WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun-earth interactions bullet

  1. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During many past decades, scientists from various countries have studied separately the atmospheric motions in the lower atmosphere, in the Earth's magnetic field, in the magnetospheric currents, etc. All of these separate studies lead today to the global study of the Sun and Earth connections, and as a consequence, new scientific programs (IHY- International Heliophysical Year, CAWSES- Climate and Weather in the Sun-Earth System are defined, in order to assume this new challenge. In the past, many scientists did not have the possibility to collect data at the same time in the various latitude and longitude sectors. Now, with the progress of geophysical sciences in many developing countries, it is possible to have access to worldwide data sets. This paper presents the particularities of geophysical parameters measured by the Vietnamese instrument networks. It introduces a cooperative Vietnamese-IGRGEA (International Geophysical Research Group Europe Africa project, and presents, for the first time, to the international community, the geophysical context of Vietnam. Concerning the ionosphere: since 1963, during four solar cycles, the ionosonde at Phu Thuy (North Vietnam was operating. The Phu Thuy data exhibits the common features for the ionospheric parameters, previously observed in other longitude and latitude sectors. The critical frequencies of the E, F1 and F2 ionospheric layers follow the variation of the sunspot cycle. F2 and E critical frequencies also exhibit an annual variation. The first maps of TEC made with data from GPS receivers recently installed in Vietnam illustrate the regional equatorial pattern, i.e. two maxima of electronic density at 15° N and 15° S from the magnetic equator and a trough of density at the magnetic equator. These features illustrate the equatorial fountain effect. Concerning the Earth's magnetic field: a strong amplitude of the equatorial electrojet was first observed by the CHAMP satellite at the height

  2. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  3. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  4. Optical bullets and "rockets" in nonlinear dissipative systems and their transformations and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Crespo, J M; Grelu, Philippe; Akhmediev, Nail

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrate the existence of stable optical light bullets in nonlinear dissipative media for both cases of normal and anomalous chromatic dispersion. The prediction is based on direct numerical simulations of the (3+1)-dimensional complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation. We do not impose conditions of spherical or cylindrical symmetry. Regions of existence of stable bullets are determined in the parameter space. Beyond the domain of parameters where stable bullets are found, unstable bullets can be transformed into "rockets" i.e. bullets elongated in the temporal domain. A few examples of the interaction between two optical bullets are considered using spatial and temporal interaction planes.

  5. High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is a standard tool used by many researchers in observational fields. Present day Sun-Earth Connection missions like SOHO, or...

  6. Sun-Earth Scientists and Native Americans Collaborate on Sun-Earth Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y.; Lopez, R. E.; Hawkins, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sun-Earth Connection scientists have established partnerships with several minority professional societies to reach out to the blacks, Hispanics and Native American students. Working with NSBP, SACNAS, AISES and NSHP, SEC scientists were able to speak in their board meetings and national conferences, to network with minority scientists, and to engage them in Sun-Earth Day. Through these opportunities and programs, scientists have introduced NASA research results as well indigenous views of science. They also serve as role models in various communities. Since the theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005 is Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge, scientists and education specialists are hopeful to excite many with diverse backgrounds. Sun-Earth Day is a highly visible annual program since 2001 that touches millions of students and the general public. Interviews, classroom activities and other education resources are available on the web at sunearthday.nasa.gov.

  7. Challenges in Modeling the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales in time and space. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA Living With a Star (LWS) programs. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress. Our limited understanding of the underlying coupling physics is illustrated by the following example questions: how does the propagation of a typical CME/solar flare influence the measured properties of the solar wind at 1 AU? How does the solar wind compel the dynamic response of the Earth's magnetosphere? How is variability in the ionosphere-thermosphere system coupled to magnetospheric variations? Why do these and related important questions remain unanswered? What are the primary problems that need to be resolved to enable significant progress in comprehensive modeling of the Sun-Earth system? Which model/technique improvements are required and what new data coverage is required to enable full model advances? This poster opens the discussion for how these and other important questions can be addressed. A workshop scheduled for October 8-22, 2004 in Huntsville, Alabama, will be a forum for identifying ana exploring promising new directions and approaches for characterizing and understanding the system. To focus the discussion, the workshop will emphasize the genesis, evolution, propagation and interaction of high-speed solar wind streamers or CME/flares with geospace and the subsequent response of geospace from its outer reaches in the magnetosphere to the lower edge of the ionosphere-mesosphere-thermosphere. Particular emphasis will be placed on modeling the coupling aspects

  8. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  9. Interaction of Interstellar Shocks with Dense Obstacles: Formation of ``Bullets''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The so-called cumulative effect take place in converging conical shock waves arising behind dense obstacles overtaken by incident interstellar shock. A significant part of energy of converging flow of matter swept-up by a radiative conical shock can be transferred to a dense jet-like ejection (``bullet'') directed along the cone axis. Possible applications of this effect for star-forming regions (e.g., OMC-1) and supernova remnants (e.g., Vela SNR) are discussed.

  10. Sunwatchers Across Time: Sun-Earth Day from Ancient and Modern Solar Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Vondrak, R.

    Humans across all cultures have venerated, observed, and studied the Sun for thousands of years. The Sun, our nearest star, provides heat and energy, is the cause of the seasons, and causes space weather effects that influence our technology-dependent society. The Sun is also part of indigenous tradition and culture. The Inca believed that the Sun had the power to make things grow, and it does, providing us with the heat and energy that are essential to our survival. From a NASA perspective, Sun-Earth Connection research investigates the effects of our active Sun on the Earth and other planets, namely, the interaction of the solar wind and other dynamic space weather phenomena with the solar system. We present plans for Sun-Earth Day 2005, a yearly celebration of the Sun-Earth Connection sponsored by the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF). SECEF is one of four national centers of space science education and public outreach funded by NASA Office of Space Science. Sun-Earth Day involves an international audience of schools, science museums, and the general public in activities and events related to learning about the Sun-Earth Connection. During the year 2005, the program will highlight cultural and historical perspectives, as well as NASA science, through educational and public outreach events intended to involve diverse communities. Sun-Earth Day 2005 will include a series of webcasts from solar observatories produced by SECEF in partnership with the San Francisco Exploratorium. Webcasts from Chaco Culture National Historical Park in New Mexico, USA, and from Chichen Itza, Mexico, will be accessed by schools and the public. Sun-Earth Day will also feature NASA Sun-Earth Connection research, missions, and the people who make it possible. One of the goals of this talk is to inform and engage COSPAR participants in these upcoming public events sponsored by NASA. Another goal is to share best practices in public event programming, and present impact

  11. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  12. Advances in Sun-Earth Connection Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, S.B.; Gavrishchaka, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Space weather forecasting is a focus of a multidisciplinary research effort motivated by a sensitive dependence of many modern technologies on geospace conditions. Adequate understanding of the physics of the Sun-Earth connection and associated multi-scale magnetospheric and ionospheric processes is an essential part of this effort. Modern physical simulation models such as multimoment multifluid models with effective coupling from small-scale kinetic processes can provide valuable insight into the role of various physical mechanisms operating during geomagnetic storm/substorm activity. However, due to necessary simplifying assumptions, physical models are still not well suited for accurate real-time forecasting. Complimentary approach includes data-driven models capable of efficient processing of multi-scale spatio-temporal data. However, the majority of advanced nonlinear algorithms, including neural networks (NN), can encounter a set of problems called dimensionality curse when applied to high-dimensional data. Forecasting of rare/extreme events such as large geomagnetic storms/substorms is of the most practical importance but is also very challenging for many existing models. A very promising algorithm that combines the power of the best nonlinear techniques and tolerance to high-dimensional and incomplete data is support vector machine (SVM). We have summarized advantages of the SVM and described a hybrid model based on SVM and extreme value theory (EVT) for rare event forecasting. Results of the SVM application to substorm forecasting and future directions are discussed

  13. Sun-Earth Day: Growth and Impact of NASA E/PO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Thieman, J.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past six years, the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education public outreach events to highlight NASA Sun-Earth Connection research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial phenomena, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus to celebrate Sun-Earth Day, a popular Education and Public Outreach international program. Sun-Earth Day also focuses attention on Equinoxes and Solstices to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium, Maryland Science Center, NASA Connect, Sun-Earth Connection missions, Ideum, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. We will report lessons learned from several years of experience, and strategies for growth and sustainability. We will also share our plans for "Ancient Observatories - Timeless Knowledge" our theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005, which will feature solar alignments at ancient sites that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices. The video and webcast programming will feature several sites including: Chaco Canyon (New Mexico), Hovenweep (Utah), and Chichen Itza (Mexico). Many of these sites present unique opportunities to develop authentic cultural connections to Native Americans, highlighting the importance of the Sun across the ages.

  14. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  15. Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon system is discussed with special attention to the effects of. Sun's perturbations on the Moon's orbit around the Earth. Important secular effects are the re- gression of the nodes, the advance of the perigee and the increase in the Moon's mean longitude. We discuss the relationship of the ...

  16. Sun-Earth Day - Teaching Heliophysics Through Education Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.

    2010-01-01

    Sun-Earth Day (SED) is an Education and Outreach program supported by the U.S, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The intent of the program is to teach students and the general public about Heliophysics (the science of the study of the Sun, how it varies, and how solar dynamics affect the rest of the solar system, especially the Earth). The program was begun ten years ago. Each year since that time a particular day has been designated as "Sun-Earth Day ,,. Usually the day of the spring equinox (March 20 or 21) is Sun-Earth Day, but other days have been used as well. Each year a theme is chosen relating to Heliophysics and events reflecting that theme are planned not only for Sun-Earth Day, but for the entire year. From the very beginning educational technology was emphasized in the events in order to effectively reach wide audiences with the SED message. The main approach has been to have a "webcast" related to each year's theme, often from a location that supports the theme as well. For example, a webcast took place from the Mayan pyramids at Chichen Itza, Mexico to highlight the theme of "Ancient Observatories, Timeless Knowledge". Webcasts were not the only technology employed, however. Many of the themes centered on the dynamic nature of the Sun and the effects that solar storms can have on interplanetary space and in our day-to-day life on Earth. Activities for tracking when solar storms happen and how they affect the Earth were developed and brought together in an educational package called Space Weather Action Centers. This project is explained in more detail in another presentation in this session being given by Norma Teresinha Oliveira Reis. Recent Sun-Earth Days have utilized "social networking" technologies to reach widespread groups on the internet. Podcasts, Vodcasts, Facebook, Twitter, and Second Life are the types of network technologies being employed now. The NASA Distance learning Network is another method for bringing Sun-Earth

  17. Sun-Earth Day: Reaching the Education Audience by Informal Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-01-01

    For ten years the Sun-Earth Day program has promoted Heliophysics education to ever larger audiences through events centered on attractive annual themes. What originally started out as a one day event quickly evolved into a series of programs and events that occur throughout the year culminating with a celebration on or near the Spring Equinox. The events are often formal broadcasts or webcasts seeking to convey the science behind the latest solar-terrestrial mission discoveries. This has been quite successful, but it is clear that the younger generation increasingly depends on social networking approaches and informal news transmission for learning what is happening in the world around them. For 2010, the Sun-Earth Day team put emphasis on using informal approaches to bring the theme to the audience. The main event, a webcast from the NASA booth at the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) annual meeting by the NASA EDGE group, took a lighthearted and offbeat approach to interviewing scientists and educators about Heliophysics news. NASA EDGE programs are unscripted and unpredictable, and that represents a different approach to getting the message across. The webcast was supplemented by a number of social networking avenues. The Sun-Earth Day program explored a wide range of social media applications including Facebook, Twitter, NING, podcasting, iPhone apps, etc. Each of these offers unique and effective methods to promote Heliophysics content and mission related highlights. The facebook site was quite popular and message posting there told the Sun-Earth Day story piece by piece. The same could be said of twittering and the tweetup held at the NSTA site. Has all of this been effective? Results are still being gathered, but anecdotal responses from the world seem very positive. What other methods might be used in the future to bring the science to a personal hands-on, interactive experience? Outcomes: Participants will: (1) Be introduced to the Sun-Earth

  18. Sun-earth connection education through modern views of ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) has the responsibility of using the latest science results from the study of solar physics, space physics, and aeronomy to inspire students in the classroom and to inform the public in general. SECEF works with NASA's Sun-Earth Connection spaceflight missions to accomplish this goal. Each year the missions and SECEF combine to promote their science through a major event designed to attract the attention of all. In late 2004 and 2005 the event will be the study of solar observatories created by ancient peoples and a comparison of their knowledge and culture to present understanding. Two solar observatory sites will be featured, Chaco Canyon in the U.S. and Chichen Itza in Mexico. There are many other places throughout the world that could also be featured as solar observatories and some of these may be described on the SECEF web site or used in future occurrences. Special emphasis is placed on events associated with the solstice and equinox dates. It is hoped that there will be happenings around the world on these days and SECEF will work with many museums, science centers, and other groups to help make this happen. Plans for the 2005 Ancient Observatories event and possible future events on the same subject will be described.

  19. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  20. Investigating Trojan Asteroids at the L4/L5 Sun-Earth Lagrange Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K. K.; Graham, L. D.; Abell, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of Earth's Trojan asteroids will have benefits for science, exploration, and resource utilization. By sending a small spacecraft to the Sun-Earth L4 or L5 Lagrange points to investigate near-Earth objects, Earth's Trojan population can be better understood. This could lead to future missions for larger precursor spacecraft as well as human missions. The presence of objects in the Sun-Earth L4 and L5 Lagrange points has long been suspected, and in 2010 NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) detected a 300 m object. To investigate these Earth Trojan asteroid objects, it is both essential and feasible to send spacecraft to these regions. By exploring a wide field area, a small spacecraft equipped with an IR camera could hunt for Trojan asteroids and other Earth co-orbiting objects at the L4 or L5 Lagrange points in the near-term. By surveying the region, a zeroth-order approximation of the number of objects could be obtained with some rough constraints on their diameters, which may lead to the identification of potential candidates for further study. This would serve as a precursor for additional future robotic and human exploration targets. Depending on the inclination of these potential objects, they could be used as proving areas for future missions in the sense that the delta-V's to get to these targets are relatively low as compared to other rendezvous missions. They can serve as platforms for extended operations in deep space while interacting with a natural object in microgravity. Theoretically, such low inclination Earth Trojan asteroids exist. By sending a spacecraft to L4 or L5, these likely and potentially accessible targets could be identified.

  1. Challenges to modeling the Sun-Earth System: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of' Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics is a compilation of 23 papers presented at The 2004 Huntsville Modeling Workshop: Challenges to Modeling thc San-Earth System held in Huntsville, AB on October 18-22, 2004. The title of the workshop appropriately captures the theme of what was presented and discussed by the 120 participants. Currently, end-to-end modeling of the Sun-Earth system is a major goal of the National Space Weather and NASA living with a star (LWS) programs. While profound advances have been made in modeling isolated regions of the Sun-Earth system, minimal progress has been achieved in modeling the end-to-end system. The transfer of mass, energy and momentum through the coupled Sun-Earth system spans a wide range of scales inn time and space. The uncertainty in the underlying physics responsible for coupling contiguous regions of the Sun-Earth system is recognized as a significant barrier to progress

  2. The Sun-Earth saddle point: characterization and opportunities to test general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topputo, Francesco; Dei Tos, Diogene A.; Rasotto, Mirco; Nakamiya, Masaki

    2018-04-01

    The saddle points are locations where the net gravitational accelerations balance. These regions are gathering more attention within the astrophysics community. Regions about the saddle points present clean, close-to-zero background acceleration environments where possible deviations from General Relativity can be tested and quantified. Their location suggests that flying through a saddle point can be accomplished by leveraging highly nonlinear orbits. In this paper, the geometrical and dynamical properties of the Sun-Earth saddle point are characterized. A systematic approach is devised to find ballistic orbits that experience one or multiple passages through this point. A parametric analysis is performed to consider spacecraft initially on L_{1,2} Lagrange point orbits. Sun-Earth saddle point ballistic fly-through trajectories are evaluated and classified for potential use. Results indicate an abundance of short-duration, regular solutions with a variety of characteristics.

  3. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.; Auchère, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Observatory (STEREO) missions, but these missions lacked some key measurements: STEREO did not have a magnetograph; SOHO did not have in-situ magnetometer. SOHO and other imagers such as the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) located on the Sun-Earth line are also not well-suited to measure Earth-directed CMEs....... The Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO) is a proposed mission to be located at the Sun-Earth L5 that overcomes these deficiencies. The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, to see how the mission can be implemented....... The study found that the scientific payload (seven remote-sensing and three in-situ instruments) can be readily accommodated and can be launched using an intermediate size vehicle; a hybrid propulsion system consisting of a Xenon ion thruster and hydrazine has been found to be adequate to place the payload...

  4. A Small Spacecraft Swarm Deployment and Stationkeeping Strategy for Sun-Earth L1 Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renea Conn, Tracie; Bookbinder, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft orbits about the Sun-Earth librarian point L1 have been of interest since the 1950s. An L1 halo orbit was first achieved with the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) mission, and similar orbits around Sun-Earth L1 were achieved in the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Genesis, and Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) missions. With recent advancements in CubeSat technology, we envision that it will soon be feasible to deploy CubeSats at L1. As opposed to these prior missions where one large satellite orbited alone, a swarm of CubeSats at L1 would enable novel science data return, providing a topology for intersatellite measurements of heliophysics phenomena both spatially and temporally, at varying spatial scales.The purpose of this iPoster is to present a flight dynamics strategy for a swarm of numerous CubeSats orbiting Sun-Earth L1. The presented method is a coupled, two-part solution. First, we present a deployment strategy for the CubeSats that is optimized to produce prescribed, time-varying intersatellite baselines for the purposes of collecting magnetometer data as well as radiometric measurements from cross-links. Second, we employ a loose control strategy that was successfully applied to SOHO and ACE for minimized stationkeeping propellant expenditure. We emphasize that the presented solution is practical within the current state-of-the-art and heritage CubeSat technology, citing capabilities of CubeSat designs that will launch on the upcoming Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) to lunar orbits and beyond. Within this iPoster, we present animations of the simulated deployment strategy and resulting spacecraft trajectories. Mission design parameters such as total Δv required for long-term station keeping and minimum/maximum/mean spacecraft separation distances are also presented.

  5. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets : properties of plasma bullets and the dynamics of the interaction with dielectric surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Slikboer, E.; Guaitella, O.Y.N.

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets, although mostly researched for applications in surface treatment, are rarely investigated in the presence of a surface. This paper presents the properties of plasma bullets formed in the capillary as well as the dynamics of the propagation of the plasma on

  6. Interaction of Supernova Blast Waves with Wind-Driven Shells: Formation of "Jets", "Bullets", "Ears", Etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    Most of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) have a distorted and complicated appearance which cannot be explained in the framework of the Sedov-Taylor model. We consider three typical examples of such SNRs (Vela SNR, MSH15-52, G309.2-00.6) and show that their structure could be explained as a result of interaction of a supernova (SN) blast wave with the ambient medium preprocessed by the action of the SN progenitor's wind and ionized emission.

  7. Sun-Earth National Program. 2006-2009 results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Dominique; Vilmer, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    PNST (Programme National Soleil-Terre/Sun-Earth National Program) is dedicated to analysis of the Sun-Earth system, from generation of the solar magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, until impact on the terrestrial magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Research activities carried out in the frame of Programme National Soleil-Terre (PNST) rely on both ground-based and space-borne instruments. One of the main objectives of PNST is to stimulate coordinated studies and to optimize scientific return of these instruments. This document is the 2006-2009 scientific report of the program. It presents in the introduction some highlights, the main questions, the thematic reviews and the forces and weaknesses of the program. Then, part 2 is a review of the main scientific questions: mechanisms at the origin of the eruptive activity in plasmas; mechanisms involved in particles heating and acceleration; energy transfers at different scales in the plasma and dynamics of turbulence in this anisotropic medium; coupling mechanisms between the different plasma envelopes; Sun-Earth relations and space meteorology; interfaces with other programs (planetary plasmas, magnetism and sun-type stars activity). Part 3 presents the results and prospects of the ground and space instrumentation, of databases and numerical tools. Finally, the administrative and financial status of the program is summarized (Program structure and operation, budget, manpower, publications)

  8. High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The data analysis tool of choice for many Sun-Earth Connection missions is the Interactive Data Language (IDL) by ITT VIS. The increasing amount of data produced by these missions and the increasing complexity of image processing algorithms requires access to higher computing power. Parallel computing is a cost-effective way to increase the speed of computation, but algorithms oftentimes have to be modified to take advantage of parallel systems. Enhancing IDL to work on clusters gives scientists access to increased performance in a familiar programming environment. The goal of this project was to enable IDL applications to benefit from both computing clusters as well as graphics processing units (GPUs) for accelerating data analysis tasks. The tool suite developed in this project enables scientists now to solve demanding data analysis problems in IDL that previously required specialized software, and it allows them to be solved orders of magnitude faster than on conventional PCs. The tool suite consists of three components: (1) TaskDL, a software tool that simplifies the creation and management of task farms, collections of tasks that can be processed independently and require only small amounts of data communication; (2) mpiDL, a tool that allows IDL developers to use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) inside IDL for problems that require large amounts of data to be exchanged among multiple processors; and (3) GPULib, a tool that simplifies the use of GPUs as mathematical coprocessors from within IDL. mpiDL is unique in its support for the full MPI standard and its support of a broad range of MPI implementations. GPULib is unique in enabling users to take advantage of an inexpensive piece of hardware, possibly already installed in their computer, and achieve orders of magnitude faster execution time for numerically complex algorithms. TaskDL enables the simple setup and management of task farms on compute clusters. The products developed in this project have the

  9. Climate and weather of the Sun-Earth system (CAWSES) highlights from a priority program

    CERN Document Server

    Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) is the most important scientific program of SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). CAWSES has triggered a scientific priority program within the German Research Foundation for a period of 6 years. Approximately 30 scientific institutes and 120 scientists were involved in Germany with strong links to international partners. The priority program focuses on solar influence on climate, atmospheric coupling processes, and space climatology. This book summarizes the most important results from this program covering some impor

  10. Sun-Earth National Program (PNST). 2010-2013 results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    PNST (Programme National Soleil-Terre/Sun-Earth National Program) is dedicated to analysis of the Sun-Earth system, from generation of the solar magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, until impact on the terrestrial magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Research activities carried out in the frame of Programme National Soleil-Terre (PNST) rely on both ground-based and space-borne instruments. One of the main objectives of PNST is to stimulate coordinated studies and to optimize scientific return of these instruments. This document is the 2010-2013 scientific report of the program. It presents in the introduction the main questions and the 2010-2013 highlights. The 2010-2013 results and prospects are detailed in part 2: coupling mechanisms between the different plasma envelopes; multi-scale energy transport and turbulence; plasma acceleration and heating mechanisms; eruptive or impulsive activity in plasmas; space meteorology; perspectives. Part 3 deals with the interfaces with other programs (planetary plasmas, magnetism and sun-type stars activity). Part 4 presents the means, services and tools (ground and space instrumentation, databases and numerical tools). Finally, the administrative and financial status of the program is summarized (Program structure and operation, budget, manpower, publications)

  11. SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  12. Understanding the Sun-Earth Libration Point Orbit Formation Flying Challenges For WFIRST and Starshade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Cassandra M.; Folta, David C.

    2017-01-01

    In order to fly an occulter in formation with a telescope at the Sun-Earth L2 (SEL2) Libration Point, one must have a detailed understanding of the dy-namics that govern the restricted three body system. For initial purposes, a linear approximation is satisfactory, but operations will require a high-fidelity modeling tool along with strategic targeting methods in order to be successful. This paper focuses on the challenging dynamics of the transfer trajectories to achieve the relative positioning of two spacecraft to fly in formation at SEL2, in our case, the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and a proposed Starshade. By modeling the formation transfers using a high fidelity tool, an accurate V approximation can be made to as-sist with the development of the subsystem design required for a WFIRST and Starshade formation flight mission.

  13. Solar radiation pressure application for orbital motion stabilization near the Sun-Earth collinear libration point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakhova, Elena; Shmyrov, Alexander; Shmyrov, Vasily

    2018-05-01

    Orbital maneuvering in a neighborhood of the collinear libration point L1 of Sun-Earth system has specific properties, primarily associated with the instability L1. For a long stay in this area of space the stabilization problem of orbital motion requires a solution. Numerical experiments have shown that for stabilization of motion it is requires very small control influence in comparison with the gravitational forces. On the other hand, the stabilization time is quite long - months, and possibly years. This makes it highly desirable to use solar pressure forces. In this paper we illustrate the solar sail possibilities for solving of stabilization problem in a neighborhood L1 with use of the model example.

  14. How to use the Sun-Earth Lagrange points for fundamental physics and navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, A.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Lucchesi, D.; Pucacco, G.; Ruggiero, M. L.; Valko, P.

    2018-01-01

    We illustrate the proposal, nicknamed LAGRANGE, to use spacecraft, located at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points, as a physical reference frame. Performing time of flight measurements of electromagnetic signals traveling on closed paths between the points, we show that it would be possible: (a) to refine gravitational time delay knowledge due both to the Sun and the Earth; (b) to detect the gravito-magnetic frame dragging of the Sun, so deducing information about the interior of the star; (c) to check the possible existence of a galactic gravitomagnetic field, which would imply a revision of the properties of a dark matter halo; (d) to set up a relativistic positioning and navigation system at the scale of the inner solar system. The paper presents estimated values for the relevant quantities and discusses the feasibility of the project analyzing the behavior of the space devices close to the Lagrange points.

  15. Numerical simulation of the subsolar magnetopause current layer in the sun-earth meridian plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, H.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and stability of the magnetopause current layer near the subsolar point in the sun-earth meridian plane are examined using a 2D electromagnetic particle simulation. For the case of zero IMF, the simulation results show that the current layer remains stable and is essentially the same as in the 1D simulation. The width of the current layer is given by the electron-ion hybrid gyroradius which is much smaller than the ion gyroradius. The current layer is found to remain stable for the northward IMF as well. As in the 1D simulation, the jump of the magnetic field at the current layer for the northward IMF remains small. For the southward IMF, collisionless magnetic reconnection is found to develop, leading to the formation of magnetic islands and density peaking within the current layer.

  16. Flights between a neighborhoods of unstable libration points of Sun-Earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkova, Valerya; Shmyrov, Vasily

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we study the problem of constructing impulse flights between neighborhoods of unstable collinear libration points of the Sun-Earth system [1]. Such maneuvering in near-Earth space may prove to be in demand in modern space navigation. For example, such a maneuvering was done by the space vehicle GENESIS. Three test points are chosen for the implementation of the impulse control, in order to move to a neighborhood of the libration point L2. It is shown that the earlier on the exit from the vicinity of the libration point L1 impulse control was realized, the sooner the neighborhood L2 was achieved. Separated from this problem, the problem of optimal control in the neighborhood of L2 was considered and a form of stabilizing control is presented.

  17. Student Mastery of the Sun-Earth-Moon System in a Flipped Classroom of Pre-service Elementary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    One of the current trends in pedagogy at all levels(K-college) is the so-called ‘flipped classroom’, in which students prepare for a class meeting through self-study of the material. It is based on a rejection of the classic model of the faculty member as the ‘sage on the stage’ instead, responsibility for learning shifts to the individual student. The faculty member takes on the role of learning facilitator or mentor, and focuses the students’ learning by crafting and administering timely formative assessments (in multiple formats and applied multiple times) that aid both students and the faculty member in tracking the students’ mastery of the learning outcomes. In a flipped, freshman-only, section of SCI 111 Elementary Earth-Physical Sciences (a required introductory science course for pre-service elementary school teachers) the students learned through a combination of individual and group hands-on in-class activities, technology (including PowerPoint presentations and short videos viewed prior to attending class), in-class worksheets, and in-class discussions. Students self-differentiated in how they interacted with the available teaching materials, deciding which activities to spend the most time on based on their individual needs (based on an online quiz taken the night before the class period, and their personal self-confidence with the material). Available in-class activities and worksheets were developed by the faculty member based on student scores on the online quiz as well as personal messages submitted through the course management system the night before the class meeting. While this placed a significant burden on the faculty member in terms of course preparation, it allowed for just-in-time teaching to take place. This poster describes the results of student mastery of content centered on the sun-earth-moon system (specifically seasons, moon phases, and eclipses) as compared to traditional classroom sections.

  18. Exploring Sun-Earth Connections: A Physical Science Program for (K-8)Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, D. J.; Pickert, S. M.; Thompson, J. L.; Montrose, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    An experimental, inquiry-based physical science curriculum for undergraduate, pre-service K-8 teachers is under development at the Catholic University of America in collaboration with the Solar Physics Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection missions. This is a progress report. The current, stunningly successful exploratory phase in Sun-Earth Connection (SEC) physics, sparked by SOHO, Yohkoh, TRACE, and other International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) and Living With a Star (LWS) programs, has provided dynamic, visually intuitive data that can be used for teaching basic physical concepts such as the properties of gravitational and electromagnetic fields which are manifest in beautiful imagery of the astrophysical plasmas of the solar atmosphere and Earth's auroras. Through a team approach capitalizing on the combined expertise of the Catholic University's departments of Education and Physics and of NRL solar researchers deeply involved in SEC missions we have laid out a program that will teach non-science-major undergraduates a very limited number of physical science concepts but in such a way as to develop for each one both a formal understanding and an intuitive grasp that will instill confidence, spark interest and scientific curiosity and, ideally, inspire a habit of lifetime inquiry and professional growth. A three-semester sequence is planned. The first semester will be required of incoming Education freshmen. The second and third semesters will be of such a level as to satisfy the one-year science requirement for non-science majors in the College of Arts and Sciences. The approach as adopted will integrate physics content and educational methods, with each concept introduced through inquiry-based, hands-on investigation using methods and materials directly applicable to K-8 teaching situations (Exploration Phase). The topic is further developed through discussion, demonstration and lecture, introducing such mathematical

  19. "Tormenta Espacial" - Exploring The Sun-earth Connection With A Spanish-language Planetarium Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elteto, Attila; Salas, F.; Duncan, D.; Traub-Metlay, S.

    2007-10-01

    Reaching out to Spanish speakers is increasingly vital to workforce development and public support of space science projects. Building on a successful partnership with NASA's TIMED mission, LASP and Space Science Institute, Fiske Planetarium has translated its original planetarium show - "Space Storm” - into "Tormenta Espacial". This show explores the Sun-Earth connection and explains how solar activity affects technology and life on Earth. Solar scientists from NOAA's Space Environment Center and the University of Colorado at Boulder contributed to provide scientific accuracy. Show content and accompanying educational materials are aligned with state and national science standards. While designed for students in grades 6-8, this show has been positively evaluated by students from grades 4-10 and shown to the general public with favorable responses. Curricular materials extend the planetarium experience into the K-12 classroom so that students inspired and engaged by the show continue to see real-life applications and workplace opportunities. Fiske Planetarium offers both "Space Storm” and "Tormenta Espacial” to other planetariums at a minimal rate, including technical support for the life of the show. Thanks to a request from a planetarium in Belgium, a version of "Space Storm” is available with no spoken dialogue so that languages other than English or Spanish may be accommodated. Collaborative projects among planetariums, NASA missions (planned as well as active), research scientists and other parties keep EPO activities healthy and well-funded. Fiske Planetarium staff strive to develop and maintain partnerships throughout the EPO and informal education communities.

  20. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  1. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Sánchez

    Full Text Available Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  2. CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) Science: Progress thus far and the next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallamraju, D.; Kozyra, J.; Basu, S.

    Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System CAWSES is the current program of Scientific Committee for Solar Terrestrial Physics SCOSTEP for 2004 - 2008 The main aim of CAWSES is to bring together scientists from various nations to address the coupled and global nature of the Sun-Earth System phenomena Towards that end CAWSES provides a platform for international cooperation in observations data analysis theory and modeling There has been active international participation thus far with endorsement of the national CAWSES programs in some countries and many scientists around the globe actively volunteering their time in this effort The CAWSES Science Steering Group has organized the CAWSES program into five Themes for better execution of its science Solar Influence on Climate Space Weather Science and Applications Atmospheric Coupling Processes Space Climatology and Capacity Building and Education CAWSES will cooperate with International programs that focus on the Sun-Earth system science and at the same time compliment the work of programs whose scope is beyond the realm of CAWSES This talk will briefly review the science goals of CAWSES provide salient results from different Themes with emphasis on those from the Space Weather Theme This talk will also indicate the next steps that are being planned in this program and solicit inputs from the community for the science efforts to be carried out in the future

  3. Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A unique ultra-fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials. which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the specified wavelengths. these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-propagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each others' directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waveguide. and further includes two central channels and a plurality of lateral channels for guiding the light bullets into and out of the waveguide. An advantage of the present all-optical switching device lies in its practical use of light bullets, thus preventing the degeneration of the pulses due to dispersion and diffraction at the front and back of the pulses. Another advantage of the switching device is the relative insensitivity of the collision process to the time difference in which the counter-propagating pulses enter the waveguide. since. contrary to conventional co-propagating spatial solitons, the relative phase of the colliding pulses does not affect the interaction of these pulses. Yet another feature of the present all-optical switching device is the selection of the light pulse parameters which enables the generation of light bullets in nonlinear optical materials. including highly nonlinear optical glasses and semiconductor materials such as semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials.

  4. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  5. Unique Non-Keplerian Orbit Vantage Locations for Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Young, Corissa; Ross, Adam

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the feasibility of attaining and maintaining unique non-Keplerian orbit vantage locations in the Earth/Moon environment in order to obtain continuous scientific measurements. The principal difficulty associated with obtaining continuous measurements is the temporal nature of astrodynamics, i.e., classical orbits. This investigation demonstrates advanced trajectory designs to meet demanding science requirements which cannot be met following traditional orbital mechanic logic. Examples of continuous observer missions addressed include Earth pole-sitters and unique vertical libration orbits that address Sun-Earth Connection and Earth Science Vision roadmaps.

  6. The Sun-earth Imbalance radiometer for a direct measurement of the net heating of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Steven; Karatekin, Özgür; Chevalier, Andre; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Meftah, Mustapha; Irbah, Abdanour; Delabie, Tjorven

    2015-04-01

    It is accepted that the climate on earth is changing due to a radiative energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, up to now this radiation imbalance has not been measured directly. The measurement is challenging both in terms of space-time sampling of the radiative energy that is leaving the earth and in terms of accuracy. The incoming solar radiation and the outgoing terrestrial radiation are of nearly equal magnitude - of the order of 340 W/m² - resulting in a much smaller difference or imbalance of the order of 1 W/m². The only way to measure the imbalance with sufficient accuracy is to measure both the incoming solar and the outgoing terrestrial radiation with the same instrument. Based on our 30 year experience of measuring the Total Solar Irradiance with the Differential Absolute RADiometer (DIARAD) type of instrument and on our 10 year experience of measuring the Earth Radiation Budget with the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on Meteosat Second Generation, we propose an innovative constellation of Sun-earth IMBAlance (SIMBA) radiometer cubesats with the ultimate goal to measure the Sun-earth radiation imbalance. A first Simba In Orbit Demonstration satellite is scheduled for flight with QB50 in 2015. It is currently being developed as ESA's first cubesat through an ESA GSTP project. In this paper we will give an overview of the Simba science objectives and of the current satellite and payload development status.

  7. Science Enabled by the Ares V: A Large Monolithic Telescope Placed at the Second Sun-Earth Lagrange Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2007-01-01

    The payload mass and volume capabilities of the planned Ares V launch vehicle provide the science community with unprecedented opportunities to place large science payloads into low earth orbit and beyond. One example, the outcome of a recent study conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, is a large, monolithic telescope with a primary mirror diameter of 6.2 meters placed into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point, or L2, approximately 1.5 million kin beyond Earth's orbit. Operating in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, such a large telescope would allow astronomers to detect bio-signatures and characterize the atmospheres of transiting exoplanets, provide high resolution imaging three or more times better than the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, and observe the ultraviolet light from warm baryonic matter.

  8. High-Performance Data Analysis Tools for Sun-Earth Connection Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is a standard tool used by many researchers in observational fields. Present day Sun-Earch Connection missions like RHESSI or...

  9. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. A Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  11. ROTATING BULLETS FROM A VARIABLE PROTOSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuepeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas, E-mail: xpchen@pmo.ac.cn [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) CO (2–1) observations toward the protostellar jet driven by SVS 13 A, a variable protostar in the NGC 1333 star-forming region. The SMA CO (2–1) images show an extremely high-velocity jet composed of a series of molecular “bullets.” Based on the SMA CO observations, we discover clear and large systematic velocity gradients, perpendicular to the jet axis, in the blueshifted and redshifted bullets. After discussing several alternative interpretations, such as twin-jets, jet precession, warped disk, and internal helical shock, we suggest that the systematic velocity gradients observed in the bullets result from the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet. From the SMA CO images, the measured rotation velocities are 11.7–13.7 km s{sup −1} for the blueshifted bullet and 4.7 ± 0.5 km s{sup −1} for the redshifted bullet. The estimated specific angular momenta of the two bullets are comparable to those of dense cores, about 10 times larger than those of protostellar envelopes, and about 20 times larger than those of circumstellar disks. If the velocity gradients are due to the rotation of the SVS 13 A jet, the significant amount of specific angular momenta of the bullets indicates that the rotation of jets/outflows is a key mechanism to resolve the so-called “angular momentum problem” in the field of star formation. The kinematics of the bullets suggests that the jet launching footprint on the disk has a radius of ∼7.2–7.7 au, which appears to support the extended disk-wind model. We note that further observations are needed to comprehensively understand the kinematics of the SVS 13 A jet, in order to confirm the rotation nature of the bullets.

  12. Acoustic methods for measuring bullet velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes two acoustic methods to measure bullet velocity with an accuracy of 1% or better. In one method, a microphone is placed within 0.1 m of the gun muzzle and a bullet is fired at a steel target 45 m away. The bullet's flight time is the recorded time between the muzzle blast and sound of hitting the target minus the time for the sound to return from the target to the microphone. In the other method, the microphone is placed equidistant from both the gun muzzle and the stee...

  13. A multitechnique approach for bullet characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, K.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sankar Das, M.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of using lead isotopic composition of bullet lead in conjunction with chemical composition (with respect to minor and trace elements) for the characterisation of bullet lead samples is demonstrated. Lead isotope analysis was done by using a mass spectrometer M.S. 702, while trace analyses were carried out by a combination of neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. It is pointed out that this multi-technique approach to the problem of bullet characterization can be gainfully employed in forensic investigations. (author)

  14. Isotopic analysis of bullet lead samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar Das, M.; Venkatasubramanian, V.S.; Sreenivas, K.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of using the isotopic composition of lead for the identification of bullet lead is investigated. Lead from several spent bullets were converted to lead sulphide and analysed for the isotopic abundances using an MS-7 mass spectrometer. The abundances are measured relative to that for Pb 204 was too small to permit differentiation, while the range of variation of Pb 206 and Pb 207 and the better precision in their analyses permitted differentiating samples from one another. The correlation among the samples examined has been pointed out. The method is complementary to characterisation of bullet leads by the trace element composition. The possibility of using isotopically enriched lead for tagging bullet lead is pointed out. (author)

  15. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    -mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked

  16. A bullet-sired bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogdon, B.G. [University of South Alabama Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Mobile, AL (United States); Cottrell, W.C. [Orthopaedic Associates of West Florida, Clearwater, FL (United States); Nimityongskul, P. [University of South Alabama Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mobile, AL (United States); Takhtani, D. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Random gunfire deposited a bullet in the proximal tibial metaphysis of a 9-year- old girl. The wound was not incapacitating and was treated conservatively. Within 17 months, soreness developed in the proximal leg, and radiography revealed a large unicameral cyst within which the bullet freely tumbled. Eventually, fear of impending fracture prompted further radiography, computed tomography, surgical intervention and pathological examination of the cyst wall. We believe this is only the second description in the English-language literature of this rare sequence of events. (orig.)

  17. A bullet-sired bone cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogdon, B.G.; Cottrell, W.C.; Nimityongskul, P.; Takhtani, D.

    2006-01-01

    Random gunfire deposited a bullet in the proximal tibial metaphysis of a 9-year- old girl. The wound was not incapacitating and was treated conservatively. Within 17 months, soreness developed in the proximal leg, and radiography revealed a large unicameral cyst within which the bullet freely tumbled. Eventually, fear of impending fracture prompted further radiography, computed tomography, surgical intervention and pathological examination of the cyst wall. We believe this is only the second description in the English-language literature of this rare sequence of events. (orig.)

  18. Craniomaxillofacial falling bullet injuries and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuker, Sabri T; Sadda, Raid

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to bring attention to craniocerebral maxillofacial perforating/penetrating injuries due to AK-47 Kalashnikov falling bullets (FBs); these dangerous injuries to both civilians and soldiers are rare. A review of the literature shows no reports on AK-47 FBs leading to double craniocerebral perforation and settling into the maxillofacial region. The number of victims, the AK-47's availability, the associated morbidity and mortality rates, and the rarity of cases prompted this article. The treatment of injuries to the craniocerebral facial clinical profile due to FBs is challenging, and an understanding of the neurosurgical and maxillofacial management of these low-velocity FB injuries is required. We treated 11 cases due to AK-47 rifle FBs and 1 due to anti-aircraft Dashka 12.7-mm FBs. Craniocerebral facial injuries were treated and lodged bullets removed from different challenging locations in the base of the skull, without increasing morbidity and with avoidance of unnecessary surgical trauma to the affected area by the bullets. The required identification of such injuries can be difficult, and the removal of the lodged bullet to prevent secondary complications and reduce the chance of secondary infection can be graver than in other parts of the body. AK-47 FBs are a major public health concern internationally and require serious attention in terms of protection and management for civilians and soldiers in uniform. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tribology. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, George D., Comp.

    Tribology is the science and technology of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It incorporates a number of scientific fields, including friction, wear, lubrication, materials science, and various branches of surface physics and surface chemistry. Tribology forms a vital part of engineering science. The interacting surfaces may be on machinery…

  20. Hydrodynamics of back spatter by blunt bullet gunshot with a link to bloodstain pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiskey, P. M.; Yarin, A. L.; Attinger, D.

    2017-07-01

    A theoretical model describing the blood spatter pattern resulting from a blunt bullet gunshot is proposed. The predictions are compared to experimental data acquired in the present work. This hydrodynamic problem belongs to the class of the impact hydrodynamics with the pressure impulse generating the blood flow. At the free surface, the latter is directed outwards and accelerated toward the surrounding air. As a result, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the flow of blood occurs, which is responsible for the formation of blood drops of different sizes and initial velocities. Thus, the initial diameter, velocity, and acceleration of the atomized blood drops can be determined. Then, the equations of motion are solved, describing drop trajectories in air accounting for gravity, and air drag. Also considered are the drop-drop interactions through air, which diminish air drag on the subsequent drops. Accordingly, deposition of two-phase (blood-drop and air) jets on a vertical cardstock sheet located between the shooter and the target (and perforated by the bullet) is predicted and compared with experimental data. The experimental data were acquired with a porous polyurethane foam sheet target impregnated with swine blood, and the blood drops were collected on a vertical cardstock sheet which was perforated by the blunt bullet. The highly porous target possesses a low hydraulic resistance and therefore resembles a pool of blood shot by a blunt bullet normally to its free surface. The back spatter pattern was predicted numerically and compared to the experimental data for the number of drops, their area, the total stain area, and the final impact angle as functions of radial location from the bullet hole in the cardstock sheet (the collection screen). Comparisons of the predicted results with the experimental data revealed satisfactory agreement. The predictions also allow one to find the impact Weber number on the collection screen, which is necessary to predict stain

  1. A Molecular-line Study of the Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS05506+2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Lee, Chin-Fei; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen; Patel, Nimesh; Morris, Mark R.; Claussen, Mark

    2017-12-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish molecular line observations of the interstellar bullet-outflow source IRAS 05506+2414, whose wide-angle bullet spray is similar to the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow and likely arises from an entirely different mechanism than the classical accretion-disk-driven bipolar flows in young stellar objects. The bullet-outflow source is associated with a large pseudo-disk and three molecular outflows—a high-velocity outflow (HVO), a medium-velocity outflow (MVO), and a slow, extended outflow (SEO). The size (mass) of the pseudo-disk is 10,350 au × 6400 au (0.64-0.17 M ⊙) from a model-fit assuming infall and rotation, we derive a central stellar mass of 8-19 M ⊙. The HVO (MVO) has an angular size ˜5180 (˜3330) au and a projected outflow velocity of ˜140 km s-1 (˜30 km s-1). The SEO size (outflow speed) is ˜0.9 pc (˜6 km s-1). The HVO’s axis is aligned with (orthogonal to) that of the SEO (pseudo-disk). The velocity structure of the MVO is unresolved. The scalar momenta in the HVO and SEO are very similar, suggesting that the SEO has resulted from the HVO interacting with ambient-cloud material. The bullet spray shares a common axis with the pseudo-disk and has an age comparable to that of MVO (few hundred years), suggesting that these three structures are intimately linked. We discuss several models for the outflows in IRAS 05506+2414 (including dynamical decay of a stellar cluster, chance encounter of a runaway star with a dense cloud, and close passage of two protostars), and conclude that second-epoch imaging to derive proper motions of the bullets and nearby stars can help to discriminate between them.

  2. Progressive Propaganda Critics and the Magic Bullet Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Examines the development and historical inaccuracies of the "magic bullet" interpretation of American propaganda studies, which asserts that propaganda critics between the world wars treated messages as "magic bullets" directly and powerfully infused into passive receivers. Considers why this misconception of the progressive…

  3. Complete endoscopic management of a retained bullet in the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ariella A; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Kaul, Sanjeev; Bhandari, Akshay

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old male gunshot victim presented at our institution with gross hematuria following Foley catheter insertion. Computed tomography and cystogram did not show a bladder perforation, but were notable for a left ischial fracture and the presence of a bullet within the bladder. After failed attempts at retrieving the bullet with a resectoscope and loop, as well as a cystoscope and stone crusher, a 26 French nephroscope was inserted transurethrally, and the bullet was successfully engaged and removed using a Perc NCircle (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) grasper. The extra-peritoneal injury was managed conservatively with catheter drainage. To our knowledge, this represents the first case of successful transurethral management of a retained intravesical bullet. Such an approach may benefit patients with retained intravesical bullets or other challenging intravesical foreign bodies and may be helpful in select circumstances to spare patients from more extensive surgeries.

  4. Experimental studies on the plasma bullet propagation and its inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, Erdinc; Laroussi, Mounir

    2010-01-01

    Plasma bullets generated by atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma jets have recently been an active research topic due to their unique properties and their enhanced plasma chemistry. In this paper, experimental insights into the plasma bullet lifetime and its velocity are reported. Data obtained from intensified charge-coupled device camera and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES) elucidated the existence of a weakly ionized channel between the plasma bullet and its source (such as the plasma pencil). Factors responsible for the inhibition of the propagation of the bullet, such as low helium mole fraction, the magnitude of the applied voltage, and the secondary discharge ignition time, are also revealed. A new technique is discussed to accurately measure the plasma bullet velocity, using time-resolved OES. This new technique shows that during its lifetime the plasma bullet goes through launching, propagation, and ending phases. In addition, it is noted that the plasma bullet exhibits an unstable behavior at the early beginning and late ending of the propagation.

  5. Physicomathematical Simulation Analysis for Small Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Margaris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A full six degrees of freedom (6-DOF flight dynamics model is proposed for the accurate prediction of short and long-range trajectories of small bullets via atmospheric flight to final impact point. The mathematical model is based on the full equations of motion set up in the no-roll body reference frame and is integrated numerically from given initial conditions at the firing site. The projectile maneuvering motion depends on the most significant force and moment variations, in addition to gravity and Magnus effect. The computational flight analysis takes into consideration the Mach number and total angle of attack effects by means of the variable aerodynamic coefficients. For the purposes of the present work, linear interpolation has been applied for aerodynamic coefficients from the official tabulated database. The developed computational method gives satisfactory agreement with published data of verified experiments and computational codes on atmospheric projectile trajectory analysis for various initial firing flight conditions.

  6. Assessment of bullet effectiveness based on a human vulnerability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Susu; Xu, C; Wen, Y; Li, G; Zhou, J

    2017-12-25

    Penetrating wounds from explosively propelled fragments and bullets are the most common causes of combat injury. There is a requirement to assess the potential effectiveness of bullets penetrating human tissues in order to optimise preventive measures and wound trauma management. An advanced voxel model based on the Chinese Visible Human data was built. A digital human vulnerability model was established in combination with wound reconstruction and vulnerability assessment rules, in which wound penetration profiles were obtained by recreating the penetration of projectiles into ballistic gelatin. An effectiveness evaluation method of bullet penetration using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was developed and solved using the Monte Carlo sampling method. The effectiveness of rifle bullets was demonstrated to increase with increasing velocity in the range of 300-700 m/s. When imparting the same energy, the effectiveness of the 5.56 mm bullet was higher than the 7.62 mm bullet in this model. The superimposition of simulant penetration profiles produced from ballistic gelatin simulant has been used to predict wound tracts in damaged tissues. The authors recognise that determining clinical effectiveness based on the AIS scores alone without verification of outcome by review of clinical hospital records means that this technique should be seen more as a manner of comparing the effectiveness of bullets than an injury prediction model. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. The destabilizing effect of body armour on military rifle bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P J; Sørensen, O H

    1997-01-01

    Soft body armour is designed to give protection against fragments and some low velocity bullets but is not designed to stop high velocity rifle bullets. Reports have claimed that soft body armour might disturb the stability of bullets that penetrate it, and that this might increase the size of the lesions. The reason for such an effect might be early yaw of the bullet, so we studied the behaviour of bullets which had passed through soft body armour. A 7.62 x 39 mm AK-47 rifle was fired from a permanent stand using full metal jacketed lead core bullets at a range of 30 m. Soft body armour composed for 14 and 28 layers of aramid fibres (Kevlar) was placed at 90 degrees and 60 degrees to the line of fire. Yaw was measured by the shadowgraph technique and a TERMA Doppler radar. A total of ten shots without body armour, and ten shots with each of the two types of body armour at the two angles were used. The results of the shadowgraph and Doppler radar measurements showed a proportional correlation between the two methods of determining the bullet yaw. The semiquantitative approach of the Doppler radar measurement was in agreement with the more concise measurement using the photographic technique. Velocity loss and loss of spin rate from penetrating 14 or 28 ply Kevlar was negligible. We observed induced instability after penetration of 14 and particularly 28 ply Kevlar, dependence of yaw with respect to the number of layers of Kevlar as well as to the angle of the body armour with respect to the line of fire.

  8. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM and the scanning electro microscope (SEM. For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling. For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the “notch tip” spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the “notch tip”, propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle

  9. Failure mechanism of resistance-spot-welded specimens impacted on base material by bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlei; Ma, Bohan; Chen, Danian; Wang, Huanran; Ma, Dongfang

    2018-01-01

    The tests of bullet impact on the base material (BM) of a simple specimen with a single resistance-spot-welded (RSW) nugget of TRIP800 steel are performed to investigate the response of the RSW specimen to the ballistic debris impact on the RSW specimen. A one-stage gas gun is used to fire the bullets while a laser velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) is used to measure the velocity histories of the free surfaces of the RSW specimen. The recovered RSW specimens are examined with the three-dimensional super depth digital microscope (SDDM) and the scanning electro microscope (SEM). For the tests of small multiple-bullet impact, it is revealed that the wave train of the VISAR measured results and the detachment of the base material interfaces in the recovered RSW specimens are directly related to the reflection and refraction of the curved stress waves incoming to the interfaces and the free surfaces in the RSW specimens. The detachment of BM interfaces can lead to the impact failure of the RSW joints for the larger multiple-bullet impact at higher velocity, the mechanism of which is different from the case for normal incidence (spalling). For the tests of single large bullet impact, it is brought to light experimentally that the plastic strain concentration at the "notch tip" spurs either the crack near the RSW joint or the split of the nugget. The numerical simulation shows up the process of splitting the nugget: a crack initiates at the "notch tip", propagates across the nugget interface and splits the nugget into two parts. It is indicated that the interaction between the stress waves and many interfaces/free surfaces in the RSW specimen under ballistic impact causes variable local stress triaxialities and stress Lode angles, which affects the deformation and fracture mechanism of the RSW specimen including stretching and shearing failure. It is shown that the impact failure of the RSW joints is a mixture of brittle fracture and ductile

  10. Aerial firing and stray bullet injuries: a rising tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Asad; Tahir, Syed Mohammad; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Siddique, Akmal Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Aerial firing is shooting, using fire arm, into the air usually during a celebration. This observational study aimed to quantify magnitude and impact of stray bullet injuries by aerial firing at surgical emergencies of the Liaquat University Hospital (a university hospital), Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from January 2009 to December 2010 (2 years). During the study period, 144 firearm injuries due to stray bullet reported to the A and E departments of the university hospital. All patients referred to surgical unit providing emergency cover on that day irrespective of the severity of the injury for medico-legal reasons. For this study, the cases were divided into those having trivial injury and do not require any active surgical intervention and those having serious injury mandating surgical intervention. One hundred and two cases of stray bullet injury sustained trivial injury and followed as outpatients after an overnight period of indoor hospitalization; however, 42 patients with stray bullet injuries requiring surgical intervention were hospitalized. The most common events leading to aerial firing and stray bullet injuries were marriage ceremonies, followed by a political rallies and New Year celebrations. Stray bullet injury also reported after aerial firing on cricket/hockey team victories, Pakistan Independence Day (14th August), cultural day in Sindh and Basant (Kite) festival in Punjab. The most frequent sites with serious stray bullet injury were chest (15), head and neck (10), abdomen (9) and limbs (8), respectively. Surgical interventions performed included chest intubation, exploration of wound tract to retrieve bullet if lodged superficially and was palpable, laparotomy to managed intra-abdominal injury, reduction of fracture site followed by reconstruction, flap reconstruction and graft for nonhealing wound. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19 days. No mortality was observed in this series of patients. We conclude that the prevalence of aerial

  11. Dissipative light-bullets in the filamentation of femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, M.A.; Gonzalo, I.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. With the growing interest in filamentation in solid and liquid media, the regime of filamentation with anomalous dispersion is receiving more attention. In this work we show that basics aspects of the filament dynamics in this regime can be explained in terms of a novel type of light-bullet, which is not of solitary or of conical types, but a wave-packet that maximizes the energy dissipation into the medium while remaining localized and stationary in propagation. We first show that a nonlinear optical medium at a given carrier wave length at which dispersion is anomalous, supports 'dissipative' light-bullets, i.e., waves localized in space and time and that propagate without change as a result of a balance between nonlinear compression and nonlinear absorption. Among them, the particular dissipative light-bullet with the highest possible dissipation is unique in a given medium, in the sense that all its properties are fixed by the properties of the medium at the carrier wave length. In this light-bullet, self-focusing continuously transports energy towards the pulse center by an amount that just compensates for the nonlinear losses. Figure 1(a) shows the radial profiles of the dissipative light-bullets that maximizes energy dissipation for several orders of multi-photon absorption responsible for the nonlinear losses. We have also found that this dissipative light-bullet tends to be spontaneously formed in the filamentary dynamics in media with anomalous dispersion. Figure 1(b) shows the peak intensity, the total energy and losses of a pulse that undergoes self-focusing and filamentation in an ideal medium with only Kerr nonlinearity and multi-photon absorption. This simple model reproduces the particularly long filament 'segments' and the 'burst' observed in experiments and in more accurate simulations. The peak intensity in the filament is identical to that of the dissipative light-bullet with maximum dissipation, and the

  12. Management of migrating intracranial bullets: lessons learned from surviving an AK-47 bullet through the lateral brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammo, Richard A; DeFazio, Michael V; Bullock, M Ross

    2012-01-01

    Survival after a gunshot wound (GSW) to the head is becoming more common, with an accompanying increase in spontaneous migration of these intracranial bullet fragments. This phenomenon is well described in current literature and is a potentially life-threatening delayed complication of GSW to the head. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who survived a penetrating GSW to the cranium and cerebellum after an accident involving an AK (Automatic Kalashnikov)-47 (7.62 mm). Following initial attempts to remove the bullet and associated hematoma from the cerebellar hemisphere, intraoperative fluoroscopy revealed that the bullet had migrated to lie within the right middle cerebellar peduncle with the development of intraoperative cardiac arrhythmia. The bullet could not be retrieved without risk of damage to the superior and inferior cerebellar arteries. The patient then developed bacterial meningitis, and further imaging revealed the bullet had again migrated under the cerebellar cortex to an accessible location. The infection was treated with aggressive antibiotic therapy and the bullet was removed from the posterior fossa, thus preventing recurrence of infection and further migration. The patient regained full motor, speech, and proprioceptive function within months after injury. The potential for spontaneous migration exists with any penetrating brain injury involving a retained foreign body. When a retained intracranial foreign body is unable to be safely extracted during initial debridement, close clinical evaluation is essential and plain-film or computed tomographic imaging should be considered in order to enhance the early detection of delayed-onset life-threatening deterioration, such as meningitis and occlusion of cerebrospinal fluid drainage, because of spontaneous migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri Yamanari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure.

  14. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...

  15. Bullet Points, New Writing, and the Marketization of Public Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Djonov, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Bullet lists epitomize both new writing practices, which are promoted through ubiquitous software such as Microsoft's PowerPoint, and the marketization of public discourse. The argument is illustrated with an analysis of the recontextualization of the Australian Treasurer's Budget speech...

  16. A Bullet-Block Experiment that Explains the Chain Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleone, J.; Smith, R.

    2018-05-01

    It is common in science for two phenomena to appear to be very different, but in fact follow from the same basic principles. Here we consider such a case, the connection between the chain fountain and a bullet-block collision experiment. When an upward moving bullet strikes a wooden block resting on a horizontal table, the block will rise to a higher height when the bullet strikes near the end of the block. This is because the quickly rotating block experiences an additional upward "reaction" force from its contact with the table. Such a reaction force also explains the chain fountain. When a chain falls from a pile in a container to the floor below, the chain rises up above the container. This rise occurs because the quickly rotating links in the container push off of the surface beneath them. We derive a model that accurately describes our measurements in the bullet-block experiment, and then use this same model to calculate an approximate expression for the distance the chain rises above the container. More extensive discussions of the chain fountain are available elsewhere.

  17. Atypical gunshot wound: Bullet trajectory analyzed by computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ro

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: If an abnormal trajectory is maintained, it is possible for a bullet to traverse half the length of the body without the patient realizing it. Accurate CT analysis and quick decisions in surgical and medical management are critical takeaways to provide quality care to patients with these injuries.

  18. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanari, Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri; Mansur, Maria Clara Dias; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Silverio, Paulo Rogerio Barboza; Jayanthi, Shri Krishna; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure. (author)

  19. Simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-10wt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Mas Irfan P.; Widyastuti, Simaremare, Peniel

    2018-04-01

    Frangible bullet is designed to disintegrate upon impact against a hard target. Understanding the impact response and performance of frangible bullet is therefore of highly interest. In this paper, simulation of impact ballistic of Cu-IOwt%Sn frangible bullet using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method is presented. The frangible bullet is impacted against a hard, cylindrical stainless steel target. Effect of variability of the frangible bullet material properties due to the variation of sintering temperature in its manufacturing process to the bullet frangibility factor (FF) is investigated numerically. In addition, the bullet kinetic energy during impact as well as its ricochet and fragmentation are also examined and simulated. Failure criterion based upon maximum strain is employed in the simulation. It is shown that the SPH simulation can produce good estimation for kinetic energy of bullet after impact, thus giving the FF prediction with respect to the variation of frangible bullet material properties. In comparison to explicit finite element (FE) simulation, in which only material/element deletion is shown, convenience in showing frangible bullet fragmentation is shown using the SPH simulation. As a result, the effect of sintering temperature to the way of the frangible bullet fragmented can be also observed clearly.

  20. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinogga, Anna, E-mail: anna_trinogga@gmx.de; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-15

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide

  1. Are lead-free hunting rifle bullets as effective at killing wildlife as conventional lead bullets? A comparison based on wound size and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinogga, Anna; Fritsch, Guido; Hofer, Heribert; Krone, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of the lead core of conventional wildlife hunting rifle bullets causes contamination of the target with lead. The community of scavenger species which feed on carcasses or viscera discarded by hunters are regularly exposed to these lead fragments and may die by acute or chronic lead intoxication, as demonstrated for numerous species such as white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) where it is among the most important sources of mortality. Not only does hunting with conventional ammunition deposit lead in considerable quantities in the environment, it also significantly delays or threatens the recovery of endangered raptor populations. Although lead-free bullets might be considered a suitable alternative that addresses the source of these problems, serious reservations have been expressed as to their ability to quickly and effectively kill a hunted animal. To assess the suitability of lead-free projectiles for hunting practice, the wounding potential of conventional bullets was compared with lead-free bullets under real life hunting conditions. Wound dimensions were regarded as good markers of the projectiles' killing potential. Wound channels in 34 killed wild ungulates were evaluated using computed tomography and post-mortem macroscopical examination. Wound diameters caused by conventional bullets did not differ significantly to those created by lead-free bullets. Similarly, the size of the maximum cross-sectional area of the wound was similar for both bullet types. Injury patterns suggested that all animals died by exsanguination. This study demonstrates that lead-free bullets are equal to conventional hunting bullets in terms of killing effectiveness and thus equally meet the welfare requirements of killing wildlife as painlessly as possible. The widespread introduction and use of lead-free bullets should be encouraged as it prevents environmental contamination with a seriously toxic pollutant and contributes to the conservation of a wide variety

  2. Statistical analysis of solar events associated with SSC over year of solar maximum during cycle 23: 2. Characterisation on the Sun-Earth path - Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Bocchialini, K.; Menvielle, M.; Fontaine, D.; Grison, B.; Marchaudon, A.; Pick, M.; Pitout, F.; Schmieder, B.; Regnier, S.; Zouganelis, Y.; Chambodut, A.

    2017-12-01

    Taking the 32 sudden storm commencements (SSC) listed by the observatory de l'Ebre / ISGI over the year 2002 (maximal solar activity) as a starting point, we performed a statistical analysis of the related solar sources, solar wind signatures, and terrestrial responses. For each event, we characterized and identified, as far as possible, (i) the sources on the Sun (Coronal Mass Ejections -CME-), with the help of a series of criteria (velocities, drag coefficient, radio waves, magnetic field polarity), as well as (ii) the structure and properties in the interplanetary medium, at L1, of the event associated to the SSC: magnetic clouds -MC-, non-MC interplanetary coronal mass ejections -ICME-, co-rotating/stream interaction regions -SIR/CIR-, shocks only and unclear events that we call "miscellaneous" events. The geoeffectiveness of the events, classified by category at L1, is analysed by their signatures in the Earth ionized (magnetosphere and ionosphere) and neutral (thermosphere) environments, using a broad set of in situ, remote and ground based instrumentation. The role of the presence of a unique or of a multiple source at the Sun, of its nature, halo or non halo CME, is also discussed. The set of observations is statistically analyzed so as to evaluate and compare the geoeffectiveness of the events. The results obtained for this set of geomagnetic storms started by SSCs is compared to the overall statistics of year 2002, relying on already published catalogues of events, allowing assessing the relevance of our approach ; for instance all the 12 well identified Magnetic Clouds of 2002 give rise to SSCs.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Solar Events Associated with SSC over Year of Solar Maximum during Cycle 23: 1. Identification of Related Sun-Earth Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Bocchialini, K.; Menvielle, M.; Chambodut, A.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Fontaine, D.; Marchaudon, A.; Pick, M.; Pitout, F.; Schmieder, B.; Regnier, S.; Zouganelis, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Taking the 32 sudden storm commencements (SSC) listed by the observatory de l'Ebre / ISGI over the year 2002 (maximal solar activity) as a starting point, we performed a statistical analysis of the related solar sources, solar wind signatures, and terrestrial responses. For each event, we characterized and identified, as far as possible, (i) the sources on the Sun (Coronal Mass Ejections -CME-), with the help of a series of herafter detailed criteria (velocities, drag coefficient, radio waves, polarity), as well as (ii) the structure and properties in the interplanetary medium, at L1, of the event associated to the SSC: magnetic clouds -MC-, non-MC interplanetary coronal mass ejections -ICME-, co-rotating/stream interaction regions -SIR/CIR-, shocks only and unclear events that we call "miscellaneous" events. The categorization of the events at L1 is made on published catalogues. For each potential CME/L1 event association we compare the velocity observed at L1 with the one observed at the Sun and the estimated balistic velocity. Observations of radio emissions (Type II, Type IV detected from the ground and /or by WIND) associated to the CMEs make the solar source more probable. We also compare the polarity of the magnetic clouds with the hemisphere of the solar source. The drag coefficient (estimated with the drag-based model) is calculated for each potential association and it is compared to the expected range values. We identified a solar source for 26 SSC related events. 12 of these 26 associations match all criteria. We finally discuss the difficulty to perform such associations.

  4. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Stefanou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically.

  5. Diet-derived microRNAs: unicorn or silver bullet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwer, Kenneth W; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    In ancient lore, a bullet cast from silver is the only effective weapon against monsters. The uptake of active diet-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in consumers may be the silver bullet long sought after in nutrition and oral therapeutics. However, the majority of scientists consider the transfer and regulation of consumer's gene activity by these diet-derived miRNAs to be a fantasy akin to spotting a unicorn. Nevertheless, groups like Dr. Chen-Yu Zhang's lab in Nanjing University have stockpiled breathtaking amounts of data to shoot down these naysayers. Meanwhile, Dr. Ken Witwer at John Hopkins has steadfastly cautioned the field to beware of fallacies caused by contamination, technical artifacts, and confirmation bias. Here, Dr. Witwer and Dr. Zhang share their realities of dietary miRNAs by answering five questions related to this controversial field.

  6. Lead poisoning from retained bullets: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, M.A.; Manton, W.I.; Stewart, R.M.; Thal, E.R.; Feit, H.

    1982-01-01

    Lead intoxication (plumbism) from retained bullets has rarely been reported but may be fatal if unrecognized. Bullets lodged within joint spaces or pseudocysts are more likely to develop this complication, although patients with retained missiles in other locations may also be at risk. Subtle findings such as the occurrence of unexplained anemia, abdominal colic, nephropathy, or neurologic deterioration in patients with retained missiles may suggest consideration of plumbism. An intercurrent metabolic stress such as infection, endocrinopathy, or alcoholism may be a precipitating factor. Among the various diagnostic studies available, mass spectrometric stable isotope dilution analysis may be the most reliable. It is important to employ chelation therapy prior to any operative intervention. This will reduce the mobilization of lead from bone during or following the surgical procedure

  7. Bullet Trap Feasibility Assessment and Implementation Plan. (Technology Identification).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    paralisis of of lead objects or its peripherical nerves and, in compounds (parasiticides, some cases, death. dyes , mordants , polyvinyl- To a correct...impact of the projectiles. In addition, bullet traps reduce or eliminate safety problems caused by ricochets off natural or other materials on current...rubber granules canted back at a natural angle of repose. Underneath this large pile of rubber granules is a conveyor belt and support structure. Behind

  8. ''Heavy light bullets'' in electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of ''heavy light bullets''; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching. (author). 24 refs, 12 figs

  9. Oral lead bullet fragment exposure in northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Richard; Holladay, Jeremy; Holladay, Steven; Tannenbaum, Lawrence; Selcer, Barbara; Meldrum, Blair; Williams, Susan; Jarrett, Timothy; Gogal, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Lead (Pb) is a worldwide environmental contaminant known to adversely affect multiple organ systems in both mammalian and avian species. In birds, a common route of exposure is via oral ingestion of lead particles. Data are currently lacking for the retention and clearance of Pb bullet fragments in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of birds while linking toxicity with blood Pb levels. In the present study, northern bobwhite quail fed a seed-based diet were orally gavaged with Pb bullet fragments (zero, one or five fragments/bird) and evaluated for rate of fragment clearance, and changes in peripheral blood, renal, immune, and gastrointestinal parameters. Based on radiographs, the majority of the birds cleared or absorbed the fragments by seven days, with the exception of one five-fragment bird which took between 7 and 14 days. Blood Pb levels were higher in males than females, which may be related to egg production in females. In males but not females, feed consumption, body weight gain, packed cell volume (PCV), plasma protein concentration, and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity were all adversely affected by five Pb fragments. Birds of both sexes that received a single Pb fragment displayed depressed δ-ALAD, suggesting altered hematologic function, while all birds dosed with five bullet fragments exhibited greater morbidity.

  10. A Measuring Method About the Bullet Velocity in Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming LIU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The operating principle of electromagnetic rail gun by store capacitor was analyzed. A simulation model about the bullet velocity in the electromagnetic rail gun was built. The results of computer simulation experiment showed the relationships between the bullet velocity and the capacitor charging voltage and the pellet mass. By ten coil targets, a new kind of measuring method for the bullet velocity in electromagnetic rail gun was presented. The results of the actual experiment were analyzed. The improving method for measuring bullet velocity was put forward.

  11. Numerical Simulations of Light Bullets, Using The Full Vector, Time Dependent, Nonlinear Maxwell Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Silberberg, Yaron; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present results in computational nonlinear optics. An algorithm will be described that solves the full vector nonlinear Maxwell's equations exactly without the approximations that we currently made. Present methods solve a reduced scalar wave equation, namely the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, and neglect the optical carrier. Also, results will be shown of calculations of 2-D electromagnetic nonlinear waves computed by directly integrating in time the nonlinear vector Maxwell's equations. The results will include simulations of 'light bullet' like pulses. Here diffraction and dispersion will be counteracted by nonlinear effects. The time integration efficiently implements linear and nonlinear convolutions for the electric polarization, and can take into account such quantum effects as Karr and Raman interactions. The present approach is robust and should permit modeling 2-D and 3-D optical soliton propagation, scattering, and switching directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  12. The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Ji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC, peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.

  13. [The forensic medical characteristics of the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic rifles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin, G A; Bondarchuk, A O; Perebetjuk, A N

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the injurious action of three types of the bullets for the pneumatic weapons shot from different distances using the Gamo pump air pistol and the BAM B22-1 pneumatic rifle. The following four kinds of the bullets were tested: "the fireball", "Luman cap 0.3", "Luman Field Target 0.68" and "DIABOLO". It was experimentally shown that the injurious action of the bullets fired from the same distance from the pneumatic weapons depends on the type of both the bullet and the weapon, as well as the properties of the target material. Specifically, the action of bullets fired from the piston pneumatic rifle remained stable whereas that of the bullets shot from the gas-balloon air pistol decreased as the gas was exhausted. The studies by the contact-diffusion method have demonstrated that the entrance bullet holes created by the shots from pneumatic weapons are surrounded by dispersed metal particles which makes it possible to estimate the shooting distance. Moreover, the bullets fired from the pneumatic weapons leave the muzzle face imprint on certain target materials.

  14. Intra-myocardial Bullet causing heart block in a patient with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consolidation and bullet lodged above the diaphragm. The chest radiograph showed bullet lodged above the diaphragm. ARDS resolved markedly over the following. 7 days. However, there were persistent bronchial breath sounds in the left lower lung with purulent secretions and collapse with consolidation. CT scan of the ...

  15. Plasma bullet current measurements in a free-stream helium capillary jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Walsh, James L.; Bradley, James W.

    2012-06-01

    A commercial current monitor has been used to measure the current associated with plasma bullets created in both the positive and negative half cycles of the sinusoidal driving voltage sustaining a plasma jet. The maximum values of the positive bullet current are typically ˜750 µA and persist for 10 µs, while the peaks in the negative current of several hundred μA are broad, persisting for about 40 µs. From the time delay of the current peaks with increasing distance from the jet nozzle, an average bullet propagation speed has been measured; the positive and negative bullets travel at 17.5 km s-1 and 3.9 km s-1 respectively. The net space charge associated with the bullet(s) has also been calculated; the positive and negative bullets contain a similar net charge of the order of 10-9 C measured at all monitor positions, with estimated charged particle densities nb of ˜1010-1011 cm-3 in the bullet.

  16. Plasma bullet current measurements in a free-stream helium capillary jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Walsh, James L; Bradley, James W

    2012-01-01

    A commercial current monitor has been used to measure the current associated with plasma bullets created in both the positive and negative half cycles of the sinusoidal driving voltage sustaining a plasma jet. The maximum values of the positive bullet current are typically ∼750 µA and persist for 10 µs, while the peaks in the negative current of several hundred μA are broad, persisting for about 40 µs. From the time delay of the current peaks with increasing distance from the jet nozzle, an average bullet propagation speed has been measured; the positive and negative bullets travel at 17.5 km s −1 and 3.9 km s −1 respectively. The net space charge associated with the bullet(s) has also been calculated; the positive and negative bullets contain a similar net charge of the order of 10 −9 C measured at all monitor positions, with estimated charged particle densities n b of ∼10 10 –10 11 cm −3 in the bullet. (special)

  17. Electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, M.; Böhm, P.; Nijdam, S.; IJzerman, W.L.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by pulsed DC or kHz AC voltages typically consist of discrete guided ionisation waves called plasma bullets. In this work, the electric field of plasma bullets generated in a pulsed DC jet with N2 as feed gas is investigated. Electric field measurements in N2

  18. Learning game physics with Bullet Physics and OpenGL

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive set of straight-forward, easy-to-follow tutorials in OpenGL and Bullet Physics that will teach you how modern game physics and 3D graphics work.If you're a beginner or intermediate programmer with a basic understanding of 3D mathematics, and you want a stronger foundation in 3D graphics and physics, then this book is perfect for you! You'll even learn some of the fundamental concepts in 3D mathematics and software design that lies beneath them both, discovering some techniques and tricks in graphics and physics that you can use in any game development project.

  19. Caffeine citrate - Is it a silver bullet in neonatology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bikash; Jawa, Gaurav

    2017-10-01

    Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a "silver bullet" in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Determining tissue-lead levels in large game mammals harvested with lead bullets: human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Jayasinghe, R K; VanSpronsen, E P; Liberda, E N

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the use of lead isotope ratios has definitively identified lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people, but the isotope ratios for lead pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden; however, few studies have determined if lead bullet fragments are present in big game carcasses. We found elevated tissue-lead concentrations (up to 5,726.0 microg/g ww) in liver (5/9) and muscle (6/7) samples of big game harvested with lead bullets and radiographic evidence of lead fragments. Thus, we would advise that the tissue surrounding the wound channel be removed and discarded, as this tissue may be contaminated by lead bullet fragments.

  1. Brown sequard syndrome following firearm injury with a bullet lodged in the upper cervical canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, S.R.; Brohi, Q.R.

    2008-01-01

    A case of stray bullet injury in a child is reported who presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome and CSF leak from the wound at the nape of neck. Patient was assessed by plain radiography and CT scans showing bullet lying in the cervical spinal canal under the C1 and C2 laminae. Laminectomy at C1/C2 level was done and bullet was carefully removed. Patient improved neurologically and CSF discharge stopped. The case report indicated the atypical neurological presentation and possibility of survival in high cervical spinal firearm injury. (author)

  2. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna; Bourdon, Anne; Kuribara, Koichi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  3. Effects of human decomposition on test fired bullet – An experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Rao

    2016-03-01

    The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths.

  4. Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2014-11-04

    This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.

  5. Endoscopic Removal of a Bullet That Migrated to the Third Ventricle Causing Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoseli, Aydın; Unal, Tugrul Cem; Aras, Yavuz; Sabanci, Pulat Akın; Altunrende, Emre; Izgi, Nail

    2017-09-01

    Hydrocephalus caused by an intraventricular bullet is a rare event. We report a case of endoscopic removal of an intraventricular bullet. A 66-year-old man was admitted with a gunshot wound to the head after a suicide attempt. The bullet migrated from the frontal parenchyma to the third ventricle day 4 of admission. On day 21 of admission, the patient developed hydrocephalus with obstruction of the cerebral aqueduct. The bullet was accessed through an endoscopic third ventriculostomy and removed using an endoscope. Hydrocephalus may develop in patients with intraventricular foreign objects. When such objects must be removed, the endoscopic approach is a safe, efficient, and minimally invasive procedure. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of foreign object removal from the ventricle via a transcortical endoscopic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of hydroxyl radical (sm-bulletOH) in illuminated surface waters contaminated with acidic mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.M.; Lucas, S.; Allen, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Formation rates and steady-state concentrations of hydroxyl radical ( sm-bullet OH) in illuminated surface water samples collected in west-central Indiana that receive acidic mine drainage runoff are reported. Formation rates for sm-bullet OH in samples were measured by the addition of 1 x 10 -3 M benzene prior to illuminate in order to effectively scavenge all of the sm-bullet OH formed, thereby yielding phenol. The sm-bullet OH formation rates were calculated from the measured phenol formation rates. Steady-state concentrations of sm-bullet OH were measured by the addition of 5 x 10 -7 M nitrobenzene to the samples prior to illumination. Estimated sunlight sm-bullet OH formation rates range from 16 microM h -1 to 265 microM h -1 . Estimated sunlight steady-state sm-bullet OH concentrations range from 6.7 x 10 -15 to 4.0 x 10 -12 M. Both the formation rates and steady-state concentrations for sm-bullet OH are thus two to three orders of magnitude higher than values reported in the literature for other sunlit surface water samples. Due to the very high rates of formation and steady-state concentrations for sm-bullet OH in these samples, the authors conclude that aqueous-phase reactions involving sm-bullet OH represent a significant pathway by which organic pollutants in illuminated surface waters receiving acidic mine drainage runoff may be consumed

  7. 18 GHz SZ Measurements of the Bullet Cluster Siddharth S. Malu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1E0657-56, known as the 'Bullet cluster', is one of the hottest known clusters. It is a cluster collision/merger event at z ∼0.296, with the larger, westward cluster being ∼10 times the mass of the smaller 'bullet'. It is known to have a strong radio halo (Liang et al. 2000), and the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (Andreani et al. 1999;.

  8. Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: magic bullets for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slade, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) have been heralded as highly specific detection agents for many types of tumours. However, because of the many problems that have been associated with the use of these agents, their development and successes did not meet expectations. This paper discusses the use of radiolabelled MoAbs in the diagnosis and staging of colorectal cancer, the type of antibodies and radionuclides investigated over the past thirty years, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. An attempt is made to define the role of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in the investigation and management of patients with colorectal cancer. It appears that this technique can improve tumour detection, especially when used in conjunction with other imaging modalities. High sensitivities and specificities have been found using radio-labelled MoAbs for investigation of colorectal carcinoma. However, the author estimates there are a number of areas that require further research and improvement before naming radiolabelled MoAbs as 'magic bullets' for colorectal cancer. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Fractures Due to Gunshot Wounds: Do Retained Bullet Fragments Affect Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, John T; Connolly, Keith; Haidukewych, George; Koval, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Many types of projectiles, including modern hollow point bullets, fragment into smaller pieces upon impact, particularly when striking bone. This study was performed to examine the effect on time to union with retained bullet material near a fracture site in cases of gunshot injury. All gunshot injuries operatively treated with internal fixation at a Level 1 Trauma Center between March 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Retained bullet load near the fracture site was calculated based on percentage of material retained compared to the cortical diameter of the involved bone. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the lead-cortical ratio and amount of comminution on time to fracture union. Thirty-two patients (34 fractures) met the inclusion criteria, with an equal number of comminuted (17) and non-comminuted fractures (17). Seventeen of 34 fractures (50%) united within 4 months, 16/34 (47%) developed a delayed union, and 1/34 (3%) developed a nonunion requiring revision surgery. Sixteen of 17 fractures (94%) that united by 4 months had a cumulative amount of bullet fragmentation retained near the fracture site of less than 20% of the cortical diameter. Nine out of 10 fractures (90%) with retained fragments near the fracture site was equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical diameter had delayed or nonunion. Fracture comminution had no effect on time to union. The quantity of retained bullet material near the fracture site was more predictive of the rate of fracture union than was comminution. Fractures with bullet fragmentation equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical width demonstrated a significantly higher rate of delayed union/nonunion compared to those fractures with less retained bullet material, which may indicate a local cytotoxic effect from lead on bone healing. These findings may influence decisions on timing of secondary surgeries. Level III.

  10. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  11. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  12. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  13. Gunshot Wound in Lumbar Spine with Intradural Location of a Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a migratory bullet in the spinal canal after a gunshot injury is a rare finding, specially without causing permanent neurologic damage. We present the case of a patient who suffered a gunshot wound with an entry point in the posterior arc of L2-L3 and a migratory bullet detected at the level of L5-S1 in the CT scan. The patient complained about intense headache, dizziness, and variable sensitive impairment in lower legs apparently depending on the patient’s position in bed. We decided to remove the bullet in order to prevent the delayed neurological damage and lead toxicity. We discuss technical details of this surgery.

  14. Lead poisoning due to gunshot bullet in contact with cerebrospinal fluid: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Madureira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lead poisoning due to retained gunshot bullets is a well-known clinical problem that is fairly frequently described in the literature. The risk factors for this occurrence relate mainly to whether the lead bullet is in contact with the joint fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The treatment for these cases entails chelation therapy while symptoms are shown and definitive surgical removal of the bullet as a potential source of lead. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of lead poisoning due to a retained gunshot bullet in contact with CSF. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old male was hit by gunshot bullets during a holdup, and one of them was retained in the spinal cord. Six years later, he developed intense low back pain and underwent laminectomy. Nine years later, he then underwent arthrodesis on L5-S1, but he developed intense abdominal pain after the surgical procedure. For five years, he was treated with calcium versenate in five-day cycles, with a good response. The chelation therapy cycles showed great efficacy during symptomatic periods, thus reducing the symptoms and signs of poisoning and promoting great amounts of lead excretion, thereby reducing the total lead burden responsible for the symptoms. Fortunately, over the last four years, the symptoms have improved and the urine levels of aminolevulinic acid (ALA have declined, to reach complete normalization. This shows that a healing process is probably taking place on the spinal wound, thereby isolating the bullet fragments from CSF contact.

  15. Characteristics of behind armor blunt trauma produced by bullets with different structural materials: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-qing WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of structural materials of bullets on behind armor blunt trauma (BABT. Methods Ten healthy male Landraces were randomly divided into two groups (5 each: 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet group and SS109 5.56-mm rifle bullet group. The kinetic energy of two types of bullets was adjusted to the same level (about 1880J by the way of grow downwards gunpowder. Then the animals as protected with both grade NIJ Ⅲ ceramic hard armor and grade Ⅱ police soft body armor, were shot at the left midclavicular line of fourth intercostal space (shooting distance was 25m. The damage to the animals was observed. Other 2 healthy male Landraces were selected, and biomechanical sensor was subcutaneously implanted into the soft tissue in precordium and intracalvarium to detect the pressure at the time point of bullet contact under the protection of armor, and the relationship between pressure and damage was analyzed. Results Respiration, heart rate and systolic arterial pressure of animals in two groups were all elevated after injury, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. No obvious change was found on blood oxygen saturation of both groups. Gross anatomy showed the predominant local injury was cardiac and pulmonary contusions. The area of pulmonary hemorrhage of 7.62mm group was 6.00%±3.18%, significantly higher than that of 5.56mm group (3.59%±2.11%, P<0.05. Histopathological examination revealed acute injuries of lung tissues, myocardial tissue and cerebral cortical neurons. The contents of cardiac troponin T (TnT, creatine kinase (CK and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB isoenzyme were all increased 3 hours after injury, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Biomechanical testing showed the pressure of precordium and intracalvarium was elevated at the moment of bullet contact, and the rise was higher in 7.62mm group than in 5.56mm group (P<0.05. Conclusions

  16. Analysis of Anti-Bullet Resistance of Armored Steels of Foreign Manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zuzov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies penetrating armour plates from the steel alloys such as Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, Weldox 700 E, Hardox 400, and Armstal 500, which are used for armour protection. In all tests for five different thick (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 6 + 6 mm, and 8 + 8mm plates was used one of the most common bullets, i.e. a 7.62 mm "APM2" (hard steel core bullet with an impact velocity of 830 m / s and 920 m / s. The article presents the developed rational finite element models of plates and bullets, which allow us to obtain results with acceptable accuracy and minimum time of solution using the LS-DYNA solver. Predicts the rational thickness values and the steel properties to ensure protection according to the European standard EN1063 ("BR7". Also conducts analysis of influence of the friction coefficient on the results of numerical simulation.The main results of calculations include the residual velocity and kinetic energy of the bullet after penetrating and the pattern of the plate fracture mechanism (for each plate type and thickness. As a result of the studies, it was found that the monolayer 6 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm thick plates from all the investigated steel alloys do not provide a protection level of "BR7" (with an initial bullet velocity of 830 m / s and, on the other hand, the two-layer plates from the alloys Armox 560T, Domex protect 500, and Armstal 500 with a total thickness of 12 mm provide such level of protection. It was also revealed that the influence of the coefficient of friction on the resistance to the bullet penetration is very small, so friction can be neglected.At an initial velocity of 920 m / s a bullet penetrated two-layer 6x2 mm thick plates from all the steel alloys under consideration, while with a thickness of 8x2 mm the bullet could not penetrate (except the Weldox 700E alloy plate.

  17. Research of the punch interaction with composite protective panel

    OpenAIRE

    Kulakov, N.; Lyubin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The work examines the structure of a protection composite panel consisting of a crushing layer (ceramic discrete elements of a cylindrical shape) and a restraining layer below (metallic leaf). This protection panel can be used for an armour-piercing bullet protection of the car. Here is the strength calculation of ceramic elements and metallic protective layer dynamic interaction under bullet impact. The problem was solved under a variety of protection panel parameters in order to define thei...

  18. Lead isotope ratio analysis of bullet samples by using quadrupole ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shu-ichi; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Oishi, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The measurement conditions for the precise analysis of the lead stable isotope ratio by using an ICP-MS equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer were studied in order to apply the technique to the forensic identification of bullet samples. The values of the relative standard deviation obtained for the ratio of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 204 Pb/ 206 Pb were lower than 0.2% after optimization of the analytical conditions, including the optimum lead concentration of the sample solution to be about 70 ppb and an integration time for 1 m/s of 15 s. This method was applied to an analysis of lead in bullets for rifles and handguns; a stable isotope ratio of lead was found to be suitable for the identification of bullets. This study has demonstrated that the lead isotope ratio measured by using a quadrupole ICP-MS was useful for a practical analysis of bullet samples in forensic science. (author)

  19. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 07-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Selected sources in this bibliography provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing and competing in science fair activities. Sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels. This guide updates "Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet" 01-4. More specialized…

  20. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  1. Antimony sinks in the weathering crust of bullets from Swiss shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Sonia; Giere, Reto; Newville, Matthew; Majzlan, Juraj

    2009-01-01

    Shooting ranges represent sites heavily polluted by Pb, Sb, Cu, Ni, and Zn, which are released during the weathering of bullets. The pristine bullets are made of a Pb-Sb core, Fe mantle, and minor amounts of Cu, Ni, and Zn in an interlayer between the core and mantle. At two selected sampling sites (Losone and Lucerne, both in Switzerland), corroding bullets were collected to determine the sinks of Sb within the weathering crust of the bullets. Bulk Sb concentrations in the crust were found to be as high as 1.3 wt.%. The oxalate-extractable fraction of Fe showed that the amorphous Fe oxides (e.g., ferrihydrite) prevail over goethite and lepidocrocite, which were identified by bulk X-ray diffraction experiments. Crystalline Pb phases are litharge (only found by X-ray diffraction) and cerussite, which result from weathering of the Pb core. No distinct Sb minerals were identified by X-ray diffraction. Investigations with electron microprobe (EMP) showed that Sb is mostly accumulated in those regions in the weathering crust where there is also a high concentration of Fe. In the weathering crust from Losone, such Fe-rich regions with Sb are represented by material that cements or rims silicate mineral grains. The cement was identified as lepidocrocite by micro-Raman analysis. At Lucerne, Sb is found in Fe-oxide aggregates, in sawdust particles where it may be bound to organic matter, or in aggregates enriched in Pb and depleted in Fe. Bulk EXAFS experiments suggested that the Fe oxides are the most important sink for Sb. Our modelling of Sb next-nearest neighbours suggests two types of inner-sphere complexes on the surfaces of Fe oxides. These are edge- and corner-sharing adsorption complexes. Hence, the predominant sink of Sb in the weathering crust of the bullets at the selected shooting ranges is Fe oxides, amorphous or crystalline

  2. Stabilizing lead bullets in shooting range soil by phosphate-based surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil lead (Pb is well known as a threat to human health and ecosystem. Although relatively insoluble, lead bullets in shooting range soil can be readily released into soluble forms through natural weathering processes and thus pose significant human and environmental risks. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate if the Pb bullets in shooting range soil can be stabilized through surface coating of phosphate-based materials. Results indicated that FePO4 or AlPO4 coatings, insoluble metal phosphates, have been successfully formed on the surface of the Pb bullets. The EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP test showed that FePO4 or AlPO4 surface coating would effectively reduce the Pb solubility or leachability of the bullets. The surface coating under pH of <5.5 for 7 days could achieve 92–100% reduction, with 85–98% by FePO4 coating and 77–98% by AlPO4 coating as compared with the non-coating. Leachable Pb concentration in the contaminated shooting range soil was reduced by 85–98% or 77–98% as a result of the FePO4 or AlPO4 solution treatment. This study demonstrated that the FePO4 or AlPO4–based surface coating on lead bullets can effectively inhibit the Pb weathering and significantly reduce the Pb release from soil through in situ chemical stabilization, which could be potentially applicable as a cost-effective and environmental-sound technology for the remediation of Pb-contaminated shooting range soil.

  3. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10 µm CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Grant/Contract Number AFOSR assigned control number. It must

  4. Damage to apparel layers and underlying tissue due to hand-gun bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Debra; Kieser, Jules; Mabbott, Alexander; Mott, Charlotte; Champion, Stephen; Girvan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic damage to the clothing of victims of gunshot wounds to the chest can provide useful forensic evidence. Anyone shot in the torso will usually be wearing clothing which will be damaged by the penetrating impact event and can reportedly be the source of some of the debris in the wound. Minimal research has previously been reported regarding the effect of bullets on apparel fabrics and underlying tissue. This paper examines the effect of ammunition (9 mm full metal jacket [FMJ] DM11 A1B2, 8.0 g; and soft point flat nose Remington R357M3, 10.2 g) on clothing layers that cover the torso (T-shirt, T-shirt plus hoodie, T-shirt plus denim jacket) and underlying structures represented by porcine thoracic wall (skin, underlying tissue, ribs). Impacts were recorded using a Phantom V12 high speed camera. Ejected bone debris was collected before wound tracts were dissected and measured; any debris found was recovered for further analysis. Size and mass of bony debris was recorded; fibre debris recovered from the wound and impact damage to fabrics were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Remington R357M3 ammunition was characteristically associated with stellate fabric damage; individual fibres were less likely to show mushrooming. In contrast, 9 mm FMJ ammunition resulted in punch-out damage to fabric layers, with mushrooming of individual fibres being more common. Entry wound sizes were similar for both types of ammunition and smaller than the diameter of the bullet that caused them. In this work, the Remington R357M3 ammunition resulted in larger exit wounds due to the bullet construction which mushroomed. That fabric coverings did not affect the amount of bony debris produced is interesting, particularly given there was some evidence that apparel layers affected the size of the wound. Recent work has suggested that denim (representative of jeans) can exacerbate wounding caused by high-velocity bullet impacts to the thigh when the bullet does not

  5. A Fortunate Story of an Unusual AK-47 Bullet Trajectory: Always Keep a Smartphone in Your Pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabouillot, Oscar; Perrier, Pierre; Roche, Nicolas-Charles; Agard, David; Barbier, Olivier; Martin, Guillaume; Viant, Eric; Leclere, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-06-01

    This is a report of a fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory which took place during the Paris (France) attack of November 13th, 2015. A young man, trying to protect his girlfriend, interfered between her and a shooter. He had been wounded in the posterior compartment of the thigh. The bullet penetrated him and, instead of exiting, rebound against his Smartphone, which was in the front pocket of his pants. Thanks to that, the missile bullet did not injure his girlfriend but ended its trajectory in the fat tissue of his thigh. Thabouillot O , Perrier P , Roche NC , Agard D , Barbier O , Martin G , Viant E , Leclere JB . A fortunate story of an unusual AK-47 bullet trajectory: always keep a Smartphone in your pocket. Prehosp Disaster Med, 2016;31(3):343-345.

  6. Automatic identification of bullet signatures based on consecutive matching striae (CMS) criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M; Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore V

    2013-09-10

    The consecutive matching striae (CMS) numeric criteria for firearm and toolmark identifications have been widely accepted by forensic examiners, although there have been questions concerning its observer subjectivity and limited statistical support. In this paper, based on signal processing and extraction, a model for the automatic and objective counting of CMS is proposed. The position and shape information of the striae on the bullet land is represented by a feature profile, which is used for determining the CMS number automatically. Rapid counting of CMS number provides a basis for ballistics correlations with large databases and further statistical and probability analysis. Experimental results in this report using bullets fired from ten consecutively manufactured barrels support this developed model. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. USING THE BULLET CLUSTER AS A GRAVITATIONAL TELESCOPE TO STUDY z ∼> 7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Nicholas; Bradač, Maruša; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Treu, Tommaso; Clowe, Douglas; Jones, Christine; Stiavelli, Massimo; Zaritsky, Dennis; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel; Clément, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We use imaging obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 to search for z 850 dropouts at z ∼ 7 and J 110 dropouts at z ∼ 9 lensed by the Bullet Cluster. In total we find 10 z 850 dropouts in our 8.27 arcmin 2 field. Using magnification maps from a combined weak- and strong-lensing mass reconstruction of the Bullet Cluster and correcting for estimated completeness levels, we calculate the surface density and luminosity function of our z 850 dropouts as a function of intrinsic (accounting for magnification) magnitude. We find results consistent with published blank field surveys, despite using much shallower data, and demonstrate the effectiveness of cluster surveys in the search for z ∼ 7 galaxies.

  8. Distributed radar network for real-time tracking of bullet trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Li, Xin; Jin, Yuanwei; Amin, Moeness G.; Eydgahi, Ali

    2009-05-01

    Gunshot detection, sniper localization, and bullet trajectory prediction are of significant importance in military and homeland security applications. While the majority of existing work is based on acoustic and electro-optical sensors, this paper develops a framework of networked radar systems that uses distributed radar sensor networks to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The use of radio frequency radar systems allows the achievement of subtime- of-flight tracking response, enabling to response before the bullet reaches its target and, as such, effectively leading to the reduction of injuries and casualties in military and homeland security operations. The focus of this paper is to examine the MIMO radar concept with concurrent transmission of low-correlation waveforms from multiple radar sets to ensure wide surveillance coverage and maintain a high waveform repetition frequency for long coherent time interval required to achieve return signal concentration.

  9. [Bullet and shrapnel injuries in the face and neck regions. Current aspects of wound ballistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, T; Huschitt, N; Kulla, M; Kneubuehl, B; Willy, C

    2011-08-01

    A basic understanding of the ballistic behaviour of projectiles or fragments after entering the human body is essential for the head and neck surgeon in the military environment in order to anticipate the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of this type of injury. Although a large number of factors influence the missile in flight and after penetration of the body, the most important factor is the amount of energy transmitted to the tissue. Long guns (rifles or shotguns) have a much higher muzzle energy compared to handguns, explaining why the remote effects beyond the bullet track play a major role. While most full metal jacket bullets release their energy after 12-20 cm (depending on the calibre), soft point bullets release their energy immediately after entry into the human body. This results in a major difference in extremity wounds, but not so much in injuries with long bullet paths (e.g. diagonal shots). Shrapnel wounds are usually produced with similarly high kinetic energy to those caused by hand- and long guns. However, fragments tend to dissipate the entire amount of energy within the body, which increases the degree of tissue disruption. Of all relevant injuries in the head and neck region, soft tissue injuries make up the largest proportion (60%), while injuries to the face are seen three times more often than injuries to the neck. Concomitant intracranial or spinal injury is seen in 30% of cases. Due to high levels of wound contamination, the infection rate is approximately 15%, often associated with a complicated and/or multiresistant spectrum of germs.

  10. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  11. Simulating direct shear tests with the Bullet physics library: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Ehsan; Bezuijen, Adam

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the possible uses of physics engines, and more specifically the Bullet physics library, to simulate granular systems. Physics engines are employed extensively in the video gaming, animation and movie industries to create physically plausible scenes. They are designed to deliver a fast, stable, and optimal simulation of certain systems such as rigid bodies, soft bodies and fluids. This study focuses exclusively on simulating granular media in the context of rigid body dynamics with the Bullet physics library. The first step was to validate the results of the simulations of direct shear testing on uniform-sized metal beads on the basis of laboratory experiments. The difference in the average angle of mobilized frictions was found to be only 1.0°. In addition, a very close match was found between dilatancy in the laboratory samples and in the simulations. A comprehensive study was then conducted to determine the failure and post-failure mechanism. We conclude with the presentation of a simulation of a direct shear test on real soil which demonstrated that Bullet has all the capabilities needed to be used as software for simulating granular systems.

  12. Measurement of bullet impact conditions using automated in-flight photography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Decker

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of impact conditions is critical to evaluating the terminal impact performance of a projectile. For a small caliber bullet, in-flight velocity has been precisely measured for decades using detection screens, but accurately quantifying the orientation of the bullet on a target has been more challenging. This report introduces the Automated Small-Arms Photogrammetry (ASAP analysis method used to measure, model, and predict the orientation of a small caliber bullet before reaching an impact surface. ASAP uses advanced hardware developed by Sydor Technologies to record a series of infrared digital photographs. Individual images (four orthogonal pairs are processed using computer vision algorithms to quantify the orientation of the projectile and re-project its precise position and orientation into a three-dimensional muzzle-fixed coordinate system. An epicyclic motion model is fit to the measured data, and the epicyclic motion is extrapolated to the target location. Analysis results are fairly immediate and may be reviewed during testing. Prove-out demonstrations have shown that the impact-angle prediction capability is less than six hundredths of a degree for the 5.56 mm ball round tested. Keywords: Yaw, Terminal ballistics, Exterior ballistics, Test & evaluation, Computer vision, Image processing, Angle of attack

  13. Experimentally Studied Influence of the Bullet Head Shape on Dispersion Characteristics at Subsonic Airspeeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ilukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents description and results of experiments on a ballistic track and subsonic wind tunnel. The subject of study is important an issue such as the assessment of the influence of the bullet head shape on the accuracy of shooting parameters at subsonic muzzle velocity. The article points to the features of examined precision of guided and unguided aircraft, refers to the main disturbing factors. In addition, it outlines the most well known ways to improve the flight precision of unguided munitions. The article presents the geometric parameters of bullets and their scale models used in the experiments. It describes the experimental facilities and the studies themselves. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of experimental air-gun firings. Results for different muzzle velocities of flight are compared. The paper notes an ambiguity in comparison of accuracy and head drag coefficient. The results are clearly aligned with the data purging in the little turbulent subsonic wind tunnel. The article describes in detail the use of the method for visualizing a structure of the flow for the delimitation of attached flow and estimation of stagnation zone. A revealed physical picture has comprehensive theoretical underpinning. The conclusions of the work also give a advices on selecting a bullet to have the best dispersion parameters.

  14. Confluence or independence of microwave plasma bullets in atmospheric argon plasma jet plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Chen, Zhaoquan; Mu, Haibao; Xu, Guimin; Yao, Congwei; Sun, Anbang; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Guanjun

    2018-03-01

    Plasma bullet is the formation and propagation of a guided ionization wave (streamer), normally generated in atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). In most cases, only an ionization front produces in a dielectric tube. The present study shows that two or three ionization fronts can be generated in a single quartz tube by using a microwave coaxial resonator. The argon APPJ plumes with a maximum length of 170 mm can be driven by continuous microwaves or microwave pulses. When the input power is higher than 90 W, two or three ionization fronts propagate independently at first; thereafter, they confluence to form a central plasma jet plume. On the other hand, the plasma bullets move independently as the lower input power is applied. For pulsed microwave discharges, the discharge images captured by a fast camera show the ionization process in detail. Another interesting finding is that the strongest lightening plasma jet plumes always appear at the shrinking phase. Both the discharge images and electromagnetic simulations suggest that the confluence or independent propagation of plasma bullets is resonantly excited by the local enhanced electric fields, in terms of wave modes of traveling surface plasmon polaritons.

  15. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  16. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets: Effect of gas flow, active species, and snake-like bullet propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Tan, X.; Lu, X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ostrikov, K. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets have recently attracted enormous interest owing to numerous applications in plasma biology, health care, medicine, and nanotechnology. A dedicated study of the interaction between the upstream and downstream plasma plumes revealed that the active species (electrons, ions, excited OH, metastable Ar, and nitrogen-related species) generated by the upstream plasma plume enhance the propagation of the downstream plasma plume. At gas flows exceeding 2 l/min, the downstream plasma plume is longer than the upstream plasma plume. Detailed plasma diagnostics and discharge species analysis suggest that this effect is due to the electrons and ions that are generated by the upstream plasma and flow into the downstream plume. This in turn leads to the relatively higher electron density in the downstream plasma. Moreover, high-speed photography reveals a highly unusual behavior of the plasma bullets, which propagate in snake-like motions, very differently from the previous reports. This behavior is related to the hydrodynamic instability of the gas flow, which results in non-uniform distributions of long-lifetime active species in the discharge tube and of surface charges on the inner surface of the tube.

  17. Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE the repetition is close but not exact over the time scale of 112 synodic months. From the data studied, b:.P / P over a period of 112 luna- tion is 0.3/27.3 = 0.011. Therefore b:.a/a = 2/3{tl.P/ P). = 0.007. Thus on the larger time scale of about 9 years tl.E / E varies by about 0.7 percent. This may be com-.

  18. Sounds of space: listening to the Sun-Earth connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, N.; Mendez, B.; Luhmann, J.; Sircar, I.

    2003-04-01

    NASA's STEREO/IMPACT Mission includes an Education and Public Outreach component that seeks to offer national programs for broad audiences highlighting the mission's solar and geo-space research. In an effort to make observations of the Sun more accessible and exciting for a general audience, we look for alternative ways to represent the data. Scientists most often represent data visually in images, graphs, and movies. However, any data can also be represented as sound audible to the human ear, a process known as sonification. We will present our plans for an exciting prototype program that converts the science results of solar energetic particle data to sound. We plan to make sounds, imagery, and data available to the public through the World Wide Web where they may create their own sonifications, as well as integrate this effort to a science museum kiosk format. The kiosk station would include information on the STEREO mission and monitors showing images of the Sun from each of STEREO's two satellites. Our goal is to incorporate 3D goggles and a headset into the kiosk, allowing visitors to see the current or archived images in 3D and hear stereo sounds resulting from sonification of the corresponding data. Ultimately, we hope to collaborate with composers and create musical works inspired by these sounds and related solar images.

  19. Transient shock waves in heliosphere and Sun-Earth relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroes, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of shock waves, caused by solar activity in the Earth's magnetosphere and its magnetic field, is discussed. All types of shock waves have their origin either in solar corona effects or in solar eruptions. Ionospheric and magnetospheric effects, such as X and gamma radiation, particle production, geomagnetic storms and shock waves, caused by solar activity, are dealt with and attempts are made to explain their interdependence. The origin and propagation of coronal shock waves, interplanetary shock waves and geomagnetic field disorders are described and their relations discussed. The understanding of the solar corona and wind phenomena seems to allow prediction of geomagnetic storms. The measurement and analysis of solar activity and its effects could yield useful information about shock waves physics, geomagnetosphere structure and relations between the Earth and the Sun. (J.J.). 7 figs., 1 tab., 37 refs

  20. The Maunder minimum and the variable sun-earth connection

    CERN Document Server

    Wei Hock Soon, Willie

    2003-01-01

    This book takes an excursion through solar science, science history, and geoclimate with a husband and wife team who revealed some of our sun's most stubborn secrets. E Walter and Annie S D Maunder's work helped in understanding our sun's chemical, electromagnetic and plasma properties. They knew the sun's sunspot migration patterns and its variable, climate-affecting, inactive and active states in short and long time frames. An inactive solar period starting in the mid-seventeenth century lasted approximately seventy years, one that E Walter Maunder worked hard to make us understand: the Maun

  1. The origin of the fan of "bullets" in OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    A possible mechanism for the formation of linear features radially diverging from the common origin in the Orion molecular cloud OMC-1 is considered. It is shown that a fan of ejections may arise by interaction of a spherical shock wave with dense cloudlets situated in the neighbourhood of the shock's source. The mechanism of formation of ejections is based on the well-known cumulative effect arising in converging conical flows.

  2. The benefit of a tough skin: bullet holes, weathering and the preservation of heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Lisa; Gomez-Heras, M.; Brassey, C.; Green, O.; Blenkinsop, T.

    2017-02-01

    Projectile damage to building stone is a widespread phenomenon. Sites damaged 100 years ago during the First World War still see daily use, while in a more contemporary setting numerous reports show the damage to buildings in Babylon, Mosul and Palmyra. While research has been carried out on the long-term effects of conflict such as fire damage, little is known about the protracted damage sustained through the impact of bullets, shrapnel and other metal projectiles outside of the field of engineering focused on ceramics and metals. To investigate alterations to mineral structure caused by projectile damage, impacts were created in medium-grained, well-compacted, mesoporous sandstone samples using 0.22 calibre lead bullets shot at a distance of 20 m. Half these samples were treated with a surface consolidant (Wacker OH 100), to mimic natural cementation of the rock surface. These samples were then tested for changes to surface hardness and moisture movement during temperature cycles of 15-65°C. Petrographic thin section analysis was carried out to investigate the micro-scale deformation associated with high-speed impact. The results surprisingly show that stress build-up behind pre-existing cementation of the surface, as found in heritage sites that have been exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuations for longer periods of time, can be alleviated with a bullet impact. However, fracture networks and alteration of the mineral matrices still form a weak point within the structure, even at a relatively low impact calibre. This initial study illustrates the need for geomorphologists, geologists, engineers and heritage specialists to work collectively to gain further insights into the long-term impact of higher calibre armed warfare on heritage deterioration.

  3. A Bullet Entered through the Open Mouth and Ended Up in the Parapharyngeal Space and Skull Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saileswar Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot from a revolver from a close range, a bullet pierced the chest of a policeman and entered through the open mouth of a young male person standing behind. The entry wound was found in the cheek mucosa adjacent to the left lower third molar. After hitting and fracturing the body and the ramus of the mandible, the bullet was deflected and was finally lodged in the parapharyngeal space and skull base, anterolateral to the transverse process of the atlas. The great vessels of the neck were not injured. The patient’s condition was very critical but his life could be saved. The bullet was approached through a modified Blair’s incision and was found to be lying over the carotid sheath. It was removed safely and the patient recovered completely.

  4. Three-dimensional Bessel light bullets in self-focusing Kerr media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Belic, Milivoj; Huang Tingwen

    2010-01-01

    We study three-dimensional (3D) Bessel light-bullet solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a photonic lattice potential in the form of squared Bessel functions in polar coordinates, both analytically and numerically. Analytical solutions are obtained by the Hartree approximation, and numerical simulations are performed, to compare with the analytical solutions and to confirm the stability of localized solutions. The 3D spatial wave packets are built by the products of hyperbolic secant and Bessel functions. These solitons appear in different forms, such as 3D vortex solitons and multipole solitons.

  5. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...... emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at , but improves on the constraints...... for energies of 10–25 keV....

  6. Lipossomas: a bala mágica acertou? Liposomes: has the magic bullet hit the target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno C. Santos

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient drug delivery systems are as important as drug themselves. A powerful drug unable to reach the target cell is useless in practice. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet was the first carrier system to be proposed. The evolution in this domain has been quite slow as the natural mechanisms of mammals against foreign products are hard to overcome. However, lipid-based systems (liposomes and related vesicles have attained reasonable success. The basic preparations and structural features of liposomes and related vesicles as well as their applications are addressed from the chemist's and biochemist's point of view.

  7. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  8. Generation and control of sound bullets with a nonlinear acoustic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, Alessandro; Daraio, Chiara

    2010-04-20

    Acoustic lenses are employed in a variety of applications, from biomedical imaging and surgery to defense systems and damage detection in materials. Focused acoustic signals, for example, enable ultrasonic transducers to image the interior of the human body. Currently however the performance of acoustic devices is limited by their linear operational envelope, which implies relatively inaccurate focusing and low focal power. Here we show a dramatic focusing effect and the generation of compact acoustic pulses (sound bullets) in solid and fluid media, with energies orders of magnitude greater than previously achievable. This focusing is made possible by a tunable, nonlinear acoustic lens, which consists of ordered arrays of granular chains. The amplitude, size, and location of the sound bullets can be controlled by varying the static precompression of the chains. Theory and numerical simulations demonstrate the focusing effect, and photoelasticity experiments corroborate it. Our nonlinear lens permits a qualitatively new way of generating high-energy acoustic pulses, which may improve imaging capabilities through increased accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios and may lead to more effective nonintrusive scalpels, for example, for cancer treatment.

  9. A self-adherent, bullet-shaped microneedle patch for controlled transdermal delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Keum-Yong; Seo, Min-Soo; Hwang, Dae Youn; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D; Sreenan, Seamus; Karp, Jeffrey M; Yang, Seung Yun

    2017-11-10

    Proteins are important biologic therapeutics used for the treatment of various diseases. However, owing to low bioavailability and poor skin permeability, transdermal delivery of protein therapeutics poses a significant challenge. Here, we present a new approach for transdermal protein delivery using bullet-shaped double-layered microneedle (MN) arrays with water-swellable tips. This design enabled the MNs to mechanically interlock with soft tissues by selective distal swelling after skin insertion. Additionally, prolonged release of loaded proteins by passive diffusion through the swollen tips was obtained. The bullet-shaped MNs provided an optimal geometry for mechanical interlocking, thereby achieving significant adhesion strength (~1.6Ncm -2 ) with rat skin. By harnessing the MN's reversible swelling/deswelling property, insulin, a model protein drug, was loaded in the swellable tips using a mild drop/dry procedure. The insulin-loaded MN patch released 60% of insulin when immersed in saline over the course of 12h and approximately 70% of the released insulin appeared to have preserved structural integrity. An in vivo pilot study showed a prolonged release of insulin from swellable MN patches, leading to a gradual decrease in blood glucose levels. This self-adherent transdermal MN platform can be applied to a variety of protein drugs requiring sustained release kinetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. To drink or grasp? How bullet ants ( Paraponera clavata) differentiate between sugars and proteins in liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer; Larson, Hannah K.; Tellez, Peter; McGlynn, Terrence P.

    2013-12-01

    Flexibility in behavior can increase the likelihood that a forager may respond optimally in a fluctuating environment. Nevertheless, physiological or neuronal constraints may result in suboptimal responses to stimuli. We observed foraging workers of the giant tropical ant (also referred to as the "bullet ant"), Paraponera clavata, as they reacted to liquid solutions with varying concentrations of sugar and protein. We show that when protein/sucrose concentration is high, many bullet ants will often try to grasp at the droplet, rather than gather it by drinking. Because P. clavata actively hunt for prey, fixed action patterns and rapid responses to protein may be adaptively important, regardless of the medium in which it is presented. We conclude that, in P. clavata, food-handling decisions are made in response to the nutrient content of the food rather than the texture of the food. Further, we suggest that colonies that maintain a mixture of individuals with consistent fixed or flexible behavioral responses to food-handling decisions may be better adapted to fluctuating environmental conditions, and we propose future studies that could address this.

  11. The Dream About the Magic Silver Bullet – the Complexity of Designing for Tablet-Mediated Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnke, Isa; Svendsen, Niels Vandel; Johansen, Simon Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    learning. We report the gaps and interrelations between the dreams and the practice of the teachers. They dream about an interconnected praxis – the magic silver bullet – and establish their visions of inter- connectivity because of their breakdown experiences of media tablets aiding complexity instead...

  12. Dodging Bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, Caroline T.; Burger, Martijn J.; Ianchovichina, Elena I.

    2017-01-01

    and geographic constraints on location choice. In the nonresource sector, the least geographically diversified firms are most sensitive to conflict. Other types of political violence, including intermittent violence in the form of terrorist acts and assassinations, or persistent but low-impact events......The relationship between political violence and greenfield foreign direct investment is contingent on the type of violence, the characteristics of the investment-receiving sector, and the international scope of the investing firm. Analysis using a dynamic fixed effects model for a panel of 90...... developing countries shows that nationwide political conflict is negatively associated with total and nonresource-related greenfield FDI, but not with resource-related greenfield FDI. The insensitivity of resource FDI to political conflict is explained by the high profitability of natural-resource extraction...

  13. Modified Johnson–Cook Model-based Numerical Simulation of Small Arms Bullets Penetration in the Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we simulated and studied the penetration process of 7,62 x 63 mm bullets "NATO Ball" (with a soft lead core and 7.62 x 63 mm ones «APM2» (with hard steel core in three kinds of aluminum plates, namely AA5083- H116, AA6082-T4, and AA7075-T6 with three different thicknesses of 10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm. The impact velocity was 830 m / s in all tests. Based on the test results and numerical calculations, all plates and a bullet were modeled as the deformable ones with modified constitutive Johnson-Cook relationship and Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Then they were used in modeling by three-dimensional nonlinear finite element in Ansys Ls-Dyna package. The influence of the finite element size in the finite element model on the length and results of calculations has been investigated as well.The main calculation results, we have received, include the residual bullet velocity and the residual kinetic energy of the bullet after drilling a hole in the plate and plate failure mechanism for each type and thickness of the plate with two types of bullets. We have noticed that the residual velocities of the bullets for small thicknesses of aluminum alloys (up to 10 mm have relatively equal values upon penetration of the bullets "NATO Ball" and «APM2» (a bit more, as well as the calculation-obtained failure mechanisms are adequate to experimental. In addition, resistance of AA7075-T651 aluminum alloy to penetration is higher than that of AA5083-H116 and AA6082-T4 ones.It should also be noted that the accuracy of the results depends mainly on the size of the grid elements. The more is the number of elements, the higher is the accuracy of the results, but the longer is the solution time. Therefore, we advice to use the finite element size of 0.2 mm, at most, to obtain the highly accurate results that are adequate to the experimental results.

  14. Inconsistency in 9 mm bullets: correlation of jacket thickness to post-impact geometry measured with non-destructive X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornby, John; Landheer, Dirk; Williams, Tim; Barnes-Warden, Jane; Fenne, Paul; Norman, Danielle G; Attridge, Alex; Williams, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental to any ballistic armour standard is the reference projectile to be defeated. Typically, for certification purposes, a consistent and symmetrical bullet geometry is assumed, however variations in bullet jacket dimensions can have far reaching consequences. Traditionally, characteristics and internal dimensions have been analysed by physically sectioning bullets--an approach which is of restricted scope and which precludes subsequent ballistic assessment. The use of a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT) method has been demonstrated and validated (Kumar et al., 2011 [15]); the authors now apply this technique to correlate bullet impact response with jacket thickness variations. A set of 20 bullets (9 mm DM11) were selected for comparison and an image-based analysis method was employed to map jacket thickness and determine the centre of gravity of each specimen. Both intra- and inter-bullet variations were investigated, with thickness variations of the order of 200 μm commonly found along the length of all bullets and angular variations of up to 50 μm in some. The bullets were subsequently impacted against a rigid flat plate under controlled conditions (observed on a high-speed video camera) and the resulting deformed projectiles were re-analysed. The results of the experiments demonstrate a marked difference in ballistic performance between bullets from different manufacturers and an asymmetric thinning of the jacket is observed in regions of pre-impact weakness. The conclusions are relevant for future soft armour standards and provide important quantitative data for numerical model correlation and development. The implications of the findings of the work on the reliability and repeatability of the industry standard V50 ballistic test are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Blunt trauma with bullet-proof vests. Skin lesions are no reliable predictor of injury severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, D; Illert, B; Bohrer, S; Richter, C; Woelfl, C

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that so-called bullet-proof vests offer protection against a wide range of penetrating trauma, but their protection against blunt trauma is less well understood. Fast projectiles may result in hematomas and contusions behind the armour. We report a traffic accident involving a young soldier wearing a ballistic protection vest resulting in a right thoracoabdominal blunt trauma leading to a confined liver compression rupture. As nearly no skin marks were detectable, we point out that every emergency department surgeon should be very suspicious if a patient wore a ballistic vest at the time of the accident--there may be no skin marks despite severe intra-abdominal trauma. Our patient recovered following hypotensive ICU treatment, thrombocyte mobilization, and factor VIIa substitution.

  16. Targeting the latest hallmark of cancer: another attempt at 'magic bullet' drugs targeting cancers' metabolic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S; Touaibia, M; Lefort, N

    2012-10-01

    The metabolism of tumors is remarkably different from the metabolism of corresponding normal cells and tissues. Metabolic alterations are initiated by oncogenes and are required for malignant transformation, allowing cancer cells to resist some cell death signals while producing energy and fulfilling their biosynthetic needs with limiting resources. The distinct metabolic phenotype of cancers provides an interesting avenue for treatment, potentially with minimal side effects. As many cancers show similar metabolic characteristics, drugs targeting the cancer metabolic phenotype are, perhaps optimistically, expected to be 'magic bullet' treatments. Over the last few years there have been a number of potential drugs developed to specifically target cancer metabolism. Several of these drugs are currently in clinical and preclinical trials. This review outlines examples of drugs developed for different targets of significance to cancer metabolism, with a focus on small molecule leads, chemical biology and clinical results for these drugs.

  17. The drone ambulance [A-UAS]: golden bullet or just a blank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Voorde, P; Gautama, S; Momont, A; Ionescu, C M; De Paepe, P; Fraeyman, N

    2017-07-01

    Defibrillation within the first minutes after sudden cardiac arrest can save many quality-adjusted life years. Yet, despite enormous investments, 'healthcare' is still unable to provide this for the majority of patients. Emergency Medical Services often have a too long mean response time and many issues surround Public Access Defibrillation programs. In this article we argument that AED-equipped drones could be the 'magic bullet'. They are easily deployed and fast, and have a relatively low operational cost. As such they could rapidly bring an AED next to the victim, irrespective of most geographical circumstances, give visual feedback and situational awareness to the EMS dispatcher and thus assist a bystander to provide better CPR. Although there are many real-life barriers to actual deployment, we argument these might all get solved once we have solved the described technological issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. NuSTAR observations of the bullet cluster: constraints on inverse compton emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornstrup, Allan; Molendi, S.

    2014-01-01

    and have degree-scale fields of view, their backgrounds are both high and difficult to characterize. The associated uncertainties result in lower sensitivity to IC emission and a greater chance of false detection. In this work, we present 266 ks NuSTAR observations of the Bullet cluster, which is detected......-but not perfectly-described as an isothermal plasma with kT = 14.2 ± 0.2 keV. To slightly improve the fit, a second temperature component is added, which appears to account for lower temperature emission from the cool core, pushing the primary component to kT ~ 15.3 keV. We see no convincing need to invoke an IC...

  19. Oligo-branched peptides for tumor targeting: from magic bullets to magic forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falciani, Chiara; Pini, Alessandro; Bracci, Luisa

    2009-02-01

    Selective targeting of tumor cells is the final goal of research and drug discovery for cancer diagnosis, imaging and therapy. After the invention of hybridoma technology, the concept of magic bullet was introduced into the field of oncology, referring to selective killing of tumor cells, by specific antibodies. More recently, small molecules and peptides have also been proposed as selective targeting agents. We analyze the state of the art of tumor-selective agents that are presently available and tested in clinical settings. A novel approach based on 'armed' oligo-branched peptides as tumor targeting agents, is discussed and compared with existing tumor-selective therapies mediated by antibodies, small molecules or monomeric peptides. Oligo-branched peptides could be novel drugs that combine the advantages of antibodies and small molecules.

  20. Terminal Performance of Lead Free Pistol Bullets in Ballistic Gelatin Using Retarding Force Analysis from High Speed Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    acceleration can be calculated. The change in kinetic energy can also be computed. In the video, temporary and permanent cavities are also visible. In this...notable that the video method above also allows the energy deposited as a funtion of penetration depth to be computed, when velocity is expressed...deposit as a function of penetration depth. The approach in this study employs the energy lost by the bullet in the first 15 cm of penetration , E15

  1. A model for beta skin dose estimation due to the use of a necklace with uranium depleted bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle Heibron, P.H.; Pérez Guerrero, J.S.; Oliveira, J.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Depleted uranium bullets were use as munitions during the Kuwait – Iraq war and the International Atomic Energy Agency sampling expert’s team found fragments in the environment when the war was over. Consequently, there is a possibility that members of the public, especially children, collects DU fragments and use it, for example, to make a necklace. This paper estimates the beta skin dose to a child that uses a necklace made with a depleted uranium bullet. The theoretical model for dose estimation is based on Loevinguer’s equation with a correction factor adjusted for the maximum beta energy in the range between 0.1 and 2.5 MeV calculated taking into account the International Atomic Energy Agency expected doses rates in air at one meter distance of a point source of 37 GBq, function of the maximum beta energy. The dose rate estimated by this work due to the child use of a necklace with one depleted uranium bullet of 300 g was in good agreement with other results founded in literature. (authors)

  2. Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaha Luan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.

  3. Fixation Strength of Polyetheretherketone Sheath-and-Bullet Device for Soft Tissue Repair in the Foot and Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jay; Fischer, Brian; Nute, Michael; Rizza, Robert

    Tendon transfers are often performed in the foot and ankle. Recently, interference screws have been a popular choice owing to their ease of use and fixation strength. Considering the benefits, one disadvantage of such devices is laceration of the soft tissues by the implant threads during placement that potentially weaken the structural integrity of the grafts. A shape memory polyetheretherketone bullet-in-sheath tenodesis device uses circumferential compression, eliminating potential damage from thread rotation and maintaining the soft tissue orientation of the graft. The aim of this study was to determine the pullout strength and failure mode for this device in both a synthetic bone analogue and porcine bone models. Thirteen mature bovine extensor tendons were secured into ten 4.0 × 4.0 × 4.0-cm cubes of 15-pound per cubic foot solid rigid polyurethane foam bone analogue models or 3 porcine femoral condyles using the 5 × 20-mm polyetheretherketone soft tissue anchor. The bullet-in-sheath device demonstrated a mean pullout of 280.84 N in the bone analog models and 419.47 N in the porcine bone models. (p = .001). The bullet-in-sheath design preserved the integrity of the tendon graft, and none of the implants dislodged from their original position. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Two bullets to the head and an early winter: fate permits Kutuzov to defeat Napoleon at Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushchayev, Sergiy V; Belykh, Evgenii; Fishchenko, Yakiv; Salei, Aliaksei; Teytelboym, Oleg M; Shabaturov, Leonid; Cruse, Mark; Preul, Mark C

    2015-07-01

    General Mikhail Kutuzov (circa 1745-1813) brilliantly repelled Napoleon's invasion of Russia. Honored as a national hero and a savior of Russia, Kutuzov has a unique medical story. He was shot in the head twice while fighting the Turks (1774 and 1788) and survived the serious injuries seemingly against all odds. The first bullet "ran through the head from one temple to the other behind both eyes." The second bullet entered the cheek, destroyed upper teeth, traveled through the head, and exited the occiput. Massot, a French surgeon with the Russian army, wrote after treating Kutuzov's seemingly two mortal wounds: "It must be believed that fate appoints Kutuzov to something great, because he was still alive after two injuries, a death sentence by all the rules of medical science." Aided by Massot's expert surgical technique, Kutuzov lived to become intimately engaged in events that altered world history. His health did, however, suffer significant effects due to the bullet wounds. In 1812, as Napoleon's Grande Armée approached, Kutuzov realized he could not confront Napoleon and he strategically retreated from Moscow, submitting the French to the harsh winter and Russian cavalry. Napoleon's devastated army retreated to Paris, and Kutuzov became the personification of Russian spirit and character. Kutuzov's survival of two nearly mortal head wounds created the legends, additional mystery, and drama surrounding him, not the least astonishing of which was the skilled neurosurgical care that probably saved his life.

  5. Ferromagnetic behavior in linear charge-transfer complexes. Structural and magnetic characterization of octamethylferrocene salts: (Fe(C sub 5 Me sub 4 H) sub 2 ) sup sm bullet + (A) sup sm bullet minus (A = TCNE, TCNQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.S.; Glatzhofer, D.T.; O' Hare, D.M. (E.I. de Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (USA)); Reiff, W.M. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA)); Chakraborty, A.; Epstein, A.J. (Ohio Sate Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1989-07-26

    The reaction of Fe{sup II}({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2} with cyano acceptors A (A = TCNE (tetracyanoethylene), TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quanodimethane), n-C{sub 4}(CN){sub 6} (n-hexacyanobutadiene), C{sub 6}(CN){sub 6} (tris(dicyanomethylene)cyclopropane), DDQ (2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone), TCNQF{sub 4} (perfluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane) results in formation of 1:1 charge-transfer salts of (Fe{sup III})(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+}(A){sup {sm bullet}{minus}} composition. The TCNE and TCNQ complexes have been structurally characterized. The high-temperature magnetic susceptibility for polycrystalline samples of these complexes can be fit by the Curie-Qeiss law, {chi} = C(T-{theta}){sup {minus}1}, with {theta} = +0.5 {plus minus} 2.2 K, and {mu}{sub eff} ranges from 2.71 to 3.97 {mu}{sub B}, suggesting that the polycrystalline samples measured had varying degrees of orientation. The 7.0 K EPR spectrum of the radical cation exhibits an axially symmetric powder pattern with g{sub {parallel}} = 4.11 and g{sub {perpendicular}} = 1.42, and the EPR parameters are essentially identical with those reported for ferrocenium and decamethylferrocenium. No EPR spectrum is observed at 78 K. Akin to the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts, these salts have {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra consistent with complete charge transfer; however, unlike the case for the former complexes, quadrupole splittings of 0.30 and 0.220 mm/s are observed at 4.8 and 298 K, respectively. The absence of strong interionic magnetic coupling for the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 4}H){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts contrasts with the behavior of the (Fe(C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}){sup {sm bullet}+} salts. 26 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Bullet scintigraphy: can gamma camera be used for depleted uranium accident measurements?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaic, R.; Markovic, S.; Pavlovic, S.; Radic, Z.; Pavlovic, R.; Ajdinovic, B.; Baskot, B.; Djurovic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to see could gamma cameras be used for measurement of internal contamination with depleted uranium. Radioactive waste depleted uranium, which is by-product from the production of enriched fuel for nuclear rectors and weapons now, is used for manufacture bullets, which are used in Iraq, Republic of Srpska and Yugoslavia. In this paper is measured minimum detectable activity (MDA) of gamma cameras for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium. For detection of the depleted uranium are used low energy X-rays, energy of 100 keV with 20% windows width. About 40% of gamma emissions of the depleted uranium are in these limits. Measured MDA activities 50-100 Bq for depleted uranium, iodine and technetium are about then times more then same for WBC (5 Bq). Gamma cameras can be used for relatively measurement of depleted uranium activity, what can be used for absorbed dose estimation. Detection of low level internal contamination with depleted uranium can be done with gamma cameras. (authors)

  7. Scape goats, silver bullets, and other pitfalls in the path to sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Webster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws from 'The Lathe of Heaven' by Ursula Le Guin to highlight some of the most likely pitfalls on the political road to a sustainable planet. Through the literary device of dreams that can change the world, Le Guin explores how the individual’s egoistic desire to save humanity can be twisted by the limitations of our psyche and our society, turning an already uncomfortable future Earth into a devastated planet. It is a stinging critique of answers handed down from above, and a call to action for those of us who just get by here below. Her story warns of the ancient “road to hell”, paved and trodden by would be saviors with the best intentions but also points to the license that public apathy provides to the powerful when the costs of environmental harm are borne by the powerless. These disconnects, combined with cycles of rationalization, silver bullet mentalities, and the tendency to scapegoat others for negative side effects, can all derail sustainability transitions. 'Lathe' provides an allegorical assessment of this process, but much more study is needed to fully understand and regulate the resulting governance treadmill.

  8. Simulation of white light generation and near light bullets using a novel numerical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Haider

    2018-01-01

    An accurate and efficient simulation has been devised, employing a new numerical technique to simulate the derivative generalised non-linear Schrödinger equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The simulation models all pertinent effects such as self-steepening and plasma for the non-linear propagation of ultrafast optical radiation in bulk material. Simulation results are compared to published experimental spectral data of an example ytterbium aluminum garnet system at 3.1 μm radiation and fits to within a factor of 5. The simulation shows that there is a stability point near the end of the 2 mm crystal where a quasi-light bullet (spatial temporal soliton) is present. Within this region, the pulse is collimated at a reduced diameter (factor of ∼2) and there exists a near temporal soliton at the spatial center. The temporal intensity within this stable region is compressed by a factor of ∼4 compared to the input. This study shows that the simulation highlights new physical phenomena based on the interplay of various linear, non-linear and plasma effects that go beyond the experiment and is thus integral to achieving accurate designs of white light generation systems for optical applications. An adaptive error reduction algorithm tailor made for this simulation will also be presented in appendix.

  9. Manufacturing immunity to disease in a test tube: the magic bullet realized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard A

    2006-12-11

    Although it took over one hundred years, Ehrlich's concept of the magic bullet is now a reality. Today, therapeutic antibodies are, arguably, the most important class of new drugs for the treatment of illnesses ranging from Alzheimer's disease to cancer. The emergence of therapeutic antibodies had to wait for advances in immunochemistry that allowed construction of antibodies in vitro. The centerpiece of the new technology is the combinatorial antibody library, which essentially allows one to synthesize an artificial immune system with a diversity that exceeds that of the natural repertoire. The construction of such libraries was perceived to be difficult because, if the natural immune system was to be used as the starting material, construction of the libraries would entail protocols that are the opposite of usual cloning. In gene cloning one starts with complexity and reduces it to a singularity. In the generation of diversity by construction of combinatorial antibody libraries, one starts with a collection of clones, randomly expands their complexity, and then returns them to recoverable singularities. The methods developed to accomplish this seemingly formidable task now allow construction of antibodies in a test tube to any antigen. These synthetic antibodies may be qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of nature.

  10. Direction, site and the muzzle target distance of bullet in the head and neck at close range as an indication of suicide or homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanjutha, T

    1988-05-01

    Direction, site and muzzle target distance can indicate suicide or homicide. This conclusion can be drawn from autopsies of 57 cases of suicide and 68 cases of homicide by handgun fired at close range to the head and neck together with going to the crimescene in some cases. This study was carried out in Bangkok during the period from January 1983 to January 1986. In order to determine whether it was suicide or homicide, the path of the bullet, the site, the muzzle target distance must be considered. The angle of the bullet would be either elevated (from below upward), horizontal or an angle of depression (from above downward). For suicide, the direction of the bullet should be at an angle of elevation in the majority of cases. The position of the handgun in relation to the head in suicide was most often in tight contact and near contact. For homicide, the direction of the bullet should be horizontal in most cases. The bullet was at close range in the majority of the cases. There are 8 common sites for suicide and homicide and 10 different sites in the case of homicide which are at neck, left cheek, left aural region, lip, left occipital area orbit, chin, left eyebrow, submental and nose.

  11. The virtual double-slit experiment to High School level (Part I: behavior classical analysis (with bullets and waves and development of computational software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Cardoso Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n2p697   This paper analyses the double-slit virtual experiment and it composed of two parts: The part I covers the classical theory (with bullets and waves and the part II covers the interference with electrons or photons. Firstly, we have analyzed the same experiment that shoots a stream of bullets. In front of the gun we have a wall that has in it two holes just big enough to let a bullet through. Beyond the wall is a backstop (say a thick wall of wood which will absorb the bullets when they hit it. In this case, the probabilities just add together. The effect with both holes open is the sum of effects with each holes open alone. We have shown it for high school level. Next, we have analyzed a same experiment with water waves. The intensity observed when both holes are open is certainly not the sum of the intensity of the wave from hole 1 (which we find by measuring when hole 2 is blocked off and the intensity of the wave form hole 2 (seen when hole 1 is blocked. Finally, we have shown a software developed by students about double-slit experiment with bullets.

  12. Abordagem terapêutica dos projéteis retidos no coração Management of bullets lodged in the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Brandão de Souza Meira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Paciente do sexo masculino, 29 anos, apresentando ferimento por arma de fogo, com projétil alojado no coração e que chegou ao hospital hemodinamicamente estável. O diagnóstico, evidenciando a localização da bala, foi feito pelo ecocardiograma transesofágico (ET. Após 18 dias, foi submetido à cirurgia eletiva, sem circulação extracorpórea (CEC, para retirada do projétil encravado em parede anterior do ventrículo direito (VD e septo interventricular (SIV, com sucesso. Os autores discutem a conduta terapêutica para os projéteis retidos no coração, com base na literatura consultada, concluindo que a cirurgia para remoção dos mesmos pode ser indicada em pacientes assintomáticos individualizados.A 29-year-old man presented with a bullet lodged in his heart. He arrived at the hospital in a hemodynamically stable condition. The transesophageal echocardiogram performed for diagnosis revealed the location of the bullet. After 18 days, he underwent an elective off-pump cardiac surgery fto remove the bullet from the right ventricle wall and interventricular septum. The postoperative evolution was uneventful. The authors discuss the therapeutic options for removing bullets from thr heart, based on published data. They concluded that some asymptomatic patients with a bullet embedded in the heart should undergo surgery.

  13. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  14. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A z = 6.740 GALAXY BEHIND THE BULLET CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Marusa; Hall, Nicholas [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vanzella, Eros [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Fontana, Adriano [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Clowe, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Clement, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stiavelli, Massimo, E-mail: marusa@physics.ucdavis.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 < z < 10 candidate galaxies behind clusters of galaxies. We report the spectroscopic confirmation of an intrinsically faint Lyman break galaxy (LBG) identified as a z{sub 850LP}-band dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at {lambda} = 9412 A at >5{sigma} significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.740 {+-} 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Ly{alpha} flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of {mu} = 3.0 {+-} 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f {sup int} = (0.23 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.02) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg{sup -1} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is {approx}2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z {approx} 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H{sub 160W}-band magnitude of the object is m{sup int}{sub H{sub 1{sub 6{sub 0{sub W}}}}}=27.57{+-}0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe.

  15. On non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets and plasma bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinpei

    2012-10-01

    Because of the enhanced plasma chemistry, atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas (APNPs) have been widely studied for several emerging applications such as biomedical applications. For the biomedical applications, plasma jet devices, which generate plasma in open space (surrounding air) rather than in confined discharge gaps only, have lots of advantages over the traditional dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices. For example, it can be used for root canal disinfection, which can't be realized by the traditional plasma device. On the other hand, currently, the working gases of most of the plasma jet devices are noble gases or the mixtures of the noble gases with small amount of O2, or air. If ambient air is used as the working gas, several serious difficulties are encountered in the plasma generation process. Amongst these are high gas temperatures and disrupting instabilities. In this presentation, firstly, a brief review of the different cold plasma jets developed to date is presented. Secondly, several different plasma jet devices developed in our lab are reported. The effects of various parameters on the plasma jets are discussed. Finally, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the plasma bullet is discussed and its behavior is described. References: [1] X. Lu, M. Laroussi, V. Puech, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21, 034005 (2012); [2] Y. Xian, X. Lu, S. Wu, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123702 (2012); [3] X. Pei, X. Lu, J. Liu, D. Liu, Y. Yang, K. Ostrikov, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, J. Phys. D 45, 165205 (2012).

  16. Another shock for the Bullet cluster, and the source of seed electrons for radio relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimwell, Timothy W.; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav

    2015-05-01

    With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2.3 ± 0.1 × 1025 W Hz-1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94 per cent of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail, we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re-)acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.

  17. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  18. Potential Hazard to Human Health from Exposure to Fragments of Lead Bullets and Shot in the Tissues of Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J.; Cromie, Ruth L.; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J.; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A.; Moran, Annette C.; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing ≥5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg−1 w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. Conclusions/Significance The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game. PMID:20436670

  19. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  20. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Deborah J; Cromie, Ruth L; Newth, Julia; Brown, Martin J; Crutcher, Eric; Hardman, Pippa; Hurst, Louise; Mateo, Rafael; Meharg, Andrew A; Moran, Annette C; Raab, Andrea; Taggart, Mark A; Green, Rhys E

    2010-04-26

    Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species) obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1) w.w.) for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat), some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  1. Direct measuring of single-cycle mid-IR light bullets path length in LiF by the laser coloration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekalin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A colour-centre structure formed in a LiF crystal under filamentation of a femtosecond mid-IR laser pulse with a power slightly exceeding the critical power for self-focusing has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. A single-cycle light bullet was recorded for the first time by observation of strictly periodic oscillations for the density of the color centers induced in an isotropic LiF crystal under filamentation of a laser beam with a wavelength tuned in the range from 2600 to 3900 nm, which is due to the periodic change in the light field amplitude in the light bullet formed under filamentation under propagation in dispersive medium. The light bullet path length was not more than one millimeter.

  2. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-27

    Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet's trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right carotid sheath, and 'wandering'; a first of its kind in East Africa. A 27-year-old African-Ugandan woman of Nilotic ethnicity was referred to the Accident and Emergency Department of a tertiary hospital in Uganda, having sustained complex injuries due to an inadvertent AK-47 rifle gunshot injury. The gunshot injury was to the right side of her face with a large ragged entry wound and no exit wound. Prior basic wound care and radiological imaging showed a comminuted fracture of her mandible with lodgment of the bullet in her neck, anterior to her sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae. Standard debridement of her wound was done. A computed tomography scan showed an apparent cephalad shift ('wandering') of the bullet, leaving it lying partially anterior to her fifth cervical vertebra as well as within her carotid sheath. Other injuries were to her facial and trigeminal nerves, and her middle ear. The 'wandering' bullet was successfully removed surgically. It had caused no damage to any part of her neck structure. AK-47 rifle bullet injuries may present with uncharacteristically large entry wounds and cause complex structural injuries at the area of impact. The consequent trajectory is difficult to predict making regional examination and radiological investigations essential in management. Bullets may be retained, leaving no exit wound. Securing the airway, controlling hemorrhage and identifying other injuries are the first vital steps. This case illustrates all these interventions and the

  3. Test and Numerical Analysis for Penetration Residual Velocity of Bullet Considering Failure Strain Uncertainty of Composite Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Myungseok; Lee, Minhyung [Sejong Univ., Sejong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The ballistic performance data of composite materials is distributed due to material inhomogeneity. In this paper, the uncertainty in residual velocity is obtained experimentally, and a method of predicting it is established numerically for the high-speed impact of a bullet into laminated composites. First, the failure strain distribution was obtained by conducting a tensile test using 10 specimens. Next, a ballistic impact test was carried out for the impact of a fragment-simulating projectile (FSP) bullet with 4ply ([0/90]s) and 8ply ([0/90/0/90]s) glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates. Eighteen shots were made at the same impact velocity and the residual velocities were obtained. Finally, simulations were conducted to predict the residual velocities by using the failure strain distributions that were obtained from the tensile test. For this simulation, two impact velocities were chosen at 411.7m/s (4ply) and 592.5m/s (8ply). The simulation results show that the predicted residual velocities are in close agreement with test results. Additionally, the modeling of a composite plate with layered solid elements requires less calculation time than modeling with solid elements.

  4. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik; Larsen, Erik H; Loeschner, Katrin

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm. The particle mass concentration ranged from 290 to 340 ng/g meat and the particle number concentrations from 27 to 50 million particles/g meat. The size limit of detection strongly depended on the level of dissolved lead and was in the range of 40 to 80 nm. In game meat sampled more than 10 cm away from the wound channel, no lead particles with a diameter larger than 40 nm were detected. In addition to dissolved lead in meat that originated from particulates, the presence of lead nano particles in game meat represents a hitherto unattended source of lead with a largely unknown toxicological impact to humans. Graphical Abstract Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of leadcontaining bullets.

  5. Self-action of Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides and formation of light bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakin, A. A., E-mail: balakin.alexey@yandex.ru; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A., E-mail: sk.sa1981@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The self-action of two-dimensional and three-dimensional Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides is considered using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The features of the self-action of such wave fields are related to their initial strong spatial inhomogeneity. The numerical simulation shows that for the field amplitude exceeding a critical value, the development of an instability typical of a medium with the cubic nonlinearity is observed. Various regimes are studied: the self-channeling of a wave beam in one light guide at powers not strongly exceeding a critical value, the formation of the “kaleidoscopic” picture of a wave packet during the propagation of higher-power radiation along a stratified medium, the formation of light bullets during competition between self-focusing and modulation instabilities in the case of three-dimensional wave packets, etc. In the problem of laser pulse shortening, the situation is considered when the wave-field stratification in the transverse direction dominates. This process is accompanied by the self-compression of laser pulses in well enough separated light guides. The efficiency of conversion of the initial Bessel field distribution to two flying parallel light bullets is about 50%.

  6. Lead arthritis and lead poisoning following bullet wounds: a clinicopathologic, ultrastructural, and microanalytic study of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, R E; Swedo, J; Cartwright, J; Viegas, S; Custer, E M

    1988-02-01

    Bullet wounds causing lead synovitis in the wrist and knee are reported in two patients, one of whom also developed clinical plumbism. Very high lead levels in the synovial fluid are believed to be responsible for toxicity changes that occurred in the synovium and bone. Ultrastructurally, these alterations included the formation of nuclear lead inclusions, dilation, and degranulation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and deposition of crystalline precipitates in the matrix of the mitochondria in macrophages, osteoclasts, and synoviocytes, as well as the development of cytoplasmic lead inclusions in osteoclasts. Energy-dispersive x-ray elemental analysis (EDXEA) indicated that the nuclear inclusions contained only lead, whereas precipitates within the mitochondria and elsewhere in the cytoplasm were composed of complexes containing lead, calcium, and phosphorus. Similarly constituted extracellular complexes were incorporated into newly formed trabecular bone laid down as a physiologic response to the bullet lodged within the wrist bones. This bone subsequently exhibited defects in bone resorption, which were characterized by depressed osteoclastic function and a unique lesion termed incomplete osteocytic osteolysis. The genesis of this latter lesion is uncertain. The sequestration of the partially degraded bone fragments containing lead complexes into the marrow and eventually into the joint spaces and synovium permitted the recycling of bone lead, and this may have played an important role in inducing clinical plumbism in one of the patients in this study.

  7. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi, E-mail: anggorophd@gmail.com; Kristiana, Nunung, E-mail: nuna.c631@gmail.com [Master of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jln. Prof. Sudharto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  8. Spectroscopic Confirmation of a z = 6.740 Galaxy behind the Bullet Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Vanzella, Eros; Hall, Nicholas; Treu, Tommaso; Fontana, Adriano; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Zaritsky, Dennis; Stiavelli, Massimo; Clément, Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    We present the first results of our spectroscopic follow-up of 6.5 dropout behind the Bullet Cluster. We detect an emission line at λ = 9412 Å at >5σ significance using a 16 hr long exposure with FORS2 VLT. Based on the absence of flux in bluer broadband filters, the blue color of the source, and the absence of additional lines, we identify the line as Lyα at z = 6.740 ± 0.003. The integrated line flux is f = (0.7 ± 0.1 ± 0.3) × 10-17 erg-1 s-1 cm-2 (the uncertainties are due to random and flux calibration errors, respectively) making it the faintest Lyα flux detected at these redshifts. Given the magnification of μ = 3.0 ± 0.2 the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) flux is f int = (0.23 ± 0.03 ± 0.10 ± 0.02) × 10-17 erg-1 s-1 cm-2 (additional uncertainty due to magnification), which is ~2-3 times fainter than other such measurements in z ~ 7 galaxies. The intrinsic H 160W-band magnitude of the object is m^int_{H_160W}=27.57+/- 0.17, corresponding to 0.5 L* for LBGs at these redshifts. The galaxy is one of the two sub-L* LBG galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at these high redshifts (the other is also a lensed z = 7.045 galaxy), making it a valuable probe for the neutral hydrogen fraction in the early universe. Observations were carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory under Program ID 088.A-0542. Also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 and NNX08AD79G. These observations are associated with programs GO10200, GO10863, and GO11099.

  9. Combination of natural fiber Boehmeria nivea (ramie) with matrix epoxide for bullet proof vest body armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Kristiana, Nunung

    2015-01-01

    Ballistic protection equipment, such as a bulletproof vest, is a soldier’s most important means of preserving life and survivability in extreme combat conditions. The bulletproof vests are designed to protect the user’s chest from injury without disturbing the ability to perform his duties. Aromatic polyamide or aramid fibers known under the trade name Kevlar, Trawon and so is synthetic fiber materials commonly used in the manufacture of bulletproof vests. This synthetic fibers have high tensile strength and ductility. Kevlar is expensive and imported material. In this study, will introduce local natural raw materials, ramie fiber (Boehmeria nivea) which is cheaper and environmentally friendly. It has enough tenacity and tensile strength as a bulletproof vest. This experiment uses two panels, there are Panel A as front surface of Panel B. Panel A is a combination of ramie and epoxide matrix, while panel B is only ramie. From several variations of experimental combinations between Panel A and Panel B, optimal combination obtained with 16 layers of panel A and 31-34 layers of panel B which is able to protect againts cal. 7.65 mm × 17 mm (.32 ACP) bullet fired through pistol .32 Pindad from a distance of 20 meters. Panel with a size of 20 cm × 20 cm has a total thickness between 12,922 to13,745 mm and a total weight between 506,26 to 520,926gram. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations indicated that the porosity and surface area of the ramie fiber is smooth, fiber surfaces showed topography with micropores. SEM also showed well-arranged structure of fibers bonding. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated 100 % carbon contents in ramie fiber. Test result indicates that panel from composite ramie-epoxide can reach the level 1of International Standard of NIJ - 010104. Compared to panel from polyester fiber, the panel from composite ramie-epoxide (0,50-0,52 kg) is lighter weight than panel polyester fiber (1,642 kg)

  10. Alternatives to currently used antimalarial drugs: in search of a magic bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-11-04

    bullet against malaria. Future studies should focus on effective single-dose molecules that can act against all stages of malaria in order to prevent transmission. Newer medicines have also raised concerns in terms of efficacy and safety. Overall, more evidence is needed to effectively reduce the current malaria burden. Treatment strategies that target the blood stage with transmission-blocking properties are needed to prevent future drug resistance.

  11. CME Interaction with Coronal Holes and Their Interplanetary Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of interplanetary (IP) shocks (-17%) during cycle 23 were not followed by drivers. The number of such "driverless" shocks steadily increased with the solar cycle with 15%, 33%, and 52% occurring in the rise, maximum, and declining phase of the solar cycle. The solar sources of 15% of the driverless shocks were very close the central meridian of the Sun (within approx.15deg), which is quite unexpected. More interestingly, all the driverless shocks with their solar sources near the solar disk center occurred during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. When we investigated the coronal environment of the source regions of driverless shocks, we found that in each case there was at least one coronal hole nearby suggesting that the coronal holes might have deflected the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) away from the Sun-Earth line. The presence of abundant low-latitude coronal holes during the declining phase further explains why CMEs originating close to the disk center mimic the limb CMEs, which normally lead to driverless shocks due to purely geometrical reasons. We also examined the solar source regions of shocks with drivers. For these, the coronal holes were located such that they either had no influence on the CME trajectories. or they deflected the CMEs towards the Sun-Earth line. We also obtained the open magnetic field distribution on the Sun by performing a potential field source surface extrapolation to the corona. It was found that the CMEs generally move away from the open magnetic field regions. The CME-coronal hole interaction must be widespread in the declining phase, and may have a significant impact on the geoeffectiveness of CMEs.

  12. Biographical Sources in the Sciences--Life, Earth and Physical Sciences (1989-2006). LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 06-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth, Comp.; Bradley, Michelle Cadoree, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet "TB88-3" ("Biographical Sources in the Sciences," compiled 1988 [ED306074]) and "TB06-7"…

  13. Focusing Cosmic Telescopes: Exploring Redshift z ~ 5-6 Galaxies with the Bullet Cluster 1E0657 - 56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Treu, Tommaso; Applegate, Douglas; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Clowe, Douglas; Forman, William; Jones, Christine; Marshall, Phil; Schneider, Peter; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The gravitational potential of clusters of galaxies acts as a cosmic telescope allowing us to find and study galaxies at fainter limits than otherwise possible and thus probe closer to the epoch of formation of the first galaxies. We use the Bullet cluster 1E0657 - 56 (z = 0.296) as a case study, because its high mass and merging configuration makes it one of the most efficient cosmic telescopes we know. We develop a new algorithm to reconstruct the gravitational potential of the Bullet cluster based on a non-uniform adaptive grid, combining strong and weak gravitational lensing data derived from deep Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys F606W-F775W-F850LP and ground-based imaging. We exploit this improved mass map to study z ~ 5-6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), which we detect as dropouts. One of the LBGs is multiply imaged, providing a geometric confirmation of its high redshift, and is used to further improve our mass model. We quantify the uncertainties in the magnification map reconstruction in the intrinsic source luminosity, and in the volume surveyed, and show that they are negligible compared to sample variance when determining the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies. With shallower and comparable magnitude limits to Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), the Bullet cluster observations, after correcting for magnification, probe deeper into the luminosity function of the high-redshift galaxies than GOODS and only slightly shallower than HUDF. We conclude that accurately focused cosmic telescopes are the most efficient way to sample the bright end of the luminosity function of high-redshift galaxies and—in case they are multiply imaged—confirm their redshifts. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5

  14. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, Jeff; Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G.; Green, Rhys E.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  15. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Jeff, E-mail: jeff.knott@rspb.org.uk [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Gilbert, Jo; Hoccom, David G. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, Rhys E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Science Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-01

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  16. Detection of lead nanoparticles in game meat by single particle ICP-MS following use of lead-containing bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollander, Barbro; Widemo, Fredrik; Ågren, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether game meat may contain nanoparticles of lead from ammunition. Lead nanoparticles in the range 40 to 750 nm were detected by ICP-MS in single particle mode in game shot with lead-containing bullets. The median diameter of the detected nanoparticles was around 60 nm....... The particle mass concentration ranged from 290 to 340 ng/g meat and the particle number concentrations from 27 to 50 million particles/g meat. The size limit of detection strongly depended on the level of dissolved lead and was in the range of 40 to 80 nm. In game meat sampled more than 10 cm away from...... the wound channel, no lead particles with a diameter larger than 40 nm were detected. In addition to dissolved lead in meat that originated from particulates, the presence of lead nano particles in game meat represents a hitherto unattended source of lead with a largely unknown toxicological impact...

  17. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río

    Full Text Available Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking

  18. Development of a biosensor protein bullet as a fluorescent method for fast detection of Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Ignacio; Marín, Laura; Fernández, Javier; Álvarez San Millán, María; Ferrero, Francisco Javier; Valledor, Marta; Campo, Juan Carlos; Cobián, Natalia; Méndez, Ignacio; Lombó, Felipe

    2018-01-01

    Drinking water can be exposed to different biological contaminants from the source, through the pipelines, until reaching the final consumer or industry. Some of these are pathogenic bacteria and viruses which may cause important gastrointestinal or systemic diseases. The microbiological quality of drinking water relies mainly in monitoring three indicator bacteria of faecal origin, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium perfringens, which serve as early sentinels of potential health hazards for the population. Here we describe the analysis of three chimeric fluorescent protein bullets as biosensor candidates for fast detection of E. coli in drinking water. Two of the chimeric proteins (based on GFP-hadrurin and GFP-pb5 chimera proteins) failed with respect to specificity and/or sensitivity, but the GFP-colS4 chimera protein was able to carry out specific detection of E. coli in drinking water samples in a procedure encompassing about 8 min for final result and this biosensor protein was able to detect in a linear way between 20 and 103 CFU of this bacterium. Below 20 CFU, the system cannot differentiate presence or absence of the target bacterium. The fluorescence in this biosensor system is provided by the GFP subunit of the chimeric protein, which, in the case of the better performing sensor bullet, GFP-colS4 chimera, is covalently bound to a flexible peptide bridge and to a bacteriocin binding specifically to E. coli cells. Once bound to the target bacteria, the excitation step with 395 nm LED light causes emission of fluorescence from the GFP domain, which is amplified in a photomultiplier tube, and finally this signal is converted into an output voltage which can be associated with a CFU value and these data distributed along mobile phone networks, for example. This method, and the portable fluorimeter which has been developed for it, may contribute to reduce the analysis time for detecting E. coli presence in drinking water.

  19. Investigation about the influence of the mechanical properties of lead core and brass jacket of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet in numerical simulations of ballistic impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scapin M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a validated numerical approach has been used in order to build a robust and reliable FE model of the impact of a NATO 7.62 mm ball bullet, against an aluminium transmission shaft. The bullet is a full metal jacket type, with a lead alloy core and a brass jacket. Target shaft is made by an Al6061-T6 aluminium alloy. According to the soft core (lead alloy of the bullet, most effort has been spent in order to evaluate the effect of bullet materials mechanical properties on the numerical results. Numerical analyses, carried out using the non-linear dynamic finite element solver Abaqus∖Explicit 6.10, have been performed focusing on core and jacket material behaviour (target material, Al6061-T6, has been previously calibrated by the authors. Thus numerical analyses have been performed considering for the mechanical behaviour of the bullet both a simplified approach (as reported in literature and new material data (with strain rate effect obtained by means of experimental tests on the two materials (lead and brass with specimens cut directly from the bullet. Finally the results of the analyses have been compared with real experimental ballistic tests.

  20. Muzzle-loading weapons discharging spherical lead bullets: two case studies and experimental simulation using a skin-soap composite model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Braunwarth, Roland; Kromeier, Jan; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2013-07-01

    In current forensic practice, fatal injuries from black powder guns are rare events. In contact and close-range shots, the intensity of GSR deposition (soot, powder particles) is much greater than that in shots with smokeless powder ammunition. The same applies to any burning effects from the combustion gases. Besides, a wad of felt interposed between the propellant and the lead bullet may enter the wound channel. Apart from these findings seen in close-range shots, another characteristic feature results from the mostly spherical shape of the missiles causing maximum tissue damage at the entrance site. Two fatal injuries inflicted with muzzle-loading weapons are reported. In the first case, suicide was committed with a cal. 11.6 mm miniature cannon by firing a contact shot to the back of the neck. In test shots using black powder (1 and 2 g) as propellant, the mean bullet velocity measured 1 m away from the weapon was 87.11 and 146.85 m/s, respectively, corresponding to a kinetic energy of 32.49 and 92.95 J, respectively. Contact test shots to composite models consisting of ballistic soap covered by pig skin at the entrance site were evaluated by CT and revealed cone-like cavitations along the bullet path as known from spherical missiles and penetration depths up to 25 cm. The second case presented deals with a homicidal close-range shot discharged from a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. .44. The skin around the entrance site (root of the nose) was densely covered with blackish soot and powder particles, whereas the eyebrows and eyelashes showed singeing of the hairs. The flattened bullet and the wad had got stuck under the scalp of the occipital region. In both cases, there was a disproportionally large zone of tissue destruction in the initial parts of the wound tracks.

  1. Hybrid treatment of bullet embolism at the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated with thoracoabdominal aorta pseudoaneurysm and common iliac artery occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bastos Metzger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Embolization due to a firearm projectile entering the bloodstream is a rare event that is unlikely to be suspected during initial treatment of trauma patients. We describe and discuss a case of bullet embolism of the abdominal aortic bifurcation, complicated by a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta and occlusion of the right common iliac artery, but successfully treated using a combination of endovascular methods and conventional surgery.

  2. Inequality--"Wicked Problems", Labour Market Outcomes and the Search for Silver Bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Ewart; Mayhew, Ken

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns about inequality have been growing in prominence within UK policy debates. The many causes of inequality of earnings and income are complex in their interactions and their tendency to reinforce one another. This makes inequality an intractable or "wicked" policy problem, particularly within a contemporary context…

  3. Influence Factors Regarding the Effectiveness of Automated Ballistic Comparison on 0.38 Special Caliber Bullets and Cartridge Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Lehi Sudy; Vieira Muterlle, Palloma

    2018-03-01

    Factors influencing effectiveness of automated comparisons, test-fired bullets, and cartridge cases from 0.38 Special revolvers were logged into the Evofinder ® Ballistic ID System. Tests were performed as follows: First test correlated test-fires of the same type, second test compared different types of ammunition components, third test replicated the second test in a larger database, and fourth test replicated the third test with students having no previous firearm identification experience. System effectiveness with projectiles in the first test was 0.89. With cartridge cases, effectiveness was 0.79 with combined results, but analysis of separate results by breech face and firing pin revealed low effectiveness by breech face (0.40). In the second, third, and fourth tests, effectiveness with projectiles were 0.61, 0.51, and 0.44. In addition, these tests had effectiveness with cartridge cases equivalent to 0.55, 0.43, and 0.44. Results are useful to establish routine protocols, system improvements, or comparative assessment of other electronic systems. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  5. Introduction to Violent Sun-Earth Connection Events of October-November 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    of i with the largest energy extractable from the huge associ- Novemberactions whonsiderimpothe omnic ated active regions. A plot summarizing solar...Geotail/EPIC and Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. 6 of 6 Form Approved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE "OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this...ES) 10. SPONSORIMONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFRL/VSBXS 11. SPONSORIMONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION I AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public

  6. Targeting Ballistic Lunar Capture Trajectories Using Periodic Orbits in the Sun-Earth CRTBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, D.S.; Griesemer, Paul Ricord; Ocampo, Cesar

    2009-01-01

    A particular periodic orbit in the Earth-Sun circular restricted three body problem is shown to have the characteristics needed for a ballistic lunar capture transfer. An injection from a circular parking orbit into the periodic orbit serves as an initial guess for a targeting algorithm. By targeting appropriate parameters incrementally in increasingly complicated force models and using precise derivatives calculated from the state transition matrix, a reliable algorithm is produced. Ballistic lunar capture trajectories in restricted four body systems are shown to be able to be produced in a systematic way.

  7. Sun, the Earth, and Near-Earth Space: A Guide to the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In a world of warmth and light and living things we soon forget that we are surrounded by a vast universe that is cold and dark and deadly dangerous, just beyond our door. On a starry night, when we look out into the darkness that lies around us, the view can be misleading in yet another way: for the brightness and sheer number of stars, and their chance groupings into familiar constellations, make them seem much nearer to each other, and to us, that in truth they are. And every one of them--each twinkling, like a diamond in the sky--is a white-hot sun, much like our own. The nearest stars in our own galaxy--the Milky Way-- are more than a million times further away from us than our star, the Sun. We could make a telephone call to the Moon and expect to wait but a few seconds between pieces of a conversation, or but a few hours in calling any planet in our solar system.

  8. A knowledge discovery approach to explore some Sun/Earth's climate relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, A.; Valdes, J.

    2009-09-01

    Recent developments in data driven modeling and analysis including computational intelligence techniques may throw new light on the exploration of possible solar activity/Earth's climate relationships. Here we present three different examples of methodologies under development and some preliminary results. a) Multivariate Time Series Model Mining (MVTSMM) analysis [1] and Genetic Programming were applied to Greenland's CRETE Site-E ice core Delta O18/16 values (1721-1983, one year interval sampling) and with sunspots activity (International Sunspots Number) during the same time span [2]. According to the results (1771 to 1933 period) indicated by the lag importance spectrum obtained with MVTSMM analysis, the sun's activity itself shows high internal variability and is inhomogeneous. The Dalton minimum, a low activity period usually considered to occur between 1790 and 1830, is shown to be a complex structure beginning about 1778 and ending in 1840. Apparently, the system entered a new state in 1912. In the joint analysis, the analytical tool uses extensively the solar activity data to explain the Delta O18/16 data, showing areas of stable patterns, lag drifts and abrupt pattern disruptions, indicating changes of state in the solar processes of several kinds at different times. b) A similar MVTSMM analysis was conducted on Central England Temperature (CET) and solar activity data using Group Sunspots Number (GSN) with a useful interpretive span of time from 1771 to 1916. The joint analysis involved large amounts of solar activity variables, except for the 1843-1862 and 1877-1889 periods where the discovered models used much less information from GSN data. As with the Crete-E/ISN analysis the lag importance spectrum of CET/GSN shows a number of clear discontinuities. A quarter of them are present in both (1778-1779, 1806, 1860-1862, 1912-1913). These experiments were designed for testing methodologies and not for specific hypothesis testing. However, it seems that Delta O18/16 data would more readily respond to solar influences. This raises the suspicion that perhaps they do not only reflect temperatures but also solar activity, as well as other possible factors not directly related to atmospheric temperatures. These methodologies may be useful as exploratory tools, directing the attention to specific areas where further research should be required. This could be the case of the Delta O18/16 data, frequently considered to be a reliable and accurate proxy of temperatures. c) Another experiment was made using daily maximum temperatures from 10 Spanish meteorological stations for the period 1901-2005 [3]. Using a hybrid procedure (Differential Evolution and Fletcher-Reeves Classical Optimization) it was found that a subset was capable of preserving the 10-dimensional similarity when nonlinearly mapped into 1D. A daily index, F1 was applied to the whole dataset and grouped by years and transformed into a Kolmogorov-Smirnov dissimilarity matrix, space optimized and clustered giving the following landmarks: 1911-12, 1919-1920, 1960, 1973 and 1989. A visual comparison with the aa geomagnetic index may suggest a certain coupling with changes in the magnetic field behavior. The complexity of the patterns suggest that the possible relationships between Earth's climate and solar activity may occur in much more complex ways than just irradiance variations and simple linear correlations. REFERENCES: [1] Valdés, J.J., Bonham-Carter, G. " Time Dependent Neural Network Models For Detecting Changes of State in Complex Processes: Applications in Earth Sciences and Astronomy”. Neural Networks, vol 19, (2), pp 196-207, 2006. [2] Valdés, J., Pou, A. "Greenland Temperatures and Solar Activity: A Computational Intelligence Approach," Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2007). Orlando, Florida, USA. August 12-17, 2007. [3] Valdés, J., Pou, A., Orchard, B. "Characterization of Climatic Variations in Spain at the Regional Scale: A Computational Intelligence Approach," Proceedings of the IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI-2008). Hong Kong, China. June 1, 2008.

  9. International Symposium on Recent Observations and Simulations of the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-10

    of nitrates . Some “archaeological” data on SCR fluxes in the past and upper limit of total energy induced by solar flare protons are also discussed...intrinsic properties of CS equilibrium and might be used for its diagnostic. Multiscale structure of “turbulent” current sheets Laminar sheets discussed...beta plasma are favorable for self-organization to hierarchy of multiscale structures. Complex topology of magnetotail field is self-consistently

  10. 7th Class Students' Opinions on Sun, Earth and Moon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2017-01-01

    This study is conducted to detect the students' perceptions on Sun, Moon and Earth (SME) system and define the 7th grade students' attitudes on the subject. In the study, since it was aimed to detect and evaluate the students' perceptions on some basic astronomical concepts without changing the natural conditions, a descriptive approach was…

  11. On atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets and plasma bullets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X; Laroussi, M; Puech, V

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasma jets (APNP-Js), which generate plasma in open space rather than in a confined discharge gap, have recently been a topic of great interest. In this paper, the development of APNP-Js will be reviewed. Firstly, the APNP-Js are grouped based on the type of gas used to ignite them and their characteristics are discussed in detail. Secondly, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the ‘plasma bullet’, is discussed and its behavior described. Thirdly, the very recent developments on the behavior of plasma jets when launched in a controlled environment and pressure are also introduced. This is followed by a discussion on the interaction between plasma jets. Finally, perspectives on APNP-J research are presented. (paper)

  12. Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect observations of the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) with APEX-SZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, N.W.; Lanting, T.; Ade, P.A.R.; Basu, K.; Bender, A.N.; Benson, B.A.; Bertoldi, F.; Cho, H.-M.; Chon, G.; Clarke, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ferrusca, D.; Gusten, R.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Kovacs, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kermish, Z.; Kneissl, R.; Lee, A.T.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Menten, K.M.; Muders, D.; Nord, M.; Pacaud, F.; Plagge, T.; Reichardt, C.; Richards, P.L.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Schuller, F.; Schwan, D.; Spieler, H.; Tucker, C.; Weiss, A.; Zahn, O.

    2008-07-25

    We present observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) using the APEX-SZ instrument at 150 GHz with a resolution of 1'. The main results are maps of the SZE in this massive, merging galaxy cluster. The cluster is detected with 23 sigma significance within the central 1' radius of the source position. The SZE map has a broadly similar morphology to that in existing X-ray maps of this system, and we find no evidence for significant contamination of the SZE emission by radio or IR sources. In order to make simple quantitative comparisons with cluster gas models derived from X-ray observations, we fit our data to an isothermal elliptical beta model, despite the inadequacy of such a model for this complex merging system. With an X-ray derived prior on the power-law index, beta = 1.04+0.16-0.10, we find a core radius rc = 142" +- 18", an axial ratio of 0.889 +- 0.072, and a central temperature decrement of -771 +- 71 muKCMB, including a +-5.5percent flux calibration uncertainty. Combining the APEX-SZ map with a map of projected electron surface density from Chandra X-ray observations, we determine the mass-weighted temperature of the cluster gas to be Tmg = 10.8 +- 0.9 keV, significantly lower than some previously reported X-ray spectroscopic temperatures. Under the assumption of an isothermal cluster gas distribution in hydrostatic equilibrium, we compute the gas mass fraction for prolate and oblate spheroidal geometries and find it to be consistent with previous results from X-ray and weak-lensing observations. This work is the first result from the APEX-SZ experiment and represents the first reported scientific result from observations with a large array of multiplexed superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometers.

  13. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ``ideal system,`` could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  14. A comparison of surface topography characterization technologies for use in comparing spent bullet and cartridge case signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishko, C.R.; Hickman, B.J.; Cuta, F.M.

    1992-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked by the US Department of Energy to provide technical assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in evaluating and ranking technologies potentially useful in high-speed comparison of unique spent bullet and cartridge case surface signatures. Information sources included vendor input, current relevant literature, vendor phone contacts, other FBI resources, relevant PNL reports, and personal contact with numerous PNL technical staff. A comprehensive list of technologies was reduced to a list of 38 by grouping very similar methodologies, and further reduced to a short list of six by applying a set of five minimum functional requirements. A total of 14 primary criteria, many having secondary criteria, were subsequently used to evaluate each technology. The ranked short list results are reported and supported in this document, and their scores normalized to a hypothetical ideal system are as follows: (1) confocal microscopy 82.13; (2) laser dynamic focusing 72.04; (3)moire interferometry V70.94; (4)fringe field capacitance;(5)laser triangulation 66.18; (6)structured/sectioned light 65.55. Information available within the time/budget constraints which was used for the evaluation and ranking was not sufficiently detailed to evaluate specific implementations of the technologies. Each of the technologies in the short list was judged potentially capable of meeting the minimum requirements. Clever, novel engineering solutions resulting in a more cost-effective system, or a closer fit to the ideal system,'' could result in a reordering of the short list when actual technical proposals are evaluated. Therefore, it is recommended that a Request for Proposal not be limited to only the highest ranked technology, but include all six technologies in the short list.

  15. Atypical gunshot injury to the right side of the face with the bullet lodged in the carotid sheath: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ongom, Peter A; Kijjambu, Stephen C; Jombwe, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gunshot injuries of the head and neck from the AK-47 rifle (a common assault rifle, submachine gun type) are a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality among civilians in Sub-Saharan Africa. They may cause significant damage to the closely arranged structures in this region, and the bullet’s trajectory can be very difficult to determine. We present an unusual case of gunshot injury with an atypical bullet entry wound, profound injury to the face, lodgment in the right c...

  16. Destratification efficiency by hypolimnitic water lifter with air bullets. Kihodan wo mochiita shinsosui yosui shisetsu ni yoru mitsudo seiso no kongo koritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, H; Suga, K [Utsunomiya University, Tochigi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Asaeda, T [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-02-21

    The intermittent aeration and circulation method is used frequently to destruct temperature stratification in a reservoir to prevent it from eutrophication. This method uses a cylinder erected in water, into which air bullets are shot out intermittently to circulate and mix heavier water mass upward. The present study has performed numerical analysis on the process to mix density stratifications by operating an intermittent water lifter cylinder for an extended period of time, and discussed responses of each factor to variation. The numerical computation has been carried out according to the equation of motion for water and air in the water lifter cylinder, and the numerical model that hypothesizes the double plume after air bubbles have departed from the water lifter cylinder. The result indicated that the amount of hypolimnitic water lifted against the amount of air injected can be expressed by an empirical formula that uses only the relative air bullet volumes. An evaluation formula for the water lifting efficiency has also been derived. It has been found for the stratification mixing that trends in the mixing efficiency can be identified by two parameters of dimensionless air bubble amount and stratification strength. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gražulevičiūtė, I; Garejev, N; Majus, D; Tamošauskas, G; A Dubietis; Jukna, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space–time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45–2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse. (paper)

  18. Filamentation and light bullet formation dynamics in solid-state dielectric media with weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gražulevičiūtė, I.; Garejev, N.; Majus, D.; Jukna, V.; Tamošauskas, G.; Dubietis, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a series of measurements, which characterize filamentation dynamics of intense ultrashort laser pulses in the space-time domain, as captured by means of three-dimensional imaging technique in sapphire and fused silica, in the wavelength range of 1.45-2.25 μm, accessing the regimes of weak, moderate and strong anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD). In the regime of weak anomalous GVD (at 1.45 μm), pulse splitting into two sub-pulses producing a pair of light bullets with spectrally shifted carrier frequencies in both nonlinear media is observed. In contrast, in the regimes of moderate (at 1.8 μm) and strong (at 2.25 μm) anomalous GVD we observe notably different transient dynamics, which however lead to the formation of a single self-compressed quasistationary light bullet with an universal spatiotemporal shape comprised of an extended ring-shaped periphery and a localized intense core that carries the self-compressed pulse.

  19. Bread and bullets

    OpenAIRE

    Akerlof, George A.; Snower, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    Standard economics omits the role of narratives (the stories that people tell themselves and others) when they make all kinds of decisions. Narratives play a role in understanding the environment; focusing attention; predicting events; motivating action; assigning social roles and identities; defining power relations; and establishing and conveying social norms. This paper describes the role narratives play in decision making, as it also juxtaposes this description against the backdrop of the...

  20. Bone-patch type secondary projectiles: A report on two shots fired at point-blank range using hollow point bullets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbranque, S; Jousset, N; Nedelcu, C; Rougé-Maillart, C

    2014-12-01

    The number of head wounds due to firearms remains low in France because these cases are primarily linked to suicide (or attempted suicide) and, to a lesser extent, to attacks or hunting accidents [1]. Characterized by the impact of a projectile, which in most cases is made of metal, at high levels of kinetic energy, such acts generally result in severe trans-cerebral lesions with significant levels of morbidity/mortality [2]. Seldom are cases reported in the literature that give a detailed study of intracranial foreign bodies made of bone in such situations [3]. Here we report on the case of two suicides resulting from a transcranial gunshot wounds caused by weapons and ammunition issued by the French police force. Each case helped distinguish a characteristic bone fragment, in the form of a "patch", equivalent in size to the caliber of the bullet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial genome of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection provides novel genetic information about two subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Sen; Chen, Xinghan; Lin, Haoran; Meng, Zining

    2016-09-01

    Previously morphological studies supported the division of the bullet tuna into the two subspecies, Auxis rochei rochei and A. rochei eudorax. As a cosmopolitan species, A. rochei rochei ranges in the Indo-West Pacific and Atlantic oceans, while A. rochei eudorax inhabits in eastern Pacific region. Here, we used the HiSeq next-generation sequencing technique to determine the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. rochei from Indo-West Pacific collection, and then compared our data with mitogenomic sequences of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific retrieved from NCBI database. Results showed the mitogenome of A. rochei from three geographic collections shared the same genes and gene order, similar to typical teleosts. Also, we examined a low level of nucleotide diversity among these mitogenomic sequences. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity of intra-subspecies (Atlantic versus Indo-West) was higher than that of inter-subspecies (Atlantic versus eastern Pacific, Indo-West versus eastern Pacific).

  2. Penetrating gunshot wound to the head: transotic approach to remove the bullet and masseteric-facial nerve anastomosis for early facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, Pasquale; Tarantino, Roberto; Gennaro, Paolo; Mitro, Valeria; Valentini, Valentino; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Delfini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Gunshot wounds to the head (GSWH) account for the majority of penetrating brain injuries, and are the most lethal. Since they are rare in Europe, the number of neurosurgeons who have experienced this type of traumatic injury is decreasing, and fewer cases are reported in the literature. We describe a case of gunshot to the temporal bone in which the bullet penetrated the skull resulting in the facial nerve paralysis. It was excised with the transotic approach. Microsurgical anastomosis among the masseteric nerve and the facial nerve was performed. GSWH are often devastating. The in-hospital mortality for civilians with penetrating craniocerebral injury is very high. Survivors often have high rate of complications. When facial paralysis is present, masseteric-facial direct neurorraphy represent a good treatment.

  3. Impact analysis of side door of a car and bullet proof vest with material ‘SAM2X5-630’ using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhode, Trushant; Patil, Girish; Rajkumar, E.

    2017-11-01

    The components which are bound to impact are subjected to deformation even though it may be for a small scale. The efforts are always on for finding the best material to take impact that has no failure or moreover, less plastic deformation. A newly found material which is glass matrix steel named as ‘SAM2X5-630’ has astounding high elastic limit of 12.5GPa. Thus it can take powerful impact & regain its original shape avoiding the deformation of component under impact. The paper is focused on performing the Finite element analysis to assess the behaviour of ‘SAM2X5-630’ steel under impact loading of side door of car as well as impact of bullet on bulletproof jacket on which the material is assigned. The displacement or deformation occurred during impact is found to be lesser than known materials like Kevlar in bulletproof vest and Aluminium alloy in car door.

  4. Rate constants and temperature effects for reactions of Cl2sm-bullet- with unsaturated alcohols and hydrocarbons in aqueous and acetonitrile/water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaja, S.; Neta, P.; Huie, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for reactions of the dichlorine radical anion, Cl 2 sm-bullet- , with unsaturated alcohols and hydrocarbons have been measured at various temperatures. The alcohol reactions were measured in aqueous solutions and the hydrocarbon reactions in 1:1 aqueous acetonitirle (ACN) solutions. The rate constants for two alcohols and one hydrocarbon were also examined as a function of solvent composition. The room temperature rate constants varied between 10 6 and 10 9 M -1 s -1 . The pre-exponential factors, A, were about (1-5) x 10 9 M -1 s -1 for the alcohols in aqueous solutions and about (0.1-1) x 10 9 M -1 s -1 for the hydrocarbons in aqueous ACN solutions. The activation energies, E a , varied considerably, between 4 and 12 kJ mol -1 for the alcohols and between 2 and 8 kJ mol -1 for the hydrocarbons. The rate constants, k 298 , decrease with increasing ionization potential (IP) of the unsaturated compound, in agreement with an electrophilic addition mechanism. The activation energies for the unsaturated alcohols decrease when the IP decreases from 9.7 to 9.1 eV but appear to level off at lower IP. Most alkenes studied had IP a . Upon addition of ACN to the aqueous solution, the values of log k 298 decreased linearly by more than 1 order of magnitude with increasing ACN mole fraction. This decrease appears to result from a combination of changes in the activation energy and in the pre-exponential factor. The reason for these changes may lie in changes in the solvation shell of the Cl 2 sm-bullet- radical, which will affect the A factor, in combination with changes in solvation of Cl - , which will affect the energetics of the reactions as well. 20 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Petrović Todosijević

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to illustrate the role the municipal authorities in Šabac, which were headed by wartime mayor Branko Petrović, and which were part of Milan Aćimović’s collaborationist administration and Milan Nedić’s government, played in the process of usurping the right to property of the Jewish people from Šabac and from the Kladovo Transport, initially through the Committee for Registration and Evaluation of Jewish Property, and later through the Commissariat for Jewish Property.   Article received: May 2, 2017; Article accepted: May 8, 2017; Published online: September 15, 2017 Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Petrović Todosijević, Sanja. "Holocaust With(out Bullets: The Public and Property of the Jewish People from Šabac and the Kladovo Transport 1941–1944." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 13 (2017: 5-15. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i13.181

  6. The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Taylor, Andy; Tittley, Eric

    2015-03-27

    Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a test of the nongravitational forces acting on dark matter. Dark matter's lack of deceleration in the "bullet cluster" collision constrained its self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m dark matter) for long-ranged forces. Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes, we have now observed 72 collisions, including both major and minor mergers. Combining these measurements statistically, we detect the existence of dark mass at 7.6σ significance. The position of the dark mass has remained closely aligned within 5.8 ± 8.2 kiloparsecs of associated stars, implying a self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m < 0.47 cm(2)/g (95% CL) and disfavoring some proposed extensions to the standard model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Richardson, John D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lugaz, Noé, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished.

  8. SUN-TO-EARTH CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS INTERACTING NEAR 1 AU: FORMATION OF A COMPLEX EJECTA AND GENERATION OF A TWO-STEP GEOMAGNETIC STORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.; Lugaz, Noé

    2014-01-01

    On 2012 September 30-October 1 the Earth underwent a two-step geomagnetic storm. We examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) responsible for the geomagnetic storm with combined heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. The first CME, which occurred on 2012 September 25, is a slow event and shows an acceleration followed by a nearly invariant speed in the whole Sun-Earth space. The second event, launched from the Sun on 2012 September 27, exhibits a quick acceleration, then a rapid deceleration, and finally a nearly constant speed, a typical Sun-to-Earth propagation profile for fast CMEs. These two CMEs interacted near 1 AU as predicted by the heliospheric imaging observations and formed a complex ejecta observed at Wind, with a shock inside that enhanced the pre-existing southward magnetic field. Reconstruction of the complex ejecta with the in situ data indicates an overall left-handed flux-rope-like configuration with an embedded concave-outward shock front, a maximum magnetic field strength deviating from the flux rope axis, and convex-outward field lines ahead of the shock. While the reconstruction results are consistent with the picture of CME-CME interactions, a magnetic cloud-like structure without clear signs of CME interactions is anticipated when the merging process is finished

  9. Examining Elementary School Students' Mental Models of Sun-Earth Relationships as a Result of Engaging in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Current reform efforts in science education in the United States call for students to learn science through the integration of science and engineering practices. Studies have examined the effect of engineering design on students' understanding of engineering, technology, and science concepts. However, the majority of studies emphasize the accuracy…

  10. Sun-Earth Connections: How the Sun Knocks Out My Cell Phone from 150 Million Kilometers Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2014-01-01

    Large solar particle events (SPE) threaten many elements of critical infrastructure. A 2013 study by Lloyds of London and Atmospheric and Environmental Research recently found that if a worst-case solar event like the 1859 Carrington Event struck our planet now, it could result on $0.6-$2.36 trillion in damages to the economy. In March 2014, researchers Y. D. Liu et al. revealed that just such an event had narrowly missed Earth in July 2012. The event was observed by the STEREO A spacecraft. In this presentation, we examine how the sun can pack such a punch from 150 million km away, the threats such solar particle events pose, their mechanisms and the efforts NASA and other space agencies are carrying out to understand and mitigate such risks.

  11. A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmann, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

  12. Generalization of Rindler Potential at Cluster Scales in Randers-Finslerian Spacetime: a Possible Explanation of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Li, Ming-Hua; Lin, Hai-Nan; Li, Xin

    2012-12-01

    The data of the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 released on November 15, 2006 reveal that the strong and weak gravitational lensing convergence κ-map has an 8σ offset from the Σ-map. The observed Σ-map is a direct measurement of the surface mass density of the Intracluster medium (ICM) gas. It accounts for 83% of the averaged mass-fraction of the system. This suggests a modified gravity theory at large distances different from Newton's inverse-square gravitational law. In this paper, as a cluster scale generalization of Grumiller's modified gravity model (Phys. Rev. Lett.105 (2010) 211303), we present a gravity model with a generalized linear Rindler potential in Randers-Finslerian spacetime without invoking any dark matter. The galactic limit of the model is qualitatively consistent with the MOND and Grumiller's. It yields approximately the flatness of the rotational velocity profile at the radial distance of several kpcs and gives the velocity scales for spiral galaxies at which the curves become flattened. Plots of convergence κ for a galaxy cluster show that the peak of the gravitational potential has chances to lie on the outskirts of the baryonic mass center. Assuming an isotropic and isothermal ICM gas profile with temperature T = 14.8 keV (which is the center value given by observations), we obtain a good match between the dynamical mass MT of the main cluster given by collisionless Boltzmann equation and that given by the King β-model. We also consider a Randers+dark matter scenario and a Λ-CDM model with the NFW dark matter distribution profile. We find that a mass ratio η between dark matter and baryonic matter about 6 fails to reproduce the observed convergence κ-map for the isothermal temperature T taking the observational center value.

  13. Technology Assisted Language Learning is a silver bullet for enhancing Language competence and performance: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology Assisted Language Learning (TALL is an infallible means to develop profound knowledge and wide range of language skills. It instills in EFL learners an illimitable passion for task-based and skills oriented learning rather than rote memorization. New technological gadgets have commoditized a broad-based learning and teaching avenues and brought the whole learning process to life. A vast variety of authentic online- learning resources, motivational visual prompts, exciting videos, web-based interactivity and customizable language software, email, discussion forums, Skype, Twitter, apps, Internet mobiles, Facebook and YouTube have become obtrusive tools to enhance competence and performance in EFL teaching and learning realms. Technology can also provide various types of scaffolding for students learning to read. Nevertheless, instructors can also enhance their pedagogical effectiveness. However, the main focus of interest in this study is to ascertain to what extent the modern technological devices augment learners’ competence and performance specifically in vocabulary learning, grammatical accuracy and listening/ speaking skills. The remarkable scores of empirical surveys conducted in the present study reveal that TALL does assist learners to improve listening / speaking skills, pronunciation, extensive vocabulary and grammatical accuracy. The findings also manifest that the hybridity, instantaneity and super-diversity of digital learning lay far-reaching impact on learners' motivation for learning and incredibly maneuver learners to immerse in the whole learning process.

  14. Dolphins. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The family Delphinidae is the largest family of toothed whales. It includes not only those mammals commonly referred to as dolphins, such as the bottlenosed dolphin often seen in captivity, but also the killer whale. This literature and resources guide is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography on dolphins; the guide is designed--as the…

  15. Algae. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    The plants and plantlike organisms informally grouped together as algae show great diversity of form and size and occur in a wide variety of habitats. These extremely important photosynthesizers are also economically significant. For example, some species contaminate water supplies; others provide food for aquatic animals and for man; still others…

  16. Depleted uranium - 'the silver bullet'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Ferrada, C.; Wollongong University, NSW

    2001-01-01

    Article 35 of the Geneva protocols, signed by 150 countries in 1949 and an additional protocol signed from 1977 onwards prohibited the use of weapons that cause and inflict unnecessary injury and suffering. In the recent wars such as Bosnia, Kosovo and the Gulf War, more than 31,000 missiles were launched against enemy lines containing DU and more than 300 tonnes of DU during the Gulf War alone. DU is a radioactive and toxic element. In humans it can cause lung cancer, damage to the liver and kidney affecting the bone marrow and consequently destroying stem cells that form the white cells resulting in mutations and the long lasting effect of genetic damage

  17. Magnetic Bead—Magic Bullet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ruffert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics is assumed to be one of the leading and most promising areas of research since the early 1990s. In microfluidic systems, small spherical magnetic particles with superparamagnetic properties, called magnetic beads, play an important role in the design of innovative methods and tools, especially in bioanalysis and medical sciences. The intention of this review paper is to address main aspects from the state-of-the-art in the area of magnetic bead research, while demonstrating the broad variety of applications and the huge potential to solve fundamental biological and medical problems in the fields of diagnostics and therapy. Basic issues and demands related to the fabrication of magnetic particles and physical properties of nanosize magnets are discussed in Section 2. Of main interest are the control and adjustment of the nanoparticles’ properties and the availability of adequate approaches for particle detection via their magnetic field. Section 3 presents an overview of magnetic bead applications in nanomedicine. In Section 4, practical aspects of sample manipulation and separation employing magnetic beads are described. Finally, the benefits related to the use of magnetic bead-based microfluidic systems are summarized, illustrating ongoing questions and open tasks to be solved on the way to an approaching microfluidic age.

  18. Interactions in the Dark Sector of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Rachel

    The success of modern cosmology hinges on two dramatic augmentations beyond the minimalist assumption of baryonic matter interacting gravitationally through general relativity. The first assumption is that there must exist either new gravitational dynamics or a new component of the cosmic energy budget - dark matter - that allows structure to form and accounts for weak lensing and galactic rotation curves. The second assumption is that a further dynamical modification or energy component - dark energy - exists, driving late-time cosmic acceleration. The need for these is now firmly established through a host of observations, which have raised crucial questions, and present a deep challenge to fundamental physics. The central theme of this proposal is the detailed understanding of the nature of the dark sector through the inevitable interactions between its individual components and with the visible universe. Such interactions can be crucial to a given model's viability, affecting its capability to reproduce the cosmic expansion history; the detailed predictions or structure formation; the gravitational dynamics on astrophysical and solar system scales; the stability of the microphysical model, and its ultimate consistency. While many models are consistent with cosmology on the coarsest scales, as is often the case, the devil may lie in the details. In this proposal we plan a comprehensive analysis of these details, focusing on the interactions within the dark sector and between it and visible matter, and on how these interactions affect the observational and theoretical consistency of models. Since it is unlikely that there will be a silver bullet allowing us to isolate the cause of cosmic acceleration, it is critical to develop a coherent view of the landscape of proposed models, extract clear predictions, and determine what combination of experiments and observations might allow us to test these predictions.

  19. Interactive teaching and learning with smart phone app in Optoelectronic Instruments course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Hao, Qun; Zhou, Ya; Huang, Yifan

    2017-08-01

    Optoelectronic Instruments is a comprehensive professional course for senior students majored in optical engineering and similar specialties. Due to the low lecturer/ student ratio, typically less than 1:100, most of the students gave up the chance of one-to-one communication with the lecturers even when they were confused about the principle or applications of the instruments. A smart phone App Rain Classroom associated with messaging App Wechat is introduced. It enables the lecturers to receive instant feedback from students through bullet screen, push preview and review materials and post in-class quiz. Investigation also shows that 76% of the students enjoyed the new interactive tool, acknowledging its help in understanding the topic better, improving in-class interaction, and after class communications.

  20. Fatal contact shot to the chest caused by the gas jet from a muzzle-loading pistol discharging only black powder and no bullet: case study and experimental simulation of the wounding effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große Perdekamp, Markus; Glardon, Matthieu; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bielefeld, Lena; Nadjem, Hadi; Pollak, Stefan; Pircher, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In modern medico-legal literature, only a small number of publications deal with fatal injuries from black powder guns. Most of them focus on the morphological features such as intense soot soiling, blast tattooing and burn effects in close-range shots or describe the wound ballistics of spherical lead bullets. Another kind of "unusual" and potentially lethal weapons are handguns destined for firing only blank cartridges such as starter and alarm pistols. The dangerousness of these guns is restricted to very close and contact range shots and results from the gas jet produced by the deflagration of the propellant. The present paper reports on a suicide committed with a muzzle-loading percussion pistol cal. 45. An unusually large stellate entrance wound was located in the precordial region, accompanied by an imprint mark from the ramrod and a faint greenish discoloration (apparently due to the formation of sulfhemoglobin). Autopsy revealed an oversized powder cavity, multiple fractures of the anterior thoracic wall as well as ruptures of the heart, the aorta, the left hepatic lobe and the diaphragm. In total, the zone of mechanical destruction had a diameter of approx. 15 cm. As there was no exit wound and no bullet lodged in the body, the injury was caused exclusively by the inrushing combustion gases of the propellant (black powder) comparable with the gas jet of a blank cartridge gun. In contact shots to ballistic gelatine using the suicide's pistol loaded with black powder but no projectile, the formation of a nearly spherical cavity could be demonstrated by means of a high-speed camera. The extent of the temporary cavity after firing with 5 g of black powder roughly corresponded to the zone of destruction found in the suicide's body.

  1. Femto-Satellite Sensor Node Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This innovation seeks to fill the need for capabilities to make simultaneous, distributed measurements of sun-earth interactions in low earth orbit in order to...

  2. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  3. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Intermolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.G.; Rodimova, O.B.; AN SSSR, Tomsk. Inst. Optiki Atmosfery)

    1978-01-01

    The present state of the intermolecular interaction theory is described. The general physical picture of the molecular interactions is given, the relative contributions of interactions of different types are analyzed (electrostatic, resonance, induction, dispersion, relativistic, magnetostatic and exchange), and the main ones in each range of separations are picked out. The methods of the potential curve calculations are considered, specific for definite separations between the interacting systems. The special attention is paid to the analysis of approximations used in different theoretical calculation methods

  5. Effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  6. Invariant natural killer T-cell control of type 1 diabetes: a dendritic cell genetic decision of a silver bullet or Russian roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, John P; Scheuplein, Felix; Chen, Yi-Guang; Grier, Alexandra E; Wilson, S Brian; Serreze, David V

    2010-02-01

    In part, activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cells with the superagonist alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) inhibits the development of T-cell-mediated autoimmune type 1 diabetes in NOD mice by inducing the downstream differentiation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) to an immunotolerogenic state. However, in other systems iNKT-cell activation has an adjuvant-like effect that enhances rather than suppresses various immunological responses. Thus, we tested whether in some circumstances genetic variation would enable activated iNKT-cells to support rather than inhibit type 1 diabetes development. We tested whether iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD mice and a major histocompatibility complex-matched C57BL/6 (B6) background congenic stock differed in capacity to inhibit type 1 diabetes induced by the adoptive transfer of pathogenic AI4 CD8 T-cells. Unlike those of NOD origin, iNKT-conditioned DCs in the B6 background stock matured to a state that actually supported rather than inhibited AI4 T-cell-induced type 1 diabetes. The induction of a differing activity pattern of T-cell costimulatory molecules varying in capacity to override programmed death-ligand-1 inhibitory effects contributes to the respective ability of iNKT-conditioned DCs in NOD and B6 background mice to inhibit or support type 1 diabetes development. Genetic differences inherent to both iNKT-cells and DCs contribute to their varying interactions in NOD and B6.H2(g7) mice. This great variability in the interactions between iNKT-cells and DCs in two inbred mouse strains should raise a cautionary note about considering manipulation of this axis as a potential type 1 diabetes prevention therapy in genetically heterogeneous humans.

  7. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  8. Floor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three...... different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors....

  9. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  10. Dark matter self-interactions and small scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2018-02-01

    We review theories of dark matter (DM) beyond the collisionless paradigm, known as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM), and their observable implications for astrophysical structure in the Universe. Self-interactions are motivated, in part, due to the potential to explain long-standing (and more recent) small scale structure observations that are in tension with collisionless cold DM (CDM) predictions. Simple particle physics models for SIDM can provide a universal explanation for these observations across a wide range of mass scales spanning dwarf galaxies, low and high surface brightness spiral galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. At the same time, SIDM leaves intact the success of ΛCDM cosmology on large scales. This report covers the following topics: (1) small scale structure issues, including the core-cusp problem, the diversity problem for rotation curves, the missing satellites problem, and the too-big-to-fail problem, as well as recent progress in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation; (2) N-body simulations for SIDM, including implications for density profiles, halo shapes, substructure, and the interplay between baryons and self-interactions; (3) semi-analytic Jeans-based methods that provide a complementary approach for connecting particle models with observations; (4) merging systems, such as cluster mergers (e.g., the Bullet Cluster) and minor infalls, along with recent simulation results for mergers; (5) particle physics models, including light mediator models and composite DM models; and (6) complementary probes for SIDM, including indirect and direct detection experiments, particle collider searches, and cosmological observations. We provide a summary and critical look for all current constraints on DM self-interactions and an outline for future directions.

  11. Security training with interactive laser-video-disk technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.

    1988-01-01

    DOE, through its contractor EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., has developed a state-of-the-art interactive-video system for use at the Department of Energy's Central Training Academy. Called the Security Training and Evaluation Shooting System (STRESS), the computer-driven decision shooting system employs the latest is laservideo-disk technology. STRESS is designed to provide realistic and stressful training for security inspectors employed by the DOE and its contractors. The system uses wide-screen video projection, sophisticated scenario-branching technology, and customized video scenarios especially designed for the DOE. Firing a weapon that has been modified to shoot ''laser bullets,'' and wearing a special vest that detects ''hits'': the security inspector encounters adversaries on the wide screen who can shoot or be shot by the inspector in scenarios that demand fast decisions. Based on those decisions, the computer provides instantaneous branching to different scenes, giving the inspector confrontational training with the realism and variability of real life

  12. A Closer Earth and the Faint Young Sun Paradox: Modification of the Laws of Gravitation or Sun/Earth Mass Losses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Given a solar luminosity LAr = 0.75L0 at the beginning of the Archean 3.8 Ga ago, where L0 is the present-day one, if the heliocentric distance, r, of the Earth was rAr = 0.956r0, the solar irradiance would have been as large as IAr = 0.82I0. It would have allowed for a liquid ocean on the terrestrial surface, which, otherwise, would have been frozen, contrary to the empirical evidence. By further assuming that some physical mechanism subsequently displaced the Earth towards its current distance in such a way that the irradiance stayed substantially constant over the entire Archean from 3.8 to 2.5 Ga ago, a relative recession per year as large as r˙/r ≈3.4 × 10−11 a−1 would have been required. Although such a figure is roughly of the same order of magnitude of the value of the Hubble parameter 3.8 Ga ago HAr = 1.192H0 = 8.2 × 10−11 a−1, standard general relativity rules out cosmological explanations for the hypothesized Earth’s recession rate. Instead, a class of modified theories of gravitation with nonminimal coupling between the matter and the metric naturally predicts a secular variation of the relative distance of a localized two-body system, thus yielding a potentially viable candidate to explain the putative recession of the Earth’s orbit. Another competing mechanism of classical origin that could, in principle, allow for the desired effect is the mass loss, which either the Sun or the Earth itself may have experienced during the Archean. On the one hand, this implies that our planet should have lost 2% of its present mass in the form of eroded/evaporated hydrosphere. On the other hand, it is widely believed that the Sun could have lost mass at an enhanced rate, due to a stronger solar wind in the past for not more than ≈ 0.2–0.3 Ga.

  13. The Sun-Earth connect 3: lessons from the periodicities of deep time influencing sea-level change and marine extinctions in the geological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert Gv; Flood, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    A number of papers since Rampino and Stothers published in Science 1984 have reported common periodicities in a wide range of climate, geomagnetic, tectonic and biological proxies, including marine extinctions. Single taper and multitaper spectral analysis of marine fluctuations between the Late Cretaceous and the Miocene replicates a number of the published harmonics. Whereas these common periodicities have been argued to have a galactic origin, this paper presents an alternative fractal model based on large scale fluctuations of the magnetic field of the Sun. The fluctuations follow a self-similar matrix of periodicities and the solutions of the differential equation allow for models to be constructed predicting extreme events for solar emissions. A comparison to major Phanerozoic extinction, climate and geomagnetic events, captured in the geological record, show a striking loop symmetry summarised in major 66 Ma irradiance and electromagnetic pulses from the Sun.

  14. Preface to the Special Issue on "Connection of Solar and Heliospheric Activities with Near-Earth Space Weather: Sun-Earth Connection"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chun Wu Sunny W. Y. Tam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (TAO presents a small collection of the materials presented at the 2011 International Space Plasma Symposium (ISPS, held at National Cheng-Kung University (NCKU in Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China (ROC, from August 15 - 19, 2011. The purpose of the Symposium was to bring space physicists together to present their recent research results and discuss some outstanding questions in, but not limited to, the solar corona, interplanetary medium, planetary magnetosphere and ionospheres. A total number of 59 papers were presented at the Symposium by scientists from 11 countries and regions.

  15. The Sun-Earth connect 2: Modelling patterns of a fractal Sun in time and space using the fine structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Self-similar matrices of the fine structure constant of solar electromagnetic force and its inverse, multiplied by the Carrington synodic rotation, have been previously shown to account for at least 98% of the top one hundred significant frequencies and periodicities observed in the ACRIM composite irradiance satellite measurement and the terrestrial 10.7cm Penticton Adjusted Daily Flux data sets. This self-similarity allows for the development of a time-space differential equation (DE) where the solutions define a solar model for transmissions through the core, radiative, tachocline, convective and coronal zones with some encouraging empirical and theoretical results. The DE assumes a fundamental complex oscillation in the solar core and that time at the tachocline is smeared with real and imaginary constructs. The resulting solutions simulate for tachocline transmission, the solar cycle where time-line trajectories either 'loop' as Hermite polynomials for an active Sun or 'tail' as complementary error functions for a passive Sun. Further, a mechanism that allows for the stable energy transmission through the tachocline is explored and the model predicts the initial exponential coronal heating from nanoflare supercharging. The twisting of the field at the tachocline is then described as a quaternion within which neutrinos can oscillate. The resulting fractal bubbles are simulated as a Julia Set which can then aggregate from nanoflares into solar flares and prominences. Empirical examples demonstrate that time and space fractals are important constructs in understanding the behaviour of the Sun, from the impact on climate and biological histories on Earth, to the fractal influence on the spatial distributions of the solar system. The research suggests that there is a fractal clock underpinning solar frequencies in packages defined by the fine structure constant, where magnetic flipping and irradiance fluctuations at phase changes, have periodically impacted on the Earth and the rest of the solar system since time immemorial.

  16. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J. C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchere, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Souček, Jan; An, J.; Přech, J.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, August (2016), s. 171-185 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space mission * coronal mass ejections * instrumentation * space weather Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616301456

  17. Aesthetic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Krogh, Peter

    2004-01-01

    , as it promotes aesthetics of use, rather than aesthetics of appearance. We coin this approach in the perspective of aesthetic interaction. Finally we make the point that aesthetics is not re-defining everything known about interactive systems. We provide a framework placing this perspective among other...

  18. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... in the suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  19. Explicit Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwgren, Jonas; Eriksen, Mette Agger; Linde, Per

    2006-01-01

    We report an ongoing study of palpable computing to support surgical rehabilitation, in the general field of interaction design for ubiquitous computing. Through explorative design, fieldwork and participatory design techniques, we explore the design principle of explicit interaction as an interp...

  20. Kinesthetic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Fritsch, Jonas; Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    Within the Human-Computer Interaction community there is a growing interest in designing for the whole body in interaction design. The attempts aimed at addressing the body have very different outcomes spanning from theoretical arguments for understanding the body in the design process, to more...... practical examples of designing for bodily potential. This paper presents Kinesthetic Interaction as a unifying concept for describing the body in motion as a foundation for designing interactive systems. Based on the theoretical foundation for Kinesthetic Interaction, a conceptual framework is introduced...... to reveal bodily potential in relation to three design themes – kinesthetic development, kinesthetic means and kinesthetic disorder; and seven design parameters – engagement, sociality, movability, explicit motivation, implicit motivation, expressive meaning and kinesthetic empathy. The framework is a tool...

  1. Pattern formation through spatial interactions in a modified Daisyworld model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Primavera, Leonardo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    following set of equations δαw/δt = αw [(1- αw - αb)β(T)- γ] (1) δαb/δT= αb [(1- αw - αb )β (T )- γ] (2) δT/δt= 1/ρcρ[1 - A(θ,t)]R(θ)- sigma;/ρcρg(T)T4 + 1/r2E-cosθδ/δθ [κ(θ)cosθδT/δθ (3) where αw,b are the daisy coverages of each species, β(T) and γ are the growth rate and the death rate per unit of time of daisies respectively, A(θ,t) is the albedo of the Earth, R(θ) describes the incident radiation, ρ is mass density of the atmosphere, cP is the heat capacity, κ = Ξ/ρcP, rE ≈= 6.37 × 108 cm is the Earth's radius and in which we use the expression of the Laplace operator in spherical coordinates. We found that, at variance with previous results, the system is able to self-regulate even in presence of values of the incident luminosity which are far from the current Sun-Earth conditions. In particular, the mutual exclusion of the two vegetation types, observed in previous models, is never observed in our case. Of course the model can be further enriched by considering, for example, more realistic conditions, e.g. the dependence of cp and κ on temperature, more realistic greenhouse effect and different initial conditions of daisies, which are currently under investigation.

  2. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  3. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

  4. Embarrassing Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deterding, Sebastian; Lucero, Andrés; Holopainen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Wherever the rapid evolution of interactive technologies disrupts standing situational norms, creates new, often unclear situational audiences, or crosses cultural boundaries, embarrassment is likely. This makes embarrassment a fundamental adoption and engagement hurdle, but also a creative design...

  5. Diffractive interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.; Marage, P.

    1996-08-01

    The general framework of diffractive deep inelastic scattering is introduced and reports given in the session on diffractive interactions at the international workshop on deep-inelastic scattering and related phenomena, Rome, April 1996, are presented. (orig.)

  6. Interaction Widget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced...... in the pattern. The intended audience of the pattern is developers and researchers within the field of human computer interaction....

  7. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  8. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  9. Multiquark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    To study multiquark interactions (MQI) the data of experiments confirming the presence of 3q, 6q, 12q states in interacting nuclear nucleons, in hadron- and lepton-nuclear processes at high energies and high momentum transfers are considered. Experimental data on cumulative processes pointing to the existence of MQI are analyzed. Two-channel model of a nucleus (the model of interacting nucleons) in the theory of coupled channels is discussed. The behaviour of form factor of deuteron and NQI (6q) contributions to ed scattering as well as deep inelastic scattering on nuclei are studied. The data known as EMC effect are discussed. It is pointed out that introduction of the notion MQI and consideration of a nucleus as a system of nucleons with a low MQI addition will help to explain such processes as cumulative reactions, form factors of a deuteron and light nuclei, deep inelastic scattering on nuclei

  10. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  11. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  12. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  13. Hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Kolar, P.; Kundrat, V.

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain invited lectures and papers presente at the symposium. Attention was devoted to hadron interactions a high energy in QCD, to the structure and decay of hadrons, the production of hadrons and supersymmetric particles in e + e - and ep collisions, to perturbation theory in quantum field theory, and new supersymmetric extensions of relativistic algebra. (Z.J

  14. Interactive Storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2015, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in November/December 2015. The 18 revised full papers and 13 short papers presented together with 9 posters, 9 workshop descriptions, an...

  15. Nanobody: the "magic bullet" for molecular imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases.

  16. Asbestos and Asbestosis. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Karen L., Comp.

    Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral found in several forms and because of its temperature-resisting properties, flexibility, and strength, it was widely used in the construction industry, automobile industry, and textile industry. Asbestos becomes dangerous when it crumbles and breaks releasing fibers that can cause asbestosis and certain…

  17. Soil Erosion. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    Soil erosion is the detachment and movement of topsoil or soil material from the upper part of the soil profile. It may occur in the form of rill, gully, sheet, or wind erosion. Agents of erosion may be water, wind, glacial ice, agricultural implements, machinery, and animals. Soil conservation measures require a thorough understanding of the…

  18. Adaptive Counterterrorism Tools over Silver Bullets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    Forging information network structures to understand spider webs of fixers, go-betweens and jihadists related to acts of terrorism is a complex task. Adapting models to represent the expected structure of networks for future pattern and missing link detection is even more challenging. In this paper...... in order to coordinate or reach consensus. Terrorism information structures are by nature emergent and evolving and as a consequence the retrievable knowledge keeps shifting patterns. We implement spatial and navigational hypertext techniques to support this nature. Working with knowledge, it is a common...... error to believe that the proliferation of terrorist violence is due to the wider availability of information through the Internet. This misconception, that all you need is knowledge, also applies to counterterrorism strategies. Actually experience, skill and resources of the individuals involved...

  19. Magic ferritin: A novel chemotherapeutic encapsulation bullet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Ece; Akif Kilic, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation of apoferritin into subunits at pH 2 followed by its reformation at pH 7.4 in the presence of doxorubicin-HCl gives rise to a solution containing five doxorubicin-HCl molecules trapped within the apoferritin. This is the first report showing that ferritin can encapsulate an anti-cancer drug into its cavity

  20. Acid Rain. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Pauline, Comp.

    The term "acid rain," also called "acid precipitation," generally refers to any precipitation having a pH value of less than 5.6. This guide to the literature on acid rain in the collections of the Library of Congress is not necessarily intended to be a comprehensive bibliography. It is designed to provide the reader with a set…

  1. No silver bullet in international development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Daneri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Development economics has started to propose solutions to the problem of development in underdeveloped countries since the 17th century. Over time, various solutions have been proposed by many different development researchers and economists. Most of these solutions have the common characteristic of looking for a so-called “silver bullet” to the problem of development, that is to say a single solution to be applied to all underdeveloped countries, which over time might be freedom, foreign aid, good governance or other single approach. The purpose of this paper is to argue that, being development generally intended as a sort of “adequate level of production of goods and services by public and private subjects in a given country”, the solution to the problem of development cannot be a single one, given that the basic theory of production in economics in based on 4 factors of production (entrepreneurship, labor, capital and land, so that the level and quality of these 4 factors and all the sub-factors influencing them (such as the climate in the case of land or the culture in the case of entrepreneurship will be the real responsible for the development process in a country.

  2. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  3. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  4. Electric Vehicles. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John E., Comp.

    This document reviews the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on electric vehicles. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed as the title implies, to put the reader "on target." This is of greatest utility to the beginning student of the topic. (AA)

  5. Research activities: magic bullet and all that

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basten, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology is the brain-child of the University of Sydney and its campus teaching hospital, Royal Prince Alfred. At present its research portfolio includes studies of cancer, autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis (in which white cells or antibodies attack our own tissues), and certain infections diseases, including leprosy and AIDS. Experiments involving radioactively labelled monoclonal antibodies in immunological and molecular biology studies are briefly presented. ills

  6. Interactive cinema : engagement and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosmeer, M.; Schouten, B.; Mitchell, A.

    2014-01-01

    Technologies that were initially developed to be applied within the domain of video games are currently being used in experiments to explore their meaning and possibilities for cinema and cinema audiences. In this position paper we examine how narrativity, interactivity and engagement are mutually

  7. Interactive Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guilmi, Corrado; Gallegati, Mauro; Landini, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Preface; List of tables; List of figures, 1. Introduction; Part I. Methodological Notes and Tools: 2. The state space notion; 3. The master equation; Part II. Applications to HIA Based Models: 4. Financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics I: heterogeneity and interaction; 5. Financial fragility and macroeconomic Dynamics II: learning; Part III. Conclusions: 6. Conclusive remarks; Part IV. Appendices and Complements: Appendix A: Complements to Chapter 3; Appendix B: Solving the ME to solve the ABM; Appendix C: Specifying transition rates; Index.

  8. Consequences of repeated discovery and benign neglect of non-interaction of waves (NIW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, ChandraSekhar

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the historical background behind the repeated discovery and repeated ignoring of the generic important property of all propagating waves, the Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW). The focus will be on the implications of NIW in most of the major optical phenomena with brief hints of importance. We argue that the prevailing postulate of wave-particle duality becomes unnecessary, once we accept NIW. Semi-classical model of treating light-matter interactions should be the preferred approach since the quantumness actually arises from within the structure of the energy levels (bands) in materials. Waves, and wave equations, do not support bullet-like propagation. We follow the historical trend starting from the tenth century physicist Alhazen, to the seventeenth century Newton and Huygens, then to the nineteenth century Young and Fresnel. Then we jump to twentieth century physicists Planck, Einstein, Bose, Dirac and Feynman. Had we recognized and appreciated NIW property of waves from the time of Alhazen, the evolutionary history of physics would have been dramatically different from what we have today. The prevailing dominance of the postulate of wave-particle duality is keeping us confused from seeking out actual reality; and hence, we should abandon this concept and search out better models. The paper demonstrates that NIW provides us with a platform for deeper understanding of the nature of EM waves that we have missed; it is not just semantics.

  9. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  10. Collocated Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Fischer, Joel; Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    interactions. Yet, new challenges abound as people wear and carry more devices than ever, creating fragmented device ecologies at work, and changing the ways we socialise with each other. In this workshop we seek to start a dialogue to look back as well as forward, review best practices, discuss and design......In the 25 years since Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein proposed the time-space taxonomy, research in the ‘same time, same place’ quadrant has diversified, perhaps even fragmented. This one-day workshop will bring together researchers with diverse, yet convergent interests in tabletop, surface, mobile...

  11. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  12. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  13. Interactive Workspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    augmented reality, interactive building elements, and mobile devices to support new ways of working in a diversity of application domains with work situations ranging from individual work, through local collaboration, to distributed collaboration. The work situations may take place in offices/project rooms......Many application domains such as architecture, engineering, industrial design, city planning, environmental supervision, health care etc. share the properties of users working collaboratively with complex mixtures of physical and digital materials. Studies in such domains show that it is hard...... to maintain and integrate these heterogeneous materials in traditional desktop computing environments. Our thesis is that pervasive computing technologies can be developed to support a more natural user collaboration in a rich variety of application. This may be achieved by going beyond the traditional...

  14. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  15. Electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W +- or Z 0 does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data

  16. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  17. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  18. Interactions of 82Pb208 nuclei with energy 158 GeV per nucleon with photoemulsion nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Andreeva, N.P.; Bubnov, V.I.; Gajtinov, A.Sh.; Kanygina, Eh.K.; Musaeva, A.K.; Sejtimbetov, A.M.; Skorobagatova, V.I.; Filippova, L.N.; Chasnikov, I.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    In this report there are experimental data on 82 Pb 208 nuclei (158 GeV) interaction with photoemulsion nuclei. The said data are compared to the similar ones for 79 Au 197 nuclei with less energy (10,7 A GeV). Stack of nuclear emulsion was irradiated with the beam of nuclei 82 Pb 208 at SPS of CERN. Events search was done along the primary nucleus trace. Pb nucleus average path length happened to be λ=(3,8±0,1) cm, this virtually coincides with the one calculated by Brandt and Peters formula (3,9 cm). Secondary particles were identified into s (storm), g (knock-on protons) and b- particles (target nucleus fragments), as well as into nucleus-bullet fragments with different charges (Z=1,2,≥3). This allowed obtaining event distribution by multiplicity of these particles (n s , n g , n b ) and fragments (n z=1,2,≥3 ), calculation of average values by multiplicity (see table), finding correlation of characteristics. >From the table it's clear that when the energy increases s > increases 2,5 times where as g > insignificantly decreases and b > doesn't change

  19. Designing for mobile interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The theme of this PhD project is designing for mobile interaction with devices and services, for the accessing, making, and sharing of information, taking into account the dynamic physical and social settings that embrace this interaction. To narrow down this theme, the whole project focuses...... on the exploitation of social interaction --- in particular among senior citizens --- to enhance and support mobile interaction....

  20. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  1. Designing for Interactional Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis further defines how to reach Interactional Empowerment through design for users. Interactional Empowerment is an interaction design program within the general area of affective interaction, focusing on the users’ abil­ity to reflect, express themselves and engage in profound meaning-making. This has been explored through design of three systems eMoto, Affective Di­ary and Affective Health, which all mirror users’ emotions or bodily reactions in interaction in some way. From these ...

  2. Online Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla

    2016-03-01

    Interest in on-line learning is increasing rapidly. A few years ago members of the LivePhoto Physics Group1 received collaborative NSF Grants2 to create short, single-topic, on-line activities that invite introductory physics students to make individual predictions about a phenomenon and test them though video observations or analysis. Each Vignette is designed for web delivery as: (1) an ungraded homework assignment or (2) an exercise to prepare for a class or tutorial session. Sample IVVs are available at the ComPadre website http://www.compadre.org/ivv/. Portions of Vignettes on mechanics topics including Projectile Motion, Circular Motion, the Bullet-Block phenomenon, and Newton's Third Law will be presented. Those attending this talk will be asked to guess what predictions students are likely to make about phenomena in various IVVs. These predictions can be compared to those made by students who completed Vignettes. Finally, research on the impact of Vignettes on student learning and attitudes will be discussed. Co-PI Robert Teese, Rochester Institute of Technology.

  3. Interactive pinball business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune Klok

    2012-01-01

    Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...... with hypotheses and experiment with scenarios as a way of innovating their business models, and why this is so...... to offer. This paper compares 'tangible business models' in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play...

  4. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  5. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  6. The interactive microbial ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Bidle, K.D.; Pedrós-Alió, C.; Legrand, C.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms inhabit diverse environments and interact over different spatial and temporal scales. To fully understand how these interactions shape genome structures, cellular responses, lifestyles, community ecology and biogeochemical cycles, integration of diverse approaches and data is

  7. Health Data Interactive (HDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Data Interactive (HDI) presents a broad range of important public health indicators through an interactive web-based application that provides access to...

  8. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  9. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  10. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  11. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bittleston, Leonora Sophia; Pierce, Naomi E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Pringle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent inter...

  12. Restricted Variance Interaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Keeler, Kathleen R.

    2018-01-01

    Although interaction hypotheses are increasingly common in our field, many recent articles point out that authors often have difficulty justifying them. The purpose of this article is to describe a particular type of interaction: the restricted variance (RV) interaction. The essence of the RV int...

  13. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  14. Media Facades beyond Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a the research project Digital Urban Living [www.digitalurbanliving.dk], we have taken part in the design of two large-scale installations that employ interactive technologies to facilitate participation and foster social interactions in public, urban settings. We present the two cases......, Aarhus by Light and Projected Poetry, and discuss the future trajectory of our work in this field, as well as some of our findings regarding the challenges of designing large-scale public interactive installations. In doing so, we specifically highlight the possibilities in relation to designing...... for affective experience and engaging interaction that advocate for a long-term interactive experience....

  15. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, Leonora S; Pierce, Naomi E; Ellison, Aaron M; Pringle, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent interactions in a comparative context is likely to facilitate prediction of the ecological roles of organisms (including microbes) in multispecies interactions and selective pressures acting in poorly understood or newly discovered multispecies systems. We illustrate the concept of convergent interactions with examples: vertebrates and their gut bacteria; ectomycorrhizae; insect-fungal-bacterial interactions; pitcher-plant food webs; and ants and ant-plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  17. Grasp interaction with tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.

  18. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruza, Peter [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Faculty of Science and Technology; Sofge, Donald [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States). Naval Research Lab.; Lawless, William [Paine Coll., Augusta, GA (United States); Rijsbergen, Keith van [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computing Science; Klusch, Matthias (eds.) [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  19. Food-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Yar Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  20. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruza, Peter; Rijsbergen, Keith van

    2009-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  1. Interactive Strategy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an interactive strategy-making model that combines central reasoning with ongoing learning from decentralised responses. The management literature often presents strategy as implementing an optimal plan identified through rational analysis and ascribes potential shortcomings...... to failed communication and execution of the planned actions. However, effective strategy-making comprises both central reasoning from forward-looking planning considerations and decentralised responses to emerging events as interacting elements in a dynamic adaptive system. The interaction between...

  2. Interactions in multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Ren, Dawei; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The recent focus on complex bacterial communities has led to the recognition of interactions across species boundaries. This is particularly pronounced in multispecies biofilms, where synergistic interactions impact the bacterial distribution and overall biomass produced. Importantly, in a number...... of settings, the interactions in a multispecies biofilm affect its overall function, physiology, or surroundings, by resulting in enhanced resistance, virulence, or degradation of pollutants, which is of significant importance to human health and activities. The underlying mechanisms causing these synergistic...

  3. Theory of particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokurov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Development and modern state of the theory of elementary particle interactions is described. The main aim of the paper is to give a picture of quantum field theory development in the form easily available for physicists not occupied in this field of science. Besides the outline of chronological development of main representations, the description of renormalization and renorm-groups, gauge theories, models of electro-weak interactions and quantum chromodynamics, the latest investigations related to joining all interactions and supersymmetries is given

  4. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  5. Proxemic Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés; Quigley, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    and their digital devices (i.e. the proxemic relationships). Building on the ideas of proxemic interactions, this workshop is motivated by the concept of ‘proxemic mobile collocated interactions’, to harness new or existing technologies to create engaging and interactionally relevant experiences. Such approaches......Recent research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices. However, existing practices fail to fully account for the culturally-dependent spatial relationships between people...... in exploring proxemics and mobile collocated interactions....

  6. Framing interactive methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2011-01-01

    Two paradigms of organization and leadership is outlined and compared. A theoretical model of interactive leadership is developed, combining learning, knowledge flow, leadership and organizational principles....

  7. Two interacting Hofstadter butterflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, A.; Bellissard, J.; Jacquod, P.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of two interacting particles in a quasiperiodic potential is addressed. Using analytical and numerical methods, we explore the spectral properties and eigenstates structure from the weak to the strong interaction case. More precisely, a semiclassical approach based on noncommutative geometry techniques is used to understand the intricate structure of such a spectrum. An interaction induced localization effect is furthermore emphasized. We discuss the application of our results on a two-dimensional model of two particles in a uniform magnetic field with on-site interaction. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Philosophy of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2011-01-01

    This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker.......This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker....

  9. Kinetics of depletion interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, G.A.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Depletion interactions between colloidal particles dispersed in a fluid medium are effective interactions induced by the presence of other types of colloid. They are not instantaneous but built up in time. We show by means of Brownian dynamics simulations that the static (mean-field) depletion force

  10. Curiosity and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieben, R.; Bekker, M.M.; Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the concepts of curiosity and interaction: how can we elicit curiosity in public spaces through interactive systems? We have developed a model consisting of five curiosity-evoking principles. In an iterative design research approach, we have explored the design implementations of these

  11. Storyboarding Multimedia Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how to include interactivity when designing multimedia-based training (MBT) storyboards is a major key for a successful MBT. Discusses the basic formats of interactions and when to use each format. Describes how to storyboard and areas to address, including: the display area, prompts, branching, programming and graphics notes,…

  12. Designing for Interaction Proxemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil

    2018-01-01

    Design of interactive technology provides opportunities as well as constraints in how a group of users can organize in a shared space. The core argument of interaction proxemics is to consider this in designing for collaboration. In my thesis, I focus on conceptualizing design of ubicomp...

  13. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  14. Electroweak interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1984-06-01

    Topics include: introduction to electroweak theory; the Weinberg-Salam theory for leptons; the Weinberg-Salam theory for hadrons-the GIM mechanism; electron scattering as a probe of the electroweak interaction (observation of PV, the weak interaction for nucleons, and parity violation in atoms); and time reversed invariance and electric dipole moments of nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. 52 references

  15. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to μ + and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics

  16. Foreign language interactive didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moisés Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Interactive Didactics is intended for foreign language teachers and would-be teachers since it is an interpretation of the foreign language teaching-learning process is conceived from a reflexive social interaction. This interpretation declares learning based on interactive tasks that provide learners with opportunities to interact meaningfully among them, as a way to develop interactional competence as objective in itself and as a means to obtain communicative competence. Foreign language interactive didactics claims for the unity of reflection and action while learning the language system and using it to communicate, by means of solving problems presented in interactive tasks. It proposes a kind of teaching that is interactive, developmental, collaborative, holist, cognitive, problematizing, reflexive, student centered, humanist, and with a strong affective component that empower the influencing psychological factors in learning. This conception appears in the book: DIDÁCTICA INTERACTIVA DE LENGUAS (2007 y 2010. The book is used as a textbook for the subject of Didactics that is part of the curriculum in language teachers’ formation of all the pedagogical sciences universities, in Spanish teachers’ formation who are not Spanish speaking people at Havana University, and also as a reference book for postgraduate courses, master’s and doctorate’ s degrees.

  17. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  18. Drug interactions with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesslewood, S.; Leung, E.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable information on documented drug and radiopharmaceutical interactions has been assembled in a tabular form, classified by the type of nuclear medicine study. The aim is to provide a rapid reference for nuclear medicine staff to look for such interactions. The initiation of drug chart monitoring or drug history taking of nuclear medicine patients and the reporting of such events are encouraged. (orig.)

  19. Let Social Interaction Flourish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anny Fritzen

    2016-01-01

    The author describes lessons learned--through a high school project that grouped English language learners with native speakers to create a video--about ways to foster respectful, productive interaction among English learners and peers who are native speakers. The potential benefits of students who are just learning English interacting socially…

  20. Photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions

  1. Computations and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, S.P.; Tilburg, van P.J.A.; Natarajan, R.; Ojo, A.

    2011-01-01

    We enhance the notion of a computation of the classical theory of computing with the notion of interaction. In this way, we enhance a Turing machine as a model of computation to a Reactive Turing Machine that is an abstract model of a computer as it is used nowadays, always interacting with the user

  2. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  3. Media Facades beyond Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a the research project Digital Urban Living [www.digitalurbanliving.dk], we have taken part in the design of two large-scale installations that employ interactive technologies to facilitate participation and foster social interactions in public, urban settings. We present the two cases...

  4. Interaction Analysis and Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Edmund

    This paper describes a model that uses interaction analysis as a tool to provide feedback to a teacher in a microteaching situation. The author explains how interaction analysis can be used for teacher improvement, describes the category system used in the model, the data collection methods used, and the feedback techniques found in the model. (JF)

  5. Interaction of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustueva, K A; Sanotsky, I V

    1975-01-01

    In evaluating the health effects of chemical and physical factors, it is of great importance to know the possible interactions between different pollutants. The biological effects of interactions, when present, may be synergistic, antagonistic or additive. Each type of interaction calls for a different evaluation and different practical measures. As yet the understanding of such effects is not clear, probably because of differing definitions of terminology. For example, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide and particulates is interpreted as a synergistic effect; in the author's opinion, this is an aggravating effect. The type of interaction depends on the levels of concentration observed, for example, the synergism shown at high levels of concentration is not always demonstrated for low levels of concentration. In fact there is little evidence of synergistic effects from ambient air pollutant; the more common type of interaction is additive in effect. 12 references.

  6. Diachronic Perspective and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    . An ongoing participatory inquiry is being conducted, to explore deeper forms of learning and communication for historical museums. Our hypothesis is that the diachronic perspective on historical processes, defined as social interaction within the environment through time, is a key missing element....... Although this interaction style may appeal to teachers, as it reminds of school teaching, it has several disadvantages: a dialogue never occurs between adults and children, who listen in silence, hence it becomes hard to evaluate what has being learnt and how deeply, and finally it is not very engaging....... Explorations of more interactive representations of the diachronic perspective, through play and tangible interaction, may foster a dialogue with young visitors. Therefore, a new interactive installation is being designed, intended as a tool to enrich learning, allowing children to experience historical...

  7. Density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on-and half-off-of-the-energy shell t-and g-matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as input. As such, it is seen to better reproduce the interaction on which it is based than other commonly used density dependent effective interactions. The new (medium modified) effective interaction when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton- 12 C and proton- 16 O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable. 23 refs., 8 figs

  8. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  9. Drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, W.B.; Ponto, J.A.; Stathis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Patients seen in the nuclear medicine department have a wide variety of disorders and, consequently, may be receiving any number of therapeutic drugs. For this reason, nuclear medicine professionals should be aware of the potential effects that these pharmacologic agents may have on the bio-distribution of subsequently administered radiopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as ''drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions.'' Compared with the quantity of literature written about interactions between various therapeutic drugs, the information available on drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions is scarce. However, there has been increasing interest in this subject, particularly during the past five years. Some of the reported interactions are used intentionally to add a new dimension to the nuclear medicine study and increase its diagnostic capabilities, i.e., pharmacologic intervention. These beneficial ''interactions'' are discussed in detail in several other chapters of this book. Other interactions, however, cause changes in the normal distribution of radiopharmaceuticals, which may interfere with the diagnostic utility of various nuclear medicine procedures. The latter group of interactions is the focus of this chapter

  10. Sketches in Embodied Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Dahl, Sofia; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    and provide a simple example as a design outcome. The variety and the qualities of the initial ideas indicate that this approach might provide a better foundation for our participants, compared to the approaches that focus only on technologies. The interactive sketches were demonstrated at the conference.......We present an approach for teaching and designing embodied interaction based on interactive sketches. We have combined the mover perspective and felt experiences of movement with advanced technologies (multi-agents, physical simulations) in a generative design session. We report our activities...

  11. Interaction university and school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gionara Tauchen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the interaction between universities and middle schools is fundamental for organization and the qualification of the education system, we conducted a qualitative study on twenty public municipal schools of Rio Grande, RS, designed to investigate and understand the effectiveness of university activities (teaching, research and extension in regard to the promotion and strengthening of the interactions between these institutions. We highlight the activities related to Pibid, the Education Observatory, extension, supervised internships, and to undergraduate and postgraduate research. From comprehensions about these activities, we discuss the interaction between school and university.

  12. Multiactivity in Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doing more than one thing at the same time – a phenomenon that is often called ‘multitasking’ – is characteristic to many situations in everyday and professional life. Although we all experience it, its real time features remain understudied. Multiactivity in Social Interaction: Beyond multitasking...... by using video recordings of real-life interactions from a range of different contexts, such as medical settings, office workplaces and car driving. With the companion collection Interacting with Objects: Language, materiality, and social activity, the book advances understanding of the complex...

  13. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  14. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)

  15. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).

  16. Interaction as Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in interaction design principles for ubiquitous computing environments, specifically implications related to situated and mobile aspects of work. We present 'Interaction through Negotiation' as a general Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) paradigm, aimed...... at ubiquitous/pervasive technology and environments, with focus on facilitating negotiation in and between webs of different artifacts, humans and places. This approach is concerned with the way technology presents itself to us, both as physical entities and as conceptual entities, as well as the relations...... on several extensive empirical case studies, as well as co-operative design-sessions, we present a reflective analysis providing insights into results of the "Interaction through Negotiation" design approach in action. A very promising area of application is exception handling in pervasive computing...

  17. Atomic and Molecular Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic and Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field

  18. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1992-10-01

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out

  19. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS SOCIAL INTERACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Lima, Patricia; Olsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore how entrepreneurs work with innovation; to explore and develop attention points in understanding entrepreneurship as social processes of interaction between people. Through interviews and engagement with entrepreneurs and key stakeholders, their actual social practices...... entrepreneurship as socially constructed through local interactions between players and identify key themes in these interactions within the organisation, such as leadership, becoming part of the initiative and trust/mistrust. By doing so, this paper contributes to an understanding of entrepreneurship as social...... and the influence on the progress as innovators are explored. It is focused on a new local activity in a Danish town, named the I-factory which has within a year gathered almost 40 entrepreneurs. As a part of the interaction, there were created activities to encourage even more collaboration. We see...

  20. Multiactivity in Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doing more than one thing at the same time – a phenomenon that is often called ‘multitasking’ – is characteristic to many situations in everyday and professional life. Although we all experience it, its real time features remain understudied. Multiactivity in Social Interaction: Beyond multitasking...... offers a fresh view to the phenomenon by presenting studies that explore how two or more activities can be related and made co-relevant as people interact with one another. The studies build on the basis that multiactivity is a social, verbal and embodied phenomenon. They investigate multiactivity...... by using video recordings of real-life interactions from a range of different contexts, such as medical settings, office workplaces and car driving. With the companion collection Interacting with Objects: Language, materiality, and social activity, the book advances understanding of the complex...

  1. Chasing Ecological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species-naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities.

  2. Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanady, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    In recent years air-sea interaction has emerged as a subject in its own right, encompassing small-scale and large-scale processes in both air and sea. Air-Sea Interaction: Laws and Mechanisms is a comprehensive account of how the atmosphere and the ocean interact to control the global climate, what physical laws govern this interaction, and its prominent mechanisms. The topics covered range from evaporation in the oceans, to hurricanes, and on to poleward heat transport by the oceans. By developing the subject from basic physical (thermodynamic) principles, the book is accessible to graduate students and research scientists in meteorology, oceanography, and environmental engineering. It will also be of interest to the broader physics community involved in the treatment of transfer laws, and thermodynamics of the atmosphere and ocean.

  3. Interactive Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    Interactivity is the continuous interaction between the user and the application to solve a task. Topology optimization is the optimization of structures in order to improve stiffness or other objectives. The goal of the thesis is to explore how topology optimization can be used in applications...... on theory of from human-computer interaction which is described in Chapter 2. Followed by a description of the foundations of topology optimization in Chapter 3. Our applications for topology optimization in 2D and 3D are described in Chapter 4 and a game which trains the human intuition of topology...... optimization is presented in Chapter 5. Topology optimization can also be used as an interactive modeling tool with local control which is presented in Chapter 6. Finally, Chapter 7 contains a summary of the findings and concludes the dissertation. Most of the presented applications of the thesis are available...

  4. Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Clawson, James; Lyons, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus...... going from personal/individual toward shared/multiuser experiences and interactions. However, computers are getting smaller, more powerful, and closer to our bodies. Therefore, mobile collocated interactions research, which originally looked at smartphones and tablets, will inevitably include ever......-smaller computers, ones that can be worn on our wrists or other parts of the body. The focus of this workshop is to bring together a community of researchers, designers and practitioners to explore the potential of extending mobile collocated interactions to the use of wearable devices....

  5. Magnon Interactions in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Mackintosh, Allan

    1970-01-01

    Magnon energies and lifetimes have been studied in Tb and Tb-10% Ho single crystals by inelastic neutron scattering. The lifetimes of magnons propagating in the c-direction have been measured in the ferromagnetic phase of Tb, and are found to decrease with increasing temperature and wave......-vector, probably principally due to magnon-magnon interactions. The interaction of magnons with phonons has also been observed and the effect of Ho impurities on this interaction studied. In addition, excitations which are ascribed to local modes associated with the Ho ions have been observed. The dependence...... of the indirect exchange interaction on temperature in the alloy gives information on the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the helical to ferromagnetic structures. The dependence of the magnon energies on magnetic field at low temperatures gives detailed information on the role of magnetoelastic...

  6. Fibronectin-cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, M R; Woods, A

    1990-01-01

    Fibronectins are widespread extracellular matrix and body fluid glycoproteins, capable of multiple interactions with cell surfaces and other matrix components. Their structure at a molecular level has been resolved, yet there are still many unanswered questions regarding their biologic activity...... in vivo. Much data suggests that fibronectins may promote extracellular matrix assembly, and cell adhesion to those matrices. However, one outstanding enigma is that fibronectins may, under different circumstances, promote both cell migration and anchorage. An analysis of the interaction of fibroblasts...... with proteolytically derived and purified domains of plasma fibronectin revealed that the type of adhesion and the correlated cytoskeletal organization depended on multiple interactions of fibronectin domains with the cell surface. Human dermal fibroblasts were capable of interacting with the integrin-binding domain...

  7. Host–Pathogen Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Schokker, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of an infection is determined by numerous interactions between hosts and pathogens occurring at many different biological levels, ranging from molecule to population. To develop new control strategies for infectious diseases in livestock species, appropriate methodologies are needed

  8. Quark-quark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter discusses interactions only at the constituent level, as observed in hadron-hadron collisions. It defines quarks and gluons as constituents of the colliding hadrons, reviews some applications of perturbative OCD, discussing in turn lepton pair production, which in lowest order approximation corresponds to the Drell-Yan process. It investigates whether quark-quark interactions could not lead to some new color structure different from those prevalent for known baryons and mesons, which could be created in hadron interactions, and whether color objects (not specifically quarks or gluons) could not appear as free particles. Discussed is perturbative QCD in hadron collisions; the quark approach to soft processes; and new color structures. It points out that perturbative QCD has been at the origin of much progress in the understanding of hadron interactions at the constituent level

  9. Semi-leptonic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, J.M.

    In spite of the presence of poorly understood strong interaction effects, the theory of hadronic currents leads to a considerable predictive power. This is shown in the discussion of the semi-leptonic decays

  10. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  11. Succeeding with interactive research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn; Nielsen, Morten Velsing

    2017-01-01

    the capacity for critique and ensuring that scientific standards are met. Based on our own experience and theories of interactive governance, network management and collaborative leadership, as well as on existing methodological literature, we provide guidance and suggest concrete tools and methods......Increasingly, social science research is carried out in collaboration with partners outside universities, yet research methodology is lacking on how to manoeuvre in a terrain where multiple actors set expectations for research. This article conceptualizes interactive research as research...

  12. Interaction quality: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ultes, Stefan; Minker, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Automatically deriving the quality of a Spoken Dialogue System is an important task for both assessing dialogue systems and improving them. Work on automatic quality estimation for each system-user-exchange further holds the opportunity of using this quality information for online-adaption of the dialogues. The Interaction Quality paradigm is the first metric holding those features. Hence, this contribution gives an overview over the Interaction Quality paradigm and reviews recent estimation ...

  13. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  14. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  15. Interaction and observation, categorically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ciancia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to use dialgebras to specify the semantics of interactive systems in a natural way. Dialgebras are a conservative extension of coalgebras. In this categorical model, from the point of view that we provide, the notions of observation and interaction are separate features. This is useful, for example, in the specification of process equivalences, which are obtained as kernels of the homomorphisms of dialgebras. As an example we present the asynchronous semantics of the CCS.

  16. Soil-dithiocarbamate interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Soil is the ultimate repository of the pesticides applied for the control of plant pests and diseases. A variety of interactions like leaching, adsorption, chemical and microbial degradation etc take place between soil and pesticide. Results on work on two dialkyldithiocarbamates viz. thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) and ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate) with respect to above interactions in soil are discussed and summarised. 35 S-labelled thiram and ziram were used in the studies. (author)

  17. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  18. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  19. Succeeding with interactive research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn; Nielsen, Morten Velsing

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, social science research is carried out in collaboration with partners outside universities, yet research methodology is lacking on how to manoeuvre in a terrain where multiple actors set expectations for research. This article conceptualizes interactive research as research...... the capacity for critique and ensuring that scientific standards are met. Based on our own experience and theories of interactive governance, network management and collaborative leadership, as well as on existing methodological literature, we provide guidance and suggest concrete tools and methods...

  20. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  1. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  2. K+-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  3. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    OpenAIRE

    Burelli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    A virtual camera represents the point-of-view of the player through which sheperceives the game world and gets feedback on her actions. Thus, the virtualcamera plays a vital role in 3D computer games and aects player experienceand enjoyability in games. Interactive virtual cinematography is the process ofvisualising the content of a virtual environment by positioning and animatingthe virtual camera in the context of interactive applications such as a computergame.Camera placement and animatio...

  4. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  5. Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2007-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegrap...

  6. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  7. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, C.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. The authors have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits

  8. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  9. DETECTION OF EXTREMELY BROAD WATER EMISSION FROM THE MOLECULAR CLOUD INTERACTING SUPERNOVA REMNANT G349.7+0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hewitt, J. W. [CRESST/University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Boogert, A. [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-11, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kaufman, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0106 (United States); Gusdorf, A., E-mail: jrho@seti.org, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@nasa.gov, E-mail: aboogert@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: michael.kaufman@sjsu.edu, E-mail: antoine.gusdorf@lra.ens.fr [LERMA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, École Normale Suprieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2015-10-10

    We performed Herschel HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE observations toward the molecular cloud interacting supernova remnant G349.7+0.2. An extremely broad emission line was detected at 557 GHz from the ground state transition 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01} of ortho-water. This water line can be separated into three velocity components with widths of 144, 27, and 4 km s{sup −1}. The 144 km s{sup −1} component is the broadest water line detected to date in the literature. This extremely broad line width shows the importance of probing shock dynamics. PACS observations revealed three additional ortho-water lines, as well as numerous high-J carbon monoxide (CO) lines. No para-water lines were detected. The extremely broad water line is indicative of a high velocity shock, which is supported by the observed CO rotational diagram that was reproduced with a J-shock model with a density of 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3} and a shock velocity of 80 km s{sup −1}. Two far-infrared fine-structure lines, [O i] at 145 μm and [C ii] line at 157 μm, are also consistent with the high velocity J-shock model. The extremely broad water line could be simply from short-lived molecules that have not been destroyed in high velocity J-shocks; however, it may be from more complicated geometry such as high-velocity water bullets or a shell expanding in high velocity. We estimate the CO and H{sub 2}O densities, column densities, and temperatures by comparison with RADEX and detailed shock models.

  10. Measuring Training ROI: Silver Bullet or Urban Legend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    TSRD Doc NAWC Training Systems Division. Training Systems Requirements Analysis Webpage, 30 August 2007 Training System Plan Engineering Specs...QUESTIONNAIRES PERFORMANCE CONTRACTING MONITORING MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS 1-X: MSN EFFECTIVENESS (OUTPUT-ORIENTED) e.g.: SAFETY ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT...All costs required to research and develop a system before committing it to production ( engineering design, manufacturing of test articles, testing

  11. Green Growth—Magic Bullet or Damp Squib?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckehard Rosenbaum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies various conceptualisations of green growth with a view to identify the causal mechanisms that can support a green growth policy agenda to investigate the implications of these conceptualisations for measuring progress towards green growth, to identify possible trade-offs and integrate measures, and to explore the governance challenges that a green growth agenda is likely to pose against the background that many environmental problems have a bearing on multiple levels of governance.

  12. Heparin: The Silver Bullet of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas K. Khattar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Various neurological diseases have recently been associated with neuroinflammation and worsening outcomes. Subarachnoid hemorrhage has been shown to generate a potent neuroinflammatory response. Heparin is a potential effective anti-inflammatory agent to prevent initial injury as well as delayed neurological decline. Different mechanisms of action for heparin have been proposed including, but not limited to the binding and neutralization of oxyhemoglobin, decreased transcription and signal transduction of endothelin-1, inhibition of binding to vessel wall selectins and vascular leakage into the subarachnoid space as well as direct binding and neutralization of inflammatory molecules. With a reasonably safe side-effect profile, heparin has shown significant promise in small series in human studies of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in decreasing both initial and delayed neurological injury. Further studies are needed to validate various neuroprotective features of heparin in subarachnoid hemorrhage as well as other disease states.

  13. Magic Bullet: Real-Time Anytime Treatment Learning, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quality vehicle health management systems are critical to the successful operation of modern sounding rockets, and other unmanned vehicles. Unfortunately, the...

  14. Surgical correction of severe enophthalmos caused by bullet injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic injuries of oral and maxillofacial region are usually fatal due to close propinquity with the vital structures. The severity of injury depends on the caliber of the weapon used and distance from which the patient is shot. The preliminary care of facial ballistic wounds strictly adheres to the basics of trauma resuscitation. Early and appropriate surgical management has proved to be influential on the final outcome and esthetic result. Treatment of facial gunshot wounds should be planned and carried out carefully to avoid esthetic complications. It takes even multiple-staged corrections to achieve the targeted functional and esthetic treatment plan. Prevention and control of infection is one of the most important goals to achieve the success of the treatment. Herewith, we present a case of facial gunshot injury with fractures in the orbital floor, medial wall maxillary sinus, and buttress of the zygomatic bone causing deficit, which was successfully managed by surgical reconstruction.

  15. Transgenic probiotica as drug delivery systems : the golden bullet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuvaraj, Saravanan; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    Functional human proteins are constitutively produced in genetically modified bacteria that survive on human mucosal surfaces, to the benefit of the host. The successful Phase I clinical trial with IL-10-producing Lactococcus lactis for Crohn's disease has opened new avenues for the use of

  16. Crony Attack: Strategic Attack’s Silver Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    physical assets or financial assets. The form of crony attack that most closely resembles classic strategic attack is to deny, degrade, or destroy a money...February 1951. Reprinted in Airpower Studies Coursebook , Air Command and Staff College, Maxwell AFB, AL, 2002, 152–58. Hirsch, Michael. “NATO’s Game of

  17. Simulation of granular soil behaviour using the bullet physics library

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi, Ehsan; Bezuijen, Adam

    2015-01-01

    A physics engine is computer software which provides a simulation of certain physical systems, such as rigid body dynamics, soft body dynamics and fluid dynamics. Physics engines were firstly developed for using in animation and gaming industry ; nevertheless, due to fast calculation speed they are attracting more and more attetion from researchers of the engineering fields. Since physics engines are capable of performing fast calculations on multibody rigid dynamic systems, soil particles ca...

  18. THE ABUNDANCE OF BULLET GROUPS IN ΛCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Forero-Romero, J. E. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1 No. 18A-10, Edificio Ip, Bogotá (Colombia); Foex, G.; Motta, V. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Avda. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso 2360102 (Chile); Verdugo, T., E-mail: jfernandez@obs-besancon.fr, E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, AP 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    We estimate the expected distribution of displacements between the two dominant dark matter (DM) peaks (DM-DM displacements) and between the DM and gaseous baryon peak (DM-gas displacements) in DM halos with masses larger than 10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. As a benchmark, we use the observation of SL2S J08544–0121, which is the lowest mass system (1.0 × 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}) observed so far, featuring a bi-modal DM distribution with a dislocated gas component. We find that (50 ± 10)% of the DM halos with circular velocities in the range 300-700 km s{sup –1} (groups) show DM-DM displacements equal to or larger than 186 ± 30 h {sup –1} kpc as observed in SL2S J08544–0121. For DM halos with circular velocities larger than 700 km s{sup –1} (clusters) this fraction rises to (70 ± 10)%. Using the same simulation, we estimate the DM-gas displacements and find that 0.1%-1.0% of the groups should present separations equal to or larger than 87 ± 14 h {sup –1} kpc, corresponding to our observational benchmark; for clusters, this fraction rises to (7 ± 3)%, consistent with previous studies of DM to baryon separations. Considering both constraints on the DM-DM and DM-gas displacements, we find that the number density of groups similar to SL2S J08544–0121 is ∼6.0 × 10{sup –7} Mpc{sup –3}, three times larger than the estimated value for clusters. These results open up the possibility for a new statistical test of ΛCDM by looking for DM-gas displacements in low mass clusters and groups.

  19. Mud, Blood, and Bullet Holes: Teaching History with War Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From handwritten letters of the American Revolution to typed emails from Iraq and Afghanistan, correspondence from U.S. troops offers students deep insight into the specific conflicts and experiences of soldiers. Over 100,000 correspondences have been donated to the Legacy Project, a national initiative launched in 1998 to preserve war letters by…

  20. Agmatine: multifunctional arginine metabolite and magic bullet in clinical neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Gregor; Bernstein, Hans-Gert

    2017-07-26

    Agmatine, the decarboxylation product of arginine, was largely neglected as an important player in mammalian metabolism until the mid-1990s, when it was re-discovered as an endogenous ligand of imidazoline and α 2 -adrenergic receptors. Since then, a wide variety of agmatine-mediated effects have been observed, and consequently agmatine has moved from a wallflower existence into the limelight of clinical neuroscience research. Despite this quantum jump in scientific interest, the understanding of the anabolism and catabolism of this amine is still vague. The purification and biochemical characterization of natural mammalian arginine decarboxylase and agmatinase still are open issues. Nevertheless, the agmatinergic system is currently one of the most promising candidates in order to pharmacologically interfere with some major diseases of the central nervous system, which are summarized in the present review. Particularly with respect to major depression, agmatine, its derivatives, and metabolizing enzymes show great promise for the development of an improved treatment of this common disease. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Caffeine citrate – Is it a silver bullet in neonatology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Shrestha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine citrate is one of the most prescribed drug in the present day NICU for apnea. Its efficacy, tolerability, wide therapeutic index and safety margin has made it the drug of choice among the methylxanthines. Its therapeutic uses in apnea of prematurity, mechanical ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia has made it a “silver bullet” in neonatology. However, there are still controversies surrounding this drug. This review is aimed to update the reader about the basic pharmacology, current therapeutic uses, adverse effects, controversies as well as present and future research of caffeine.

  2. Strategic Alignment in Business Education: The Second Magic Bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoba, Jesu

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for strategic thinking in higher education. Loyalty to a business school's values and need to differentiate lead one to reflect on the actions undertaken within the institution and how they align with the business school's aims. This article contributes to this issue through what is called strategic alignment, which is the…

  3. Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John F., Comp.

    An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

  4. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Murray, M.E.; Lowden, R.A.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead with a composite of tungsten and tin in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the United States, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Life cycle analysis clearly shows that advantages outweigh risks in replacing lead with tungsten-tin in small-caliber projectiles at DOE training facilities. Concerns about the availability of raw tungsten are mitigated by the ease of converting back to lead (if necessary) and the recyclability of tungsten-tin rounds.

  5. Application of life cycle analysis: The case of green bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogard, J.S.; Yuracko, K.L.; Lowden, R.A.; Murray, M.E.; Vaughn, N.L.

    1998-11-01

    Life-cycle analysis (LCA) provides a general framework for assessing and summarizing all of the information important to a decision. LCA has been used to analyze the desirability of replacing lead (Pb) with a composite of tungsten (W) and tin (Sn) in projectile slugs used in small arms ammunition at US Department of Energy (DOE) training facilities for security personnel. The analysis includes consideration of costs, performance, environmental and human health impacts, availability of raw materials, and stakeholder acceptance. The DOE expends approximately 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition each year training security personnel. This deposits over 300,000 pounds of lead and copper annually into DOE firing ranges, contributing to lead migration in the surrounding environment. Human lead intake occurs by inhalation of contaminated indoor firing range air and air containing lead particles that are resuspended during regular maintenance and cleanup, and by skin absorption while cleaning weapons. Projectiles developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) using a composite of tungsten and tin perform as well as, or better than, those fabricated using lead. A cost analysis shows that tungsten-tin is less costly to use than lead, since, for the current number of rounds used annually, the higher tungsten-tin purchase price is small compared with higher maintenance costs associated with lead. The tungsten-tin composite presents a much smaller potential for adverse human health and environmental impacts than lead. Only a small fraction of the world`s tungsten production occurs in the US, however, and market-economy countries account for only around 15% of world tungsten production. Stakeholders would prefer tungsten-tin on the basis of total cost, performance, reduced environmental impact and lower human toxicity. Lead is preferable on the basis of material availability.

  6. Silver diamine fluoride: a caries "silver-fluoride bullet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Stamford, T C M; Niederman, R

    2009-02-01

    The antimicrobial use of silver compounds pivots on the 100-year-old application of silver nitrate, silver foil, and silver sutures for the prevention and treatment of ocular, surgical, and dental infections. Ag(+) kills pathogenic organisms at concentrations of linings, water purification systems, hospital gowns, and caries prevention. To distill the current best evidence relative to caries, this systematic review asked: Will silver diamine fluoride (SDF) more effectively prevent caries than fluoride varnish? A five-database search, reference review, and hand search identified 99 human clinical trials in three languages published between 1966 and 2006. Dual review for controlled clinical trials with the patient as the unit of observation, and excluding cross-sectional, animal, in vitro studies, and opinions, identified 2 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The trials indicated that SDF's lowest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 96.1% and 70.3%, respectively. In contrast, fluoride varnish's highest prevented fractions for caries arrest and caries prevention were 21.3% and 55.7%, respectively. Similarly, SDF's highest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and caries prevention were 0.8 (95% CI=0.5-1.0) and 0.9 (95% CI=0.4-1.1), respectively. For fluoride varnish, the lowest numbers needed to treat for caries arrest and prevention were 3.7 (95% CI=3.4-3.9) and 1.1 (95% CI=0.7-1.4), respectively. Adverse events were monitored, with no significant differences between control and experimental groups. These promising results suggest that SDF is more effective than fluoride varnish, and may be a valuable caries-preventive intervention. As well, the availability of a safe, effective, efficient, and equitable caries-preventive agent appears to meet the criteria of both the WHO Millennium Goals and the US Institute of Medicine's criteria for 21st century medical care.

  7. Bullet Ultrasonic Obstruction Detection & Distance Measurement Using AVR Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Pandey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the practical implementation of a short range ultrasonic obstruction detection and distance measurement device. By employing an ultrasonic transducer pair for producing ultrasonic sounds and sensing the reflected sound waves, the obstructions are detected. The hardware interface uses an Atmel ATmega8 AVR microcontroller to facilitate the generation of 40 kHz signal burst which is used in the transmitter circuit, and also to process the received signal for measuring the time of flight of reflected waves and exact distance of the obstruction. The program for this device is developed in WinAVR, and the code generated is dumped into microcontroller using AVR Studio. Educational aspects of this project include the mastery of a programming language and corresponding tools, the design of a functional and intuitive embedded application, and the development of appropriate hardware to build the device.

  8. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Science and Technology Div.

    This guide lists information sources dealing with unidentified flying objects (UFOs). Not meant to be a comprehensive bibliography, this compilation is designed--as the name of the series implies--to put the reader "on target." Included are: (1) subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which publications on this subject…

  9. Bullet dents – “Proof marks” or battle damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Alan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    It is well known that the breastplates of many armours from the later 16th century and the 17th century bear the hemispherical dents generally known as proof marks. It has been taken as axiomatic that these marks were made in order to demonstrate the armours’ effectiveness against firearms. If however some of these dents are compared with dents which are the result of battle damage, it appears that they were made by energy levels of a different order of magnitude, and offer little guarantee as to the “proof” of the armour.



    Como es bien sabido, muchos petos de armaduras de finales del siglo XVI y del XVII tienen abolladuras semiesféricas conocidas como pruebas de arcabuz. Se ha considerado axiomático que estas abolladuras fueron hechas para demostrar la efectividad de las armaduras frente a las armas de fuego. Sin embargo, si se comparan con otras debidas a daños en combate, parece que fueron producidas por energías de diferente orden o magnitud, al tiempo que ofrecen pocas garantías como “pruebas” de las armaduras.

  10. Bullets and Votes: Violence and Electoral Participation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Trelles; Miguel Carreras

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of criminal violence on electoral participation in Mexico. Many scholars have studied the origins of criminal violence, as well as the success or failure of contemporary regimes in dealing with it. However, few have studied how it affects voter turnout. Following recent findings in the behavioral subfield, we hypothesize that as criminal violence increases, citizens abandon public channels of participation and ta...

  11. ICTs are not a magic bullet for women's empowerment | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... communication technologies (ICTs) offer enormous potential for transforming the ... of extensive research carried out by GRACE with financial support from IDRC . ... and therefore cannot easily take advantage of training and other resources; ...

  12. ICTs are not a magic bullet for women's empowerment | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-08

    Oct 8, 2010 ... Cellphones, the Internet, and other information and communication ... enormous potential for transforming the lives of women in developing countries, ... of empowerment offered by ICTs is better met are outlined in the book.

  13. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  14. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  15. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  16. Secondary interactions in HIJET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longacre, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This talk deals with the investigation of secondary interactions in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions using the Monte Carlo event generator HIJET. The HIJET generator considers p-A and A-A collisions to be a sum of independent N-N collisions, with the N-N cross section and scattering dynamics not dependent on whether the nucleon has previously participated in an interaction. It is very reasonable to assume that each collision should be well represented by an independent N-N collision, however the cross section for the forward going struck nucleon may be different. For each primary N-N interaction, a call is made to the MINBIAS routine of the program ISAJET - an event generator for high energy N-N interactions. MINBIAS computes the energy loss of the colliding nucleons and production of particles. MINBIAS is based on inclusive high energy N-N interactions forming multi-pomeron chains, with each chain fragmenting according to the Field-Feynman algorithm

  17. 5. Laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Bandulet, H.

    2002-01-01

    Imprint elimination, smoothing and preheat control are considerable problems in inertial fusion and their possible solution can be achieved by using low-density porous materials as a buffer in target design. The articles gathered in this document present various aspects of the laser-plasma interaction, among which we have noticed: -) numerical algorithmic improvements of the Vlasov solver toward the simulation of the laser-plasma interaction are proposed, -) the dependence of radiation temperatures and X-ray conversion efficiencies of hohlraum on the target structures and laser irradiation conditions are investigated, -) a study of laser interaction with ultra low-density (0,5 - 20 mg/cm 3 ) porous media analyzing backscattered light at incident laser frequency ω 0 and its harmonics 3*ω 0 /2 and 2*ω 0 is presented, -) investigations of laser interaction with solid targets and crater formation are carried out with the objective to determine the ablation loading efficiency, -) a self organization in an intense laser-driven plasma and the measure of the relative degree of order of the states in an open system based on the S-theorem are investigated, and -) the existence and stability of electromagnetic solitons generated in a relativistic interaction of an intense laser light with uniform under-dense cold plasma are studied

  18. Tidal interaction of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, N.N.; Syunyaev, R.A.; Ehneev, T.M.

    1974-01-01

    One of the hypotheses explaining the occurrence of anomalous details in interacting galaxies has been investigated. Pairs of galaxies with 'tails' oppositely directed or neighbouring galaxies with cofferdams 'bridges', as if connecting the galaxies, are called interacting galaxies. The hypothesis connects the origin of cofferdams and 'tails' of interacting galaxies with tidal effects ; the action of power gravitational forces in the intergalactic space. A source of such forces may be neighbouring stellar systems or invisible bodies, for instance, 'dead' quasars after a gravitational collapse. The effect of large masses of matter on the galaxy evolution has been investigated in the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSSR in 1971-1972 by numerical simulation of the process on a digital computer with the subsequent data transmission on a display. Different versions of a massive body flight relative to a galaxy disk are considered. Photographs of a display screen at different moments of time are presented. As a result of mathematical simulation of galaxies gravitational interactions effects are discovered which resemble real structures in photographs of galaxies. It seems to be premature to state that namely these mechanisms cause the formation of 'tails' and cofferdams between galaxies. However, even now it is clear that the gravitational interaction strongly affects the dynamics of the stellar system evolution. Further studies should ascertain a true scale of this effect and its genuine role in galaxy evolution

  19. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Making an Interactive Calculus Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of the design and production of "Interactive Calculus," an interactive multimedia textbook. Discusses reasons for using multimedia textbooks; what an interactive textbook is; content, organization, graphic design, authoring and composition; and work flow. (AEF)

  1. New interactions for superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.; Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    The supersymmetry relation {Q -A , Qsup(anti B}=2Hδsup(Aanti B) implies the existence of a new quartic vertex in the open superstring light-cone hamiltonian, if the supercharges are cubic in the string fields. Green and Schwarz have argued that this vertex almost vanishes, due to exact cancellations among fermionic operators, with perhaps a non-local interaction remaining. In this article we show that these exact cancellations do not occur for certain contributions to the anticommutator, and that new local, and possibly divergent, 4-string interactions are generated. On the basis of vacuum stability, we argue that 4-string interaction terms should also exist for closed superstring hamiltonians. (orig.)

  2. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  3. Sonic Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ) challenges these prevalent approaches by considering sound as an active medium that can enable novel sensory and social experiences through interactive technologies. This book offers an overview of the emerging SID research, discussing theories, methods, and practices, with a focus on the multisensory......Sound is an integral part of every user experience but a neglected medium in design disciplines. Design of an artifact’s sonic qualities is often limited to the shaping of functional, representational, and signaling roles of sound. The interdisciplinary field of sonic interaction design (SID...... aspects of sonic experience. Sonic Interaction Design gathers contributions from scholars, artists, and designers working at the intersections of fields ranging from electronic music to cognitive science. They offer both theoretical considerations of key themes and case studies of products and systems...

  4. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  5. Dike/Drift Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffiney, E.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1)

  6. Interactive Karyotyping Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kotwaliwale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide use of newer techniques in genetic diagnostics, there remains a need for technologists to learn human chromosome morphology, identify abnormal metaphases and report clinical abnormalities. Global short age of cytogenetic trainers and a time consuming training process makes Karyotyping training difficult. We have developed a web based interactive Karyotyping training tool, KaryoTutor©, that allows technologists to learn karyotyping in an interactive environment and aids the trainer in the training process. KaryoTutor©provides visual clues for identifying abnormal chromosomes, provides instant test scores and includes a reference library of ideograms,sample chromosome images and reference materials. Trainees are able to recursively work on a case till a satisfactory result is achieved,with KaryoTutor providing interactive inputs.Additionally, trainers can assign cases and monitor trainee progress using audit trail management and other administrative features.

  7. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented......: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions) put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992) is presented...

  8. Plasma-material interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-interactive components must be resistant to erosion processes, efficient in heat removal, and effective in minimizing tritium inventory and permeation. As long as plasma edge temperatures are 50 eV, no one material can satisfy the diverse requirements imposed by these plasma materials interactions. The only solution is the design of duplex, or even more complicated, structures. The material that faces the plasma should be low atomic number, with acceptable erosion and evaporation characteristics. The substrate material must have high thermal conductivity for heat removal. Finally, materials must be selected judiciously for tritium compatibility. In conclusion, materials play a critical role in the achievement of safe and economical magnetic fusion energy. Improvements in materials have already led to many advances in present day device operation, but additional innovative materials solutions are required for the critical plasma materials interaction issues in future power reactors

  9. Interactive Sample Book (ISB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker; Guglielmi, Michel

    2009-01-01

    supervisor Torben A. Lenau. Inspiration to use smart materials Interactive textiles are still quite an unknown phenomenon to many. It is thus often difficult to communicate what kind of potentials lie within these materials. This is why the ISB project was started, as a practice based research project...... and senses in relation to integrated decoration and function primarily to indoor applications. The result of the project will be a number of interactive textiles, to be gathered in an interactive sample book (ISB), in a similar way as the sample books of wallpapers one can take home from the shop and choose...... from. In other words, it is a kind of display material, which in a simple manner can illustrate how different techniques and smart materials work. The sample book should display a number of possibilities where sensor technology, smart materials and textiles are mixed to such an extent that the textile...

  10. Interacting hot dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Davidson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the viability of a light particle (∼30eV neutrino) with strong self-interactions as a dark matter candidate. The interaction prevents the neutrinos from free-streaming during the radiation-dominated regime so galaxy-sized density perturbations can survive. Smaller scale perturbations are damped due to neutrino diffusion. We calculate the power spectrum in the imperfect fluid approximation, and show that it is damped at the length scale one would estimate due to neutrino diffusion. The strength of the neutrino-neutrino coupling is only weakly constrained by observations, and could be chosen by fitting the power spectrum to the observed amplitude of matter density perturbations. The main shortcoming of our model is that interacting neutrinos cannot provide the dark matter in dwarf galaxies. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni

    2014-01-01

    support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes......The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...

  12. Alkane dimers interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Madsen, Georg Kent Hellerup; Hammer, Bjørk

    2010-01-01

    The interaction energies of a series of n-alkane dimers, from methane to decane, have been investigated with Density Functional Theory (DFT), using the MGGA-M06-L density functional. The results are compared both to the available wavefunction-based values as well as to dispersion corrected DFT...... values. The MGGA-M06-L density functional is a semi-local functional designed and has proven to provide accurate estimates of dispersion interactions for several systems at moderate computational cost. In the present application, it reproduces the trends obtained by the more expensive wavefunction...

  13. Urban Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Bermúdez, Juan Carlos Carvajal; Fernández, Manu

    This book is an effort to explore the newly emerging field of urban interaction design that addresses these issues. In the first part of the book, 'Foundations', we look into its origins. Where do its practitioners come from? How are they working together? What methodologies do they bring...... to the table? What are the key concepts they are addressing in their work? In the second part of the book named 'Trends', we go into current developments in the networked city and how urban interaction design as a field addresses these. Taken together, these sections will not give the definite definition...

  14. Mixed Interaction Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas; Eriksson, E.; Hansen, T.R.

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...... or a person’s face as a fixed-point to determine the location of the device. We use these features as a 4 dimensional input vector to a set of different applications....

  15. Interacting agegraphic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2009-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named ''agegraphic dark energy'', has been proposed recently, based on the so-called Karolyhazy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegraphic dark energy model and holographic dark energy model. The similarity and difference between agegraphic dark energy and holographic dark energy are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  17. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  18. Interactive Foresight Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Combined Simulation Approach (CSA) is a way to evaluate risks and address potential unforeseen problems in a more interactive way than what is often observed in practice in companies or sectors. The approach is based on a combination of scenario analysis and discrete-event computer simulation...

  19. Interaction Before Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; Garrard, Andrew; Allcock, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses social interaction in the Epipalaeolithic of southwest Asia. Discussions of contact, social relationships and social organization have primarily focused on the Pre-Pottery Neolithic and are often considered to represent typical hallmarks of emergent farming societies. The h...

  20. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  1. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    a mixture of facilitated creative thinking and a world café approach to bring the community together to tackle these two key challenges. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through...... the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference....

  2. Data Interactive Publications Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    A few years back, the authors presented examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server, there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  3. Data Interactive Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    For some years now, the authors have developed examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server (or in the cloud), there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  4. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  5. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  6. Gaze interaction from bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost gaze tracking solution for bedbound people composed of free-ware tracking software and commodity hardware. Gaze interaction is done on a large wall-projected image, visible to all people present in the room. The hardware equipment leaves physical space free to assis...

  7. ROILA : RObot Interaction LAnguage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubin, O.

    2011-01-01

    The number of robots in our society is increasing rapidly. The number of service robots that interact with everyday people already outnumbers industrial robots. The easiest way to communicate with these service robots, such as Roomba or Nao, would be natural speech. However, the limitations

  8. Empowered interaction through creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselblad, Stefan; Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother and the spe...

  9. Virtual Interactive Space (VIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2015-01-01

    This paper shares code that enables the making of a Virtual Interactive Space (VIS) where the skin of the invisible active sensor area is dynamically responsive to the velocity of a limb e.g. hand. Used in proprioception training of movement the patch is at the core of the author’s Reafferentation...

  10. Dilations and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Fredenhagen, K.

    1976-07-01

    As a consequence of the geometrical features of dilations massless particles do not interact in a local, dilationally invariant quantum theory. This result also holds in models in which dilations are only an asymptotically visible symmetry of the S-matrix. (orig.) [de

  11. Interaction with William Carnall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    A personal account is given of interaction with William T. Carnall during the period 1977-1988, when I made regular visits to the Argonne National Laboratory to discuss the theoretical background to the spectroscopic work he was carrying out on the lanthanides and actinides

  12. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  13. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  14. Space for Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariane Ellen; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael

    SPACE FOR INTERACTION QUALIFYING GROUP TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN THROUGH OPTIMIZATION(?) OF SPACE. A RANDOMIZED PILOT STUDY. In a Ph-D. Mariane Ellen Jørgensen / Nurse + psykoterapist / maej@rn.dk / Pain Center / Aalborg University Hospital / Denmark / Mette Blicher Folmer / Archit...

  15. Interactive Mold House Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  16. Teaching with Interactive Multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Based on the idea that anyone who is interested in making entertaining and informative presentations in educational settings is interested in multimedia, this practical guide offers tips for communication (and other) teachers who want to integrate and program interactive multimedia into their courses. The guide suggests that teachers on limited…

  17. Aesthetics of Mundane Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Hassenzahl, M.

    2008-01-01

    John Dewey’s pragmatist aesthetics is used as a conceptual basis for designing new technologies that support staff-members’ mundane social interactions in an academic department. From this perspective, aesthetics is seen as a broader phenomenon that encompasses experiential aspects of staff-members’

  18. Aesthetics of Mundane Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Dhaval; Hassenzahl, M.

    2008-01-01

    John Dewey’s pragmatist aesthetics is used as a conceptual basis for designing new technologies that support staff-members’ mundane social interactions in an academic department. From this perspective, aesthetics is seen as a broader phenomenon that encompasses experiential aspects of staff-members’ everyday lives and not only a look-&-feel aspect.

  19. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  20. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing

  1. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  2. Exploring governmentality as interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    from an interactionistic perspective, based on Goffman’s dramaturgy. The focal point is how Goffman's concepts of interaction order, rituals, role and role performance might be an point of entry for studying the techniques the self and the techniques of domination through which governmentality operates...

  3. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  4. Interactive shape metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David T.; State, Andrei; Banks, David

    1994-01-01

    A technique for controlled metamorphosis between surfaces in 3-space is described. Well-understood techniques to produce shape metamorphosis between models in a 2D parametric space is applied. The user selects morphable features interactively, and the morphing process executes in real time on a high-performance graphics multicomputer.

  5. Tritium-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkaldy, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    The report deals broadly with tritium-surface interactions as they relate to a fusion power reactor enterprise, viz., the vacuum chamber, first wall, peripherals, pumping, fuel recycling, isotope separation, repair and maintenance, decontamination and safety. The main emphasis is on plasma-surface interactions and the selection of materials for fusion chamber duty. A comprehensive review of the international (particularly U.S.) research and development is presented based upon a literature review (about 1 000 reports and papers) and upon visits to key laboratories, Sandia, Albuquerque, Sandia, Livermore and EGβG Idaho. An inventory of Canadian expertise and facilities for RβD on tritium-surface interactions is also presented. A number of proposals are made for the direction of an optimal Canadian RβD program, emphasizing the importance of building on strength in both the technological and fundamental areas. A compendium of specific projects and project areas is presented dealing primarily with plasma-wall interactions and permeation, anti-permeation materials and surfaces and health, safety and environmental considerations. Potential areas of industrial spinoff are identified

  6. A tabletop interactive storytelling system: designing for social interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alofs, Thijs; Theune, Mariet; Swartjes, I.M.T.

    This paper presents the Interactive Storyteller, a multi-user interface for AI-based interactive storytelling, where stories emerge from the interaction of human players with intelligent characters in a simulated story world. To support face-to-face contact and social interaction, we position users

  7. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons: Structure and interaction of bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, C.H.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. We have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson-proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits. A connection is made between these coefficients and the parameters of the interaction boson model Hamiltonian. A link between the latter parameters and the single boson energies is suggested

  8. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons: Structure and interaction of bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, C.H.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. We have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson-proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits. A connection is made between these coefficients and the parameters of the interaction boson model Hamiltonian. A link between the latter parameters and the single boson energies is suggested.

  9. Interactions of {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} nuclei with energy 158 GeV per nucleon with photoemulsion nuclei; Vzaimodejstviya yader {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} s ehnergiej 158 Gev na nuklon s yadrami fotoehmul'sii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamovich, M I; Andreeva, N P; Bubnov, V I; Gajtinov, A Sh; Kanygina, Eh K; Musaeva, A K; Sejtimbetov, A M; Skorobagatova, V I; Filippova, L N; Chasnikov, I Ya [Fiziko-tekhnicheskij Inst. Ministerstava Nauki i Vysscego Obrazovaniya Respubliki Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    1999-07-01

    In this report there are experimental data on {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} nuclei (158 GeV) interaction with photoemulsion nuclei. The said data are compared to the similar ones for {sub 79}Au{sup 197} nuclei with less energy (10,7 A GeV). Stack of nuclear emulsion was irradiated with the beam of nuclei {sub 82}Pb{sup 208} at SPS of CERN. Events search was done along the primary nucleus trace. Pb nucleus average path length happened to be {lambda}=(3,8{+-}0,1) cm, this virtually coincides with the one calculated by Brandt and Peters formula (3,9 cm). Secondary particles were identified into s (storm), g (knock-on protons) and b- particles (target nucleus fragments), as well as into nucleus-bullet fragments with different charges (Z=1,2,{>=}3). This allowed obtaining event distribution by multiplicity of these particles (n{sub s}, n{sub g}, n{sub b}) and fragments (n{sub z=1,2,{>=}}{sub 3}), calculation of average values by multiplicity (see table), finding correlation of characteristics. >From the table it's clear that when the energy increases increases 2,5 times where as insignificantly decreases and doesn't change.

  10. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions

  11. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    In this abstract I describe the doctorial research project "Interaction Design for Public Spaces". The objective of the project is to explore and design interaction contexts in culture related public spaces such as museums, experience centres and festivals. As a perspective on this domain, I...... will focus on the usage of the body as an interaction device. Furthermore, the project will involve a dramaturgic take on communication and design of interactive systems in the pursuit of new ways to stage the interactive contexts. The outcome of the project will be guidelines and conceptual frameworks which...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  12. Electron-positron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    This book is an introduction into the physics of electron-positron interactions. After a description of electron-positron storage rings pure electromagnetic e + e - interactions, and the total cross section are considered. Then low energy processes, the production of the J/psi and psi' particles including their radiative decay as well as the search for other narrow vector states are described. Then after the quark model interpretation of J/psi and psi' charmed mesons, the heavy lepton t, and the upsilon resonances are described. Thereafter inclusive hadron production and jet formation is discussed. Finally the next generation of e + e - colliding rings is described, and the first results from PETRA are presented. This book is suited for all physicists, who want to get a general review about e + e - physics. (HSI) 891 HSI/HSI 892 RKD

  13. Intelligent Interactive Multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Toyohide; Takahashi, Naohisa; 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services (KES-IIMSS-12).  The Conference was jointly organised by Nagoya University in Japan and the KES International organisation, and held in the attractive city of Gifu.   The KES-IIMSS conference series, (series chairs Prof. Maria Virvou and Prof. George Tsihrintzis), presents novel research in various areas of intelligent multimedia system relevant to the development of a new generation of interactive, user-centric devices and systems.  The aim of the conference is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the technologies and applications of this new and dynamic research area.

  14. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  15. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  16. Interactive design center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, Alan R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    Sandia's advanced computing resources provide researchers, engineers and analysts with the ability to develop and render highly detailed large-scale models and simulations. To take full advantage of these multi-million data point visualizations, display systems with comparable pixel counts are needed. The Interactive Design Center (IDC) is a second generation visualization theater designed to meet this need. The main display integrates twenty-seven projectors in a 9-wide by 3-high array with a total display resolution of more than 35 million pixels. Six individual SmartBoard displays offer interactive capabilities that include on-screen annotation and touch panel control of the facility's display systems. This report details the design, implementation and operation of this innovative facility.

  17. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...

  18. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    is the process of visualising the content of a virtual environment by positioning and animating the virtual camera in the context of interactive applications such as a computer game. Camera placement and animation in games are usually directly controlled by the player or statically predened by designers. Direct...... control of the camera by the player increases the complexity of the interaction and reduces the designer's control on game storytelling. A completely designer-driven camera releases the player from the burden of controlling the point of view, but might generate undesired camera behaviours. Furthermore......, if the content of the game is procedurally generated, the designer might not have the necessary information to dene a priori the camera positions and movements. Automatic camera control aims to dene an abstraction layer that permits to control the camera using high-level and environment-independent rules...

  19. Student interaction in workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Winie

    2014-01-01

    A kind of teaching for active learning has been experimented with at SDU Sønderborg as part of the course Supply Chain Dynamics. In this course the students learn about complex systems, system dynamics as well as supply chain instability and oscillation, the course lecturer invited the author...... to experiment with novel workshop methods and techniques, where objects are used to illustrate and model business issues (Heinemann et al, 2011, Buur et al, 2013). The idea was to see how students could be engaged in a different and more interactive way to learn about these topics, by assigning the students...... teaching should reflect this diversity by embracing and experimenting with multiple forms, including activation of students by students’ interaction and manipulation with objects....

  20. Embodying multilingual interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Janus

    this linguistic diversity is managed in situ by participants engaged in dialogue with one another, and what it is used for in these transient multilingual communities. This paper presents CA-based micro-ethnographic analyses of language choice in an informal social setting – a kitchen – of an international study...... literature on language choice in interaction, our findings emphasize that analyses of language choice in multilingual settings need to take into account social actions beyond the words that are spoken. We show that facial, spatial and postural configurations, gaze orientation and gestures as well as prosodic...... in the particular community of practice that we are investigating. Reference Hazel, Spencer, and Janus Mortensen. forthcoming. Kitchen talk: Exploring linguistic practices in liminal institutional interactions in a multilingual university setting. in Language Alternation, Language Choice, and Language Encounter...

  1. Interaction and Mindreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of theorists have developed approaches to social cognition that highlight the centrality of social interaction as opposed to mindreading (e.g. Gallagher and Zahavi 2008; Gallagher 2001, 2007, 2008; Hobson 2002; Reddy 2008; Hutto 2004; De Jaegher 2009; De Jaegher and Di...... Paolo 2007; Fuchs and De Jaegher 2009; De Jaegher, Di Paolo and Gallagher 2010). There are important differences among these approaches, as I will discuss, but they are united by their commitment to the claim that various embodied and extended processes sustain social understanding and interaction...... will give reasons for being skeptical about. I will then present an alternative and moderate version of interactionism, according to which the embodied and extended processes that interactionists emphasize actually complement mindreading and may even contribute as an input to mindreading....

  2. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  3. Introduction to weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    An account is first given of the electromagnetic interactions of complex, scalar, vector and spinor fields. It is shown that the electromagnetic field may be considered as a gauge field. Yang-Mills fields and the field theory invariant with respect to the non-Abelian gauge transformation group are then described. The construction, owing to this invariance principle, of conserved isospin currents associated with gauge fields is also demonstrated. This is followed by a historical survey of the development of the weak interaction theory, established at first to describe beta disintegration processes by analogy with electrodynamics. The various stages are mentioned from the discovery of principles and rules and violation of principles, such as those of invariance with respect to spatial reflection and charge conjugation to the formulation of the effective current-current Lagrangian and research on the structure of weak currents [fr

  4. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  5. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  6. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the performance of wood for decades ahead is important when using the material for structural purposes. The performance is closely related to the hierarchical material structure of wood and the dependent interaction with water in the structure. Accurately predicting wood performance...... therefore requires an understanding of material structure from molecular to macroscopic level as well as of the impact of water molecules. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of wood in terms of mechanical response of the material and effect of water. To understand the latter, one...... must first know in which parts of the wood structure, water is located. If parts of the water in wood are held in capillaries in the wood structure, these water molecules interact with the material differently than those held within wood cell walls. In this study, the occurrence of capillary water...

  7. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  8. Electron: Cluster interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E ∼ 0.1 to E ∼ 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na 8 , Na 20 , Na 40 . The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size

  9. Investigating Molecular Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik Fanø

    2010-01-01

    ···π interactions are accommodated by electrostatic complementarity. The crystal structure of both the α- and the β-polymorph of hydroquinone is presented in Chapter 6 with focus on close intermolecular contacts between the molecules via Hirshfeld surface analysis. The charge density distribution of the empty β....... The last chapter of this dissertation presents the analysis of intermolecular interaction using both the Hirshfeld surface and charge density distribution of the acetonitrile β-hydroquinone clathrate. The local packing and related close contacts are examined by breakdown of the fingerprint plots revealing......, are also introduced, as a goal of the analysis of charge density distributions is to obtain further understanding of these macroscopic properties. Neutron diffraction will be used as a complementary tool to the X-ray diffraction experiment, as positional and thermal parameters of hydrogen atoms can...

  10. INTERACTIVE LEARNING: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kustovska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the use of interactive technologies in the educational process of the university, allowing students to develop innovative thinking, away from stereotypes, develop imagination, communication skills and expertise, intellectual, emotional, motivational and other areas of personality. Implementing the principles of technological learning, interactive educational technology and provides interactive computer learning tools, and interactivity of educational process when the basic conceptual provisions defined training based on interactive communication.

  11. Interactions of light gravitinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Lee, T.; Love, S.T.; Wu, G.

    1998-01-01

    In models of spontaneously broken supersymmetry, certain light gravitino processes are governed by the coupling of their Goldstino components. The rules for constructing SUSY and gauge invariant actions involving the Goldstino couplings to matter and gauge fields are presented. The explicit operator construction is found to be at variance with some previously reported claims. A phenomenological consequence arising from light gravitino interactions in supernova is reexamined and scrutinized. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Noncovalent interactions in biochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riley, Kevin Eugene; Hobza, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 3-17 ISSN 1759-0876 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:NSF EPSCORE(US) EPS-0701525; Korea Science and Engineering Foundation(KR) R32-2008-000-10180-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : noncovalent interactions * WFT calculations * DFT calculations * applications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  13. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  14. Interactive videodisc in maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Nguyen Van Nghi, B.

    1986-01-01

    After a recall of the videodisc characteristics, this paper presents its utilization by Electricite de France in the framework of training and maintenance. The SICMA (Interactive Communication System in Maintenance) developed and tested by Electricte de France is presented as also its utilization. It has been tested on the sites of Dampierre and Paluel in the cases of training and maintenance (deconnexion of drive rods of control elements); the conclusions of this experimentation are finally given. 4 refs [fr

  15. Interactive Mathematics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We claim that important considerations have been overlooked in designinginteractive mathematics educational software in the past.In particular,most previous work has concentrated on how to make use ofpre-existing software in mathematics education, rather than firstasking the more...... fundamentalquestion of which requirements mathematics education puts on software, and thendesigning software to fulfil these requirements.We present a working prototype system which takes a script defining an interactivemathematicaldocument and then provides a reader with an interactive realization of thatdocument....

  16. Between autonomy and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwohlt, Betina

    In 2007, a smoking law was implemented in Denmark, banning indoor tobacco smoke in public places such as pubs, restaurants, workplaces, public offices, hospitals and shopping malls. The law marks a paradigm shift in Danish tobacco policy manifesting a stronger structural focus than has been the c...... attitudes towards structural initiatives before and after the implementation and discusses what causes changes in the population’s attitudes and whether the attitudes are best described as autonomous or as interactive with societal changes....

  17. SEEPAGE/INVERT INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2000-01-01

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a), a conceptual model for water entering the drift and reacting with the invert materials is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction, and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This AMR also seeks to: (1) Develop a logical conceptual model for physical/chemical interactions between seepage and the invert materials; (2) screen potential processes and reactions that may occur between seepage and invert to evaluate the potential consequences of the interactions; and (3) outline how seepage/invert processes may be quantified. This document provides the conceptual framework for screening out insignificant processes and for identifying and evaluating those seepage/invert interactions that have the potential to be important to subsequent PAO analyses including the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. Additionally, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to certain near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts. The seepage/invert interactions will not directly affect any principal factors

  18. Rhythmic interaction in VR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur

    2017-01-01

    Cinematic virtual reality is a new and relatively unexplored area in academia. While research in guiding the spectator's attention in this new medium has been conducted for some time, a focus on editing in conjunction with spectator orientation is only currently emerging. In this paper, we consid...... in rhythm perception, and complement it with applications in traditional editing. Through the notion of multimodal listening we provide guidelines that can be used in rhythmic and sonic interaction design in VR....

  19. Interactions faibles en harmonie

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Des résultats de haute précision obtenus à Stanford ouvrent la voie vers une unification des interactions faible et électromagnétique ; Présentation à la Conférence neutrino d'Oxford de nouveaux résultats en accord avec la théorie de la synthèse des forces faible et électro- magnétique

  20. Budgeted Interactive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    2, and 3). The selection scheme is implemented and released as an open-source active learning package. They have studied theories for designing...We have studied theories for designing algorithms for interactive learning with batch-like feedback (for 1) and algorithms for online digestion of... necessity on pre-training. The new idea provides layer-wise cost estimation with auxiliary nodes, and is applicable to a wider range of deep learning