ulrik; Hansen, Anders Juul; Knudsen, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two research areas: How interactive floors can be used beneficially in an educational context, and how an interactive floor can be created which is mobile and relatively inexpensive.......This article examines two research areas: How interactive floors can be used beneficially in an educational context, and how an interactive floor can be created which is mobile and relatively inexpensive....

  8. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 120 and 121 Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make available 7(a) loan guaranties for lines of credit that provide floor plan financing. This new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business Jobs...

  9. Don’t Forget About Dedicated Sea Mine Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-13

    western coast of South Korea, due to large tidal ranges and sedimentation from four river outflows, has a variety of natural sea floor conditions such as...archipelago (the Sunda strait between Sumatra and Java, the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok and the through the Flores Sea

  10. [Aging-related changes of the female pelvic floor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, David; Betschart, Cornelia; Perucchini, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The pelvic floor as lower closure of the abdominal cavity has to withstand the abdominal pressure. Meanwhile, the pelvic floor has to allow physiologic functions like micturition, defecation, sexual function and reproduction. But while pregnancy and vaginal delivery damage the pelvic floor directly, chronic stress like caugh, heavy lifting, or obesity lead to a chronic overstraining of the pelvic floor. Aging, structural changes, and possibly estrogen deficiency have a negative impact on the pelvic floor.

  11. Marine Habitat Mapping for the Norwegian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Noji, Thomas; Thorsnes, Terje; Fosså, Jan Helge

    2000-01-01

    An initiative is currently being taken by several Norwegian organizations to obtain funds to intensify ongoing investigations on marine sea-floor mapping off Norway. Led by the Geological Survey of Norway and Institute of Marine Research, planning during the last two years has led to the inception of a large-scale mapping project entitled “MAREANO - Marine Areal Database for the Norwegian Sea”. The investigation area covers 270 000 km2 of the shelf and deep sea off the central ...

  12. Total pelvic floor ultrasound for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction: a pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Solanki, Deepa; Schizas, Alexis M P; Williams, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic floor ultrasound is used for the dynamic assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction and allows multicompartmental anatomical and functional assessment. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes defaecatory, urinary and sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and pain. It is common, increasingly recognized and associated with increasing age and multiparity. Other options for assessment include defaecation proctography and defaecation MRI. Total pelvic floor ultrasound is a cheap, safe, imaging tool, which may be performed as a first-line investigation in outpatients. It allows dynamic assessment of the entire pelvic floor, essential for treatment planning for females who often have multiple diagnoses where treatment should address all aspects of dysfunction to yield optimal results. Transvaginal scanning using a rotating single crystal probe provides sagittal views of bladder neck support anteriorly. Posterior transvaginal ultrasound may reveal rectocoele, enterocoele or intussusception whilst bearing down. The vaginal probe is also used to acquire a 360° cross-sectional image to allow anatomical visualization of the pelvic floor and provides information regarding levator plate integrity and pelvic organ alignment. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound using a conventional curved array probe provides a global view of the anterior, middle and posterior compartments and may show cystocoele, enterocoele, sigmoidocoele or rectocoele. This pictorial review provides an atlas of normal and pathological images required for global pelvic floor assessment in females presenting with defaecatory dysfunction. Total pelvic floor ultrasound may be used with complementary endoanal ultrasound to assess the sphincter complex, but this is beyond the scope of this review.

  13. 17 CFR 1.62 - Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration. 1.62 Section 1.62 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1...

  14. Orbital floor reconstruction with resorbable polydioxanone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierloff, Matthias; Seeck, Niels Gunnar Karl; Springer, Ingo; Becker, StephanThomas; Kandzia, Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Many different materials are proposed for reconstruction of traumatic orbital floor defects. Donor-site morbidity of autologous transplants and infections or extrusions of nonresorbable implants lead to a widespread use of resorbable, alloplastic materials such as polydioxanone (PDS). The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of orbital floor fracture-related problems after surgical treatment using PDS. Ophthalmologic and clinical examinations were performed at 194 patients before orbital floor reconstruction, 14 days and 6 months after surgery (approximate defect sizes: 2 cm², n=47). Clinical findings including the ocular motility, the sensibility of the infraorbital nerve, and the position of the globe were evaluated. For statistical analysis of categorical data, confidence intervals of percentages were determined. Linear relationships between 2 variables were assessed with Pearson correlation analysis. A reduced ocular motility was diagnosed in 60 patients (31%) before surgery; in 14 patients (7%), 2 weeks; and in 10 patients (5%), 6 months after surgery. Infraorbital hypesthesia was found in 120 patients (62%) before surgery; in 47 patients (24%), 2 weeks; and in 35 patients (18%), 6 months after surgery. An enophthalmos was present in 10 patients (5%) before surgery, and in 4 patients (2%), 6 months after surgery. Our data suggest that PDS is a suitable implant for orbital floor reconstruction with acceptable low rates of infraorbital hypesthesia, bulbus motility disturbances, and enophthalmos. Polydioxanone can also be used for orbital floor defects exceeding 2 cm².

  15. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  16. WOODEN FLOORING – BETWEEN PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting a systematization of the wood floors, both in terms of the areas of application, and in terms of the fastening solutions and structures in constructions. In this respect, an extensive bibliographic research was achieved, on the researchers’ preoccupations. Starting from the current situation and forecasting the future, from the point of view of the chances held by wooden flooring, in competition with other types of materials, we dare say the wooden flooring or the wood in combination with other materials are not likely to be eliminated from the “civil-engineering market”. The wood floors are likely to develop as an application, especially in the area of the “special floors”, specific to the indoor sports or social halls; and even for some industrial sectors, with strict operating conditions (elasticity, thermal insulation, soundproofing that cannot be provided by other types of materials or structures. Starting from this last observation, the paper also aims at submitting current opinions with respect to this type of floors, both in the light of the current databases and in the light of the future researches, to this end

  17. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  18. Climate Change Affects Deep Sea Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emma Marris; 秦春雨

    2004-01-01

    @@ The remote and lightless deep-sea floor has long been thought to be protected from events on the surface, such as global warming. But it now seems that climate change impinges on the rhythm of life on the seabed after all.

  19. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St. Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  20. Synthetic biomaterials for pelvic floor reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Matthew E; Kushner, Leslie; Badlani, Gopal H

    2005-09-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence increase with age. The increasing proportion of the aging female population is likely to result in a demand for care of pelvic floor prolapse and incontinence. Experimental evidence of altered connective tissue metabolism may predispose to pelvic floor dysfunction, supporting the use of biomaterials, such as synthetic mesh, to correct pelvic fascial defects. Re-establishing pelvic support and continence calls for a biomaterial to be inert, flexible, and durable and to simultaneously minimize infection and erosion risk. Mesh as a biomaterial has evolved considerably throughout the past half century to the current line that combines ease of use, achieves good outcomes, and minimizes risk. This article explores the biochemical basis for pelvic floor attenuation and reviews various pelvic reconstructive mesh materials, their successes, failures, complications, and management.

  1. Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Disch, F J; Tuinzing, D B

    2000-06-01

    Inadequate bone height in the lateral part of the maxilla forms a contra-indication for implant surgery. This condition can be treated with an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. This sinus floor elevation, formerly called sinus lifting, consists of a surgical procedure in which a top hinge door in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is prepared and internally rotated to a horizontal position. The new elevated sinus floor, together with the inner maxillary mucosa, will create a space that can be filled with graft material. Sinus lift procedures depend greatly on fragile structures and anatomical variations. The variety of anatomical modalities in shape of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus defines the surgical approach. Conditions such as sinus floor convolutions, sinus septum, transient mucosa swelling and narrow sinus may form a (usually relative) contra-indication for sinus floor elevation. Absolute contra-indications are maxillary sinus diseases (tumors) and destructive former sinus surgery (like the Caldwell-Luc operation). The lateral sinus wall is usually a thin bone plate, which is easily penetrated with rotating or sharp instruments. The fragile Schneiderian membrane plays an important role for the containment of the bonegraft. The surgical procedure of preparing the trap door and luxating it, together with the preparation of the sinus mucosa, may cause a mucosa tear. Usually, when these perforations are not too large, they will fold together when turning the trap door inward and upward, or they can be glued with a fibrin sealant, or they can be covered with a resorbable membrane. If the perforation is too large, a cortico-spongious block graft can be considered. However, in most cases the sinus floor elevation will be deleted. Perforations may also occur due to irregularities in the sinus floor or even due to immediate contact of sinus mucosa with oral mucosa. Obstruction of the antro-nasal foramen is, due to its high location, not a

  2. Thermal Performance Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Floor Structure with Radiant Floor Heating System in Apartment Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the resilient materials in the radiant floor heating systems of reinforced concrete floor in apartment housing is closely related to the reduction of the floor impact sound and the heating energy loss. This study examined the thermal conductivity of expanded polystyrene (EPS foam used for the resilient material in South Korea and analysed the thermal transfer of reinforced concrete floor structure according to the thermal conductivity of the resilient materials. 82 EPS specimens were used to measure the thermal conductivity. The measured apparent density of EPS resilient materials ranged between 9.5 and 63.0 kg/m3, and the thermal conductivity ranged between 0.030 and 0.046 W/(m·K. As the density of resilient materials made of expanded polystyrene foam increases, the thermal conductivity tends to proportionately decrease. To set up reasonable thermal insulation requirements for radiant heating floor systems, the thermal properties of floor structure according to thermal insulation materials must be determined. Heat transfer simulations were performed to analyze the surface temperature, heat loss, and heat flow of floor structure with radiant heating system. As the thermal conductivity of EPS resilient material increased 1.6 times, the heat loss was of 3.4% increase.

  3. Modal analysis for floors in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    constructions usually consist of plates that are stiffened by beams and by the dividing walls. In this study the wave equation for a plate is expanded by Fourier series and an analytical solution in terms of the eigenmodes of the entire system is presented. The studied system consists of one lightweigt floor...

  4. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  5. Modal analysis for floors in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    constructions usually consist of plates that are stiffened by beams and by the dividing walls. In this study the wave equation for a plate is expanded by Fourier series and an analytical solution in terms of the eigenmodes of the entire system is presented. The studied system consists of one lightweigt floor...

  6. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  7. Engagement and Floor Control in Hybrid Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Devanthéry, V.; Zwiers, Jakob; Hondorp, G.H.W.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Hofs, D.H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The Human Media Interaction group of the University of Twente has developed a User Engagment and Floor Control Demonstrator, a system that uses modules for online speech recognition, real-time visual focus of attention as well as a module that signals who is being addressed by the speaker. A

  8. Functional imaging of the pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, Andreas E-mail: andreaslienemann@web.de; Fischer, Tanja

    2003-08-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunction and associated pelvic organ prolapse represent a major problem in our present-day society, mostly afflicting parous women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is assuming an increasingly important role in the more accurate delineation of the extent of the problem. This article briefly reviews one of the main radiological methods for the dynamic evaluation of the pelvic floor: functional cine MRI. Methods and Material: Out of the literature the smallest common denominator for functional cine MRI can be defined as follows: high field system; patient either in supine or sitting position; fast gradient echo sequence; midsagittal slice orientation; either a stack of slices or repeated measurements at the same slice position with the patient at rest or straining; image analysis using the pubococcygeal reference line. Results: All except two publications stress the usefulness of functional cine MRI in the evaluation of patients with organ descent and prolapse. This well accepted method allows for the visualization of all relevant structures in the anterior, middle and posterior compartment. It is especially useful in the detection of enteroceles, and provides a reliable postoperative follow-up tool. Isolated urinary or stool incontinence are not an indication for functional cine MRI, as is the case in patients with equivocal clinical findings. To date it does not allow for real 3D imaging of the pelvic floor or sufficient determination of fascial defects. Discussion: Functional cine MRI of the pelvic floor is a promising new imaging method for the detection of organ descent and prolapse in patients with equivocal clinical findings. The combination of function and morphology allows for an innovative view of the pelvic floor, and thus adds to our understanding of the various interactions of the structures.

  9. Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salah Darwish

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.

  10. Testing of the Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal Stories Contact About GI Motility ... Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal Stories Contact Anorectal and Pelvic ...

  11. Floor Vibrations - as Induced and Reduced by Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    . The appropriateness and accuracy of this modelling approach is evaluated. Implications of human-floor interaction are studied with focus on the impact of the interaction on the size of vibration levels of human-occupied floors and on the impact on floor dynamic characteristics. The influence of the interaction......The work is a contribution to the problem of modelling human-induced dynamic loads on floors and to the problem of modelling the interaction between stationary crowds of people and a vibrating floor. Experimental investigations are made to examine, update and refine currently available models....... As for dynamic loads focus is placed on heel impact excitation and actions of jumping people causing floor vibrations. As for interaction between stationary humans and the vibrating floor focus is on modelling humans as oscillating spring-mass-damper systems attached to the floor rather than as simple added mass...

  12. A novel & affordable interactive floor for educational applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Ulrik; Hansen, Anders Juul; Knudsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two research areas: How interactive floors can be used beneficially in an educational context, and how an interactive floor can be created which is mobile and relatively inexpensive....

  13. Severe bleeding after sinus floor elevation using the transcrestal technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgard; Eriksen, Jacob; Schiodt, Morten

    2012-01-01

    To present a rare but clinically significant complication to sinus floor elevation (SFE) using the transcrestal technique.......To present a rare but clinically significant complication to sinus floor elevation (SFE) using the transcrestal technique....

  14. SeaBOSS sea floor images from cruise SUN00030: JPEG format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  15. Formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior of laminate flooring by structure of laminate flooring and heating condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2011-03-15

    Formaldehyde was measured with a desiccator, a 20 L chamber and the FLEC method. The formaldehyde emission rate from laminate was the highest at 32 °C using the desiccator, which then decreased with time. The formaldehyde emission using the 20 L small chamber and FLEC showed a similar tendency. There was a strong correlation between the formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) with both types of floorings using the two different methods. The formaldehyde emission rate and TVOC results were higher when tested using the FLEC method than with the 20 L small chamber method. The emission rate was affected by the joint edge length in laminate flooring. Toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene were the main VOCs emitted from laminate flooring, and there were more unidentified VOCs emitted than identified VOCs. The samples heated with a floor heating system emitted more formaldehyde than those heated using an air circulation system due to the temperature difference between the bottom panel and flooring. The TVOC emission level of the samples was higher when an air circulation system was used than when a floor heating system was used due to the high ventilation rate.

  16. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Yoon Lee; Jong-Mun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved condu...

  17. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dys...

  18. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and ...

  19. Complete Pelvic Floor Repair in Treating Fecal Incontinence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Patrick Y. H.; Steele, Scott R

    2005-01-01

    Fecal incontinence is associated with 20 to 40% of the patients with pelvic floor prolapse. Successful management of fecal incontinence requires not only an understanding of anorectal function but also a thorough understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and how pelvic floor prolapse affects fecal continence. Imaging techniques have been instrumental in visualizing pelvic floor prolapse and have helped correlate surgical findings. Stabilization of the perineal body appears to be a key component t...

  20. What Do You Really Know About Floor Finishes & Strippers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    An independent testing laboratory reveals the results of comparative studies done on vinyl flooring and the question of to wax or not to wax'' and which waxes work best with what flooring; and provides six evaluation tips on floor strippers. (EA)

  1. Pelvic floor function during and after first pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummen, H.J. van

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects the first pregnancy and childbirth on the pelvic floor. Pregnancy and vaginal delivery can negatively affect pelvic floor function. Micturition symptoms, defecation symptoms and sexual dysfunction are all signs of an impaired pelvic floor function. These symptoms are

  2. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  3. Mining the ocean floor: Managing geological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wambeke, T.; Alvarez Grima, M.; Fenton, G.A.; Benndorf, J.; Vervoort, A.

    2013-01-01

    As land resources decrease, commodity prices increase, and technology evolves, deep sea mining is becoming a viable alternative to meet the increasing demand for minerals. Successful deep sea mining operations are built on sound identification of the resource, proper selection of equipment, a though

  4. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  5. Concrete floor-bovine claw contact pressures related to floor roughness and deformation of the claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, A; De Belie, N

    2006-08-01

    The intention of this research was to study the impact of concrete floor surface roughness on a bovine claw model and to assess the deformation of the bovine claw model under load. The pressure distribution between the floor and the claw is the key method in this research. Monitoring foot-to-ground pressure distributions may provide insight into the relation between high local pressures and foot lesions. Concrete floor samples were made with 5 different finishing methods. Their roughness was determined by measuring the heights of the "peaks and the valleys" of the surface with a high-precision laser beam. The smoothest surface was the sample finished with a metal float (surface roughness R(a) = 0.062 mm) and the roughest surface occurred with the heavily sandblasted sample (surface roughness R(a) = 0.488 mm). The roughness of the concrete floor samples was related to the mean and peak contact pressures that can occur in a laboratory test bench between floor and bovine claw. It was found that the claw itself has approximately 2 times more effect on these contact pressures than the surface roughness. Peak pressures found were high enough (up to 111 MPa) to cause damage to the bovine claw sole horn. The strains occurring in the horn wall were measured and related to the floor-finishing method and the load. Strain gauge measurements indicated that it is difficult to predict what kind of deformation of the claw wall will occur at a certain location. Different strains will occur for different floor-finishing methods. The corresponding stresses in the horn wall did not exceed the yield stress (14 and 11 MPa for dorsal and abaxial wall horn, respectively).

  6. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  7. [Functional anatomy of the pelvic floor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, René; Delmas, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The pelvic floor is the support of the pelvic viscera. The levator ani muscle (LA) with its two bundles (pubo- and iliococcygeus) is the major component of this pelvic floor. LA is formed essentially by type I fibers (slow twitch, with high oxidative capability and presence of slow myosin) as in postural muscles. The aerobic metabolism makes LA fragile to excentric contraction and to mitochondrial dysfunction. The innervation of the pelvic floor comes from the 2nd, 3rd, 4th anterior sacral roots; denervation affects pelvic dynamism. Perineum includes the musculofascial structures under the LA: ventrally the striated sphincter of urethra and the ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus, caudally the fatty tissue filling the ischioanal fossa. Pelvic fascia covers the muscles ; it presents reinforcements : the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments, the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP) and the arcus tendineus levator ani (ATLA). The pelvis statics is supported by the combined action of all this anatomical structures anteriorly forming the perineal "hammock," medially the uterosacral and cardinal ligaments, posteriorly the rectovaginal fascia and the perineal body. The angles formed by the pelvic viscera with their evacuation ducts participate to the pelvic statics. During the pelvic dynamics the modification of these angles expresses the action of the musculofascial structures.

  8. Some Passive Damping Sources on Flooring Systems besides the TMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Impulsive loads and walking loads can generate problematic structural vibrations in flooring-systems. Measures that may be taken to mitigate the problem would often be to consider the implementation of a tuned mass damper or even more advanced vibration control technologies; this in order to add...... damping to the structure. Basically also passive humans on a floor act as a damping source, but it also turns out from doing system identification tests with a floor strip that a quite simple set-up installed on the floor (cheap and readily at hand) might do a good job in terms of reducing vertical floor...

  9. Impact sound insulation improvement of wooden floors on concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan; Hansen, Rói

    2014-01-01

    . The measurements indicated up to about 8 dB improvement potential compared to floor constructions typical before the latest change of regulations, namely wooden floors on joists on PE wedges or similar. In addition, tests of small-scale samples (1 m2) – unsuitable for type testing – were performed to provide...... a fast track ranking of different floor supports, giving also the opportunity to compare differences between small-scale floors with those from full-scale measurements. The paper presents results from the laboratory tests of different floor supports....

  10. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Flooring-system designs may be sensitive in terms of their vibrational performance due the risk that serviceability-limit-state problems may be encountered. For evaluating the vibrational performance of a flooring system at the design stage, decisions must be made by the engineer in charge...... of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non...

  11. Complete pelvic floor repair in treating fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patrick Y H; Steele, Scott R

    2005-02-01

    Fecal incontinence is associated with 20 to 40% of the patients with pelvic floor prolapse. Successful management of fecal incontinence requires not only an understanding of anorectal function but also a thorough understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and how pelvic floor prolapse affects fecal continence. Imaging techniques have been instrumental in visualizing pelvic floor prolapse and have helped correlate surgical findings. Stabilization of the perineal body appears to be a key component to the success of pelvic floor repair and fecal continence, but the optimal repair is far from being established.

  12. Pelvic floor dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurri, A; Maffioli, A; Danelli, P

    2015-12-01

    Advances in tailored medical therapy and introduction of biologic agents for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment have ensured long-term disease remission. Some patients, however, still report defecatory symptoms. Patients present with a wide spectrum of conditions - anal incontinence, obstructed defecation and pelvic pain among the most frequent - that have a great impact on their quality of life. Due to IBD diagnosis, little relevance is attributed to this type of symptoms and their epidemiologic distribution is unknown. Pathogenetic hypotheses are currently under investigation. Routine diagnostic workflow and therapeutic options in pelvic floor service are often underused. The evaluation of these disorders starts with an endoscopy to rule out ongoing disease; the following diagnostic workflow is the same as in patients without IBD. For fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation, simple conservative therapy with dietary modifications and appropriate fluid intake is effective in most cases. In non-responding patients, anorectal physiology tests and imaging are required to select patients for pelvic floor muscle training and biofeedback. These treatments have been proven effective in IBD patients. Some new minimally invasive alternative strategies are available for IBD patients, as sacral nerve and posterior tibial nerve stimulation; for other ones (e.g., bulking agent implantation) IBD still remains an exclusion criterion. In order to preserve anatomical areas that could be useful for future reconstructive techniques, surgical options to cure pelvic floor dysfunction are indicated only in a small group of IBD patients, due to the high risk of failure in wound healing and to the possible side effects of surgery, which can lead to anal incontinence or to a possible proctectomy. A particular issue among defecatory symptoms in patients with IBD is paradoxical puborectalis contraction after restorative proctocolectomy: if this disorder is properly diagnosed, a

  13. From Ocean Floor to Restaurant Table

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANDONG Province harbors one of the ten maior families of dishes in China—the Lu-stvle of foed Located next to the Bohai Sea. Shandong Province is filled with many tasty sea treats. There are two branches of Lu-style food, The dishes popnlar in inner Shandong contain mostly poultry. meat and internat organs of animals. The other branch of Lu-style food, popular in the coastal area features seafood Restaurants along coastal cities and villages offer dishes cooked with fresh seafood, crops, fruits and vegetables. Cooked in their own juices, they feature an originat flavor. People in the coastal villages along the Bohai and Huanghai seas lire on fishing with men going to sea while women take care of the household chores and wodk in the fields. Hard-boiled snakeheaded fish’s eggs and sea urchin soup are frequently served in the morning before men set out to sea According to folk legend, these dishes are believde to stop storms and give men courage to overcome difficulties The intervals men don’t go to sea

  14. Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors and to save energy in Dutch houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an experimental research is presented on a new use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in concrete floors, in which thermal energy provided by the sun is stored in a mix of concrete and PCMs. When this thermal energy is being released – in moderate sea climates during the evening and

  15. Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors and to save energy in Dutch houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, A.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an experimental research is presented on a new use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in concrete floors, in which thermal energy provided by the sun is stored in a mix of concrete and PCMs. When this thermal energy is being released – in moderate sea climates during the evening and earl

  16. Sun Illuminated Color Image of the 150 meter grid of the Puerto Rico Trench (SUNILLUM.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic features in the Puerto Rico trench are remotely sensed, monitored, collected, studied, and analyzed. This data set was colorized by depth and converted to...

  17. Sun Illuminated Color Image of the 150 meter grid of the Puerto Rico Trench (SUNILLUM.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic features in the Puerto Rico trench are remotely sensed, monitored, collected, studied, and analyzed. This data set was colorized by depth and converted to...

  18. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  19. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yoon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  20. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  1. Sea Duct: A Deep-Sea Computer-Controlled Recirculating Flume for the Study of Sea Floor Stability. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    OUT DATA 1870 OurC’ 40 Do ’I’ ;TYPE ’’ 1 7i 0810’ 07 LDH GPAGE 1872 081’ PA AR OFEa 1873 OSC0’ 57 STR GPAGE ;CLEAR I FLAG 1874 osCi’ 3067’ BR ATRTN...an nnfl= 30-0) MUST 3E CN AS𔄁’ 221. 0123’ A7 PLO GPAGE CYCLES FOR 30 SEC. IConn. I - Pin 3 22 316’ 07 LDH GPAGE 2:3 327’ 3A 37’ BNZ PIGAGN I7F IRST...plug male disconnect into female disconnect on PVC relief I. valve mounting block G. Disconnect compensation regulator sense line at canister base

  2. Relations between pregnancy-related low back pain, pelvic floor activity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.; Slieker ten Hove, M.C.; Vierhout, M.E.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Pool, J.; Snijders, C.J.; Stoeckart, R.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) in pregnancy- related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) patients, a cross-sectional study was performed, comprising 77 subjects. Each subject underwent physical assessment, and filled in the Urogenital Distress Inventory completed with gynaeco

  3. Building concepts - Floor concepts. Towards more added value for precast concrete floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkervoort, D.R.; Kroon, J.C.A. de; Vullings, M.W.F.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands, precast concrete are preffered for floors in residential buildings. Typical for the dutch building process is the labor intensive and time consuming character, which has considerable risks for building contractors, many parties are involved and, consequently, there are many

  4. MOBB: Data Analysis from an Ocean Floor Broadband Seismic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrhammer, R. A.; Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; Stakes, D.; McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Ramirez, T.

    2003-12-01

    MOBB (Monterey bay Ocean floor Broad Band project) is a collaborative project between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). Its goal is to install and operate a permanent seafloor broadband station as a first step towards extending the on-shore broadband seismic network in northern California, to the seaside of the North-America/Pacific plate boundary, providing improved azimuthal coverage for regional earthquake and structure studies. The MOBB station was installed on the seafloor in Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore, and at a depth of 1000m from the sea surface, in April 2002, and is completely buried under the seafloor level. The installation made use of MBARI's Point Lobos ship and ROV Ventana and the station currently records data autonomously. Dives are scheduled regularly (about every three months) to recover and replace the recording and battery packages. Some data were lost in the first half of 2003 due to hardware and software problems in the recording system. The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package (Guralp CMG-1T), a current-meter, a digital pressure gauge (DPG), and recording and battery packages. The seismometer package is mounted on a cylindrical titanium pressure vessel 54cm in height and 41 cm in diameter, custom built by the MBARI team and outfitted for underwater connection. Since the background noise in the near-shore ocean floor environment is high in the band pass of interest, for the study of regional and teleseismic signals, an important focus of this project is to develop methods to a posteriori increase signal to noise ratios, by deconvolving contributions from various sources of noise. We present results involving analysis of correlation of background noise with tide, ocean current and pressure records, combining data from MOBB and regional land based stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). We also present preliminary

  5. Worldwide Analysis of Sedimentary DNA Reveals Major Gaps in Taxonomic Knowledge of Deep-Sea Benthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinniger, Frédéric; Pawlowski, Jan; Harii, Saki

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea sediments represent the largest but least known ecosystem on earth. With increasing anthropogenic pressure, it is now a matter of urgency to improve our understanding of deep-sea biodiversity. Traditional morpho-taxonomic studies suggest that the ocean floor hosts extraordinarily diverse...

  6. Collection and Management of Shop-floor ControllerData

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes shop-floor data collection and management. An arc hitecture is presented for a shop-floor data collection and management system b a sed on the analysis of the features of these data. Two critical aspects of the s ystem are discussed in detail: the various communication protocols between compu ters and machines, and the real-time demands of the shop-floor controller.

  7. Tactile Imaging Markers to Characterize Female Pelvic Floor Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raalte, Heather; Egorov, Vladimir

    2015-08-01

    The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. The objective of this study is to validate tactile imaging and muscle contraction parameters (markers) sensitive to the female pelvic floor conditions. Twenty-two women with normal and prolapse conditions were examined by a vaginal tactile imaging probe. We identified 9 parameters which were sensitive to prolapse conditions (p pelvic floor prolapse.

  8. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  9. Floating asphalt blocks of the Dead Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Aizenshtat, Z.; Goldberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large blocks of mineral matter free (less than 0.1%) asphalt are occasionally found floating on the surface of the Dead Sea. Chemical, spectroscopic and isotopic data are given for the asphalt. The source of the asphalt is not accurately known, but presumably it represents mobilization of heavy viscous asphaltic masses at depth below the lake bottom into the floor of the lake. It may be released to the surface by earth tremors.

  10. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed.

  12. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2007-01-01

    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor...... can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous...

  13. Analysis of Wood Floor Industry's Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an emerging industry,China's wood floor industry dates back to the early 1980s. Despite a late start,it has developed rapidly during the last 20 years.The past decades have witnessed great changes in China's wood floor industry.With high quality,many products"made in China"are available widely abroad nowadays.Current global economic shocks,however,affect China's domestic real estate sector;hence the falling domestic sales of wood floor.The paper aims to identify the current situation of floor industry...

  14. Law of the sea: Deep-ocean mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    It has taken 14 years for the Law of the Sea Convention to adopt an agreement to control and regulate activities by nations on the world's ocean floors. Of particular concern to the United States was the subject of deep ocean mining; adoption of the convention's draft was voted on at United Nations headquarters this past April 30th (see Eos, June 1, p. 523). The United States voted not to adopt the draft; the Reagan administration announced that the President will not sign the Law of the Sea Convention later this year when it is opened for signature in Caracas, Venezuela. There is a lot at stake from the standpoint of both the need for strategic metals, such as manganese, that exist on the deep-ocean floor and the protection of the technology of ocean-floor mining. Regulations on deep-ocean mining practices could threaten the interests of the major nations.

  15. Aspects of the Quaternary evolution of the Southern Kattegat and the central North Sea based on interpretation of 2D and 3D marine reflection seismic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina

    indicate a catastrophic drainage event. With a continuous Holocene sea-level rise back-stepping (landwards retreat) of the coastal systems occurred, followed by flooding of the northern Great Belt threshold and major erosion took place. Rapid sea-level rise preserved the sea floor morphology which...

  16. An Oceanographic and Climatological Atlas of the Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    ZONES....................................... 303 FREEZEUP /BREAKUP DATES.................................... 304-310 5. REFERENCES...42 Average Date of Freezeup ............................ 304 I Figure 43 Median Date of Freezeup ............................. 305 Figure 44 Average...except the southern floor are common in this shear zone since these Bering Sea. FREEZEUP /BREAKUP DATES Building on the earlier work of LaBelle et al

  17. Bipolar gene flow in deep-sea benthic foraminifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, J.; Fahrni, J.; Lecroq, B.

    2007-01-01

    Despite its often featureless appearance, the deep-ocean floor includes some of the most diverse habitats on Earth. However, the accurate assessment of global deep-sea diversity is impeded by a paucity of data on the geographical ranges of bottom-dwelling species, particularly at the genetic leve...

  18. Flatness floor system by caterpillar rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Teizou; Motoyama, Tomomi

    2000-01-01

    The grooves on the floor to allow sliding of automatic doors in office buildings, hospitals, etc., can cause inconvenience or even accidents because the wheels of wheel chairs or high-heeled shoes can get stuck within the grooves. In addition, collection of rainwater and dust within the grooves impede the proper functioning of the automatic doors. As a counter measure to this problem, a caterpillar-like retractable groove cover was designed and made from stainless steel. Since the edges of the cover required high precision, high speed laser processing was applied in the making of its component parts. The caterpillar cover design, laser processing conditions, durability testing by repetition of door opening/closing etc. are explained in this paper. The covers developed through this study were installed in the automatic doors of a high rise building and have been found to be effective in overcoming the problems mentioned above.

  19. Dimensional stability of heat treated wood floorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Živković

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat treated wood (HTW is successfully applied for floorings due to its better moisture resistance, increased dimensional stability, and uniform colour change to darker, brownish colours. The aim of this work was to define the hygroscopic range and equilibrium moisture content at ambient conditions of heat treated wood of two wood species – ash and beech. Material was treated at two temperature levels, 190 and 210 °C, and the properties were compared with native wood. The reduction in dimensional changes is expressed by volumetric shrinking and Anti Shrink Efficiency (ASE. Additionally, parquet elements were made out of such HTW, oil-impregnated and waxed, and subsequently tested for water vapour and liquid water permeability. Shrinking gradients of HTW were not reduced in comparison with native beech wood, but the absolute reduction in water uptake resulted in cca 50 % lower EMC values and up to cca 60 % improved ASE values. Surface treatment further improved the hygroscopic properties of HTW.

  20. [Reconstructive surgery of female pelvic floor prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    It is recommended to perform pelvic floor prolapse surgery within a concept which bases on the women's symptoms, the expectations on life quality and functional aspects of the vagina, urinary bladder and rectum. Decisions on type of surgery must also be founded on the anatomical defect. An apical prolapse should either be fixed by sacrospinous ligament suspension or by sacrocolpopexy. In case of a cystocele the type of defect must be considered; a cystocele with a central defect can be corrected by anterior colporrhaphy whereas the cystocele caused by a paravaginal defect needs lateral fixation which today is increasingly done by vaginal mesh surgery. Rectocele repair is performed by posterior colporrhaphy. Knowledge of success and complication rates is essential for taking the right surgical decisions and for counselling the patient.

  1. The Organisation of Floor in Meetings and the Relation with Speaker Addressee Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Theune, Mariet; Truong, Khiet Phuong; de Kok, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a procedure for conversational floor annotation and discuss floor types and floor switches in face-to-face meetings and the relation with addressing behavior. It seems that for understanding interactions in meetings an agent needs a layered floor model and that turn and floor changes are

  2. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax. (a) Electronic funds transfer. If the dealer pays any other excise taxes collected by TTB by electronic funds...

  3. The architectural foundations for agent-based shop floor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1998-01-01

    simulation and cell controlenabling technologies. In order to continuethis research effortnew concepts and theories for shop floor control are investigated.This paper reviews the multi-agent concept aimed at investigatingits potential use in shop floor control systems. The paper willalso include a survey...

  4. Consultation system of forecasting the mine floor flood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-quan; ZHANG Hong-ri; LIU Wei-tao

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of the current situation of the mine floor flood and the cnsultation system study, the overall design and structure, specially, the mechanism of many kinds of method for making a strategic decision and reasoning of the system of prevention and control of mine floor flood are introduced. The applied examples are given at last.

  5. Exposure assessment of kneeling work activities among floor layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L K; Rytter, S; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    for a whole working day. External knee forces were measured in five different kneeling work positions in ten floor layers using Computer Dynography. The study showed that floor layers spent a high percentage of time in knee-straining work positions. Kneeling work tasks, particularly gluing and crawling caused...

  6. Effects of roughness and compressibility of flooring on cow locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2006-08-01

    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.

  7. Energy harvesting from wood floor vibration using a piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiangming Kan; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang; Wenbin Li

    2017-01-01

    Vibration can occur in wood floor systems as a consequence of a variety of human activities, ranging from common daily movements associated with individuals living in homes to high-intensity activities associated with sporting events that are held in large sports arenas. For example, the potential for harvesting energy from a wooden floor system in public buildings...

  8. Toolchain for User-Centered Intelligent Floor Heating Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agesen, Mads Kronborg; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikučionis, Marius;

    2016-01-01

    Floor heating systems are important components of nowadays home-automation setups. The control of a floor heating system is a nontrivial task and the present solutions essentially implement variants of a simple bang-bang controller that opens for a hot water circulation in a room if its current t...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.855 - Manual removal of floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manual removal of floors. 1926.855 Section 1926.855 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.855 Manual removal of floors....

  10. The Debut of Jiaming Center’s Model Floor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On July 22,Jiaming Center held an opening cer-emony for its leasing office on the center’s model floor(third floor).The ceremony was themed "Superb Quality for Smart Business."More than 60 people,including executives of Jiaming Center,

  11. 78 FR 30329 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... and 731-TA-1179 (Final) concerning multilayered wood flooring (``MLWF'') from China. For...

  12. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... the notice in the Federal Register of October 27, 2010 (75 FR 66126). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10,...

  13. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Register on June 9, 2011 (76 FR 33782). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on October 12, 2011, and... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31,...

  14. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  15. Mapping of multi-floor buildings: A barometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for mapping multi5floor buildings. The method combines laser range sensor for metric mapping and barometric pressure sensor for detecting floor transitions and map segmentation. We exploit the fact that the barometric pressure is a function of the elevation...

  16. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall adopt and...

  17. Pelvic floor dysfunction, and effects of pregnancy and mode of delivery on pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bozkurt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD, although seems to be simple, is a complex process that develops secondary to multifactorial factors. The incidence of PFD is increasing with increasing life expectancy. PFD is a term that refers to a broad range of clinical scenarios, including lower urinary tract excretory and defecation disorders, such as urinary and anal incontinence, overactive bladder, and pelvic organ prolapse, as well as sexual disorders. It is a financial burden on the health care system and disrupts women's quality of life. Strategies applied to decrease PFD are focused on the course of pregnancy, mode and management of delivery, and pelvic exercise methods. Many studies in the literature define traumatic birth, usage of forceps, length of the second stage of delivery, and sphincter damage as modifiable risk factors for PFD. Maternal age, fetal position, and fetal head circumference are nonmodifiable risk factors. Although numerous studies show that vaginal delivery affects pelvic floor structures and their functions in a negative way, there is not enough scientific evidence to recommend elective cesarean delivery in order to prevent development of PFD. PFD is a heterogeneous pathological condition, and the effects of pregnancy, vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, and possible risk factors of PFD may be different from each other. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist; therefore, the isolated effects of these variables on the pelvic floor are difficult to study. The routine use of episiotomy for many years in order to prevent PFD is not recommended anymore; episiotomy should be used in selected cases, and the mediolateral procedures should be used if needed.

  18. Distribution of lateral floor abutment pressure in a stope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hualei; Wang Lianguo; Sun Jian

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the distribution of lateral floor abutment pressure at a working face, we first used elasticity theory to establish a distribution model of lateral floor abutment pressure and then analysed its distribution. Second, we established a three-dimensional numerical simulation model of the Haizi Coal Mine No. 86 mining area by using FLAC3D (ITASCA Consulting Group) software. We investigated the distribution of lateral floor abutment pressure of a stope, which indicated that the position of abutment pressure peak varies at different floor depths. We then determined the rational reinforcement range of a floor roadway, based on the conclusion reached earlier. Finally, we used our conclusions in support of the No. 86 mining area crossing-roadway. The supported crossing-roadway remained stable when mining the upper workface, which validates the accuracy of our numerical simulation and provides a future reference for the support of span-roadways under similar conditions.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos

    2002-01-01

    . The model calculates heating demand, room temperatures, and thermal comfort parameters for a person in the room. The model is based on a numerical Finite Control Volume (FCV) method for the heat transfer in walls, ceiling, windows and floor. The model uses both convective and radiative heat transfer...... – a heavy system integrated into the concrete floor and a light system which is placed in heat transfer plates – have been investigated, using different supply temperatures to the floor heating system, and different control strategies. The aim of the study is to compare the two types of floor heating......In this paper an investigation of floor heating systems is performed with respect to heating demand and room temperature. Presently (2001) no commercially available building simulation programs that can be used to evaluate heating demand and thermal comfort in buildings with building integrated...

  20. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2007-01-01

    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor...... can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous...... measurements on two channels, and it is illustrated how the singular values decomposition can be used for estimating noise floors and signals in multi-channel applications....

  1. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  2. Indoor radon seasonal variability at different floors of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Francesco, S. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tommasone, F. Pascale [Office of Civil Protection, Meteorology, Climatology and Natural Hazards, Piazza Municipio, 81051 Pietramelara, Caserta (Italy); Cuoco, E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); Tedesco, D., E-mail: dtedesco@unina.i [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy); C.N.R. (Italian Council for Research), Institute of Environmental Geology and Geological Engineering, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 00100 Roma (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Indoor radon concentrations have been measured with the {alpha} track etch integrated method in public buildings in the town of Pietramelara, north-western Campania, Southern Italy. In particular, our measurements were part of an environmental monitoring program originally aimed at assessing the range of seasonal fluctuations in indoor radon concentrations, at various floors of the studied buildings. However, subsequent analysis of the data and its comparison with the meteorological data recorded in the same period has shown an unexpected pattern at the different floors. In this report we present data suggesting that, besides the well-known medium and longterm periodicity, there could also be a differentiation in major meteorological controlling factors at the different floors of the buildings, a fact that does not appear to have been reported previously. While the lower floors proved to be markedly affected by rainfall, for the upper floors, instead, a different behaviour has been detected, which could possibly be related to global solar radiation.

  3. Mitigation of floor heave in West Kentucky Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Kyle; Bradley Joel; Unrug Kot; Klimek Mark

    2016-01-01

    A West Kentucky mine operation in No. 11 seam encountered floor heave, due to the localized increase in the thickness of the fireclay mine floor. Floor heave has overridden seals installed in two mined out pan-els. The third seal’s location was planned for isolating that area from the Mains. A plan of support has been developed to prevent repetition of the floor heave and related problems outby the seals. The applied ground control measures were successful. An attempt of a 3D numerical modeling was made; thus, it would match the observed behavior of the mine floor and could be used as a design tool in similar con-ditions. The paper describes sequence of events, an applied mitigation ground control system, and the first stage of numerical modeling.

  4. Pelvic floor muscle training as a persistent nursing intervention: Effect on delivery outcome and pelvic floor myodynamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Persistent nursing intervention for pregnant/postpartum women helped to shorten the second stage of labour and contributed to the recovery of postpartum pelvic floor myodynamia. The influence of this intervention on the delivery mode, and rates of episiotomy and perineal laceration remains unknown. Medical staff should strengthen health education programmes that involve pelvic floor functional rehabilitation.

  5. Do women with pelvic floor dysfunction referred by gynaecologists and urologists at hospitals complete a pelvic floor muscle training programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    For decades women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) have been referred to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), but there is only little information on whether the women complete the programmes and why. The objectives of this study were to investigate to which extent women completed a PFMT progr...

  6. 75 FR 70719 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ..., tongue-and-groove construction or locking joints). All multilayered wood flooring is included within the.... Specifically excluded from the scope are cork flooring and bamboo flooring, regardless of whether any of...

  7. 76 FR 76690 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ..., tongue-and-groove construction or locking joints). All multilayered wood flooring is included within the.... Specifically excluded from the scope are cork flooring and bamboo flooring, [[Page 76691

  8. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were ev...

  9. An Analytical Study on Deflection and Stress Resultants of Composite Floor Slabs

    OpenAIRE

    山川, 哲雄; 郝, 洪濤; 田中, 躍一; Yamakawa, Tetsuo; Hao, Hongtao; Tanaka, Youichi

    1993-01-01

    The composite floor slab, which is composed of cast-in-place concrete and casting floor formworks, is assumed to be a double layered floor slab. This floor slab is proposed as ARC (Automation-oriented Reinforced Concrete Constructions) floor systems.Using the equivalent flexural rigidity for the double layered floor slabs consisting of two different elastic moduli, analytical solutions expressed in Fourier series by thin plate theory and by elementary beam theory can be easily applied to the ...

  10. On pillar design for weak floor strata conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pytel, W.M. (Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    The paper deals with the rational techniques that are available and currently utilized in engineering practice to design pillars associated with weak floor strata. All methods applied to determine the ultimate brearing capacity of floor strata are reviewed, including a more general, recently developed technique which treats weak floor strata as a two-layer rock system characterized by cohesion (c) and the angle of internal friction ([phi]) for both layers. Using foundation engineering analysis techniques, the effect of adjacent pillars on ultimate bearing capacity of weak floor strata underneath pillars in a panel was also considered. Based on the limit states theory, the upper-bound for capacity factors of an anisotopric non-homogeneous floor strata system were determined to estimate the effect of rock anisotropy on floor strata stability. Sensitivity analyses were also performaed in order to determine the relative importance of all parameters affecting floor strata strength underneath rectangular pillars. The design approaches presented are illustrated with step by step solutions for physical problems, and the appropriateness of all available design methods is estimated through field observations performed in two coal mines. 11 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. [PELVIC FLOOR RECONSTRUCTION AFTER PELVIC EVISCERATION USING GRACILIS MUSCULOCUTANEOUS FLAP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V N; Bakirov, A A; Kabirov, I R; Izmajlov, A A; Kutlijarov, L M; Safiullin, R L; Urmancev, M F; Sultanov, I M; Abdrahimov, R V

    2015-01-01

    Evisceration of the pelvic organs (EPO) is a fairly uncommon surgical treatment that removes all organs from a patient's pelvic cavity. We use gracilis musculocutaneous flap to repair pelvic floor after EPO. Over the period from November 2013 to December 2014 we carried out EPO with reconstructive repair of the pelvic floor with gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 10 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors. We describe the surgical procedure and surgical outcomes in these patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years. Mean duration of EPO with the pelvic floor repair was 285 min., mean blood loss--595 mL and the average length of hospital stay--19 days. Gracilis musculocutaneous flap has a sufficient arterial supply and mobility for pelvic floor reconstruction. Necrosis of flap's distal edge occurred in one of the 10 clinical cases, while the remaining flaps were fully preserved. Complete healing of wounds with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor muscles was observed in all cases. Pelvic floor reconstruction is an essential procedure in order to reduce complications associated with the evisceration of the pelvic organs. The Gracilis musculocutaneous flap is the logical alternative to repair pelvic floor defect. It does not contribute to complications like functional deficiency of the lower limbs, complications of stoma formation or weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall.

  12. A field assessment of floor slipperiness in a student cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruifeng; Li, Kai Way

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of floor slipperiness is critical in studying the risk of slips and falls. This research conducted friction measurements and employee survey on floor slipperiness in a student cafeteria in a university in China in order to study the correlation between the two types of floor slipperiness measure. It was found that the fryer area in kitchen 1 and the meat defrost sink in kitchen 2 had significantly the lowest coefficient of friction (COF) values among all areas in the same kitchen. The results showed that the levels of friction on the floors in different areas in each kitchen were significantly different. Employee perceptions of floor slipperiness among areas were also significantly different. The level of friction and employee perception of floor slipperiness was highly correlated (ρ = 0.87). This implies a good agreement between the two measures. A linear regression model was established to describe the relationship between the perceived floor slipperiness and the measured COF. The model was significant at p < 0.0001 with an R (2) of 0.59.

  13. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dysfunction, and possible information sources. Descriptive statistics were generated for all variables. Stability and validity testing were performed using Kappa statistics and intra class correlation coefficients to define agreement for each question. The study was approved by the ethics Committee (B300201318334). [Results] Using a VAS scale (0 to 10), the women rated their knowledge about the pelvic floor as a mean of 2.4 (SD 2.01). A total of 93% of the women were insufficiently informed and requested more information; 25% had concerns about developing urinary incontinence, and 14% about fecal incontinence. Many of the women were unaware what pelvic floor training meant. [Conclusion] There was a significant lack of knowledge about pelvic floor function among nulliparous women. The majority of nulliparous women expressed a need for education, which might offer a way to reduce dysfunction.

  14. Controlling floor heave of extraction opening by reinforcing sides and roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-jun

    2005-01-01

    The effect of reinforcing roof, sides and floor corners to control floor heave of extraction opening was analyzed, It was proved by engineering practice and numerical simulation that reinforcing any part of surrounding rock have certainly control effect for floor heave, in the basis of this, the new way that roof, sides and floor corners were reinforced to control floor heave was put forward. Contrasting control result of reinforcing floor with this, it is determined that reinforcing is more suitable to control floor heave of extraction opening than reinforcing floor when advancing abutment pressure is in some range.

  15. Some Passive Damping Sources on Flooring Systems besides the TMD

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Impulsive loads and walking loads can generate problematic structural vibrations in flooring-systems. Measures that may be taken to mitigate the problem would often be to consider the implementation of a tuned mass damper or even more advanced vibration control technologies; this in order to add damping to the structure. Basically also passive humans on a floor act as a damping source, but it also turns out from doing system identification tests with a floor strip that a quite simple set-up i...

  16. Reconstruction of Large Orbital Posterior Floor Wall Fracture Considering Orbital Floor Slope Using Endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhwan; Huh, Jungah; Lee, Joonsik; Chang, Minwook; Lee, Hwa; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction of a large orbital fracture extending to the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus is difficult and challenging. In this study, the authors present transconjunctival or transcaruncular approach using endoscopy and layered porous polyethylene barrier sheets to manage large orbital floor wall fracture. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent reconstruction of large orbital floor wall fractures between June 2009 and July 2015 was conducted. Patient demographics, degree of enophthalmos, ocular motility and diplopia test results, and surgical complications were reviewed. This study included 53 eyes of 53 patients. The mean time from trauma to surgery was 34.1 days (range, 1-360 days). The average postoperative follow-up period was 6.1 months (range, 3-14 months). The degrees of enophthalmos preoperatively, and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively were -1.98 mm (range, -1.5 to -3 mm), 0.13 mm (range, -1.0 to +1.5 mm), -0.09 mm (range, -2.0 to +1.5 mm), and -0.43 mm (range, -2.0 to +1.0 mm), respectively. The mean improvement in enophthalmos at 3 months postoperation was 1.55 mm (P < 0.001). There was only 1 patient with residual 2 mm enophthalmos at 3 months postoperation. There were no definite surgical complications in any patient. Sufficient dissection to the posterior extent of the fracture and reconstruction of the orbital floor slope are the most important surgical factors to prevent residual enophthalmos. The authors believe using an endoscope and layered porous polyethylene are effective techniques in challenging patients with large orbital wall fracture.

  17. Assessment of slip resistance under footwear materials, tread designs, floor contamination, and floor inclination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chen, Ching Chung; Liu, Liwen

    2012-01-01

    Slip and fall incidences are common in our daily lives. They are not only important environmental safety issues but also important occupational safety and health problems. The purpose of this study was to use the Brungraber Mark II to measure the friction so as to investigate the effects of the shoe sole, surface condition and the inclined angle of the floor and their interactions on friction coefficient. The results of the study showed the effects of all the main factors and their interactions were significant (p<0.001). Engineering designs & ergonomic interventions in slip & fall prevention should take these factors in full consideration.

  18. Comparison of environmental impacts of building structures with in situ cast floors and with precast concrete floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Mesa, Belinda; Pitarch, Angel; Tomas, Ana; Gallego, Teresa [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction (ESTCE), Universitat Jaume I, Av. Sos Baynat s/n, Castellon 12071 (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, the environmental impacts of two types of slab systems are studied. The first type, a concrete-based one-way spanning slab, is the most common solution in residential buildings in Spain. The second type, a hollow core slab floor, is increasingly becoming more used in buildings, but is not being broadly used in residential buildings as yet. The study is undertaken through the Life Cycle Analysis methodology, applying the EPS 2000 method. The assessment shows that the environmental impact of a building structure with precast concrete floors is 12.2% lower than that with in situ cast floors for the defined functional unit. (author)

  19. Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim

    2014-07-18

    Jul 18, 2014 ... floor electromyography (EMG) are essential to localize and assess the severity and ... activities, feeling and emotional health.16. Questionnaires ... to record times, cir- cumstances of their daily incontinence episodes to detect.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Floor Heating Systems in Low Energy Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Jensen, Claus Franceos

    2002-01-01

    to the room air and between the room surfaces. The simulation model has been used to calculate heating demand and room temperature in a typical well insulated Danish single-family house with a heating demand of approximately 6000 kWh per year, for a 130 m² house. Two different types of floor heating systems......In this paper an investigation of floor heating systems is performed with respect to heating demand and room temperature. Presently (2001) no commercially available building simulation programs that can be used to evaluate heating demand and thermal comfort in buildings with building integrated...... heating and cooling systems exist. In Denmark over 80 % of all new single-family houses are using the building integrated floor heating systems. Therefore methods to evaluate building integrated heating must be developed. To examine this a simulation model of a room with floor heating has been created...

  1. Physical and chemical test results of electrostatic safe flooring materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This test program was initiated because a need existed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to have this information readily available to the engineer who must make the choice of which electrostatic safe floor to use in a specific application. The information, however, should be of value throughout both the government and private industry in the selection of a floor covering material. Included are the test results of 18 floor covering materials which by test evaluation at KSC are considered electrostatically safe. Tests were done and/or the data compiled in the following areas: electrostatics, flammability, hypergolic compatibility, outgassing, floor type, material thickness, and available colors. Each section contains the test method used to gather the data and the test results.

  2. Wooden floors: part of historical antiseismic building systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Laner

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes how wooden floors have been used over the centuries as a means of ensuring greater building solidity to ensure against earthquakes or other events that threaten wall stability.

  3. Complex Volcanism at Oppenheimer U Floor-Fractured Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, L. R.; Bennett, K.; Horgan, B.; McBride, Marie; Stopar, J.; Lawrence, S.; Gustafson, J. O.; Giguere, T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent remote sensing studies have identified complex volcanism in the floor-fractured crater (FFC) Oppenheimer U, located in the northwest floor of Oppenheimer crater (35.2degS, 166.3degW, 208 km dia., Figure 1) within the "South Pole - Aitken basin" (SPA) region of the lunar far side. Up to 15 sites of pyroclastic volcanism have been identified in the floor of Oppenheimer crater. Studies of Moon Mineralogy Mapper data (M3, 0.4-3 microns, 86 bands, [5]) indicated that the pyroclastic deposits are comprised of mixtures of clinopyroxene and iron-rich glass, with the Oppenheimer U deposit showing variable composition within the FFC and having the most iron-rich volcanic glass thus far identified on the Moon. Here we examine the floor of Oppenheimer U in more detail and show evidence for possible multiple eruptive vents.

  4. Fabrication of patient specific composite orbital floor implants by stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, Mike A.; Varjas, Viktor; Kamer, Lukas; Wang, Xinjiang; Peng, Jiang; Eglin, David; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are common in traffic accidents and assaults, and inadequate treatment can result in serious complications. Accurate anatomical reconstruction of the orbit using implants is the preferred treatment. Implants require degradability, adequate mechanical properties to supp

  5. Comparison of performance of simulation models for floor heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    only the floor construction, the differences can be directly compared. In this comparison, a two-dimensional model of a slab-on-grade floor including foundation is used as reference. The other models include a one-dimensional model and a thermal network model including the linear thermal transmittance......This paper describes the comparison of performance of simulation models for floor heating with different level of detail in the modelling process. The models are compared in an otherwise identical simulation model containing room model, walls, windows, ceiling and ventilation system. By exchanging...... of the foundation. The result can be also be found in the energy consumption of the building, since up to half the energy consumption is lost through the ground. Looking at the different implementations it is also found, that including a 1m ground volume below the floor construction under a one-dimensional model...

  6. Ambiguity functions and noise floor suppression in random noise radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Sune R. J.

    2006-09-01

    Noise radar can be used in a great number of applications including SAR. The non-periodic waveform suppresses the range ambiguity and reduces the probability of intercept and interference. Due to the randomness of the waveform, a noise floor limiting the possible side lobe suppression accompanies the correlation integral involved. In strong clutter scenes with dominant reflectors, the induced noise floor can be too high and further suppression is needed. In this paper, the ambiguity function of random noise waveforms is first analyzed, and an improved formulation is introduced to include the noise floor effect. The use of mismatched filtering for improved sidelobe suppression is then discussed. Finally, an iterative subtraction algorithm is analyzed for noise floor cancellation in the presence of dominating reflectors. This method is successfully tested on random step frequency radar data and noise sodar data.

  7. Muscle function of the pelvic floor in healthy, puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pardiñas, M A; Torres-Lacomba, M; Navarro-Brazález, B

    2017-05-01

    To understand the function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) at different ages in healthy women and in puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD) and to ascertain whether there are differences among them. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2016 and included 177 women, 70 of whom had no symptoms of PFD, 53 primiparous mothers in late postpartum and 54 with PFD. The function of the PFM was measured through vaginal palpation (quality of the contraction); manometry (force); dynamometer (tone, strength, and response to stretching), and surface electromyography (neuromuscular activity and resistance). The healthy women showed superior values for PFM tone, maximum strength, neuromuscular activity and resistance than the puerperal mothers and the women with PFD (P.05). The muscle function of the healthy women did not vary significantly with age, except in the case of tone, which was lower in the women older than 46 years (P=.004). Age and births decrease the baseline tone of the PFM in healthy women. Therefore, lower strength, resistance and neuromuscular activity appear to be the main difference between the PFM of women with PFD and the PFM of healthy women. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Moisture properties of self-levelling flooring compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Anderberg, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Self-levelling flooring compounds (SLC) are used to level substrates (mainly concrete slabs) before applying final floor coverings. Although it is an extensively used product, only limited research has so far been published concerning their moisture properties. This report focuses on moisture properties of SLC and describes methods for determining them. Moisture properties of materials are important for the calculation of drying times and moisture loads and for prediction of ion transport and...

  9. Effect of flooring system on locomotion comfort in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Telezhenko, Evgenij

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to study influence of different flooring systems on several aspects of locomotion of dairy cows. To assess the gait on different floors, trackway analysis was used. Cows walking on a hard, slippery surface had shorter strides, wider posture and asymmetric steps. A hard, slippery surface resulted in stride shortening, wider posture and asymmetric gait. Using soft rubber mats made gait patterns more similar to those on a natural yielding surface such as sand. When cows...

  10. China Overseas Plaza Mock-up Floor Grand Openning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Global Leasing launched on Full Scale Beijing, November 6, 2008- China Overseas Plaza, located at the heart of the Beijing CBD with Chang'an Avenue to the south and China World Trade Center PhasenⅢto the east, is constructed including two international Grade-A office towers with a commercial podium. The developer held a grand opening ceremony on the completed mock-up floor the sixth floor of the South Tower.

  11. Tactile Imaging Markers to Characterize Female Pelvic Floor Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    van Raalte, Heather; Egorov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The Vaginal Tactile Imager (VTI) records pressure patterns from vaginal walls under an applied tissue deformation and during pelvic floor muscle contractions. The objective of this study is to validate tactile imaging and muscle contraction parameters (markers) sensitive to the female pelvic floor conditions. Twenty-two women with normal and prolapse conditions were examined by a vaginal tactile imaging probe. We identified 9 parameters which were sensitive to prolapse conditions (p < 0.05 fo...

  12. The ontogeny of nasal floor shape variation in extant humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christina L; Franciscus, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Variation in nasal floor topography has generated both neontological and paleontological interest. Three categories of nasal floor shape (Franciscus: J Hum Evol 44 (2003) 699-727) have been used when analyzing this trait in extant humans and fossil Homo: flat, sloped, and depressed (or "bi-level"). Variation in the frequency of these configurations within and among extant and fossil humans has been well-documented (Franciscus: J Hum Evol 44 (2003) 699-727; Wu et al.: Anthropol Sci 120 (2012) 217-226). However, variation in this trait in Homo has been observed primarily in adults, with comparatively small subadult sample sizes and/or large age gradients that may not sufficiently track key ontogenetic changes. In this study, we investigate the ontogeny of nasal floor shape in a relatively large cross-sectional age sample of extant humans (n = 382) ranging from 4.0 months fetal to 21 years post-natal. Results indicate that no fetal or young infant individuals possess a depressed nasal floor, and that a depressed nasal floor, when present (ca. 21% of the sample), does not occur until 3.0 years postnatal. A canonical variates analysis of maxillary shape revealed that individuals with depressed nasal floors were also characterized by relatively taller anterior alveolar regions. This suggests that palate remodeling at about 3.0-3.5 years after birth, under the influence of tooth development, strongly influences nasal floor variation, and that various aspects of dental development, including larger crown/root size, may contribute to the development of a depressed nasal floor. These results in extant humans may help explain the high frequency of this trait found in Neandertal and other archaic Homo maxillae.

  13. Maternal floor infarction: management of an underrecognized pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sahan, Nada; Grynspan, David; von Dadelszen, Peter; Gruslin, Andrée

    2014-01-01

    Maternal floor infarction is a relatively rare condition characterized clinically by severe early onset fetal growth restriction with features of uteroplacental insufficiency. It has a very high recurrence rate and carries a significant risk or fetal demise. Pathological characteristics include massive and diffuse fibrin deposition along the decidua basalis and the perivillous space of the basal plate. We present a case of recurrent maternal floor infarction and propose diagnostic clues as well as potential therapeutic options.

  14. Responses by Benthic Organisms to Inputs of Organic Material to the Ocean Floor: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, A. J.; Turley, Carol M.

    1990-06-01

    Most of the photosynthetically produced organic material reaching the ocean-floor is transported as settling particles, among which larger particles such as faecal pellets and macroaggregates (marine snow) are particularly important. Recent studies in the northeastern Atlantic have demonstrated that macroaggregates originating from the euphotic zone settle at a rate of approximately 100-150 m d-1 to form a deposit (phytodetritus) on the sediment surface. Bacteria and protozoa (flagellates and foraminifers) rapidly colonize and multiply on phytodetritus, while large deposit feeding animals ingest it. Other inputs, for example Sargassum, wood and vertebrate carcasses, also evoke a rapid response by benthic organisms. However, the taxa that respond depend on the form of the organic material. The intermittent or seasonally pulsed nature of phytodetritus and many other inputs regulate the population dynamics and reproductive cycles of some responding species. These are often opportunists that are able to utilize ephemeral food resources and, therefore, undergo rapid fluctuations in population density. In addition, the patchy distribution of much of the organic material deposited on the ocean-floor probably plays a major role in structuring deep-sea benthic ecosystems.

  15. Role of pelvic floor in lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermansky, Christopher J; Moalli, Pamela A

    2016-10-01

    The pelvic floor plays an integral part in lower urinary tract storage and evacuation. Normal urine storage necessitates that continence be maintained with normal urethral closure and urethral support. The endopelvic fascia of the anterior vaginal wall, its connections to the arcus tendineous fascia pelvis (ATFP), and the medial portion of the levator ani muscles must remain intact to provide normal urethral support. Thus, normal pelvic floor function is required for urine storage. Normal urine evacuation involves a series of coordinated events, the first of which involves complete relaxation of the external urethral sphincter and levator ani muscles. Acquired dysfunction of these muscles will initially result in sensory urgency and detrusor overactivity; however, with time the acquired voiding dysfunction can result in intermittent urine flow and incomplete bladder emptying, progressing to urinary retention in severe cases. This review will start with a discussion of normal pelvic floor anatomy and function. Next various injuries to the pelvic floor will be reviewed. The dysfunctional pelvic floor will be covered subsequently, with a focus on levator ani spasticity and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Finally, future research directions of the interaction between the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract function will be discussed.

  16. Grain size analysis and depositional environment of shallow marine to basin floor, Kelantan River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifah, M. R. Nurul; Aziz, A. Che; Roslan, M. Kamal

    2015-09-01

    Sediment samples were collected from the shallow marine from Kuala Besar, Kelantan outwards to the basin floor of South China Sea which consisted of quaternary bottom sediments. Sixty five samples were analysed for their grain size distribution and statistical relationships. Basic statistical analysis like mean, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis were calculated and used to differentiate the depositional environment of the sediments and to derive the uniformity of depositional environment either from the beach or river environment. The sediments of all areas were varied in their sorting ranging from very well sorted to poorly sorted, strongly negative skewed to strongly positive skewed, and extremely leptokurtic to very platykurtic in nature. Bivariate plots between the grain-size parameters were then interpreted and the Coarsest-Median (CM) pattern showed the trend suggesting relationships between sediments influenced by three ongoing hydrodynamic factors namely turbidity current, littoral drift and waves dynamic, which functioned to control the sediments distribution pattern in various ways.

  17. Jurassic animals and algae in the flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Mateusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań is made of Jurassic rocks from the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (also known as Holy Cross Mountains and contain abundant marine invertebrate fossils: sponges, bivalves, brachiopods, various families of cephalopods, etc. Some of them can be identified to the genus level. The fossils make it possible to describe the environment and ecosystem of the Jurassic sea and biostratigraphy of the sediment. There are also some significant inorganic structures, which suggest post-diagenetic tectonic movements.

  18. Patients with Pelvic Floor Muscle Spasm Have a Superior Response to Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy at Specialized Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, Alan Scott; Li, Jianbo; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common condition that often requires multimodal therapy. Patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome have a high incidence of pelvic floor spasm, which can be treated with pelvic floor physical therapy. However, this is a specialized skill. We compared outcomes of pelvic floor physical therapy as part of multimodal therapy in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome between those treated at our institution and elsewhere. We identified patients from our chronic pelvic pain syndrome registry with pelvic floor spasm who were seen between 2010 and 2014 for more than 1 visit. Patient phenotype was assessed with the UPOINT system and symptom severity was determined by the National Institutes of Health CPSI. A 6-point decrease in CPSI was used to define patient improvement. A total of 82 patients fit the study criteria. Mean age was 41.6 years (range 19 to 75) and median symptom duration was 24 months (range 3 to 240). Mean CPSI was 26.8 (range 10 to 41), the median number of positive UPOINT domains was 3 (range 1 to 6) and 27 patients (32.9%) were treated locally. At followup 9 patients had refused pelvic floor physical therapy, and 24 and 48 had undergone pelvic floor physical therapy elsewhere and at CCF, respectively. The mean change in CPSI was 1.11 ± 4.1 in patients who refused, -3.46 ± 6.7 in those treated elsewhere and -11.3 ± 7.0 in those treated at CCF (p physical therapy at CCF (OR 4.23, p = 0.002) and symptom duration (OR 0.52, p = 0.03) predicted improvement. Pelvic floor physical therapy can be effective for chronic pelvic pain syndrome in patients with pelvic floor spasm. However, the outcome depends on specialty training and experience of therapists. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of panoramic radiograph with cone-beam computed tomography in assessment of maxillary sinus floor and nasal floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Bokkasam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Panoramic radiograph is frequently prescribed by dentists for implant planning and, hence, accurate assessment of anatomical structures in panoramic radiograph is of utmost importance. Aims: The aim of the present study is to know the accuracy of panoramic radiograph in assessment of relationship between maxillary sinus floor and posterior teeth roots, and the distance from alveolar crest to nasal floor by comparing it with that of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT image. Materials and Methods: Panoramic and CBCT images of 30 patients were analyzed. The topographic relationship of each root of posterior teeth to the maxillary sinus floor was evaluated and classified into three classes. The distance from the peak point on maxillary alveolar crest to nasal floor was measured in panoramic radiograph as well as in CBCT image. All the measurements were made by built-in measurement tools. Results: Class 1 roots in panoramic radiograph showed high agreement (86% with CBCT image, followed by class 0 (76%. There was a significant difference in the measurements of alveolar bone height (ABH in the nasal floor region with a P value of 0.018. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph is reliable in assessment of nasal floor and maxillary sinus, provided position of the patient, distortion, and the inherent magnification factor are taken into consideration.

  20. Development of Claw Traits and Claw Lesions in Dairy Cows kept on different floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a str

  1. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation of floor trading. (a) No member of a national securities exchange, while on the floor of such...

  2. Organic biomarkers in deep-sea regions affected by bottom trawling: pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates in surface sediments from the La Fonera (Palamós) Canyon, NW Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    E. Sañé; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems are in general adapted to a limited variability of physical conditions, resulting in high vulnerability and slow recovery rates from anthropogenic perturbations such as bottom trawling. Commercial trawling is the most recurrent and pervasive of human impacts on the deep-sea floor, but studies on its consequences on the biogeochemistry of deep-sea sediments are still scarce. Pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates were analysed in sediments fr...

  3. Organic biomarkers in deep-sea regions affected by bottom trawling: pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates in surface sediments from the La Fonera (Palamós) Canyon, NW Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    E. Sañé; Martín, J.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.

    2012-01-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems are in general adapted to a limited variability of physical conditions, resulting in high vulnerability and slow recovery rates from anthropogenic perturbations such as bottom trawling. Commercial trawling is the most recurrent and pervasive of human impacts on the deep-sea floor, but studies on its consequences on the biogeochemistry of deep-sea sediments are still scarce. Pigments, fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates were analyzed in sediments from the flanks of t...

  4. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  5. 3D Models of Pelvic Floor Muscles Developed by Manual Segmentation to FEM

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina S Saleme; Renato N. Jorge; Marcos P Barbosa; Marco Parente; Agnaldo L S Filho; Thuane Roza; João Manuel RS Tavares; Teresa Mascarenhas

    2009-01-01

    The female pelvic floor is an understudied region of the body from the biomechanical perspective. MRI has been used in the diagnostic evaluation of the pelvic floor dysfunctions. Static images show their morphology while dynamic images show the functional changes that occur on straining and contraction of the pelvic floor. In the present work, MR images contribute to generate 3D solids of pelvic floor muscles through manual segmentation. To study the biomechanical behavior of pelvic floor mus...

  6. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  7. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, SangWoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  8. Validation of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 in Danish women with pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    To translate the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) and to evaluate their psychometric properties in Danish women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse.......To translate the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) and to evaluate their psychometric properties in Danish women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse....

  9. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  10. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.;

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  11. TOWARDS OBJECT DRIVEN FLOOR PLAN EXTRACTION FROM LASER POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Babacan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the demand for indoor models has increased for various purposes. As a provisional step to proceed towards higher dimensional indoor models, powerful and flexible floor plans can be utilised. Therefore, several methods have been proposed that provide automatically generated floor plans from laser point clouds. The prevailing methodology seeks to attain semantic enhancement of a model (e.g. the identification and labelling of its components built upon already reconstructed (a priori geometry. In contrast, this paper demonstrates preliminary research on the possibility to directly incorporate semantic knowledge, which is itself derived from the raw data during the extraction, into the geometric modelling process. In this regard, we propose a new method to automatically extract floor plans from raw point clouds. It is based on a hierarchical space partitioning of the data, integrated with primitive selection actuated by object detection. First, planar primitives corresponding to vertical architectural structures are extracted using M-estimator SAmple and Consensus (MSAC. The set of the resulting line segments are refined by a selection process through a novel door detection algorithm, considering optimization of prior information and fitness to the data. The selected lines are used as hyperlines to partition the space into enclosed areas. Finally, a floor plan is extracted from these partitions by Minimum Description Length (MDL hypothesis ranking. The algorithm is applied on a real mobile laser scanner dataset and the results are evaluated both in terms of door detection and consecutive floor plan extraction.

  12. Towards Object Driven Floor Plan Extraction from Laser Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, K.; Jung, J.; Wichmann, A.; Jahromi, B. A.; Shahbazi, M.; Sohn, G.; Kada, M.

    2016-06-01

    During the last years, the demand for indoor models has increased for various purposes. As a provisional step to proceed towards higher dimensional indoor models, powerful and flexible floor plans can be utilised. Therefore, several methods have been proposed that provide automatically generated floor plans from laser point clouds. The prevailing methodology seeks to attain semantic enhancement of a model (e.g. the identification and labelling of its components) built upon already reconstructed (a priori) geometry. In contrast, this paper demonstrates preliminary research on the possibility to directly incorporate semantic knowledge, which is itself derived from the raw data during the extraction, into the geometric modelling process. In this regard, we propose a new method to automatically extract floor plans from raw point clouds. It is based on a hierarchical space partitioning of the data, integrated with primitive selection actuated by object detection. First, planar primitives corresponding to vertical architectural structures are extracted using M-estimator SAmple and Consensus (MSAC). The set of the resulting line segments are refined by a selection process through a novel door detection algorithm, considering optimization of prior information and fitness to the data. The selected lines are used as hyperlines to partition the space into enclosed areas. Finally, a floor plan is extracted from these partitions by Minimum Description Length (MDL) hypothesis ranking. The algorithm is applied on a real mobile laser scanner dataset and the results are evaluated both in terms of door detection and consecutive floor plan extraction.

  13. Bioluminescence in the deep sea: Free-fall lander observations in the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priede, I. G.; Bagley, P. M.; Way, S.; Herring, P. J.; Partridge, J. C.

    2006-07-01

    A novel autonomous free-fall lander vehicle, with a capability down to 6000 m, was deployed off Cape Verde for studies on bioluminescence in the deep sea. The system was equipped with a high-sensitivity Intensified Silicon Intensified Target (ISIT) video camera, a programmable control-recording unit and an acoustic current meter with depth and temperature sensors. The ISIT lander was used in three modes: (1) free falling at 34 m min -1, with the camera looking downwards at a mesh screen, recording impacts of luminescent organisms to obtain a vertical profile down to the abyssal sea floor, sampling at >100 l s -1; (2) rotating, with the lander on the sea floor and the camera orienting to the bottom current using a servo-controlled turntable, impacts of luminescent organisms carried by the bottom current onto a mesh screen mounted 0.5 m in front of the camera were recorded to estimate abundance in the benthic boundary layer; (3) baited, with the camera focused on a bait placed on the sea floor. Profiles recorded abundance of luminescent organisms as 26.7 m -3 at 500-999 m depth, decreasing to 1.6 m -3 at 2000-2499 m and 0.5 m -3 between 2500 m and the sea floor at 4046 m, with no further detectable significant change with depth. Rotator measurements at a 0.5 m height above the sea floor gave a mean abundance of 0.47 m -3 in the benthic boundary layer at 4046 m and of 2.04 m -3 at 3200 m. Thirty five minutes after the bait was placed on the sea floor at 3200 m, bioluminescent fauna apparently arrived at the bait and produced luminescent displays at a rate of 2 min -1. Moving, flashing light sources were observed and luminescent material was released into the bottom current.

  14. Climate and sea level changes and the role of shelf morphology in recording in Sibuyan Sea Basin, Philippines during the last 14 kyBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloren, R. B.; Siringan, F. P.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we reconstruct changes in precipitation using geochemical and grain size proxies and we look at how shelf morphology can influence the nature of sedimentary record of climate and oceanographic events. A 9.6m long sediment core from Sibuyan Sea basin within the internal seas of the Philippines, was raised from a water depth of 1660m. It was analyzed using an XRF core scanner at 1 cm resolution. Grain size was determined using a laser particle analyzer. Thirteen AMS radiocarbon dates from bulk organics provide age control spanning back to 14 kyBP. Overall, the trends of precipitation proxies Ti, Al and Al/Ti follow the 10o N insolation curve. A 1.4 ky periodicity rides on this general trend. But a stepwise decrease of these precipitation proxies occur at about 9ka and 4ka. The former correpond to the melt water pulse 1-c rapid sea level rise of about 15m while the latter correlates time-wise to a period of aridification. The Younger Dryas period, ca. 12.9-11.6 ka, another known dry period, does not show a shift or decrease in sediment input. Similarly, MWP -1B does no register a distinct signal in the core. The insensitivity of the core in reflecting the older climate and sea level events is attributed to the steep morphology of the sea floor where shoreline translations took place during the earlier sea level events; with a steeper sea floor, sediment sequestration near the shoreline will be low and therefore the basin will not feel much change in sediment input. For the younger climate and sea level events, the shoreline positions were already adjacent to sea floor with relatively gentler gradient where sediment sequestration is greater and where a sea level rise of a certain magnitude will translate the shoreline much farther.

  15. Dredging Evolutionary Theory : the emergence of the deep sea as a transatlantic site for evolution, 1853-1876

    OpenAIRE

    Alaniz, Rodolfo John

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrate specimens from the ocean floor played a large role in the formation of evolutionary theory and they continued to help men of science adjudicate natural selection later into the nineteenth century. By 1880, the deep ocean floor had become "Darwin's laboratory," a place to test the "direct action of external conditions on organisms." According to dominant Victorian marine biology, the deep sea was an eternal, unchanging biogeographical space. There, and only there, could nat...

  16. A PSL Ontology-based Shop Floor Dynamical Scheduler Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-da; XU He; PENG Gao-liang; LIU Wen-jian; Khalil Alipour

    2008-01-01

    Due to the complex,uncertainty and dynamics in the modern manufacturing environment,a flexible and robust shop floor scheduler is essential to achieve the production goals.A design framework of a shop floor dynamical scheduler is presented in this paper.The workflow and function modules of the scheduler are discussed in detail.A multi-step adaptive scheduling strategy and a process specification language,which is an ontology-based representation of process plan,are utilized in the proposed scheduler.The scheduler acquires the dispatching rule from the knowledge base and uses the build in on-line simulator to evaluate the obtained rule.These technologies enable the scheduler to improve its fine-tune ability and effectively transfer process information into other heterogeneous information systems in a shop floor.The effectiveness of the suggested structure will be demonstrated via its application in the scheduling system of a manufacturing enterprise.

  17. An architecture for agile shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    2000-01-01

    manufacturing systems to accommodate the increasing dynamic characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Regarding these new concepts, specifically holonic manufacturing systems, there are many aspects that should be considered. One of the aspects is the manufacturing system and its control, commonly known...... as shop floor control. This paper presents the Holonic Multi-cell Control System (HoMuCS) architecture that allows for design and development of holonic shop floor control systems. The HoMuCS is a shop floor control system which is sometimes referred to as a manufacturing execution system......Changes in markets and global business trends affect the manufacturing environment in infinite ways. These changes have brought about the need for a paradigm shift to reassess the manner in which manufacturing systems are developed and operated. New theories and concepts present solutions to enable...

  18. Gait analysis using floor markers and inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tri Nhut; Suh, Young Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a gait analysis system which estimates step length and foot angles is proposed. A measurement unit, which consists of a camera and inertial sensors, is installed on a shoe. When the foot touches the floor, markers are recognized by the camera to obtain the current position and attitude. A simple planar marker with 4,096 different codes is used. These markers printed on paper are placed on the floor. When the foot is moving off the floor, the position and attitude are estimated using an inertial navigation algorithm. For accurate estimation, a smoother is proposed, where vision information and inertial sensor data are combined. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed system can both track foot motion and estimate step length.

  19. Gait Analysis Using Floor Markers and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Suh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a gait analysis system which estimates step length and foot angles is proposed. A measurement unit, which consists of a camera and inertial sensors, is installed on a shoe. When the foot touches the floor, markers are recognized by the camera to obtain the current position and attitude. A simple planar marker with 4,096 different codes is used. These markers printed on paper are placed on the floor. When the foot is moving off the floor, the position and attitude are estimated using an inertial navigation algorithm. For accurate estimation, a smoother is proposed, where vision information and inertial sensor data are combined. Through experiments, it is shown that the proposed system can both track foot motion and estimate step length.

  20. Modelling the pelvic floor for investigating difficulties during childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinshan; Kruger, Jennifer A.; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Nash, Martyn P.; Nielsen, Poul M. F.

    2008-03-01

    Research has suggested that athletes involved in high-intensity sports for sustained periods have a higher probability of experiencing prolonged second stage of labour compared to non-athletes. The mechanism responsible for this complication is unknown but may depend on the relative size or tone of the pelvic floor muscles. Prolonged training can result in enlargement and stiffening of these muscles, providing increased resistance as the fetal head descends through the birth canal during a vaginal birth. On the other hand, recent studies have suggested an association between increased muscle bulk in athletes and higher distensibility. This project aims to use mathematical modelling to study the relationship between the size and tone of the pelvic floor muscles and the level of difficulty during childbirth. We obtained sets of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the pelvic floor region for a female athlete and a female non-athlete. Thirteen components of the pelvic floor were segmented and used to generate finite element (FE) models. The fetal head data was obtained by laser scanning a skull replica and a FE model was fitted to these data. We used contact mechanics to simulate the motion of the fetal head moving through the pelvic floor, constructed from the non-athlete data. A maximum stretch ratio of 3.2 was induced in the muscle at the left lateral attachment point to the pubis. We plan to further improve our modelling framework to include active muscle contraction and fetal head rotations in order to address the hypotheses that there is a correlation between the level of difficulty and the size or tone of the pelvic floor muscles.

  1. Generation of airborne Listeria innocua from model floor drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, Mark E; Frank, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to avoid spraying hoses directly into drains in an effort to prevent the escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which an inadvertent water spray into a colonized floor drain can cause the spread of airborne Listeria. Listeria innocua was used to inoculate a polyvinyl chloride model floor drain, resulting in approximately 10(8) cells per ml of phosphate-buffered saline and 10(4) attached cells per square centimeter of inner surface. Each model drain was subjected to a 2-s spray of tap water at 68.9 kPa from a distance of 1 m. Drains were sprayed while filled and again after emptying. Airborne cells were collected by using sedimentation plates containing Listeria selective agar which were placed on the floor and walls of a contained room at incremental horizontal and vertical distances of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, or 4.0 m from the drain. Sedimentation plates were exposed for 10 min. A mechanical sampler was used to also collect air by impaction on the surface of Listeria selective agar to determine the number of cells per liter of air. The experiment was conducted in triplicate rooms for each of four replications. L. innocua was detected on sedimentation plates on the floor as far as 4.0 m from the drain and on walls as high as 2.4 m above the floor and 4 m from the drain. A 2-s spray with a water hose into a contaminated drain can cause airborne spread of Listeria, resulting in the potential for cross-contamination of food contact surfaces, equipment, and exposed product.

  2. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, M.; Atwood, T.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  3. Developing a System Architecture for Holonic Shop Floor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of research regarding the emerging theory of Holonic Manufacturing Systems. This theory and in particular its corresponding reference architecture serves as the basis for the development of a system-architecture for shop floor control systems in a multi-cellular c......This paper describes the results of research regarding the emerging theory of Holonic Manufacturing Systems. This theory and in particular its corresponding reference architecture serves as the basis for the development of a system-architecture for shop floor control systems in a multi...

  4. Floor Heating with Displacement Ventilation: An Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Corgnati, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of floor heating combined with displacement ventilation (DV) on thermal indoor environments and indoor air quality (IAQ) was studied by means of CFD. The numerical model was validated with experimental data. A typical office room was simulated, and one of the occupants was considered...... to simulate different kinds of contaminant sources, under the same boundary conditions. It was found that DV does not guarantee a better IAQ than full mixing when contaminant sources are not linked to heat sources, even when floor heating is used. Contaminants produced by powerful heat sources require high...

  5. New Tests of the Cluster Entropy Floor Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, I G; Balogh, M L; Holder, G P; Carthy, Ian G. Mc; Babul, Arif; Balogh, Michael L.; Holder, Gilbert P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent efforts to account for the observed X-ray luminosity - temperature relation of galaxy clusters has led to suggestions that the ICM has an apparent ``entropy floor'' at or above the level of 300 keV cm^2. Here, we propose new tests based on the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and on the cluster gas mass - temperature trend (from X-ray data) to probe the level of excess entropy in the ICM. We show that these new tests lend further support to the case for a high entropy floor in massive clusters.

  6. Sea level and vertical motion of continents from dynamic earth models since the Late Cretaceous

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojevic, Sonja; Gurnis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic earth models are used to better understand the impact of mantle dynamics on the vertical motion of continents and regional and global sea level change since the Late Cretaceous. A hybrid approach combines inverse and forward models of mantle convection and accounts for the principal contributors to long-term sea level change: the evolving distribution of ocean floor age, dynamic topography in oceanic and continental regions, and the geoid. We infer the relative importance of dynamic v...

  7. The contribution of deep-sea macrohabitat heterogeneity to global nematode diversity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vanreusel, A.; Fonseca, G.; Danovaro, R.; DaSilva, M.C.; Esteves, A.M.; Ferrero, T.; Gad, G.; Galtsova, V.; Gambi, C.; Genevois, V.F.; Ingels, J.; Ingole, B.S.; Lampadariou, N.; Merckx, B.; Miljutina, M.; Muthumbi, A.; Netto, S.; Portnova, D.; Radziejewska, T.; Raes, M.; Tchesunov, A.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Van Gaever, S.; Venekey, V.; Bezerra, T.N.; Flint, H.; Copley, J.; Pape, E.; Zeppilli, D.; Martinez, P.A.; Galeron, J.

    -sampled in order to fully understand the contribution of habitat heterogeneity versus regional differences to global nematode diversity. Keywords: deep-sea, habitat heterogeneity, nematodes, biodiversity, census of marine life Problem The deep-sea floor has... part of a bathymetric transect which covered a significant part of the continental slope. Samples were collected quantitatively (using different types of corers) and treated with standardized extraction procedures in order to guarantee the most...

  8. Iron-rich basal sediments from the eastern equatorial pacific: Leg 16, deep sea drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronan, D.S.; Van Andel, T. H.; Ross, Heath G.; Dinkelman, M.G.; Bennett, R.H.; Bukry, D.; Charleston, S.; Kaneps, A.; Rodolfo, K.S.; Yeats, R.S.

    1972-01-01

    Iron-rich sediments chemically similar to those forming at present on the crest of the East Pacific Rise have been found just above basement at widely separated drill sites in the eastern equatorial Pacific, including three sites of Leg 16 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. These sediments were probably formed when the basement was at the crest of this rise and have moved to their present location as a result of sea-floor spreading.

  9. Responsiveness of the Spanish Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaires Short Forms (PFDI-20 and PFIQ-7) in women with pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Sánchez, Beatriz; Torres Lacomba, Maria; Navarro Brazález, Beatriz; Cerezo Téllez, Ester; Pacheco Da Costa, Soraya; Gutiérrez Ortega, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish versions of Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire Short Forms (PFDI-20 and PFIQ-7), in order to assess symptoms and quality of life in Spanish women with pelvic floor disorders. Prospective observational study to assess the responsiveness in 85 women with pelvic floor disorders. PFDI-20 and PFIQ-7 were completed before and after Physiotherapy intervention. The responsiveness was assessed with the p values using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the standardized response means of the change (SRM) and the effect size (ES). The Spanish PFDI-20 and PFIQ-7 and the subscales demonstrated small to good responsiveness. The responsiveness was higher for PFDI-20 than for PFIQ-7. The statistic for PFDI-20 was moderate to good (ES 0.68 and SRM 0.84; presponsiveness was better for Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory (POPDI) than Pelvic Organ Prolapse Impact Questionnaire (POPIQ) (ES 0.70 and SRM 0.78; ES 0.42 and SRM 0.47 respectively; presponsiveness was found for Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI) and Urinary Impact Questionnaire (UIQ) (ES 0.54 and SRM 0.67; ES 0.52 and SRM 0.61 respectively; presponsiveness, small in both (ES 0.42, SRM 0.50 and presponsiveness was significant. PFDI-20 and PFIQ-7 Spanish versions showed good responsiveness to evaluate the symptoms and the quality of life in Spanish women with PFD undergoing Physiotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bathymetry and Canyons of the western Solomon Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, H. L.; Keene, J. B.; Hashimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Stuart, J. E.; Tiffin, D. L.

    1986-12-01

    The floor of the western Solomon Sea (for new bathymetric map see inside back cover of this issue) is dominated by the arched and ridged basement of the Solomon Sea Basin, the partly-sediment-filled New Britain Trench, and a more completely filled trench, the Trobriand Trough. There is a deep basin where the trenches join (149° Embayment), and a silled basin west of the New Britain Trench (Finsch Deep). Submarine canyons descend from the west and south to the 149° Embayment. Abyssal fans and plains are structurally defined and locally disturbed by young faults. Probable submerged pinnacle reefs stand in water depths as great as 1,200 m.

  11. Study on mechanism of reinforcing sides to control floor heave of extraction opening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Tao

    2005-01-01

    Roadway surrounding rock is a compound structure consisted of roof, floor and sides. The sides of extraction opening is the weak coal mass, which affect immediately the stability of floor. It was simulated by numerical calculation for the strength of sides coal to affect the floor heave, the higher strength of sides coal is, the lower degree of floor heave was. So it was put forward reinforcing sides to control floor heave of extraction opening,and it was proved by engineering practice that the floor heave of deep extraction opening can be controlled to a certain degree by reinforcing sides of roadway.

  12. The radiocarbon age of calcite dissolving at the sea floor: Estimates from pore water data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W. R.; McNichol, A. P.; McCorkle, D. C.

    2000-04-01

    We measured the radiocarbon content and stable isotopic composition of pore water and bottom water ΣCO 2, sedimentary organic carbon, and CaCO 3 at two sites on the Ceara Rise, one underlying bottom water that is supersaturated with respect to calcite (Site B), the other underlying undersaturated bottom water (Site G). The results were combined with pore water O 2, ΣCO 2, and Ca 2+ profiles (Martin and Sayles, 1996) to estimate the radiocarbon content of the CaCO 3 that is dissolving in the sediment mixed layer. At Site G, the CaCO 3 that is dissolving in the upper 2 cm of the sediments is clearly younger (richer in 14C) than the bulk sedimentary CaCO 3, indicating that nonhomogeneous CaCO 3 dissolution occurs there. The case for nonhomogeneous dissolution is much weaker at the site underlying supersaturated bottom water. The results indicate that nonhomogeneous dissolution occurs in sediments underlying undersaturated bottom water, that the dissolution is rapid relative to the rate of homogenization of the CaCO 3 in the mixed layer by bioturbation, and that the dissolution rate of CaCO 3 decreases as it ages in the sediment mixed layer. The results support the hypothesis, based on solid phase analyses, that the preferential dissolution of young (i.e., radiocarbon-rich) CaCO 3 leads to a pattern of increasing radiocarbon age of mixed-layer CaCO 3 as the degree of undersaturation of bottom water increases (Keir, 1984; Broecker et al., 1991).

  13. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-07-11

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/04 to 3/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and work graduate student Scott Nooner began writing his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a the major part. Improvements to the gravimeters are also underway that will hopefully increase the measurement precision.

  14. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Ola Eiken

    2004-11-29

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 3/18/04 to 9/19/04. During this time, we participated in several CO{sub 2} sequestration-related meetings and conferences. On March 29, 2004, we participated in the 2004 Carbon Sequestration Project Review Meeting for the Department of Energy in Pittsburgh, PA. During the week of May 2, 2004, we attended and presented at the Third Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Alexandria, VA. Finally, during the week of August 8, 2004, we took part in the U.S.-Norway, CO{sub 2} Summer School in Santa Fe, NM. Additional modeling was also completed, examining the seismic velocity pushdown estimates from the gravity models and the expected deformation of the seafloor due to the injected CO{sub 2}.

  15. Geochemical models of metasomatism in ultramafic systems: Serpentinization, rodingitization, and sea floor carbonate chimney precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandri, J.L.; Reed, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of water-rock reaction simulations, we assess the processes of serpentinization of harzburgite and related calcium metasomatism resulting in rodingite-type alteration, and seafloor carbonate chimney precipitation. At temperatures from 25 to 300??C (P = 10 to 100 bar), using either fresh water or seawater, serpentinization simulations produce an assemblage commonly observed in natural systems, dominated by serpentine, magnetite, and brucite. The reacted waters in the simulations show similar trends in composition with decreasing water-rock ratios, becoming hyper-alkaline and strongly reducing, with increased dissolved calcium. At 25??C and w/r less than ???32, conditions are sufficiently reducing to yield H2 gas, nickel-iron alloy and native copper. Hyperalkalinity results from OH- production by olivine and pyroxene dissolution in the absence of counterbalancing OH- consumption by alteration mineral precipitation except at very high pH; at moderate pH there are no stable calcium minerals and only a small amount of chlorite forms, limited by aluminum, thus allowing Mg2+ and Ca2+ to accumulate in the aqueous phase in exchange for H+. The reducing conditions result from oxidation of ferrous iron in olivine and pyroxene to ferric iron in magnetite. Trace metals are computed to be nearly insoluble below 300??C, except for mercury, for which high pH stabilizes aqueous and gaseous Hg??. In serpentinization by seawater at 300??C, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt may approach ore-forming concentrations in sulfide complexes. Simulated mixing of the fluid derived from serpentinization with cold seawater produces a mineral assemblage dominated by calcite, similar to recently discovered submarine, ultramafic rock-hosted, carbonate mineral deposits precipitating at hydrothermal vents. Simulated reaction of gabbroic or basaltic rocks with the hyperalkaline calcium- and aluminum-rich fluid produced during serpentinization at 300??C yields rodingite-type mineral assemblages, including grossular, clinozoisite, vesuvianite, prehnite, chlorite, and diopside. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Estimates of the temperature flux-temperature gradient relation above a sea floor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cimatoribus, A.; van Haren, H.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between the ux of temperature (or buoyancy), the verti-cal temperature gradient and the height above the bottom, is investigatedin an oceanographic context, using high-resolution temperature measure-ments. The model for the evolution of a strati?ed layer by Balmforthet al. (1998) is rev

  17. Evidence for Methyl-Compound-Activated Life in Coal Bed System 2 km Below Sea Floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembath-reichert, E.; Morono, Y.; Dawson, K.; Wanger, G.; Bowles, M.; Heuer, V.; Hinrichs, K. U.; Inagaki, F.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 337 set the record for deepest marine scientific drilling down to 2.4 kmbsf. This cruise also had the unique opportunity to retrieve deep cores from the Shimokita coal bed system in Japan with the aseptic and anaerobic conditions necessary to look for deep life. Onboard scientists prepared nearly 1,700 microbiology samples shared among five different countries to study life in the deep biosphere. Samples spanned over 1 km in sampling depths and include representatives of shale, sandstone, and coal lithologies. Findings from previous IODP and deep mine expeditions suggest the genetic potential for methylotrophy in the deep subsurface, but it has yet to be observed in incubations. A subset of Expedition 337 anoxic incubations were prepared with a range of 13C-methyl substrates (methane, methylamine, and methanol) and maintained near in situ temperatures. To observe 13C methyl compound metabolism over time, we monitored the δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon (by-product of methyl compound metabolism) over a period of 1.5 years. Elemental analysis (EA), ion chromatograph (IC), 13C volatile fatty acid (VFA), and mineral-associated microscopy data were also collected to constrain initial and endpoint conditions in these incubations. Our geochemical evidence suggests that the coal horizon incubated with 13C-methane showed the highest activity of all methyl incubations. This provides the first known observation of methane-activated metabolism in the deep biosphere, and suggests there are not only active cells in the deeply buried terrigenous coal bed at Shimokita, but the presence of a microbial community activated by methylotrophic compounds.

  18. Australian sea-floor survey data, with images and expert annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Michael; Friedman, Ariell; Ferrari, Renata; Hill, Nicole; Hovey, Renae; Barrett, Neville; Pizarro, Oscar; Figueira, Will; Meyer, Lisa; Babcock, Russ; Bellchambers, Lynda; Byrne, Maria; Williams, Stefan B

    2015-01-01

    This Australian benthic data set (BENTHOZ-2015) consists of an expert-annotated set of georeferenced benthic images and associated sensor data, captured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) around Australia. This type of data is of interest to marine scientists studying benthic habitats and organisms. AUVs collect georeferenced images over an area with consistent illumination and altitude, and make it possible to generate broad scale, photo-realistic 3D maps. Marine scientists then typically spend several minutes on each of thousands of images, labeling substratum type and biota at a subset of points. Labels from four Australian research groups were combined using the CATAMI classification scheme, a hierarchical classification scheme based on taxonomy and morphology for scoring marine imagery. This data set consists of 407,968 expert labeled points from around the Australian coast, with associated images, geolocation and other sensor data. The robotic surveys that collected this data form part of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) ongoing benthic monitoring program. There is reuse potential in marine science, robotics, and computer vision research.

  19. Australian sea-floor survey data, with images and expert annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Michael; Friedman, Ariell; Ferrari, Renata; Hill, Nicole; Hovey, Renae; Barrett, Neville; Pizarro, Oscar; Figueira, Will; Meyer, Lisa; Babcock, Russ; Bellchambers, Lynda; Byrne, Maria; Williams, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    This Australian benthic data set (BENTHOZ-2015) consists of an expert-annotated set of georeferenced benthic images and associated sensor data, captured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) around Australia. This type of data is of interest to marine scientists studying benthic habitats and organisms. AUVs collect georeferenced images over an area with consistent illumination and altitude, and make it possible to generate broad scale, photo-realistic 3D maps. Marine scientists then typically spend several minutes on each of thousands of images, labeling substratum type and biota at a subset of points. Labels from four Australian research groups were combined using the CATAMI classification scheme, a hierarchical classification scheme based on taxonomy and morphology for scoring marine imagery. This data set consists of 407,968 expert labeled points from around the Australian coast, with associated images, geolocation and other sensor data. The robotic surveys that collected this data form part of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) ongoing benthic monitoring program. There is reuse potential in marine science, robotics, and computer vision research. PMID:26528396

  20. Combination of multibeam backscatter and bathymetry: A method to characterize the sea floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H. W.

    2003-04-01

    A high resolution multibeam survey was conducted by the RV "Polarstern" in order to identify and map locations of carbonate mounds in the Porcupine Seabight west of Ireland utilizing the multibeam echo sounder Hydrosweep DS-2. The scientific interest of that area rose due to an expected link between the carbonate mounds and subsurface hydrocarbon resources. In addition to the depths measurements the acoustic intensity of the received echo was recorded for individual measurements. After processing of the echo amplitudes by employing NRGCOR software the backscatter strength of the ensonified seafloor is used to identify areas of similar physical properties. Normalization was applied to the backscatter data to obtain acoustic response information which is independent from the incidence angle of the sonar beam. The mapped grey scale variation of the acoustic response is used to separate different types of seafloor. Four distinct types of seafloor have been depicted which are mounds, buried mounds, channel seafloor and inter channel areas. A semi-empirical method was applied to determine shape aspects of the angular backscatter strength. Three parameters, i.e. predicted 20° angular response, slope and coefficient of variation of the angular backscatter responses were computed to understand varying seafloor characteristics. The combination of backscatter and bathymetric data is another significant aspect of this contribution. Applying 3D visualisation techniques enables the user to link acoustic backscatter response to the seafloor morphology.

  1. A Sea Floor Methane Hydrate Displacement Experiment Using N2 Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Zhang, X.; Hester, K.

    2009-12-01

    The production of free methane gas from solid methane hydrate accumulations presents a considerable challenge. The presently preferred procedure is pressure reduction whereby the relief of pressure to a condition outside the hydrate phase boundary creates a gas phase. The reaction is endothermic and thus a problematic water ice phase can form if the extraction of gas is too rapid, limiting the applicability of this procedure. Additionally, the removal of the formation water in contact with the hydrate phase is required before meaningful pressure reduction can be attained -- and this can take time. An alternate approach that has been suggested is the injection of liquid CO2 into the formation, thereby displacing the formation water. Formation of a solid CO2 hydrate is thermodynamically favored under these conditions. Competition between CH4 and CO2 for the hydrate host water molecules can occur displacing CH4 from the solid to the gas phase with formation of a solid CO2 hydrate. We have investigated another alternate approach with displacement of the surrounding bulk water phase by N2 gas, resulting in rapid release of CH4 gas and complete loss of the solid hydrate phase. Our experiment was carried out at the Southern Summit of Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, at 780m depth. There we harvested hydrate fragments from surficial sediments using the robotic arm of the ROV Doc Ricketts. Specimens of the hydrate were collected about 1m above the sediment surface in an inverted funnel with a mesh covered neck as they floated upwards. The accumulated hydrate was transferred to an inverted glass cylinder, and N2 gas was carefully injected into this container. Displacement of the water phase occurred and when the floating hydrate material approached the lower rim the gas injection was stopped and the cylinder placed upon a flat metal plate effectively sealing the system. We returned to this site after 7 days to measure progress, and observed complete loss of the hydrate phase. We measured the gas and water composition by inserting a newly developed Raman probe, and readily detected the presence of dissolved CH4 in the water below the gas phase and a very large CH4 signal in the gas phase. Since N2 will not form a hydrate under these conditions no new solid phase is formed to slow the reaction sequence or obstruct the porosity. While the economic viability of this approach remains to be determined our results show that the N2-CH4 hydrate displacement reaction can proceed quickly and lead to production of a simple N2-CH4 mixture.

  2. Geochemical models of metasomatism in ultramafic systems: serpentinization, rodingitization, and sea floor carbonate chimney precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palandri, James L.; Reed, Mark H.

    2004-03-01

    In a series of water-rock reaction simulations, we assess the processes of serpentinization of harzburgite and related calcium metasomatism resulting in rodingite-type alteration, and seafloor carbonate chimney precipitation. At temperatures from 25 to 300°C (P = 10 to 100 bar), using either fresh water or seawater, serpentinization simulations produce an assemblage commonly observed in natural systems, dominated by serpentine, magnetite, and brucite. The reacted waters in the simulations show similar trends in composition with decreasing water-rock ratios, becoming hyper-alkaline and strongly reducing, with increased dissolved calcium. At 25°C and w/r less than ˜32, conditions are sufficiently reducing to yield H 2 gas, nickel-iron alloy and native copper. Hyperalkalinity results from OH - production by olivine and pyroxene dissolution in the absence of counterbalancing OH - consumption by alteration mineral precipitation except at very high pH; at moderate pH there are no stable calcium minerals and only a small amount of chlorite forms, limited by aluminum, thus allowing Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ to accumulate in the aqueous phase in exchange for H +. The reducing conditions result from oxidation of ferrous iron in olivine and pyroxene to ferric iron in magnetite. Trace metals are computed to be nearly insoluble below 300°C, except for mercury, for which high pH stabilizes aqueous and gaseous Hg°. In serpentinization by seawater at 300°C, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt may approach ore-forming concentrations in sulfide complexes. Simulated mixing of the fluid derived from serpentinization with cold seawater produces a mineral assemblage dominated by calcite, similar to recently discovered submarine, ultramafic rock-hosted, carbonate mineral deposits precipitating at hydrothermal vents. Simulated reaction of gabbroic or basaltic rocks with the hyperalkaline calcium- and aluminum-rich fluid produced during serpentinization at 300°C yields rodingite-type mineral assemblages, including grossular, clinozoisite, vesuvianite, prehnite, chlorite, and diopside.

  3. Sound Reflection from the Sea Floor and its Geological Significance (NODC Accession 7001147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this investigation was to measure bottom loss in normal incident reflection of pluses of twelve keps sound and to study its geological significance....

  4. Estimates of the temperature flux-temperature gradient relation above a sea-floor

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatoribus, Andrea A

    2016-01-01

    The relation between the flux of temperature (or buoyancy), the vertical temperature gradient and the height above the bottom, is investigated in an oceanographic context, using high-resolution temperature measurements. The model for the evolution of a stratified layer by Balmforth et al. (1998) is reviewed and adapted to the case of a turbulent flow above a wall. Model predictions are compared to the average observational estimates of the flux, exploiting a flux estimation method proposed by Winters & D'Asaro (1996). This estimation method enables the disentanglement of the dependence of the average flux on the height above the bottom and on the background temperature gradient. The classical N-shaped flux-gradient relation is found in the observations. Model and observations show similar qualitative behaviour, despite the strong simplifications used in the model. The results shed light on the modulation of the temperature flux by the presence of the boundary, and support the idea of a turbulent flux foll...

  5. Sediment Texture and Geomorphology of the Sea Floor from Fenwick Island, Maryland to Fisherman's Island, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are a qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefile defining surficial sediment type and distribution, and geomorphology, for nearly 1,400 square...

  6. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zuberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa

    2003-11-17

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A three-week trip to Statoil Research Centre in Trondheim, Norway, was made in the summer of 2003. This visit consisted of gathering data and collaborating with scientists working on the Sleipner project. The trip ended with a presentation of the seafloor gravity results to date at a SACS2 (Saline Aquifer CO{sub 2} Storage 2) meeting. This meeting provided the perfect opportunity to meet and gather information from the world's experts on the Sleipner project.

  7. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Zumberge

    2003-06-13

    At the Sleipner gas field, excess CO{sub 2} is sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. A high precision micro-gravity survey was carried out on the seafloor to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. Simple modeling of the first year data give inconclusive results, thus a more detailed approach is needed. Work towards this is underway.

  8. Burrowing hard corals occurring on the sea floor since 80 million years ago

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sentoku, Asuka; Tokuda, Yuki; Ezaki, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    ... to escape burial, and recovery of an upright position after being overturned. These behaviours were achieved through repeated expansion and contraction of their peripheral soft tissues, which constitute a unique muscle-membrane system...

  9. The Cretaceous-Tertiary sea floor off Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramprasad, T.

    A study of the bathymetric and linear magnetic anomalies between Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR) revealed a Mesozoic sequence of linear magnetic anomalies, M0 to M12 (108-126 Ma), a fracture zone offset (is...

  10. CLIMAP 18K bp Sediment Data Files - Micropaleontology, Stratigraphy and Geochemistry From Sea Floor Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CLIMAP (Climate: Long-range Investigation, Mapping, andPrediction) Project was funded by the National Science Foundation aspart of the International Decade of...

  11. Fuzzy Logic Controller Scheme for Floor Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyawako Donald Steve

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of civil engineering floors is increasingly being governed by their vibration serviceability performance. This trend is the result of advancements in design technologies offering designers greater flexibilities in realising more lightweight, longer span and more open-plan layouts. These floors are prone to excitation from human activities. The present research work looks at analytical studies of active vibration control on a case study floor prototype that has been specifically designed to be representative of a real office floor structure. Specifically, it looks at tuning fuzzy control gains with the aim of adapting them to measured structural responses under human excitation. Vibration mitigation performances are compared with those of a general velocity feedback controller, and these are found to be identical in these sets of studies. It is also found that slightly less control force is required for the fuzzy controller scheme at moderate to low response levels and as a result of the adaptive gain, at very low responses the control force is close to zero, which is a desirable control feature. There is also saturation in the peak gain with the fuzzy controller scheme, with this gain tending towards the optimal feedback gain of the direct velocity feedback (DVF at high response levels for this fuzzy design.

  12. The floor effect: impoverished spatial memory for elevator buttons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendetti, Michael; Castel, Alan D; Holyoak, Keith J

    2013-05-01

    People typically remember objects to which they have frequently been exposed, suggesting that memory is a by-product of perception. However, prior research has shown that people have exceptionally poor memory for the features of some objects (e.g., coins) to which they have been exposed over the course of many years. Here, we examined how people remember the spatial layout of the buttons on a frequently used elevator panel, to determine whether physical interaction (rather than simple exposure) would ensure the incidental encoding of spatial information. Participants who worked in an eight-story office building displayed very poor recall for the elevator panel but above-chance performance on a recognition test. Performance was related to how often and how recently the person had used the elevator. In contrast to their poor memory for the spatial layout of the elevator buttons, most people readily recalled small distinctive graffiti on the elevator walls. In a more implicit test, the majority were able to locate their office floor and the eighth floor button when asked to point toward these buttons when in the actual elevator, with the button labels covered. However, identification was very poor for other floors (including the first floor), suggesting that even frequent interaction with information does not always lead to accurate spatial memory. These findings have implications for understanding the complex relationships among attention, expertise, and memory.

  13. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes - Cantilever Floor Example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taggart, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Sikora, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wood, A. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented.

  14. 26 CFR 52.4682-4 - Floor stocks tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tax. See § 52.4681-1(a)(3) and (c) for general rules and definitions relating to the floor stocks... refrigeration units. E does not hold the ODC for sale or for use in further manufacture. Example 6. F, a bank... numbers. The ODC is stored in a central warehouse until needed by a unit and then transferred to the unit...

  15. Modelling of Air Flow trough a Slatted Floor by CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld; Bjerg, Bjarne; Morsing, Svend;

    In this paper two different CFD-approaches are investigated to model the airflow through a slatted floor. Experiments are carried out in a full-scale test room. The computer simulations are carried out with the CFD-code FLOVENT, which solves the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by use of the k...

  16. "Training Floors" and "Training Ceilings": Metonyms for Understanding Training Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a conceptual framework for mapping and understanding training trends. It uses the metonyms of floors and ceilings to distinguish between different types of training configurations. The argument is made that the ups and downs of employer reports of training activity are a crude basis on which to make judgements about the…

  17. Two Technologies to Be Transferred Wall Trimmer & Floor Trimmer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Wall Trimmer and the Floor Trimmer referred in the present project is developed in the light of the practical problems in the building industry including the workers' low expertise,tight project schedules,heavy waste in the utilization of raw materials and low quality of finished buildings.

  18. 75 FR 66126 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  19. Pelvic floor muscle thickness measured by perineal ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Juul, N; Grønvall, S

    1991-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle thickness was assessed in nine healthy female physiotherapists by perineal sonography. All measurements were performed as triple-measurements. The aims were to assess the reliability of the measurements and to establish a reference material. The muscle thickness at rest...

  20. Forces affecting orbital floor reconstruction materials--a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, Falk; Steiner, Martin; Kern, Matthias; Wiltfang, Jörg; Möller, Björn; Lucius, Ralph; Becker, Stephan Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the applied force and the displacement of the orbital contents after orbital floor reconstruction using artificially aged reconstruction materials in fresh frozen human heads and (ii) to analyze the puncture strength of the materials. Six fresh frozen human heads were used, and orbital floor defects in the right and left orbit were created by 3.0 J direct impacts on the globe and infraorbital rim. The orbital floor defect sizes and displacements were evaluated after a Le-Fort-I osteotomy. The orbital floor defect sizes were 208.3(SD, 33.4) mm(2) for the globe impacts and 221.8(SD, 53.1) mm(2) for the infraorbital impacts. The forces on the incorporated materials were approximately 0.003 N and 0.03 N for the PDS-foil and collagen membrane, respectively. The displacements of the materials were +0.9 mm and +0.7 mm for the PDS-foil and collagen membrane, respectively. The puncture strengths of the PDS-foil and collagen membrane decreased from approximately 70 N and 12 N at week 1 to approximately 5 N and 1.5 N at week 8 of artificial aging. The force applied to the orbital content is minimal, and the puncture strengths of the artificially aged materials are more than sufficient for the measured forces. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing A System Architecture For Holonic Shop Floor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian; Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes theresults of research regarding the emerging theory of Holonic Manufacturing Systems. This theory and in particular itscorresponding reference architecture serves as the basis for thedevelopment of a system-architecture for shop floor controlsystems in a multi-cellular conte...

  2. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving floor of the mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sah Kunal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Basaloid squamous cell carcinomas of oral mucosa are uncommon. Majority of them can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinoma by their aggressive clinical course and their histopathological features. This case report presents a case of 70-year-old male with basaloid squamous cell carcinoma involving the floor of the mouth.

  3. reliability analysis of a two span floor designed according to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The Structural analysis and design of the timber floor system was carried out using deterministic approach ... The cell structure of hardwoods is more complex than ..... [12] BS EN -1-1: Eurocode 5: Design of Timber Structures, Part. 1-1.

  4. An approach for in situ studies of deep-sea amphipods and their microbial gut flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannasch, H. W.; Cuhel, R. L.; Wirsen, C. O.; Taylor, C. D.

    1980-10-01

    A technique has been developed and field-tested for the trapping, feeding, and timed incubation of amphipods on the deep-sea floor. Data obtained from experiments using radiolabeled foodstuffs indicate that shifts within the labeled fractions of the major biological polymers make it possible to distinguish between the metabolism of the amphipods and that of their intestinal microflora.

  5. Quality of life in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Pelvic floor dysfunction is a frequent problem affecting more than 50% of women in peri- and postmenopause. Considering that ageing and menopause befall in the significant factors causing this issue, as well as the expected longevity of women in the world and in our country, pelvic floor dysfunction prevelence is foreseen to be even higher. The aim of the study was to evaluate impact of the symptoms of pelvic dysfunction on quality of life and examine body image satisfaction in adult women with pelvic organ prolapse presenting to tertiary care clinic for surgical treatment. Methods. This prospective case-control study included 50 patients who presented to tertiary care gynecology clinic for surgical treatment and 50 controls with normal pelvic floor support and without urinary incontinence who presented tertiary care gynecology clinic for other reasons. Both, patients and controls, completed two quastionnaires recommended for the evaluation of symptoms (Pelvic floor distress inventory - short forms and quality of life impact (Pelvic floor impact questionnaire - short form of pelvic organ prolapse, and Body Image Scale. Results. The patients scored significantly worse on the prolapse, urinary, colorectal scales and overall score of Pelvic floor distress inventory - 20 than controls subjects (134.91 vs 78.08; p < 0.01. The patients also measured significant decrease in condition- specific quality of life (89.23 vs 3.1; p < 0.01. They were more likely to feel self-conscious (78% vs 42%; p < 0.01, less likely to feel physically attractive (78% vs 22%; p < 0.01, more likely to have difficulty looking at themselves naked (70% vs 42%; p < 0.01, less likely to feel sexually attractive (64% vs 32%; p < 0.01, and less likely to feel feminine (56% vs 16%; p < 0.05, than controls. There were no differencies in their feeling of dissatisfaction with appearance when dressed, avoiding people because of appereance and overall dissatisfaction with

  6. Dancer perceptions of the force reduction of dance floors used by a professional touring ballet company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Luke S; Wheeler, Talia J; Webster, James M; Allen, Nick; Roberts, Jonathan R; Fleming, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical properties of dance floors have the potential to influence dancers' performance and injury risk. Little information is available that describes dancers' preferences for dance floor mechanical properties. Investigation of dancers' perceptions of varied dance floors can serve to enlighten governing bodies, floor manufacturers, and the dance community. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of dancers from a touring professional ballet company regarding four floors with varied force reduction (FR) that were created to replicate those used by the company in normal dance training and performance. A specialized questionnaire was developed that incorporated a series of qualitative and quantitative measures that could be used by participants to express their perceptions of the custom built dance floors. Floor FR was quantified with reference to the protocols specified by European standards. Dancer perceptions were in general agreement with floor FR values; however, some discrepancies were observed. Dancers expressed a preference for floor FR within the mid to upper limits (57% to 72%) of the European standards, although a minority preferred low FR (approximately 36%) floors. A limited ability to perceive inconsistencies in FR across test floors was observed, which may have implications for injury risk. Investigation of the perceptions of dancers from more diverse backgrounds, on floors that provide a closer representation of typical dance studio and stage sizes, over longer periods of time, would provide further insight into the perceptual and adaptive responses of dancers to varied floor mechanical properties.

  7. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TANK 19F FLOOR SAMPLE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.

    2010-09-02

    Representative sampling has been completed for characterization of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F as per the statistical sampling plan developed by Harris and Shine. Samples from eight locations have been obtained from the tank floor and two of the samples were archived as a contingency. Six samples, referred to in this report as the current scrape samples, have been submitted to and analyzed by SRNL. This report contains the statistical analysis of the floor sample analytical results to determine if further data are needed to reduce uncertainty. Included are comparisons with the prior Mantis samples results to determine if they can be pooled with the current scrape samples to estimate the upper 95% confidence limits (UCL95%) for concentration. Statistical analysis revealed that the Mantis and current scrape sample results are not compatible. Therefore, the Mantis sample results were not used to support the quantification of analytes in the residual material. Significant spatial variability among the current scrape sample results was not found. Constituent concentrations were similar between the North and South hemispheres as well as between the inner and outer regions of the tank floor. The current scrape sample results from all six samples fall within their 3-sigma limits. In view of the results from numerous statistical tests, the data were pooled from all six current scrape samples. As such, an adequate sample size was provided for quantification of the residual material on the floor of Tank 19F. The uncertainty is quantified in this report by an UCL95% on each analyte concentration. The uncertainty in analyte concentration was calculated as a function of the number of samples, the average, and the standard deviation of the analytical results. The UCL95% was based entirely on the six current scrape sample results (each averaged across three analytical determinations).

  8. Pelvic floor muscle function, pelvic floor dysfunction and diastasis recti abdominis: Prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Hilde, Gunvor; Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Sperstad, Jorun Bakken; Engh, Marie Ellstrøm

    2017-03-01

    Compare vaginal resting pressure (VRP), pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength, and endurance in women with and without diastasis recti abdominis at gestational week 21 and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. Furthermore, to compare prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in the two groups at the same assessment points. This is a prospective cohort study following 300 nulliparous pregnant women giving birth at a public university hospital. VRP, PFM strength, and endurance were measured with vaginal manometry. ICIQ-UI-SF questionnaire and POP-Q were used to assess UI and POP. Diastasis recti abdominis was diagnosed with palpation of  ≥2 fingerbreadths 4.5 cm above, at, or 4.5 cm below the umbilicus. At gestational week 21 women with diastasis recti abdominis had statistically significant greater VRP (mean difference 3.06 cm H2 O [95%CI: 0.70; 5.42]), PFM strength (mean difference 5.09 cm H2 O [95%CI: 0.76; 9.42]) and PFM muscle endurance (mean difference 47.08 cm H2 O sec [95%CI: 15.18; 78.99]) than women with no diastasis. There were no statistically significant differences between women with and without diastasis in any PFM variables at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. No significant difference was found in prevalence of UI in women with and without diastasis at any assessment points. Six weeks postpartum 15.9% of women without diastasis had POP versus 4.1% in the group with diastasis (P = 0.001). Women with diastasis were not more likely to have weaker PFM or more UI or POP. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:716-721, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mechanics model and numerical analysis of floor heave in soft rock roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chuan-qu; WANG Yong; CHEN Miao-ming; CHEN Zhi; WANG Hong-ming

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of floor heave was analyzed by establishing mechanics models and solving differential equations.The amount of floor heave is proportional to the abutment pressure of surrounding rock,roadway width,and the distance of support pressure peak to the roadway and is inversely proportional to the elastic modulus of floor rock.Using FLAC2D to simulate floor rock grouting in soft rock roadway verifies the active role of floor rock grouting in the floor controlling of soft rock roadway; floor rock grouting and grouting range directly impact on the stability scope of surrounding rock,namely,with the increase of grouting range,the subsidence of roof,the approach of both sides,and the amount of floor heave decreased gradually,the stability of surrounding rock is enhanced.

  10. Pelvic reconstruction improves pelvic floor strength in pelvic organ prolapse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Guan

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The modified pelvic reconstruction procedure could improve pelvic floor muscle strength in POP patients, which remains lower when compared with the normal population. Pelvic floor muscle strength should be included in the assessment of surgical outcomes in POP.

  11. Effectiveness of Stationary Humans and Tuned Mass Dampers in Controlling Floor vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    and the vibrating floor. The paper presents results of controlled tests made with a vibrating test floor carrying stationary crowds of people and how these results are employed in the context of formulating a model for the passive damping mechanism generated by stationary humans. The paper illustrates...... a dynamic excitation generated by humans in motion. The vibration levels are compared with those expected if the else wise empty structures were fitted with a tuned mass damper so as to illustrate the effectiveness of the crowd in mitigating floor vibrations. Since a stationary crowd of people changes......Floor vibrations can be annoying to stationary humans (sitting or standing) on a floor, and therefore codes and standards specify threshold values for floor acceleration levels. For very responsive floors if can be necessary to fit the floor with a passive damping source (such as a tuned mass...

  12. Effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery on maxillary sinus physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmenga, NM; Raghoebar, GM; Liem, RSB; van Weissenbruch, R; Manson, WL; Vissink, A

    2003-01-01

    In a prospective study, the effects of elevation surgery of the maxillary sinus floor on maxillary sinus physiology were assessed. Seventeen consecutive patients without preoperative anamnestic, clinical and radiological signs of maxillary sinusitis underwent sinus floor elevation surgery with iliac

  13. Compilation of PRF Canyon Floor Pan Sample Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wahl, Jon H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, Lawrence R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scheele, Randall D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Garrett N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clark, Richard A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    On September 28, 2015, debris collected from the PRF (236-Z) canyon floor, Pan J, was observed to exhibit chemical reaction. The material had been transferred from the floor pan to a collection tray inside the canyon the previous Friday. Work in the canyon was stopped to allow Industrial Hygiene to perform monitoring of the material reaction. Canyon floor debris that had been sealed out was sequestered at the facility, a recovery plan was developed, and drum inspections were initiated to verify no additional reactions had occurred. On October 13, in-process drums containing other Pan J material were inspected and showed some indication of chemical reaction, limited to discoloration and degradation of inner plastic bags. All Pan J material was sealed back into the canyon and returned to collection trays. Based on the high airborne levels in the canyon during physical debris removal, ETGS (Encapsulation Technology Glycerin Solution) was used as a fogging/lock-down agent. On October 15, subject matter experts confirmed a reaction had occurred between nitrates (both Plutonium Nitrate and Aluminum Nitrate Nonahydrate (ANN) are present) in the Pan J material and the ETGS fixative used to lower airborne radioactivity levels during debris removal. Management stopped the use of fogging/lock-down agents containing glycerin on bulk materials, declared a Management Concern, and initiated the Potential Inadequacy in the Safety Analysis determination process. Additional drum inspections and laboratory analysis of both reacted and unreacted material are planned. This report compiles the results of many different sample analyses conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on samples collected from the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) floor pans by the CH2MHill’s Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). Revision 1 added Appendix G that reports the results of the Gas Generation Rate and methodology. The scope of analyses requested by CHPRC includes the determination of

  14. The Influence of the Thickness of the Slab and Concrete Grade on Composite Floors

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile-Mircea Venghiac; Cedric D’Mello

    2010-01-01

    A modern flooring system is the ComFloor Composite Floor Deck from Corus. This type of floor has many advantages involving cost, weight, construction speed, but also disadvantages regarding vibrations induced by human activity. The vibration behaviour of this system was analysed taking into consideration two parameters: the thickness of the slab and the grade of the concrete. Two sets of models were made, one with composite beams and one with steel beams. The purpose was to make a comparison ...

  15. Hydroxide ion concentration at an interface between concrete and a self-levelling flooring compound

    OpenAIRE

    Anderberg, Anders; Wadsö, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This article presents results from measurements of hydroxide ion transport between a concrete and a floor screed of a lower alkalinity than the concrete. As many floor coverings and floor adhesives are sensitive to high alkaline conditions it is important to know how hydroxide ions are transported to be able to evaluate the long-term function of floor constructions. It was found that only minor transport of hydroxide ions occurs in the hygroscopic moisture range. One conclusion is therefore t...

  16. Heat Transmission of Slab-on-Ground Industrial Floors with Vertical Perimeter Insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kocsis, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    The surface heat loss of slab-on-ground industrial floors that are vertically insulated along the footing wall (with the insulation reaching under the ground level), is closely linked with the relatively large floor area of industrial halls. To give a comprehensive heat transmission analysis, the present paper first provides an overview of the U-value requirements for such floors in Hungary and Germany. For the determination of the heat transmission coefficient of slab-on-ground floors with v...

  17. Mammals of the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  18. Mammals of the Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  19. Understanding controls on cirque floor altitudes: Insights from Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Iestyn D.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    Glacial cirques reflect former regions of glacier initiation, and are therefore used as indicators of past climate. One specific way in which palaeoclimatic information is obtained from cirques is by analysing their elevations, on the assumption that cirque floor altitudes are a proxy for climatically controlled equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) during former periods of small scale (cirque-type) glaciation. However, specific controls on cirque altitudes are rarely assessed, and the validity of using cirque floor altitudes as a source of palaeoclimatic information remains open to question. In order to address this, here we analyse the distribution of 3520 ice-free cirques on the Kamchatka Peninsula (eastern Russia), and assess various controls on their floor altitudes. In addition, we analyse controls on the mid-altitudes of 503 modern glaciers, currently identifiable on the peninsula, and make comparisons with the cirque altitude data. The main study findings are that cirque floor altitudes increase steeply inland from the Pacific, suggesting that moisture availability (i.e., proximity to the coastline) played a key role in regulating the altitudes at which former (cirque-forming) glaciers were able to initiate. Other factors, such as latitude, aspect, topography, geology, and neo-tectonics seem to have played a limited (but not insignificant) role in regulating cirque floor altitudes, though south-facing cirques are typically higher than their north-facing equivalents, potentially reflecting the impact of prevailing wind directions (from the SSE) and/or variations in solar radiation on the altitudes at which former glaciers were able to initiate. Trends in glacier and cirque altitudes across the peninsula are typically comparable (i.e., values typically rise from both the north and south, inland from the Pacific coastline, and where glaciers/cirques are south-facing), yet the relationship with latitude is stronger for modern glaciers, and the relationship with

  20. Prevalence of claw disorders in Dutch dairy cows exposed to several floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Claw health was examined in an observational study on Dutch dairy farms with either a slatted floor (SL), slatted floor with manure scraper (SL-SCR), solid concrete floor (SCF), a straw yard (SY), or a zero-grazing feeding system (ZG). Hooves of cows' hind legs were examined for the presence and sev

  1. Floor Identification with Commercial Smartphones in Wifi-Based Indoor Localization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, H. J.; Liu, M. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Zhao, J. Q.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we utilize novel sensors built-in commercial smart devices to propose a schema which can identify floors with high accuracy and efficiency. This schema can be divided into two modules: floor identifying and floor change detection. Floor identifying module starts at initial phase of positioning, and responsible for determining which floor the positioning start. We have estimated two methods to identify initial floor based on K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and BP Neural Network, respectively. In order to improve performance of KNN algorithm, we proposed a novel method based on weighting signal strength, which can identify floors robust and quickly. Floor change detection module turns on after entering into continues positioning procedure. In this module, sensors (such as accelerometer and barometer) of smart devices are used to determine whether the user is going up and down stairs or taking an elevator. This method has fused different kinds of sensor data and can adapt various motion pattern of users. We conduct our experiment with mobile client on Android Phone (Nexus 5) at a four-floors building with an open area between the second and third floor. The results demonstrate that our scheme can achieve an accuracy of 99% to identify floor and 97% to detecting floor changes as a whole.

  2. Assessment of walking-induced floor vibrations according to the SBR guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentzen, S.S.K.; Koopman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight floors are prone to high levels of vibration due to human activities. The Dutch building code imposes regulations on floors with respect to safety, health and serviceability. The walking-induced vibrations of floors are not incorporated in these regulations. The private law arrangement i

  3. FLOOR IDENTIFICATION WITH COMMERCIAL SMARTPHONES IN WIFI-BASED INDOOR LOCALIZATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Ai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize novel sensors built-in commercial smart devices to propose a schema which can identify floors with high accuracy and efficiency. This schema can be divided into two modules: floor identifying and floor change detection. Floor identifying module starts at initial phase of positioning, and responsible for determining which floor the positioning start. We have estimated two methods to identify initial floor based on K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN and BP Neural Network, respectively. In order to improve performance of KNN algorithm, we proposed a novel method based on weighting signal strength, which can identify floors robust and quickly. Floor change detection module turns on after entering into continues positioning procedure. In this module, sensors (such as accelerometer and barometer of smart devices are used to determine whether the user is going up and down stairs or taking an elevator. This method has fused different kinds of sensor data and can adapt various motion pattern of users. We conduct our experiment with mobile client on Android Phone (Nexus 5 at a four-floors building with an open area between the second and third floor. The results demonstrate that our scheme can achieve an accuracy of 99% to identify floor and 97% to detecting floor changes as a whole.

  4. Method for calculating thermal properties of lightweight floor heating panels based on an experimental setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    Lightweight floor heating systems consist of a plastic tube connected to a heat distribution aluminium plate and are used in wooden floor constructions. The thermal properties of lightweight floor heating systems cannot be described accurately. The reason is a very complex interaction of convecti...

  5. Assessing cumulative pressures and impacts in a regional scale: HELCOM Baltic Sea Impact Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpinen, S.; Meski, L.; Andersen, Jesper;

    of identifying hot spots needs to be replaced by spatial high-resolution maps associated with estimated impacts on key ecosystem components. The Baltic Sea Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) took a first step towards an initial regional assessment of anthropogenic pressures in the Initial Holistic...... of macrozoobenthic communities in some Baltic sub-basins and the results have suggested that more specific selection of pressures is needed in order to assess anthropogenic impacts on benthic habitats. Such an adaptation of the tool has already been tested to assess the sea-floor integrity under the MSFD qualitative...... Assessment of the Baltic Sea by producing the Baltic Sea Pressure Index (BSPI) and the Baltic Sea Impact Index (BSII). The BSPI visualizes cumulative anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea scale, whereas the BSII consists of potential impacts of anthropogenic pressures on key ecosystem components...

  6. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Skipton N. C.; Tittensor, Derek P.; Dunstan, Piers K.; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Wintle, Brendan A.; Worm, Boris; O'Hara, Timothy D.

    2016-05-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000-6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0-20 m), continental shelf (20-200 m), and upper-slope (200-2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0-30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30-50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species-energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats.

  7. Deep-sea diversity patterns are shaped by energy availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Skipton N C; Tittensor, Derek P; Dunstan, Piers K; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Wintle, Brendan A; Worm, Boris; O'Hara, Timothy D

    2016-05-19

    The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000-6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0-20 m), continental shelf (20-200 m), and upper-slope (200-2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0-30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30-50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species-energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats.

  8. Nanosilica reinforced epoxy floor coating composites: preparation and thermophysical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammad Alavi Nikje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flooring grade epoxy/nanoSiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ polymerization method. Nano silica was treated by coupling agent in order to surface treating and introducing of reactive functional groups to achieving adequate bonding between polar inorganic nano particles and epoxy organic polymer. γ-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (Amino A-100 was used as an effective and commercially available coupling agent and nano silica treated in acetone media. SEM observations of cured samples revealed that the nano silica was completely dispersed into polymer matrix into nanoscale particles. Thermal and physical properties of prepared samples were investigated and data showed improvements in physical and mechanical properties of the flooring samples in comparison with unfilled resin.

  9. Holistic sustainable development: Floor-layers and micro-enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Monique; Nadeau, Sylvie; Vezeau, Steve

    2016-11-01

    Attracting and retaining workers is important to ensuring the sustainability of floor laying businesses, which are for the most part micro-enterprises (MiE). The aim of this paper is to shed light on the challenges MiE face in OHS implementation in the context of sustainable development. Participative ergonomics and user-centred design approaches were used. The material collected was reviewed to better understand the floor layers' viewpoints on sustainability. The solutions that were retained and the challenges encountered to make material handling and physical work easier and to develop training and a website are presented. The importance of OHS as a sustainability factor, its structuring effect, what distinguishes MiE from small businesses and possible strategies for workings with them are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) in modular floor panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design, manufacturing, and structural behavior of a prefabricated floor panel consisting of a modular assembly of a thin-walled ECC slab and steel truss girders. The features of this composite structure include light weight, the modular manufacturing process...... with adaptability to various loading requirements, and the efficient utilization of material resources and industrial byproducts. The work described in this paper is a continuation of previous activities on composite floor panels in which light gage steel joists were integrally cast with the ECC slab. The modular...... concept introduced in this paper aims at improvements in the manufacturing process of the panels by casting the ECC slab separately and subsequently joining it with the steel trusses. The focus of this paper is on design and manufacturing of a prototype modular panel and on its structural behavior under...

  11. Perforation of the sinus membrane during sinus floor elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Fodich, Ivo; Bornstein, Michael M;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the frequency of perforation of the sinus membrane during maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and to assess possible risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven cases of SFE performed with a lateral window approach were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical and radiogra......PURPOSE: To analyze the frequency of perforation of the sinus membrane during maxillary sinus floor elevation (SFE) and to assess possible risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven cases of SFE performed with a lateral window approach were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical...... (presence and height of septum, height of residual ridge, thickness of lateral sinus wall, width of antrum, and thickness and status of sinus membrane). RESULTS: The following factors presented with at least a 10% difference in rates of perforations: smokers (46.2%) versus nonsmokers (23.4%), simultaneous...... the lateral window approach....

  12. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  13. A very nervous inguinal floor: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacoglu, H; Sen, T; Ozyaylali, I; Elhan, A

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair with prosthetic meshes is recorded in some patients. Although the exact etiology of the pain is not fully understood, it can be related to the trauma to the regional nerves. It is possible to involve these nerves by injuring, suturing, stapling, tacking or compressing them during the operation. Therefore, a delicate surgical approach to the inguinal floor with correct identification of three nerves is necessary for patient comfort at early and late postoperative period. We herein report a surgical view of an inguinal floor which are very rich of neural structures in a patient undergo an elective inguinal hernia repair. The number of the main nerve bundles was excessive, and they were thicker than generally met. This kind of anatomic variations may create a difficulty for repair with prosthetic material. The identification of the nerve structures was hard at first sight and the correct identification was only made by consulting the surgical picture with a senior anatomist.

  14. Assessing the value of price caps and floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication assesses the long-term economic and climatic effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical global climate change mitigation policy. Based on emission trends, abatement costs and equilibrium climate sensitivity from IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms that price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. Furthermore,this analysis shows that rigid targets may entail greater economic risks with little or no comparative advantage for the climate. More ambitious emission objectives, combined with price caps and price floors, could still entail significantly lower expected costs while driving similar, or even slightly better, climatic outcomes in probabilistic terms.

  15. Air flow management in raised floor data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Arghode, Vaibhav K

    2016-01-01

    The Brief discuss primarily two aspects of air flow management in raised floor data centers. Firstly, cooling air delivery through perforated tiles will be examined and influence of the tile geometry on flow field development and hot air entrainment above perforated tiles will be discussed. Secondly, the use of cold aisle containment to physically separate hot and cold regions, and minimize hot and cold air mixing will be presented. Both experimental investigations and computational efforts are discussed and development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based models for simulating air flow in data centers is included. In addition, metrology tools for facility scale air velocity and temperature measurement, and air flow rate measurement through perforated floor tiles and server racks are examined and the authors present thermodynamics-based models to gauge the effectiveness and importance of air flow management schemes in data centers.

  16. Dermoid Cyst of the Floor of the Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth are rare lesions thought to be caused by entrapment of germinal epithelium during the closure of the mandibular and hyoid branchial arches. They usually present as a nonpainful swelling. This type of lesion occurs more frequently in patients between 15 and 35 years, but can be seen in all age ranges. Histologically, all dermoids are lined by epidermis. The contents of the cyst lining determine the histological categories of the cyst: epidermoid, if epidermis is lining the cyst; dermoid, if skin annexes exist; or teratoid, if there are tissues derivated from the three germinal layers. Anatomical classification is useful for surgical approach choice, intra- or extraorally. This report presents a case of a dermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth in a 12-year-old patient, and a review of all steps necessary for its diagnosis and treatment was made.

  17. Imaging the floor of the mouth and the sublingual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La'porte, Sarah J; Juttla, Jaspal K; Lingam, Ravi K

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of pathologic processes may involve the floor of the mouth, the part of the oral cavity that is located beneath the tongue. They include lesions that arise uniquely in this location (eg, ranula, submandibular duct obstruction) as well as various malignancies, inflammatory processes, and vascular abnormalities that may also occur elsewhere in the head and neck. Some lesions that arise in superficial tissues such as the mucosa may be easily diagnosed at physical examination. However, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or ultrasonography may be necessary for a reliable assessment of lesion extension to deeper structures. In such cases, knowledge of the complex muscular, vascular, glandular, ductal, and neural anatomy of the region is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Familiarity with the radiologic imaging appearances of the floor of the mouth and recognition of anatomic landmarks such as the mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles are especially useful for localizing disease within this region.

  18. Organising a clinical service for patients with pelvic floor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatoor, Dave; Soligo, Marco; Emmanuel, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the multidisciplinary approach to the management of chronic conditions is a reflection of how medicine has evolved from a singular to a plural effort recognising the complex causations and consequences of such disorders. This thinking should not be confined to tertiary centres alone and should be adapted where local expertise is available. Such an approach is especially important in pelvic floor disorders, where the correlation between structure and function is not always straightforward. There is a need to avoid over-investigation by accurate clinical assessment allied to tailored investigation, leading to a step-wise approach to treatment (which may include behavioural, physiotherapy, medical or surgical management). The algorithms here on faecal incontinence, obstetric trauma, pelvic floor prolapse and chronic pelvic pain attempt to provide such a logical approach to patients.

  19. An Improved Prediction Model for the Impact Sound Level of Lightweight Floors: Introducing Decoupled Floor-Ceiling and Beam-Plate Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosharrof, Mohammad Sazzad; Brunskog, Jonas; Ljunggren, Fredrik;

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the complex acoustic behaviour of lightweight building structures both experimental and theoretical approaches are necessary. Within the theoretical approach developing theoretical models is of great importance. The aim here is to further develop an existing method to predict...... the impact sound pressure level in a receiving room for a coupled floor structure where floor and ceiling are rigidly connected by beams. A theoretical model for predicting the impact sound level for a decoupled floor structure, which has no rigid mechanical connections between the floor and the ceiling...

  20. Pelvic floor muscle importance - Evidence based information with EMG-device about Pelvic floor muscle function: Booklet for the use of MediVITAL Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Mesiniemi, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor ́s thesis was to give evidence based information about pelvic floor importance, its physiotherapy, EMG-machine examination and to create a booklet about the subject for the use of MediVITAL CLINIC S.L. in Spain. Aim was to give understandable knowledge about pelvic floor structure, dysfunctions and how EMG is used as a part of evaluation and training in pelvic floor physiotherapy. The thesis includes a theoretical part about pelvic floor structure, most common...

  1. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN FLOOR TILES FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Hittle

    2002-10-01

    Passive solar systems integrated into residential structures significantly reduce heating energy consumption. Taking advantage of latent heat storage has further increased energy savings. This is accomplished by the incorporation of phase change materials into building materials used in passive applications. Trombe walls, ceilings and floors can all be enhanced with phase change materials. Increasing the thermal storage of floor tile by the addition of encapsulated paraffin wax is the proposed topic of research. Latent heat storage of a phase change material (PCM) is obtained during a change in phase. Typical materials use the latent heat released when the material changes from a liquid to a solid. Paraffin wax and salt hydrates are examples of such materials. Other PCMs that have been recently investigated undergo a phase transition from one solid form to another. During this process they will release heat. These are known as solid-state phase change materials. All have large latent heats, which makes them ideal for passive solar applications. Easy incorporation into various building materials is must for these materials. This proposal will address the advantages and disadvantages of using these materials in floor tile. Prototype tile will be made from a mixture of quartz, binder and phase change material. The thermal and structural properties of the prototype tiles will be tested fully. It is expected that with the addition of the phase change material the structural properties will be compromised to some extent. The ratio of phase change material in the tile will have to be varied to determine the best mixture to provide significant thermal storage, while maintaining structural properties that meet the industry standards for floor tile.

  2. OBESITY AND PELVIC FLOOR DISORDERS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Pomian, Andrzej; Lisik, Wojciech; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Barcz, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a worldwide health problem associated with numerous co-morbidities. National costs of obesity and pelvic flor disorders have been rising since the 1950s across the world. Obesity is thought to have a very strong effect on pelvic floor disorders, and, considering the high prevalence of both problems worldwide, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the association between these pathologies as well as the impact of obesity on treatment efficacy. This review i...

  3. Student housing unit in a floor area without corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Cekić Nikola; Vasov Miomir; Bjelić Igor

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the issues of position and urbarchitectonic-functional organization of a housing unit in a floor area without corridors in a student hostel. The authors advocate a new, more rational and functional concept in which the student room is not in direct contact with the corridor communication, but belongs to the housing unit, student apartment for 4-6 users. In a more rational organized volume, the living of the students is more comfortable and has a different character. Th...

  4. Active and passive behaviors of soft tissues: Pelvic floor muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Areias, P.; Pato, M. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    A new active-contraction visco-elastic numerical model of the pelvic floor (skeletal) muscle is presented. Our model includes all elements that represent the muscle constitutive behavior, contraction and relaxation. In contrast with the previous models, the activation function can be null. The complete equations are shown and exactly linearized. Small verification and validation tests are performed and the pelvis is modeled using the data from the intra-abdominal pressure tests.

  5. SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudar, E.; Teese, G.; Wagner, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot's motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot's motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs.

  6. SIMON: A mobile robot for floor contamination surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudar, E.; Teese, G.; Wagner, D.

    1991-12-31

    The Robotics Development group at the Savannah River Site is developing an autonomous robot to perform radiological surveys of potentially contaminated floors. The robot scans floors at a speed of one-inch/second and stops, sounds an alarm, and flashes lights when contamination in a certain area is detected. The contamination of interest here is primarily alpha and beta-gamma. The contamination levels are low to moderate. The robot, a Cybermotion K2A, is radio controlled, uses dead reckoning to determine vehicle position, and docks with a charging station to replenish its batteries and calibrate its position. It has an ultrasonic collision avoidance system as well as two safety bumpers that will stop the robot`s motion when they are depressed. Paths for the robot are preprogrammed and the robot`s motion can be monitored on a remote screen which shows a graphical map of the environment. The radiation instrument being used is an Eberline RM22A monitor. This monitor is microcomputer based with a serial I/O interface for remote operation. Up to 30 detectors may be configured with the RM22A. For our purposes, two downward-facing gas proportional detectors are used to scan floors, and one upward-facing detector is used for radiation background compensation. SIMON is interfaced with the RM22A in such a way that it scans the floor surface at one-inch/second, and if contamination is detected, the vehicle stops, alarms, and activates a voice synthesizer. Future development includes using the contamination data collected to provide a graphical contour map of a contaminated area. 3 refs.

  7. Evolution Sustainable Green Inner-wall with Flexible Floor Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Tawil N.M.; Hussaini H. A.; Basri H.; Che Ani A.I.; Mydin M.A.O

    2014-01-01

    The trend of renovate residential houses especially the interior of the house has become a common phenomenon for homeowners nowadays in Malaysia. This scenario is quiet concern because sometimes no modifications to comply with the law and the guidelines set by the government housing. Modifications with not done properly can cause injury and harm to families and the people around. To reduce this problem, the concept of sustainable inner walls with flexible floor plan should be incorporated in ...

  8. Evaluation of the thermal comfort of ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmeane Effting

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In places where people are bare feet, the thermal sensation of cold or hot depends on the environmental conditions and material properties including its microstructure and crustiness surface. The uncomforting can be characterized by heated floor surfaces in external environments which are exposed to sun radiation (swimming polls areas or by cold floor surfaces in internal environments (bed rooms, path rooms. The property named thermal effusivity which defines the interface temperature when two semi-infinite solids are putted in perfect contact. The introduction of the crustiness surface on the ceramic tiles interferes in the contact temperature and also it can be a strategy to obtain ceramic tiles more comfortable. Materials with low conductivities and densities can be obtained by porous inclusion are due particularly to the processing conditions usually employed. However, the presence of pores generally involves low mechanical strength. This work has the objective to evaluate the thermal comfort of ceramics floor obtained by incorporation of refractory raw materials (residue of the polishing of the porcelanato in industrial atomized ceramic powder, through the thermal and mechanical properties. The theoretical and experimental results show that the porosity and crustiness surface increases; there is sensitive improvement in the comfort by contact.

  9. Measuring forest floor interception in a beech forest in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. J. Gerrits

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In hydrological models evaporation from interception is often disregarded, combined with transpiration, or taken as a fixed percentage of rainfall. In general interception is not considered to be a significant process in rainfall-runoff modelling. However, it appears that on average interception can amount to 20–50% of the precipitation. Therefore, knowledge about the process of interception is important. Traditional research on interception mainly focuses on canopy interception and almost completely denies forest floor interception, although this is an important mechanism that precedes infiltration or runoff. Forest floor interception consists partly of interception by dry soil, partly of interception by short vegetation (mosses, grasses and creeping vegetation and partly of interception by litter. This research concentrates on litter interception: to measure its quantities at point scale and subsequently to upscale it to the scale of a hydrotope. A special measuring device has been developed, which consists of a permeable upper basin filled with forest floor and a watertight lower basin. Both are weighed continuously. The device has been tested in the Huewelerbach catchment (Luxembourg. The preliminary measuring results show that the device is working properly. For November 2004, evaporation from interception is calculated to be 34% of the throughfall in the Huewelerbach catchment.

  10. Computation of particle detachment from floors due to human walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidi, Basman; Khalifa, Ezzat

    2005-11-01

    A computational model for detachment of fine particles due to the unsteady flow under a foot is developed. As the foot approaches the floor, fluid volume is displaced laterally as a wall jet from the perimeter of the contact area at high velocity and acceleration. Unsteady aerodynamic forces on particles attached to the floor are considered. Results show that the jet velocity is ˜40 m/s for a foot idealized as a 15 cm circular disk approaching the floor at 1 m/s with a final gap of 0.8 mm. This velocity is sufficient to detach small particles (1˜μm). The flow accelerates at ˜400 m/s^2 which affects the detachment of larger sized particles (˜100 μm). As the disk is brought to rest, the unsteady jet expands outwards, advecting a vortex ring closely attached to it. At the disk edge, a counter rotating vortex is generated by the sudden deceleration of the disk. Both vortices can play a role in entrainment of the suspended particles in the flowfield. Numerical studies also show that the maximum jet velocity is ˜20 m/s for a simplified foot immediately after heel contact in the stance phase of the gait.

  11. Pelvic Floor Muscle Training: Underutilization in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamin, Eliza; Parrillo, Lisa M; Newman, Diane K; Smith, Ariana L

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are highly prevalent in women of all ages and can greatly impair quality of life. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a viable treatment option for several pelvic floor conditions including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. PFMT is a program of therapy initiated by an experienced clinician (e.g., women's health or urology nurse practitioner (NP), physical therapist (PT)) that involves exercises for women with stress urinary incontinence (UI) and exercises combined with behavioral or conservative treatments (lifestyle changes, bladder training with urge suppression) for women with urgency or mixed UI. These exercise programs are more comprehensive than simple Kegel exercises. Despite evidence-based research indicating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness for treatment of urinary incontinence, PFMT is not commonly used as a first-line treatment in clinical practice in the USA (Abrams et al., 2012). This article will review PFMT for the treatment of UI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and theorize how this conservative therapy can be utilized more effectively in the USA.

  12. Explicit Modeling of Solid Ocean Floor in Shallow Underwater Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Walters

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current practices for modeling the ocean floor in underwater explosion simulations call for application of an inviscid fluid with soil properties. A method for modeling the ocean floor as a Lagrangian solid, vice an Eulerian fluid, was developed in order to determine its effects on underwater explosions in shallow water using the DYSMAS solver. The Lagrangian solid bottom model utilized transmitting boundary segments, exterior nodal forces acting as constraints, and the application of prestress to minimize any distortions into the fluid domain. For simplicity, elastic materials were used in this current effort, though multiple constitutive soil models can be applied to improve the overall accuracy of the model. Even though this method is unable to account for soil cratering effects, it does however provide the distinct advantage of modeling contoured ocean floors such as dredged channels and sloped bottoms absent in Eulerian formulations. The study conducted here showed significant differences among the initial bottom reflections for the different solid bottom contours that were modeled. The most important bottom contour effect was the distortion to the gas bubble and its associated first pulse timing. In addition to its utility in bottom modeling, implementation of the non-reflecting boundary along with realistic material models can be used to drastically reduce the size of current fluid domains.

  13. A shell finite element model of the pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aulignac, D; Martins, J A C; Pires, E B; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M Natal

    2005-10-01

    The pelvic floor gives support to the organs in the abdominal cavity. Using the dataset made public in (Janda et al. J. Biomech. (2003) 36(6), pp. 749-757), we have reconstructed the geometry of one of the most important parts of the pelvic floor, the levator ani, using NURB surfaces. Once the surface is triangulated, the corresponding mesh is used in a finite element analysis with shell elements. Based on the 3D behavior of the muscle we have constructed a shell that takes into account the direction of the muscle fibers and the incompressibility of the tissue. The constitutive model for the isotropic strain energy and the passive strain energy stored in the fibers is adapted from Humphrey's model for cardiac muscles. To this the active behavior of the skeletal muscle is added. We present preliminary results of a simulation of the levator ani muscle under pressure and with active contraction. This research aims at helping simulate the damages to the pelvic floor that can occur after childbirth.

  14. Spanish language translation of pelvic floor disorders instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amy E; Fine, Paul M; McCrery, Rebecca; Wren, Patricia A; Richter, Holly E; Brubaker, Linda; Brown, Morton B; Weber, Anne M

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to translate existing measures of pelvic symptoms and quality of life from English into Spanish, facilitating research participation of Hispanic/Latina women. The forward-backward translation protocol was applied then adjudicated by a concordance committee. The measures included the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ), Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) Questionnaire, Hunskaar Severity Measure, Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and modified Manchester Questionnaire, Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (PISQ), and the Life Orientation Test (LOT). English and Spanish versions were administered to 50 Hispanic/Latina women with pelvic symptoms. Kappa correlations of items and correlation coefficients for scales were computed. Psychometric testing for translations demonstrated good (0.80-0.89), very good (0.90-0.95), or excellent (>0.95) correlations for primary scales of the PFDI, PFIQ, MESA, Hunskaar, PISQ, and LOT. Strict translation techniques and testing yielded valid Spanish translations of instruments assessing pelvic symptoms/functional life impact in women with pelvic floor disorders.

  15. Constructive solutions for beamless capitalless floors with prestressed reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardysheva Yuliya Anatol'evna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors present advanced constructions of prestressed reinforced concrete flat ceiling, where high-strength ropes in elastic shell are used as stressed reinforcement. The novelty of the solution lays in diagonal arrangement of hard valves and use of high-strength ropes in a flexible shell of "Monostrand" type. This type of prestress, in our opinion, is the most acceptable from technical point of view for selective reinforcement of separate tense rods or cables. The use of pre-stressed reinforcement in the form of individual rods or cables increases the rigidity and crack resistance of concrete beamless slabs. The use of high-strength ropes in the monostrand-type shell makes it possible to prestress in frames of single cell plate or floor in general and to reduce labour input for stressing armature. The paper presents original solution with diagonal position of the valve. The authors suggest the use of prestressed diagonal valves as in all cells of the floor with the cells of the same or only slightly different size and in separate cells of the floor (for roofs with different cells. The diagonal location of stressed reinforcement proposed in the work is an efficient solution for extending the range of dimensions and loads size.

  16. The Influence of the Thickness of the Slab and Concrete Grade on Composite Floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile-Mircea Venghiac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern flooring system is the ComFloor Composite Floor Deck from Corus. This type of floor has many advantages involving cost, weight, construction speed, but also disadvantages regarding vibrations induced by human activity. The vibration behaviour of this system was analysed taking into consideration two parameters: the thickness of the slab and the grade of the concrete. Two sets of models were made, one with composite beams and one with steel beams. The purpose was to make a comparison between these two types of flooring systems. Results showed a good improvement created by the composite action of the beams and usefull information regarding the two parameters considered.

  17. NOISE REDUCTION SCHEDULING METHOD IN A SHOP FLOOR AND ITS CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fei; Cao Huajun; Zhang Hua; Yuan Chuanping

    2003-01-01

    Noise reduction in a shop floor is one of the important parts of green manufacturing. In a shop floor, machine tools are the main noise sources in a shop floor. A new approach is discovered by investigation that the noise can be obviously reduced in a shop floor by optimizing the scheduling between work pieces and machine tools. Based on the discovery, a new method of noise reduction is proposed. A noise reduction scheduling model in a shop floor is established, and the application of the model is also discussed. A case is studied, which shows that the method and model are practical.

  18. New perspectives in benthic deep-sea microbial ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia eCorinaldesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea ecosystems represent the largest and most remote biome of the biosphere. They play a fundamental role in global biogeochemical cycles and their functions allow existence of life on our planet. In the last 20 years enormous progress has been made in the investigation of deep-sea microbes, but the knowledge of the microbial ecology of the soft bottoms (representing >90% of the deep-sea floor surface is still very limited. Deep-sea sediments host the largest fractions of Bacteria, Archaea and viruses on Earth, and potentially, a high diversity. At the same time, available results from metagenomics suggest that a large fraction of microbial taxa is completely unknown to science. Estimating the diversity of deep-sea benthic microbes and understanding their functions are some of the challenges of absolute priority, not only for deep-sea microbial ecology, but also for the entire research field of life sciences. The achievement of these goals, given the importance of the deep-sea microbial life for the functioning of the global biosphere, will open new perspectives for the comprehension of adaptation processes to the impact of global changes.

  19. Does pelvic floor muscle training abolish symptoms of urinary incontinence? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker Tosun, O; Kaya Mutlu, E; Ergenoglu, A M; Yeniel, A O; Tosun, G; Malkoc, M; Askar, N; Itil, I M

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether symptoms of urinary incontinence is reduced by pelvic floor muscle training, to determine whether urinary incontinence can be totally eliminated by strengthening the pelvic floor muscle to grade 5 on the Oxford scale. Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Outpatient urogynecology department. One hundred thirty cases with stress and mixed urinary incontinence. All participants were randomly allocated to the pelvic floor muscle training group or control group. A 12-week home based exercise program, prescribed individually, was performed by the pelvic floor muscle training group. Urinary incontinence symptoms (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7, Urogenital Distress Inventory-6, bladder diary, stop test and pad test) were assessed, and the pelvic floor muscle strength was measured for (PERFECT testing, perineometric and ultrasound) all participants before and after 12 weeks of treatment. The pelvic floor muscle training group had significant improvement in their symptoms of urinary incontinence (P=0.001) and an increase in pelvic floor muscle strength (P=0.001, by the dependent t test) compared with the control group. All the symptoms of urinary incontinence were significantly decreased in the patients that had reached pelvic floor muscle strength of grade 5 and continued the pelvic floor muscle training (P<0.05). The study demonstrated that pelvic floor muscle training is effective in reducing the symptoms of stress and mixed urinary incontinence and in increasing pelvic floor muscle strength. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Exchange of volatile organic compounds in the boreal forest floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Hermanni; Bäck, Jaana; Pumpanen, Jukka; Pihlatie, Mari; Hakola, Hannele; Hellén, Heidi; Aalto, Juho; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Taipale, Risto; Vesala, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems, mainly plants, emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. In addition to plants, VOCs also have less-known sources, such as soil. VOCs are a very diverse group of reactive compounds, including terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Due to their high reactivity, VOCs take part in formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere and thus affect also Earth's radiation balance (Kulmala et al. 2004). We have studied boreal soil and forest floor VOC fluxes with chamber and snow gradient techniques we were developed. Spatial and temporal variability in VOC fluxes was studied with year-round measurements in the field and the sources of boreal soil VOCs in the laboratory with fungal isolates. Determination of the compounds was performed mass spectrometrically. Our results reveal that VOCs from soil are mainly emitted by living roots, above- and belowground litter and microbes. The strongest source appears to be litter, in which both plant residuals and decomposers play a role in the emissions. Soil fungi showed high emissions of lighter VOCs, like acetone, acetaldehyde and methanol, from isolates. Temperature and moisture are the most critical physical factors driving VOC fluxes. Since the environment in boreal forests undergoes strong seasonal changes, the VOC flux strength of the forest floor varies markedly during the year, being highest in spring and autumn. The high spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor was also clearly visible in VOC fluxes. The fluxes of other trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from soil, which are also related to the soil biological activity and physical conditions, did not show correlations with the VOC fluxes. These results indicate that emissions of VOCs from the boreal forest floor account for as much as several tens of percent, depending on the season, of the total forest ecosystem VOC emissions. This emphasises that forest floor compartment should be taken into

  1. "Help Me Pull That Cursor" A Collaborative Interactive Floor Enhancing Community Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Krogh

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the development, experiments and evaluation of the iFloor, an interactive floor prototype installed at the local central municipality library. The primary purpose of the iFloor prototype is to support and stimulate community interaction between collocated people. The context of the library demands that any user can walk up and use the prototype without any devices or prior introduction. To achieve this, the iFloor proposes innovative interaction (modes/paradigms/patterns for floor surfaces through the means of video tracking. Browsing and selecting content is done in a collaborative process and mobile phones are used for posting messages onto the floor. The iFloor highlights topics on social issues of ubiquitous computing environments in public spaces, and provides an example of how to exploit human spatial movements, positions and arrangements in interaction with computers.

  2. Statistical analysis of the variation of floor vibrations in nuclear power plants subject to seismic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, Vilho [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Kemistintie 3, 02230 Espoo (Finland); Li, Yue [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fülöp, Ludovic, E-mail: ludovic.fulop@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Kemistintie 3, 02230 Espoo (Finland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Floor flexibility plays a non-negligible role in amplifying horizontal vibrations. • COV of in-floor horizontal and vertical acceleration are 0.15–0.25 and 0.25–0.55. • In-floor variation of vibrations is higher in lower floors. • Floor spectra from limited nodes underestimates vibrations by a factor of 1.5–1.75. - Abstract: Floor vibration of a reactor building subjected to seismic loads was investigated, with the aim of quantifying the variability of vibrations on each floor. A detailed 3D building model founded on the bedrock was excited simultaneously in three directions by artificial accelerograms compatible with Finnish ground response spectra. Dynamic simulation for 21 s was carried out using explicit time integration. The extracted results of the simulation were acceleration in several floor locations, transformed to pseudo-acceleration (PSA) spectra in the next stage. At first, the monitored locations on the floors were estimated by engineering judgement in order to arrive at a feasible number of floor nodes for post processing of the data. It became apparent that engineering judgment was insufficient to depict the key locations with high floor vibrations, which resulted in un-conservative vibration estimates. For this reason, a more systematic approach was later considered, in which nodes of the floors were selected with a more refined grid of 2 m. With this method, in addition to the highest PSA peaks in all directions, the full vibration distribution in each floor can be determined. A statistical evaluation of the floor responses was also carried out in order to define floor accelerations and PSAs with high confidence of non-exceedance. The conclusion was that in-floor variability can be as high as 50–60% and models with sufficiently dense node grids should be used in order to achieve a realistic estimate of floor vibration under seismic action. The effects of the shape of the input spectra, damping, and flexibility of the

  3. Underwater Laboratories for Astroparticle Physics and Deep Sea Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piattelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of deep sea environments is presently at the dawn of a new era: underwater laboratories, permanently installed on the sea floor and offering power and on-line data transmission links to the shore, will allow to continuously monitor oceanographical properties. An important boost in this direction has been provided by the high energy physics scientific community, that aims at the realization of an underwater detector for cosmic high energy neutrinos. Neutrinos are considered a very promising probe for high energy astrophysics and many indications suggest that some of the most energetic sources known in the universe could also be high energy neutrino sources. The expected neutrino fluxes indicate that a km3-scale detector must be realised to achieve this ambitious aim. The quest for the realization of such a detector in the Mediterranean Sea has already started.

  4. The Trobriand Subduction System in the Western Solomon Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, J.; Davies, H. L.; Tiffin, D. L.; Murakami, F.; Kisimoto, K.

    1987-09-01

    A south-dipping Subduction system which underlies the Trobriand Trough and 149° Embayment, on the southern margin of the Solomon Sea, is active or was recently active. Oceanic basement is overlain by 2.5 s, two-way travel time (TWTT), of sediment that shows at least two stages of deformation: early thrusts (inner wall) and normal faults (outer wall), and later normal faults that have elevated the outer trench margin. Thrust anticlines and slope basins are developed on the inner wall. The floor of the Solomon Sea Basin arches upward between the Trobriand Trough and the New Britain Trench to form isolated peaks and ridges in the east (152° Peaks) and an east-west Central Ridge in the west. Structures in the subduction system, and in the Solomon Sea Basin, plunge westward towards the point of collision with the New Britain Trench.

  5. Control mechanism and technique of floor heave with reinforcing solid coal side and floor corner in gob-side coal entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Yong; Bai; Jianbiao; Yan; Shuai; Xu; Ying; Wang; Xiangyu; Ma; Shuqi

    2012-01-01

    Floor heave is the most common convergence in gob-side entry retaining.The paper analyzes the form,process and characteristics of gob-side entry retaining with the comprehensive methods of theoretical analysis,numerical simulation and the field trial.Research results present that bending and folding floor heave is the main factor in the stage of the first panel mining;squeezing and fluidity floor heave plays a great role in the stable stage of gob-side entry retaining;the combination of the former two factors affects mainly the stage of the second mining ahead;abutment pressure is a fundamental contribution to the serious floor heave of gob-side entry retaining,and sides corners of solid coal body are key part in the case of floor heave controlling of gob-side entry retaining.Floor heave of gob-side entry retaining can be significantly controlled by reinforcing sides and corners of solid coal body,and influence rules on the floor heave of gob side entry retaining of sides supporting strength and the bottom bolt orientation in solid coal side are obtained.Research results have been successfully applied in gob-side entry retaining of G20-F23070 face haulage roadway in #2 coal mine of Pingmei Group,and the field observation shows that the proposed technique is an effective way in controlling the floor heave of gob-side entry retaining.

  6. Control mechanism and technique of floor heave with reinforcing solid coal side and floor corner in gob-side coal entry retaining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Bai Jianbiao; Yan Shuai; Xu Ying; Wang Xiangyu; Ma Shuqi

    2012-01-01

    Floor heave is the most common convergence in gob-side entry retaining.The paper analyzes the form,process and characteristics of gob-side entry retaining with the comprehensive methods of theoretical analysis,numerical simulation and the field trial.Research results present that bending and folding floor heave is the main factor in the stage of the first panel mining; squeezing and fluidity floor heave plays a great role in the stable stage of gob-side entry retaining; the combination of the former two factors affects mainly the stage of the second mining ahead; abutment pressure is a fundamental contribution to the serious floor heave of gob-side entry retaining,and sides comers of solid coal body are key part in the case of floor heave controlling of gob-side entry retaining.Floor heave of gob-side entry retaining can be significantly controlled by reinforcing sides and comers of solid coal body,and influence rules on the floor heave of gob side entry retaining of sides supporting strength and the bottom bolt orientation in solid coal side are obtained.Research results have been successfully applied in gob-side entry retaining of G20-F23070 face haulage roadway in #2 coal mine of Pingmei Group,and the field observation shows that the proposed technique is an effective way in controlling the floor heave of gob-side entry retaining.

  7. White sea radioactivity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics]|[Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.]|[Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Shirshov Inst. of Oceanology; Kalmykov, S.N.; Lisitzin, A.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to estimate potential sources and chronology of pollution of the White Sea (Russia) by artificial radionuclides. White Sea is semi-closed water body connected with Barents Sea by a narrow strait. Thus, pollution of White Sea may be caused by highly polluted Barents waters and river (mainly Northern Dvina) run-off. This is the first detailed investigation of radioactivity of White Sea sediment records. (orig.)

  8. Life at cold seeps: a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Werne, J.P.; Zitter, T.; Haese, R.R.; Aloisi, G.; Bouloubassi, I.; Heijs, S.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Pancost, R.D.; Lange, G.J. de; Gottschal, J.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  9. Life at cold seeps : a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werne, JP; Haese, RR; Zitter, T; Aloisi, G; Bouloubassi, L; Heijs, S; Fiala-Medioni, A; Pancost, RD; Damste, JSS; de Lange, G; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC; Foucher, JP; Mascle, J; Woodside, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  10. Bacteria and Foraminifera: key players in a short-term deep-sea benthic response to phytodetritus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Duineveld, G.; Pel, R.; Herman, P.M.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2002-01-01

    The deep-sea floor has long been considered a 'food desert' but recent observations suggest that episodic inputs of relatively fresh organic matter (phytodetritus) occur and that benthic processing of this material may be rapid. Although the responses of the total community in terms of oxygen consum

  11. Life at cold seeps: a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Werne, J.P.; Zitter, T.; Haese, R.R.; Aloisi, G.; Bouloubassi, I.; Heijs, S.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Pancost, R.D.; Lange, G.J. de; Gottschal, J.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the

  12. Life at cold seeps : a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werne, JP; Haese, RR; Zitter, T; Aloisi, G; Bouloubassi, L; Heijs, S; Fiala-Medioni, A; Pancost, RD; Damste, JSS; de Lange, G; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC; Foucher, JP; Mascle, J; Woodside, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the

  13. Life at cold seeps : a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werne, JP; Haese, RR; Zitter, T; Aloisi, G; Bouloubassi, L; Heijs, S; Fiala-Medioni, A; Pancost, RD; Damste, JSS; de Lange, G; Forney, LJ; Gottschal, JC; Foucher, JP; Mascle, J; Woodside, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  14. Life at cold seeps: a synthesis of biogeochemical and ecological data from Kazan mud volcano, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Werne, J.P.; Zitter, T.; Haese, R.R.; Aloisi, G.; Bouloubassi, I.; Heijs, S.; Fiala-Medioni, A.; Pancost, R.D.; Lange, G.J. de; Gottschal, J.; Foucher, J.-P.; Mascle, J.; Woodside, J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent field observations have identified the widespread occurrence of fluid seepage through the eastern Mediterranean Sea floor in association with mud volcanism or along deep faults. Gas hydrates and methane seeps are frequently found in cold seep areas and were anticipated targets of the MEDINAUT

  15. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... and foundation on the performance of the floor heating sys-tem. The ground coupled floor heating model is validated against measurements from a single-family house. The simulation model is coupled to a whole-building energy simu-lation model with inclusion of heat losses and heat supply to the room above...

  16. Smart Floor with Integrated Triboelectric Nanogenerator As Energy Harvester and Motion Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuan; Zhu, Weijun; Chen, Baodong; Xu, Liang; Jiang, Tao; Han, Chang Bao; Gu, Guang Qin; Li, Dichen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-09

    A smart floor is demonstrated by integrating a square-frame triboelectric nanogenerator (SF-TENG) into a standard wood floor. The smart floor has two working modes based on two pairs of triboelectric materials: one is purposely chosen polytetrafluoroethylene films and aluminum (Al) balls, and the other is the floor itself and the objects that can be triboelectrically charged, such as basketball, shoe soles, and Scotch tape, etc. Utilizing the Al balls enclosed inside shallow boxes, the smart floor is capable of harvesting vibrational energy and, hence, provides a nonintrusive way to detect sudden falls in elderly people. In addition, when the basketball is bounced repeatedly on the floor, the average output voltage and current are 364 ± 43 V and 9 ± 1 μA, respectively, and 87 serially connected light-emitting diodes can be lit up simultaneously. Furthermore, the friction between the triboelectrically chargeable objects and the floor can also induce an alternating current output in the external circuit without the vibration of the Al balls. Normal human footsteps on the floor produce a voltage of 238 ± 17 V and a current of 2.4 ± 0.3 μA. Therefore, this work presents a smart floor with built-in SF-TENG without compromising the flexibility and stability of the standard wood floor and also demonstrates a way to harvest ambient energy solely by using conventional triboelectric materials in our daily life.

  17. Simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor muscle activity and vaginal blood flow: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen

    2007-05-01

    Dyspareunia, defined as persistent or recurrent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse, is hypothesized to be related to pelvic floor hyperactivity and to diminished sexual arousal. Empirical research to support these hypotheses is scarce and concentrates mostly on the role of either pelvic floor activity or genital arousal in female dyspareunia. Currently, however, there is no measurement device to assess pelvic floor activity and genital response simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of a new device that enables simultaneous measurement of pelvic floor activity and genital response in women. Genital arousal measured as vaginal pulse amplitude, and vaginal surface electromyogram (EMG). Thirty sexually functional women participated. To investigate the accuracy of genital response measurement with the adapted photoplethysmograph, and the sensitivity of the device for involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, vaginal pulse amplitude and vaginal surface EMG were monitored during exposure to emotional, including erotic, films. In addition, vaginal surface EMG was monitored during instructed pelvic floor contractions. The genital data obtained during emotional films proved accurate measurement of genital response. EMG values during the emotional films indicated limited sensitivity of the device for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity due to emotional state. The EMG measurements during the instructed pelvic floor contractions proved sensitivity of the new probe to voluntary pelvic floor activity. It is concluded that following improvement of the sensitivity of the EMG measurement for small, involuntary changes in pelvic floor activity, the device will be a valuable tool in research on superficial dyspareunia.

  18. Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry: Study Design and Outcome Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber LeBrun, Emily; Adam, Rony A; Barber, Matthew D; Boyles, Sarah Hamilton; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Lukacz, Emily S; Moalli, Pamela; Moen, Michael D; Richter, Holly E; Subak, Leslee L; Sung, Vivian W; Visco, Anthony G; Bradley, Catherine S

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders affect up to 24% of adult women in the United States, and many patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) choose to undergo surgical repair to improve their quality of life. While a variety of surgical repair approaches and techniques are utilized, including mesh augmentation, there is limited comparative effectiveness and safety outcome data guiding best practice. In conjunction with device manufacturers, federal regulatory organizations, and professional societies, the American Urogynecologic Society developed the Pelvic Floor Disorders Registry (PFDR) designed to improve the quality of POP surgery by facilitating quality improvement and research on POP treatments. The PFDR will serve as a resource for surgeons interested in benchmarking and outcomes data and as a data repository for Food and Drug Administration-mandated POP surgical device studies. Provider-reported clinical data and patient-reported outcomes will be collected prospectively at baseline and for up to 3 years after treatment. All data elements including measures of success, adverse events, and surgeon characteristics were identified and defined within the context of the anticipated multifunctionality of the registry, and with collaboration from multiple stakeholders. The PFDR will provide a platform to collect high-quality, standardized patient-level data from a variety of nonsurgical (pessary) and surgical treatments of POP and other pelvic floor disorders. Data from this registry may be used to evaluate short- and longer-term treatment outcomes, patient-reported outcomes, and complications, as well as to identify factors associated with treatment success and failure with the overall goal of improving the quality of care for women with these conditions.

  19. Dynamic MR colpocystorectography assessing pelvic-floor descent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, A.; Kohz, P.; Reiser, M. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany); Anthuber, C.; Baron, A. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistrasse 15, D-81 377 Munich (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic resonance colpocystorectography (MR-CCRG) is presented in the evaluation of patients with pelvic-floor disorders. Five healthy volunteers and 44 female patients with isolated or combined visceral descent underwent dynamic MRI and dynamic fluoroscopy (DF). MR-CCRG was performed with the patient in a supine position using a True FISP sequence (1 image/1.2 s; in-plane resolution 1.02 mm) during pelvic floor contraction, relaxation, and straining maneuvers. Relevant organs, such as urethra, bladder, vagina, and rectum, were opacified by using a saline solution, Magnevist (Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), and sonography gel, respectively. The clinical evaluation and the intraoperative results (30 cases) were used as reference. MR-CCRG and DF were non-diagnostic in 3 cases each. Most patients had a combined type of visceral prolapse, the most frequent combination being a vaginal vault prolapse and a cystocele. The points of reference were sufficiently outlined by DF and MR-CCRG. In comparison with the clinical and intraoperative results, MR-CCRG proved to be especially beneficial in the diagnosis of different types of enteroceles including a uterovaginal prolapse. MR-CCRG showed an equal or higher sensitivity and specificity for all individual sites when compared with DF. Also, predominant herniation obscuring other concomitant prolapse could be verified in 8 cases. MR-CCRG is superior to DF and accurately depicts pelvic-floor descent and prolapse in women. The possibility of dynamic presentation (see enclosed CD-ROM) allows for a better understanding of the organ movements within a given topographic reference setting. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Pelvic floor exercises with biofeedback for stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Capelini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prospective study to objectively evaluate the benefits of pelvic floor strengthening exercises associated to biofeedback for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence (SUI were selected for this study. All patients underwent a pelvic floor training associated to biofeedback for 12 consecutive weeks. Urodynamic tests, pad test and bladder diary were analyzed at the beginning of the study, at the end and after 3 months. The King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ was applied before and after treatment to assess the impact in the quality of life. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the pad weight (from 14.21 g to 1 g, number of urinary leakage episodes (from 8.14 per day to 2.57 per day and daytime frequency (from 7.93 per day to 5.85 per day. At urodynamics the authors observed a significant increase in Valsalva leak-point pressure (from 103.93 cm H2O to 139.14 cm H2O, cistometric capacity (from 249.29 mL to 336.43 mL, p = 0.0015 and bladder volume at first desire to void (from 145 mL to 215.71 mL. Those differences were kept during the first 3 months of follow up. The KHQ revealed significant differences except in the case of "general health perception", which covers health in general and not exclusively urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Treatment of SUI with pelvic floor exercises associated to biofeedback caused significant changes in the parameters analyzed, with maintenance of good results 3 months after treatment.