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Sample records for sun-dried seedless raisins

  1. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins, the production of which includes soda dipping, sulfuring, and artificial...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  3. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type I-Seedless...

  5. 7 CFR 52.1848 - Sizes of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden...

  6. 7 CFR 52.1849 - Grades of golden seedless raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type II-Golden...

  7. 76 FR 27921 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute Trade Demand AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... demand for Natural (sun-dried) Seedless (NS) raisins covered under the Federal marketing order for...

  8. 75 FR 20897 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... helped the industry address its marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with domestic and... / Thursday, April 22, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Percentages for 2009-10 Crop Natural (Sun-Dried) Seedless Raisins AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  9. Fatty acid extraction of Thompson seedless raisin by different methods%不同方法提取无核白葡萄干中脂肪酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小梅; 李园月; 吴广枫

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective To develop an effective method for the extraction of fatty acid in raisin. Methods Thompson seedless raisin was analyzed in this study, and its fatty acid composition and content were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Four extraction methods were adopted to extract the fatty acid in Thompson seedless-Sun dried raisins (TS-SD, soluble solids content is 84.69%). Results No category difference of fatty acid was detected between different methods. 16 kinds of fatty acids were determined in TS-SD, including 11 kinds of saturated fatty acids and 5 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids. When liquid-liquid extraction-methanol (LLE-M) was used as extraction method, the total content of saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and the fatty acid (FA) was found to be higher. Conclusion LLE-M method is an effective way to extract fatty acid in raisins, and this will contribute to the research of flavor in raisin.%目的:确立葡萄干中脂肪酸提取的有效方法。方法采用气相色谱质谱联用技术的方法,对无核白葡萄干中的脂肪酸进行了研究。采用4种提取方法,对自然晒干工艺制成的无核白葡萄干(可溶性固形物含量84.69%)进行脂肪酸种类和含量的研究。结果当采用不同提取方法时,检测到的葡萄干中的脂肪酸种类无差异,仅存在含量上的差别。无核白葡萄干中共鉴定出16种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸11种,不饱和脂肪酸5种。当采用液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法提取葡萄干中脂肪酸时,不饱和脂肪酸总含量、饱和脂肪酸总含量以及脂肪酸总含量均优于其他方法提取出的脂肪酸含量。结论液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法是提取葡萄干中脂肪酸的有效方法,这为葡萄干中风味物质研究打下基础。

  10. 7 CFR 989.110 - Varietal types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Natural (sun-dried) Seedless includes all sun-dried seedless raisins possessing similar identifiable... Seedless includes all seedless raisins whose color generally varies from golden yellow to dark amber....

  11. Raisin dietary fiber composition and in vitro bile acid binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camire, Mary E; Dougherty, Michael P

    2003-01-29

    Raisins are dried grapes that are popular shelf-stable snacks. Three commercially important types of raisins were studied: sun-dried (natural), artificially dried (dipped), and sulfur dioxide-treated (golden) raisins. Dietary fiber composition was analyzed by AACC method 32-25. Polysaccharides were hydrolyzed, and the resulting sugars were analyzed by colorimetric and gas chomatographic methods. Fructans were measured with a colorimetric kit assay. Total dietary fiber values agreed with published values, with pectins and neutral polysaccharides of mannose and glucose residues predominating. Dipped raisins had over 8% fructans. No fructans were found in fresh grapes. Raisin types varied in their ability to bind bile acids in vitro. Coarsely chopped raisins bound more bile than did finely chopped or whole raisins.

  12. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  13. EffeCts of Direct sUn Drying of Maize Grains on Perforated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Sun drying ofmqize grains on unperforated and perforatedsurfaceswas ... and 40 mm in the field The response variables measured were weight loss at all depths and moisture con- ..... tent (on milled grains and on whole grains): The.

  14. Mycoflora and vitamin content of sun-dried food condiments in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, C A

    1987-01-01

    The fungi most frequently isolated (of 20-100% incidence) from fresh okra, pepper fruits and melon seeds are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma harzianum, Mucor mucedo and Fusarium oxysporum. The major mycoflora of the fruits which had been sun-dried for twenty days are comprised of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp which initially had formed the minor components (of less than 20% incidence) of the colonising population. The effect of sun-drying on the fruits was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) decrease in the riboflavin content and a generally small and non-significant decrease in the concentrations of thiamine, niacin, biotin and ascorbic acid. The effect of mouldiness during sun-drying was to further decrease the concentration of the vitamins.

  15. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India); Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M. [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India)

    2011-07-15

    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15{+-}2-25{+-}2 {sup o}C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p{<=}0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of {beta}-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the {beta}-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p{<=}0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  16. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation.

  17. 21 CFR 136.160 - Raisin bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. 136.160 Section 136....160 Raisin bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods raisin bread, raisin rolls, and raisin buns... of ingredients prescribed for bread, rolls or buns by § 136.110, except that: (1) Not less than 50...

  18. EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL SUN-DRYING ON PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANTS OF AVERRHOA BILIMBI L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Bala Chauhan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi L. has various beneficial properties including antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. The effect of traditional sun drying on the stability of fresh A. bilimbi fruits was investigated by using different methanol/water extracts, and their total phenolic content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC compared. The TAC was evaluated using established in vitro models such as 1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2´-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid scavenging assay, total reducing power, phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelating activity. All the extracts of the dried fruit showed lower TPC compared to the fresh bilimbi extracts by 23-88%, TAC of which corresponded accordingly. The investigation revealed that A. bilimbi was a good source of antioxidants; however, the drying process of the fruit significantly affected the bioactive compounds.

  19. Detecting compact binary coalescences with seedless clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, M.; Thrane, E.; Christensen, N.

    2014-10-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Although matched filtering is the optimal search method for well-modeled systems, alternative detection strategies can be used to guard against theoretical errors (e.g., involving new physics and/or assumptions about spin or eccentricity) while providing a measure of redundancy. In a previous paper, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to detect long-lived gravitational-wave transients in both targeted and all-sky searches. In this paper, we apply seedless clustering to the problem of low-mass (Mtotal≤10M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems. We show that seedless clustering provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting low-mass compact binaries.

  20. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunmilayo, Gbonjubola Oyero; Oyefolu, Akeeb Bola

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nigeria were analysed for contaminating mycoflora using the plate count and micromorphological methods, while aflatoxin detection and quantification was by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Mycological analysis of samples revealed a higher contamination level in the sun-dried samples. Eighteen fungi species belonging to 8 genera, namely, Aspergillus, Penicilliu, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Neurospora, Rhizopus and yeast were identified. The predominant genus Aspergillus yielded 7 species while the potential toxicogenic fungi represented 38% of the isolated mycoflora. The genera requiring higher water activity for growth ( Alternaria, Fusarium and yeast) were not obtained from the dried meat. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were detected in all the samples analysed. The fresh samples with the exception of the total aflatoxin G (AFG) in kidney gave the highest mean concentrations for all aflatoxins, also an exceptionally high aflatoxin content was found in all the kidney samples. Aflatoxin detection in meat should be addressed urgently to avert the possible adverse health effects like aflatoxicosis, exacerbated malnutrition, suppression of growth and immune functions on consumers. Also the animal health inspectors should pay more attention to the feeding conditions of the animals on farm and the abattoirs.

  1. Polyphenol content and health benefits of raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary; Carughi, Arianna

    2010-08-01

    The health benefits of grapes and wine have been studied and publicized extensively, but dried grapes (raisins, including "sultanas" and "currants") have received comparatively little attention. The purpose of the review was to summarize the polyphenol, phenolic acid, and tannin (PPT) composition of raisins; predict the likely bioavailability of the component PPT; and summarize the results of human intervention studies involving raisins. The most abundant PPTs are the flavonols, quercetin and kaempferol, and the phenolic acids, caftaric and coutaric acid. On a wet weight basis, some PPTs, such as protocatechuic and oxidized cinnamic acids, are present at a higher level in raisins compared to grapes. In human intervention studies, raisins can lower the postprandial insulin response, modulate sugar absorption (glycemic index), affect certain oxidative biomarkers, and promote satiety via leptin and ghrelin. However, only limited numbers of studies have been performed, and it is not clear to what extent the PPT component is responsible for any effects. More research is required to establish the bioavailability and health effects of the PPT component of raisins, the effects of raisins on health biomarkers in vivo in humans, and how these effects compare to grapes and wine.

  2. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  3. 7 CFR 989.167 - Disposal of reserve raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve pool raisins are transferred by the Committee, the purchasing handler shall promptly empty the raisins from the containers used in the transfer so that the Committee may return the containers and pallets used in the transfer to the handler from whom the raisins were transferred within 10 business...

  4. Desempenho agronômico das videiras 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' no norte de Minas Gerais Agronomic performance of 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' vines in the north region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pires Feldberg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do vigor dos porta-enxertos '1103 Paulsen' e 'IAC-572 Jales', no desempenho agronômico das cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da Epamig, em Mocambinho, distrito de Jaíba, MG, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições em esquema fatorial 2x2. Foram analisadas a fertilidade de gemas, o número e a massa de cachos e a massa de ramos. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' proporcionou os melhores resultados nas cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless quanto à massa e número de cachos por planta e fertilidade de gemas, com produtividade média de 31,9 e 22,4 t ha-1 ano-1 , respectivamente. O porta-enxerto 'IAC-572 Jales' proporcionou maior vigor, com maior massa de ramos por planta nas duas cultivares. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' induziu a maiores fertilidade de gemas e produtividades em 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' e pode ser indicado para o cultivo na região de Jaíba, MG.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the '1103 Paulsen' and 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstocks vigor in the agronomic performance of the cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless'. The experiment was carried in the Epamig Experimental Farm located in Mocambinho, Jaíba, MG, Brazil, in completely randomized experimental design with seven replications in factorial 2x2. The following variables were studied: bud fertility, number and weight of clusters and cane weight. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock showed better results for cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' regarding the number of clusters and their weight by plant and bud fertility, with average productivity of 31.9 and 22.4 t ha-1 year-1 , respectively. The 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstock provided higher vigor, comprising greater weight of canes per plant in both cultivars. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock induced higher bud fertility and

  5. The earlier identification of the seedless characteristic of the wampee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... 2Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment of Ministry of Education, ... increase burliness rate in hybridization. ... progeny, the objective of this work is to identify molecular markers linked to seedless trait through.

  6. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  7. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS and open sun drying (OSD. The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  8. Nutritional Value of Raisin by- Product and its Effect on Late Flower Alfalfa Hay Fermentation Profile and Nutrient Availability in Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Yari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agro-industrial by-products in ruminants feeding could help in semi arid climate condition throughout the year. Raisin by-product is produced in huge magnitude in Malayer city, Hamedan province. Local different raisin by-products which produced during machinery cleaning and sorting of sun dried treated grapevine cluster (Vitisvinifera L. cv. Sultana, are as:1 some outer layer of flesh and skin and pedicle of berries; 2 rejected raisins mostly un-ripped berries with their pedicles and 3 peduncles and rachises with their lateral branches of clusters. They may have suitable nutritive value in ruminants. However, their nutrient profile and availability and anti nutrient factors such as lignin and tannin should be considered. Alfalfa hay is usually the important forage used in dairy cow’s diet. However, it has lower fiber digestibility and higher ruminal crude protein degradability. Increasing alfalfa hay fiber digestibility and decreasing ruminal crude protein degradability can help its feeding value. Raisin by-product may help to achieve those in the case of alfalfa hay. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of raisin by-product in ruminant feeding compared with late flower alfalfa hay and consideration of its effect on in vitro fermentation of alfalfa hay. Material and methods Based on completely randomized block design, two original samples (two blocks for each of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product from local availabilities were collected. In first experiment, chemical and phenolic (total phenol and tannin composition analysis was measured by two replicates for each block according to AOAC methods. In second experiment, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics of alfalfa hay and raisin by-product was measured using two fistulated Mehraban rams. For ruminal incubation times of 0, 3, 6, 16, 36, and 72 h respectively 2, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 filled nylon bags used which randomly assigned in animals. In situ

  9. 7 CFR 989.58 - Natural condition raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural condition raisins. 989.58 Section 989.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... raisins which exceed the tolerance established for maturity under a weight dockage system...

  10. 7 CFR 52.1857 - Grades of zante currant raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type V-Zante Currant... Undeveloped 2 5 Appearance or edibility of product Slightly discolored or damaged by fermentation or any other... meet the requirements of U.S. Grade B. Type VI—Mixed Types of Raisins...

  11. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, JD; Byaruhanga, YB

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometery at 450nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of vari...

  12. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (pdrying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (pdrying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  13. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community. Keywords: Black Consciousness, Apartheid, Identity, Culture, A Raisin in the Sun, cross – cultural studies, diasporic, African Literature

  14. Evaluation of the nutraceutical, physiochemical and sensory properties of raisin jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Al-u'datt, Muhammad; Almajwal, Ali; Brewer, Susan; Feng, Hao; Al-Mahasneh, Majdi; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2012-06-01

    This objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of jam processing of grape and raisin on the nutraceutical, physiochemical, and sensory properties. The results showed that fresh grape had the highest antioxidant activity, and total phenolic and anthocyanin content followed by grape jam, raisin, and raisin jam, respectively. No significant differences existed in soluble solids, pH, or firmness between grape and raisin jams. No significant differences in color parameters, ΔE, and chroma existed between grape and raisin jam. Descriptive sensory results showed minor differences in some sensory attributes between grape and raisin jams. In terms of consumer evaluation (9-point verbal hedonic scale and a 5-point just-about-right scale) the jams made from local raisins were parity with those from grape, despite small differences especially in whole raisin jam. Although raisin and other dried products are not traditionally considered as a raw material for jam processing, they have the same potential as fresh fruits.

  15. A seedless approach to continuous flow synthesis of gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Craig; Latter, Melissa J; D'Alonzo, Nicholas J; Willis, Glen J; Raston, Colin L

    2011-04-14

    A direct seedless method for the continuous synthesis of gold nanorods has been developed using a sequential rotating tube-narrow channel processing microfluidic configuration, with the stock feed solutions (HAuCl(4)/CTAB/acetylacetone and AgNO(3)/CTAB/carbonate buffer) being stable for weeks.

  16. 7 CFR 52.1855 - Grades of Sultana raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type IV-Sultana...

  17. 7 CFR 52.1856 - Sizes of zante currant raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type V-Zante...

  18. 7 CFR 52.1854 - Sizes of Sultana raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type IV-Sultana...

  19. 7 CFR 999.300 - Regulation governing importation of raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (i) The date and place of inspection; (ii) The name of the applicant; (iii) The name of the... restrictions or prohibitions on the importation of raisins under the Federal Plant Quarantine Act of 1912, the...

  20. 7 CFR 989.158 - Natural condition raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... wet boxes into dry boxes; (iii) remove wet raisins; or (iv) remove foreign material such as sandburs... actions of the tenderer shall be done without delay, take place at the unloading dock in the inspection...

  1. Multi-component analysis in sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix by single marker quantitation and chemometric discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix before and after sulfur-fumigation using quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS. Materials and Methods: The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ferulic acid as the internal reference substance, and the contents of senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide were calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meanwhile, the influence of sulfur-fumigation on these chemical components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were evaluated and discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Results: There was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method. Furthermore, sulfur-fumigation reduced the contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix by some degree, and the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigation processing could be easily discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Conclusion: QAMS is a convenient and accurate approach to analyzing multi-component when reference substances are unavailable, simultaneously, chemometrics is an effective way to discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

  2. Isolation and identification of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus section Nigri strains from California raisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To determine incidence and levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in California raisins, and to isolate and characterize OTA-producing fungi from California raisin vineyards. Methods and Results: Raisin clusters sampled from four California vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley were analyzed for OTA con...

  3. Teaching "A Raisin in the Sun": Literature and Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Charles

    1989-01-01

    One approach to teaching literature combines a work of drama or fiction with a popular text on human needs and relationships. Virginia Satir's "Peoplemaking," a book on family dynamics, provides a theoretical framework in which to evaluate the decisions of the characters in Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun." (MSE)

  4. Teaching "A Raisin in the Sun": Literature and Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Charles

    1989-01-01

    One approach to teaching literature combines a work of drama or fiction with a popular text on human needs and relationships. Virginia Satir's "Peoplemaking," a book on family dynamics, provides a theoretical framework in which to evaluate the decisions of the characters in Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun." (MSE)

  5. 7 CFR 989.56 - Raisin diversion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 989.56 Raisin diversion program. (a... review production data, supply data, demand data, including anticipated demand to all potential market...

  6. Isolation and characterization of latent and active polyphenoloxidase in BRS Clara (CNPUV 154-147 × Centennial seedless) and BRS Morena (Marroo seedless × Centennial seedless) seedless table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Pavezzi, Fabiana Carina; Martin, Natália; Gomes, Eleni; Da Silva, Roberto

    2011-11-01

    The seedless grapes BRS Clara and BRS Morena, developed in Brazil, are currently growing in popularity due to their premium texture and taste. However, there are no reports on the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from these cultivars. In this paper, active and latent PPO from BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless grapes were extracted using the non-ionic detergents Triton-X-100 (active) and Triton-X-114 (latent), and their catecholase activities were characterized. The PPO extracted using Triton-X-110 exhibited maximum activities at pH 6.0 and at 25 °C. Above 30 °C, a gradual decline in activities was noted, with complete inactivation at 60 °C. The PPO from grapes extracted with Triton-X-114 was activated with 0.2% of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and exhibited maximum activities at pH 5.5 and at 30 °C. It was stable until the temperature reached 60 °C.

  7. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2016-04-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  8. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Chichilichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  9. Cytogenetic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sun Dried Seeds of Soursop (Annona muricata on The Male Germ Line Cells of The African Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seino RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona muricata on some meiotic parameters in the pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Adult grasshoppers were treated with 28μl of the Ethanol extract of sun dry seeds of Annona muricata and absolute ethanol (control for 48 hours and all the parameters (chiasma frequency, formation of rod and ring shaped bivalents and meiotic anomalies were affected by the extract. Chiasma formation was observed to significantly (P<0.05 increase following treatment and this was correlated by a significant increase in the formation of ring shaped bivalents. The incidences of meiotic anomalies such as laggards and bridges at first and second meiotic Anaphases, second meiotic Metaphase as well as in first and second meiotic Telophases were observed to increase when insects were treated with the ethanol extract. These observations indicated that the Ethanol extract of the seeds of A. muricata contain substances that could induce cytotoxicity. The importance of such property in the formulation of grasshopper pest control measures cannot be overemphasized.

  10. Occurrence of Furnonisins B2 and B4 in Retail Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    Concerns that raisins may be contaminated by fumonisins stem from the persistent occurrence of Aspergillus niger spores on raisins and the recent discovery of fumonisin production by A. niger on grapes, which leads to the widespread occurrence of fumonisin B-2 in wine. This study presents an LC......-MS/MS survey of fumonisins in retail raisins. In 10 of 21 brands collected in Denmark, Germany, and The Netherlands, fumonisins B-2 and B-4 were detected at levels up to 13 and 1.3 mu g/kg, respectively. Only fumonisin B-2 has been detected in wine, so the presence of fumonisin B-4 in raisins suggests...

  11. Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S

    2008-01-01

    Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the

  12. Mechanism of seedlessness in a new lemon cultivar 'Xiangshui' [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Feng; He, Xin-Hua; Pan, Jie-Chun

    2012-12-01

    Seedlessness is an important economic trait of lemon. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon requires detailed data on pollen and embryo sac fertility, embryo development and compatibility mechanisms governing self- and cross-pollination. The results of the current study indicate that the fertility of pollen and mature embryo sac remains normal. When flowers were self- or cross-pollinated, pollen grains of 'Xiangshui' were able to germinate on the stigma. In the case of self-pollination, pollen tubes became twisted, tube tips enlarged and tubes ruptured in the bottom of stigma. Following cross-pollination, tubes were able to grow normally in the style and ovary and enter the embryo sac, where double fertilization took place. Embryonic development resulting from cross-pollination was normal. After cross-pollination, the zygote began to divide at 2 weeks post-pollination, with early globular embryos observed after 3 weeks, globular and heart-shaped embryos at 4 weeks, torpedo-shaped embryos at 5 weeks, cotyledonary embryos at 6 weeks and thereafter germinable seeds. After self-pollination, however, ovules began to abort at 2 weeks post-pollination, with ovules disappearing at 5 weeks, ultimately producing seedless fruits. Emasculated unpollinated flowers also developed into seedless fruits, indicating that seedlessness contributes to parthenocarpy. However, gametophytic self-incompatibility has a major role in seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon by blocking fertilization at the bottom of the stigma.

  13. 75 FR 69125 - River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... National Park Service River Raisin National Battlefield Park, MI ; Account Number: 6495 AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notification of a New National Park, River Raisin National Battlefield Park. SUMMARY: As authorized by Section 7003 of the Omnibus Public Land Management...

  14. 7 CFR 52.1843 - Summary of types (varieties) of processed raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary of types (varieties) of processed raisins....

  15. Occurrence of Furnonisins B2 and B4 in Retail Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2011-01-01

    -MS/MS survey of fumonisins in retail raisins. In 10 of 21 brands collected in Denmark, Germany, and The Netherlands, fumonisins B-2 and B-4 were detected at levels up to 13 and 1.3 mu g/kg, respectively. Only fumonisin B-2 has been detected in wine, so the presence of fumonisin B-4 in raisins suggests...

  16. 7 CFR 989.221 - Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale and export of reserve raisins by handlers. 989... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.221 Sale and export...

  17. Comparative Economic Analysis of Conventional and Organic Raisin in Manisa and Izmir Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kenanoglu Bektas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the raisin enterprises employing conventional and organic methods have beencompared regarding various economic criteria. It is found that the gross margins and the gross output of theorganic raisin are higher, whereas variable costs are lower than that of the conventionally produced raisin. Itis concluded that the yield of the organically produced raisin is lower than that of the conventionallyproduced one. Besides, social characteristics of the raisin producers using conventional and organic methodsand structural characteristics of the respective farms have been analyzed. The reasons for the adoption oforganic production methods, and those impeding the shift from conventional to organic agriculturalproduction have been identified. The problems faced by the farmers during the marketing of organic raisinhave been examined, and suggestions have been put forward.

  18. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Zhou

    Full Text Available Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP. Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and metabolizable energy (ME. Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT, 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG, and dry matter intake (DMI, was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks. There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743, ADG (P = 0.425, DMI (P = 0.642, or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236 between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024 in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076 in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098. No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513, tenderness (P = 0.844, adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149, and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400; however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034. In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content.

  19. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Niu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%, Firmicutes (39.06%, Proteobacteria (4.31%, and Tenericutes (2.04%, and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%, Ruminococcus (2.51%, Butyrivibrio (2.38%, and Succiniclasticum (2.26%. Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001; however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932, Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330, Tenericutes (p = 0.2811, or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680 levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431. At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280, Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639, Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433, or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431 levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or archaeal

  20. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV-visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  1. 7 CFR 52.1851 - Sizes of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type...

  2. 7 CFR 52.1853 - Grades of raisins with seeds-layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 Type...

  3. Image processing with genetic algorithm in a raisin sorting system based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasgholipour, Mahdi; Alasti, Behzad Mohammadi; Abbasgholipour, Vahdi; Derakhshan, Ali; Abbasgholipour, Mohammad; Rahmatfam, Sharmin; Rahmatfam, Sheyda; Habibifar, Rahim

    2012-04-01

    This study was undertaken to develop machine vision-based raisin detection technology. Supervised color image segmentation using a Permutation-coded Genetic Algorithm (GA) identifying regions in Hue-Saturation-Intensity (HSI) color space (GAHSI) for desired and undesired raisin detection was successfully implemented. Images were captured to explore the possibility of using GAHSI to locate desired raisin and undesired raisin regions in color space simultaneously. In this research, images were processed separately using three segmentation method, K-Means clustering in L*a*b* color space and GAHSI for single image, GA for single image in Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color space (GARGB). The GAHSI results provided evidence for the existence and separability of such regions. When compared with cluster analysis-based segmentation results, the GAHSI method showed no significant difference.

  4. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M

    2006-10-04

    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.

  5. INTRODUÇÃO DOS CULTIVARES DE UVA DE MESA "FANTASIA" E "RUIVA" NO BRASIL INTRODUCTION OF THE TABLE GRAPE CULTIVARS "FANTASY SEEDLESS" AND "CRIMSON SEEDLESS" INTO BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Valdevino Pommer

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fantasia' e `Ruiva' são dois cultivares de uva de mesa desenvolvidos pelo Departamento de Agricultura dos E.U.A., lançadas na Califórnia em 1989 e introduzidos no Brasil, no mesmo ano, pelos autores. No final do inverno de 1991, garfos dos dois cultivares foram enxertados sobre três diferentes porta-enxertos, a saber: Kober 5BB, Ripária do Traviú (106-8 Mgt e IAC 766 `Campinas', no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do IAC. Garfos também foram distribuídos para alguns viticultores selecionados em diferentes regiões paulistas. Resultados de observações preliminares são apresentados. Para a familiarização pelos viticultores, bem como facilitar a pronúncia em português, os cultivares foram renomeados como sendo `Fantasia' para "Fantasy Seedless" e `Ruiva' para "Crimson Seedless". `Fantasia' é uma uva preta, de ciclo precoce a médio, com cachos médios (350-550g, de 13-20cm de comprimento e de compacidade média a solta. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 4-9g, com diâmetro de 17 a 22mm e 20-30mm de comprimento e ovais. `Ruiva' é uma uva avermelhada, de ciclo médio, com cachos médios a grandes (460-620g, com 18-30cm de comprimento e levemente compactos. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 3,5-8,0g, diâmetro de 16-21mm e 18-30mm de comprimento e cilíndricas a ovais. A duração do ciclo vegetativo (da poda à colheita em Campinas, para ambos os cultivares foi aproximadamente o mesmo, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado. Por outro lado, o vigor, avaliado por intermédio do diâmetro do tronco e do peso de ramos podados, foi mais pronunciado para Ruiva enxertado sobre Kober 5BB. O comportamento de ambos cultivares em São Paulo, avaliado nas condições enunciadas, mostrou elevado potencial produtivo, aliado a excelentes características comerciais."Fantasy Seedless" and "Crimson Seedless" are two vinifera table grape cultivars released in 1989

  6. 75 FR 47490 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand to Compute Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... to sell their raisin-variety fresh grapes to alternate market outlets: fresh, wine, or juice... wine and juice markets, which compete for grapes with the raisin industry. In addition, the European... producers and handlers under the above scenario, the long-term benefits of this action are expected...

  7. 76 FR 42006 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown In California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute Trade Demand AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... traditionally been the highest shipment period, as buyers prepare for increased holiday sales of raisins and...

  8. Seedless clustering in all-sky searches for gravitational-wave transients

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The problem of searching for unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts can be thought of as a pattern recognition problem: how to find statistically significant clusters in spectrograms of strain power when the precise signal morphology is unknown. In a previous publication, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to dramatically improve the sensitivity of searches for long-lived gravitational-wave transients. In order to manage the computational costs, this initial analysis focused on externally triggered searches where the source location and emission time are both known to some degree of precision. In this paper, we show how the principle of seedless clustering can be extended to facilitate computationally-feasible, all-sky searches where the direction and emission time of the source are entirely unknown. We further demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a considerable reduction in computation time by using graphical processor units (GPUs), thereby facilitating more sensitive searches.

  9. Length tunable penta-twinned palladium nanorods: seedless synthesis and electrooxidation of formic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongan; Edelmann, Richard E.; Zou, Shouzhong

    2014-05-01

    Palladium nanorods with controlled lengths from 100 to 500 nm and a fixed width of 20 nm were synthesized for the first time by a seedless approach. These rods show higher peak current densities than Pd cubes for formic acid oxidation and the catalytic activity decreases with increasing rod length.Palladium nanorods with controlled lengths from 100 to 500 nm and a fixed width of 20 nm were synthesized for the first time by a seedless approach. These rods show higher peak current densities than Pd cubes for formic acid oxidation and the catalytic activity decreases with increasing rod length. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00299g

  10. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.

    2012-11-01

    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  11. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  12. Gastroprotective effect ofAcacia nilotica young seedless pod extract:Role of polyphenolic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar Bansal; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To systematically evaluate antiulcer potential ofAcacia nilotica in different ulcer models in rats.Methods:Different extracts [ethanolic,50% hydroethanolic(50:50),70% hydroethanolic(70:30) and aqueous] of young seedless pods were examined in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats.Various parameters like, volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index , mucin content and antioxidant studies were determined and were compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control following ulcer induction. The most active extract was also evaluated in swimming stress induced andNSAID induced gastric ulceration.Results:Among different extracts of young seedless pods only hydroethanolic extracts showed significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation induced ulceration.Even more the70% hydroethanolic extract showed better protection as compared to50% hydroethanolic extract.Further70% hydroethanolic extract also showed significant mucoprotection in swimming stress induced and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs induced gastric ulceration.Conclusions:The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of young seedless pods of Acacia nilotica has antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation, swimming stress andNSAID induced rat ulcer models.The extract containing more amount of phenolic components show high antiulcer activity, indicating the phenolic component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.

  13. 76 FR 18003 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Industry Marketing Promotion Fund (IMPF). Other expenses which have been reduced include: travel for... hauling costs ($65,000), and 2011-2012 export marketing promotion costs. These costs would be unnecessary... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California;...

  14. 7 CFR 989.702 - Minimum grade standards for packed raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... the raisins shall be well-matured or reasonably well-matured. With respect to select-sized and mixed... shall at least meet the requirements of Marketing Order Grade B prescribed in this paragraph. The...

  15. 7 CFR 52.1850 - Sizes of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS... perforations 22/64-inch in diameter. (3) Mixed size raisins means a mixture which does not meet either the...

  16. 7 CFR 52.1858 - Grades of mixed types or varieties of raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of mixed types or varieties of raisins. 52.1858 Section 52.1858 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  17. The Effect of Exchange Rate Volatility on Iran’s Raisin Export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rate volatility is one of the effective and ambiguous factors in agricultural product export. Considering the importance of agricultural trade to avoid single-product economy, the main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of exchange rate volatility on the Raisin export of Iran during the years1959-2011. For this purpose, exchange rate volatility index was estimated using Moving Average Standard Deviation (MASD. Then, the impact of exchange rate volatility on the value of Raisin export was examined using Johansen's and Juselius's cointegration method and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM.The results showed that in the long-term and short-term there is a significant relationship between Raisin exports and its main variables (weighted average of Gross income of importers, Wholesale Prices, real exchange rate, Value-added of agricultural sector; as according to the theory it has negative relationship with exchange rate volatility. The error correction coefficient sentence ECM (-1 significantly and its sign was negative as expected. The value of this coefficient is equal to the -0/20 and indicates that about 20 percent of Raisin exports imbalance from its long-term value, after of a period will be Elapse.

  18. 7 CFR 989.701 - Minimum grade and condition standards for natural condition raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts... requirements: (1) Shall be fairly free from damage by sugaring, mechanical injury, sunburn, or other similar injury; (2) shall have a normal characteristic color, flavor, and odor of properly prepared raisins; (3...

  19. Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on contamination by fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) under tropical humid zone (Côte d'Ivoire).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Irène Ahou; Koffi, Louis Ban; Nemlin, Jean Gnopo; Dosso, Mireille Bretin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, chemical components variation, fungal growth and ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries quantity on the drying area was important, the slower they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 12, 17, 21, 26, 31 and 32 days respectively for the lots of 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg, 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area. The slowness of the drying led to the increasing of fungal development and ochratoxin A production in the cherries. Indeed, samples more contaminated were those from the lots of 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area with between 10% and 100% of infected beans and with levels of ochratoxin A ranging from 0.92 to 118.47 and 1.4 to 131.33 μg kg(-1) respectively. The slowness of the drying led also to the acidification of the cherries (pH=5.55-4.54) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (13.03-11.69) while for their caffeine content (2.52-2.54), any significant difference was observed whatever the drying duration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression between seedless Ponkan mandarin and its seedy wild type during floral organ development by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Ming; Zhu, An-Dan; Wang, Yao; Chai, Li-Jun; Ge, Xiao-Xia; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2012-08-16

    Seedlessness is an important agronomic trait for citrus, and male sterility (MS) is one main cause of seedless citrus fruit. However, the molecular mechanism of citrus seedlessness remained not well explored. An integrative strategy combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library with cDNA microarray was employed to study the underlying mechanism of seedlessness of a Ponkan mandarin seedless mutant (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Screening with custom microarray, a total of 279 differentially expressed clones were identified, and 133 unigenes (43 contigs and 90 singletons) were obtained after sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) distribution based on biological process suggested that the majority of differential genes are involved in metabolic process and respond to stimulus and regulation of biology process; based on molecular function they function as DNA/RNA binding or have catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity. A gene encoding male sterility-like protein was highly up-regulated in the seedless mutant compared with the wild type, while several transcription factors (TFs) such as AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC and C2C2-GATA zinc-finger domain TFs were down-regulated. Our research highlighted some candidate pathways that participated in the citrus male gametophyte development and could be beneficial for seedless citrus breeding in the future.

  1. Effects of different level of leaf removal applications on mineral substance of raisins in organic Sultani Çekirdeksiz grape growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateş Fadime

    2016-01-01

    It was found that there was highest average potassium (K, iron (Fe and Zinc (Zn contents of the raisin in removing two leaves at berry set time down to the clusters; highest average magnesium (Mg and copper (Cu contents of the raisin in removing two leaves down to the clusters and removing two leaves up to the clusters at verasion time; highest average phosphorus (P contents of the raisin in no leaf removal; highest average sodium (Na contents of the raisin in removing three leaves at the berry set time and removing three leaves at verasion time down and up to the clusters at 5% significant level.

  2. Iron (III Ion Sensor Based on the Seedless Grown ZnO Nanorods in 3 Dimensions Using Nickel Foam Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the seedless, highly aligned and vertical ZnO nanorods in 3 dimensions (3D were grown on the nickel foam substrate. The seedless grown ZnO nanorods were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The characterised seedless ZnO nanorods in 3D on nickel foam were highly dense, perpendicular to substrate, grown along the (002 crystal plane, and also composed of single crystal. In addition to this, these seedless ZnO nanorods were functionalized with trans-dinitro-dibenzo-18-6 crown ether, a selective iron (III ion ionophore, along with other components of membrane composition such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 2-nitopentylphenyl ether as plasticizer (NPPE, and tetrabutyl ammonium tetraphenylborate (TBATPB as conductivity increaser. The sensor electrode has shown high linearity with a wide range of detection of iron (III ion concentrations from 0.005 mM to 100 mM. The low limit of detection of the proposed ion selective electrode was found to be 0.001 mM. The proposed sensor also described high storage stability, selectivity, reproducibility, and repeatability and a quick response time of less than 10 s.

  3. "Raisin bun"-like nanocomposites of palladium clusters and porphyrin for superior formic acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuxin; Yang, Jiandong; Yin, Huajie; Song, Rui; Tang, Zhiyong

    2013-05-21

    A novel "raisin bun"-like nanocomposite, where Pd clusters are embedded in porphyrin matrix, is developed as a promising electrocatalyst. Thanks to the synergy between the Pd clusters and the porphyrin matrix, this composite exhibits a low oxidation potential, high mass activity and excellent stability toward electrochemical oxidation of formic acid, which opens new routes for the design of high-performance catalysts in fuel cells. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sensory description of sweet wines obtained by the winemaking procedures of raisining, botrytisation and fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, Mariana; Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-15

    The effect of winemaking procedures on the sensory modification of sweet wines was investigated. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines were obtained by two different processes: by using raisins for vinification to obtain a naturally sweet wine and by using freshly harvested grapes with the stoppage of the fermentation by the addition of alcohol. Eight international sweet wines were also subjected to sensory analysis for comparative description purposes. Wines were described with a sensory profile by 12 trained panellists on 70 sensory attributes by employing the frequency of citation method. Analysis of variance of the descriptive data confirmed the existence of subtle sensory differences among Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines depending on the procedure used for their production. Cluster analysis emphasised discriminated attributes between the Garnacha Tintorera-based and the commercial groups of sweet wines for both those obtained by raisining and by fortification. Several kinds of discriminant functions were used to separate groups of sweet wines--obtained by botrytisation, raisining and fortification--to show the key descriptors that contribute to their separation and define the sensory perception of each type of wine.

  5. Production of Fumonisin B-2 and B-4 by Aspergillus niger on Grapes and Raisins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    The recent discovery of fumonisin production in Aspergillus niger, raises concerns about the presence of these mycotoxins in grapes and raisins as well as other commodities where A. niger is a frequent contaminant. Here we investigate the potential production of fumonisins in A. niger cultured...... on grapes and raisins. Sixty-six A. niger, 4 A. tubingensis, and 16 A. acidus strains isolated from raisins were tested for fumonisin production on laboratory media. Neither A. tubingensis nor A. acidus strains produced fumonisins, but 77% of A. niger strains did. None of the strains produced ochratoxin A....... Ten selected fumonisin producing A. niger strains were further able to produce fumonisin B2 and fumonisin B4 on grapes in the range 171−7841 μg fumonisin B2/kg and 14−1157 μg fumonisin B4/kg. Four selected strains were able to produce fumonisin B2 (5−6476 μg/kg) and fumonisin B4 (12−672 μg...

  6. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Di Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raisins (Vitis vinifera L. are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases.

  7. The ubiquitin extension protein S27a is differentially expressed in developing flower organs of Thompson seedless versus Thompson seeded grape isogenic clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Uri; Velcheva, Margarita; Sahar, Nachman; Flaishman, Moshe; Or, Etti; Degani, Oded; Perl, Avihai

    2009-07-01

    In Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless, fertilization occurs but seeds abort, a type of stenospermocarpy. To clone transcripts with differential expression during flower development, suppressive subtractive hybridization was carried out using two isogenic clones 'Thompson seedless' and 'Thompson seeded', at three stages of inflorescence development (from bud break to ~20 days prior to anthesis). Differential screening and sequencing of a forward and reverse subtractive cDNA library yielded several singleton ESTs. One differentially expressed clone in 'Thompson' seeded versus seedless isogenic clones was the ubiquitin extension protein S27a. In situ hybridization demonstrated its significantly higher expression in the carpel and ovaries of 'Thompson' seedless versus seeded isogenic clones during flower development. Overexpression of this gene resulted in abnormal plant regeneration and inhibited shoot development compared to controls; its silencing in embryogenic callus induced cell necrosis and callus death, evidencing tight regulation of this gene in developing organs of grape. S27a overexpression in carpels and integuments of the seedless flower may interfere with normal development of these organs, leading to embryo abortion and seedlessness.

  8. Relationship between Root Growth of 'Thompson Seedless' Grapevines and Soil Temperature Relación entre el Crecimiento Radical de Vid 'Thompson Seedless' y la Temperatura del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Callejas R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterizing the growth of the root system of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless and its relationship with soil temperature, research was carried out during the 2004-2005 growing season in vineyards in the Copiapó and Huasco Valleys. Four plants were chosen and rhizotrons were used to measure the growth of the root system. Measurements were performed once a week from September 2004 to September 2005, estimating the intensity of root growth and its annual distribution in the ranges of 0 to 40, 40 to 80 and 80 to 120 cm of soil depth. Temperature sensors were installed in four plants at 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of soil depth, and the temperature was registered every 1 h. The thermal diffusivity of the soil was calculated based on the annual mean temperature and annual thermal amplitude values. Root growth occurred throughout the year, presenting lower intensity in July (winter. Root systems presented different patterns in the distribution of growth intensity in the three soil depths, with variations in the order of five times in maximum annual growth intensity among sites. High thermal diffusivity in soils favored root growth.Con el objetivo de caracterizar el crecimiento del sistema radical de la vid (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless y su relación con la temperatura del suelo, durante la temporada 2004-2005 se llevó a cabo un estudio en parronales ubicados en los valles de Copiapó y Huasco. Se instalaron cuatro cámaras de observación de raíces o rizotrones en plantas homogéneas, en plena producción, pie franco, sanas, y ubicadas en diferentes localidades de la región. Las mediciones del crecimiento de las raíces se efectuaron semanalmente, desde septiembre de 2004 hasta completar 1 año, estimándose la intensidad de crecimiento radical anual y su distribución en los rangos de 0 a 40, 40 a 80 y 80 a 120 cm de profundidad. Adicionalmente, se instalaron sensores de temperatura a 25, 50, 75 y

  9. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE-DE-SOL ELABORADA COM BAIXOS TEORES DE CLORETO DE SÓDIO MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUN DRIED MEAT WITH LOW SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    2001-08-01

    as water activity and sodium chloride were analyzed. In both groups the results obtained in microbial analysis were quite high. In the samples of the inspected establishments the averages of mesophylic counts bacterias, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms were 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g and 1,34Log NMP/g respectively and, in the samples without inspection, the averages were 7,41Log UFC/g, 4,44Log UFC/g, 6,78Log UFC/g and 2,6Log NMP/g, respectively. The microbial results suggest errors in the processing and manipulation of both samples, and the fecal contamination was much higher in the samples collected in establishments without inspection. The variation of the sodium chloride content and water activity of the sample indicated lack of standardization during sun dried meat processing. There is the need tho establish microbiological and physical-chemical legal parameters capable of offering safe food to the consumer.

  10. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in export quality raisins collected from different areas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Iqbal, Javed

    2016-01-01

    During 2012-2014, 170 samples of export quality raisins were collected from different vendors in Pakistan. The collected samples were analysed for the presence of aflatoxins (AFs) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of AFs/OTA were 0.12/0.10 and 0.36/0.30 µg kg(-1), respectively. Only 5% of the samples were contaminated with AFs, ranging 0.15-2.58 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 0.05 ± 0.26 µg kg(-1). None of the raisin samples exhibited AFs contamination above the maximum limit (ML = 4 µg kg(-1)) as set by the European Union (EU). About 72% of the samples were contaminated with OTA, ranging 0.14-12.75 µg kg(-1) with a mean of 2.10 ± 1.9 µg kg(-1). However, in 95.3% of the tested samples, OTA level was lower than the ML of 10 µg kg(-1) as regulated by the EU. Apparently, a strict and continuous monitoring plan, including regulatory limits, improves food safety and quality for all types of commodities.

  11. "Fearful of the Written Word": White Fear, Black Writing, and Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun" Screenplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    In 1959, Lorraine Hansberry was hired by Columbia Pictures to write a screenplay for her award-winning Broadway play, "A Raisin in the Sun". By the time the film was released in 1961, over one-third of the original screenplay had been cut. In this paper I undertake a rhetorical analysis of a particular historically contextualized instance of the…

  12. 7 CFR 989.210 - Handling of varietal types of raisins acquired pursuant to a weight dockage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to a weight dockage system. 989.210 Section 989.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... Regulations § 989.210 Handling of varietal types of raisins acquired pursuant to a weight dockage system....

  13. RAISIN - a national programme for early warning, investigation and surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desenclos, Jean-Claude

    2009-11-19

    Surveillance is a key component of the French plan for prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and has progressively evolved in the past decades. We describe the development and current organisation of surveillance of HAI in France and summarise key achievements and results. Surveillance of HAI is under the auspice of the national institute for public health surveillance through a central coordinating structure, the Reseau d alerte, d investigation et de surveillance des infections nosocomiales (RAISIN), which consists of five regional coordinating structures, two national advisory committees of the Ministry of Health and public health agencies. Surveillance includes the performance of national prevalence surveys every five years (latest in 2006), specific surveillance networks to follow trends and characterise HAI that are national priority, and mandatory reporting of HAI that meet specific criteria for alert purposes. RAISIN prioritises activities, defines technical specifications of surveillance systems, coordinates their implementation, and supports response to alerts, emergences or outbreaks of HAI. We demonstrate that the French surveillance program of HAI has become comprehensive and contributes to evaluating the impact of control and prevention of HAI. Data from RAISIN indicate a general decrease in the risk of HAI in acute care in France. They show a decrease in HAI during recent years, particularly of those related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which a drop of 38% was documented between 2001 and 2006. RAISIN is also integrated into European surveillance of HAI coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Control.

  14. 75 FR 35959 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... regulations: (1) Help the industry address its marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with demand... marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with domestic and export market needs, and strengthening... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free...

  15. Improved seedless hydrothermal synthesis of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jinghua; Hu Jie; Li Sisi; Zhang Fan; Liu Jun; Shi Jian; Li Xin; Chen Yong [Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS-ENS-UPMC UMR 8640, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Tian Zhongqun, E-mail: yong.chen@ens.fr [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China)

    2011-06-17

    Seedless hydrothermal synthesis has been improved by introducing an adequate content of ammonia into the nutrient solution, allowing the fabrication of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas on a substrate. The presence of ammonia in the nutrient solution facilitates the high density nucleation of ZnO on the substrate which is critical for the nanowire growth. In order to achieve an optimal growth, the growth conditions have been studied systematically as a function of ammonia content, growth temperature and incubation time. The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) has also been studied but shown to be of no benefit to the nucleation of ZnO. Ultradense and ultralong ZnO nanowires could be obtained under optimal growth conditions, showing no fused structure at the foot of the nanowire arrays. Due to different reaction kinetics, four growth regimes could be attributed, including the first fast growth, equilibrium phase, second fast growth and final erosion. Combining this simple method with optical lithography, ZnO nanowires could be grown selectively on patterned areas. In addition, the as-grown ZnO nanowires could be used for the fabrication of a piezoelectric nanogenerator. Compared to the device of ZnO nanowires made by other methods, a more than twice voltage output has been obtained, thereby proving an improved performance of our growth method.

  16. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2011-08-10

    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  17. Development of highly transparent seedless ZnO nanorods engineered for inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Lee, Wonjoo; Mane, Rajaram S; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Lee, Soo-Hyoung

    2014-10-21

    This work reports on inverted polymer solar cells (IPSCs) based on highly transparent (>95%), hydrophobic, seedless ZnO nanorods (NRs) as cathode buffers with extremely enhanced electrical characteristics. The transparent NR suspension with stability for more than a year is achieved by adding a small amount of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEA). The ability of the stable nanorod suspension to easily spin-coat is certainly an advance to the fabrication of films over large areas and to replace the conventional seeding method to grow one-dimensional nanostructures for use in optoelectronic devices. We observe a strong correlation between the photovoltaic performance and the transparency of ZnO NRs. IPSCs using poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixtures in the active layer and transparent (MEA-capped) ZnO NRs as cathode buffers exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.24% under simulated AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination.

  18. Seedless synthesis of nanocomposites, optical properties, and effects of additives on their surface resonance plasmon bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Zoya; Aazam, Elham Shafik

    2017-07-01

    The work describes an easy seedless competitive chemical reduction method for the synthesis of Ag@Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles by mixing AgNO3, HAuCl4 and cysteine. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the large number of irregular, cross-linking, and aggregated Ag@Au/Ag are formed in a reaction mixture (HAuCl4 + AgNO3 + cysteine), whereas flower-like nanocomposites are obtained in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which acted as a shape-directing agent. Optical images reveal that the initially reaction proceeds through formation of purple color, which changes into dark brown color with the reaction time, indicating the formation of Ag@Au/Ag nanocomposites. The Ag+ has strong tendency to form complex with cysteine. Firstly, the reduction of Ag+ ions to Ag0 occurred by the sbnd HSsbnd group of the cysteine-Ag complex. Secondly, AuCl4- ions adsorbed on the positive surface of Ag0, which undergoes reduction by potential deposition, and leads to the formation of Ag@Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles. Inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3 and Na2SO4) have significant impact on the stability and aggregation of Ag@Au/Ag nanocomposites.

  19. Production of ready to drink red and rosé wines from new seedless grapevine crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonacci Donato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins content in grapes is higher in seeds compared to berry skins. Monomeric flavan-3-ols are more astringent, however, they can combine with other monomer, with anthocyanins and with mannoproteins released by yeast and therefore lose their harsh features in wines. Proanthocyanidins extracted during fermentation and maceration processes in red wines, are important for the organoleptic characteristics of the product and for its aging. There is a difference between skins and seeds proanthocyanidins, with the latter being perceived as more harsh and astringent. One of the most important purposes of refinement and aging of red wines very rich in polyphenols is the slow loss of bitterness. Instead, for wines ready to drink seeds tannins can give bitter overtones, therefore reducing their quality since consumers generally prefer a reduced astringency and attenuated bitterness. This paper investigates the possibility of employ some new seedless grapes crossings of Vitis vinifera L., obtained in recent breeding programs carried out at the CREA-VE of Turi, for the production of improved red and rosé wines made with traditionally red winemaking.

  20. Influencia de las estrategias de riego deficitario controlado en el color de uva de mesa, cv. Crisom Seedless

    OpenAIRE

    Conesa Saura, María del Rosario; Rosa Sánchez, José María de la; Corbalán Rodríguez, María Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo Miguel, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la intensidad y uniformidad del color de las bayas de Crisom Seedless. Una reducción del agua del 40% respecto a FINC (tratamiento adecuadamente regado), no dio lugar a diferencias significativas en producción ni calidad de la cosecha. Dicha reducción en el agua aplicada, indujo un adelanto en la madurez de los tratamientos deficitarios (RDC y DPR), obteniendo porcentajes de cosecha mayores que FINC en los 2 primeros cortes. Por otra parte, una ...

  1. A randomized study of raisins versus alternative snacks on glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Weiter, Kathy; Anderson, James

    2015-02-01

    Just as the type and duration of physical activity can have variable effects on the glucose levels and other cardiometabolic parameters among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), so can the types of foods have variable effects as well. This 12-week randomized study of 51 study participants evaluated the impact of routine consumption of dark raisins versus alternative processed snacks on glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type T2DM. In this study, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 23% reduction in postprandial glucose levels (P = 0.024). Also compared to snacks, those who consumed raisins had a 19% reduction in fasting glucose and 0.12% reduction in hemoglobin A1c, although these latter findings did not achieve statistical significance. Regarding blood pressure, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 8.7 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.035) (7.5% [P = 0.031]) but did not experience a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins did not have a significant improvement in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, these data support raisins as a healthy alternative compare to processed snacks in patients with T2DM.

  2. LOW-CALORIES RAISINS OBTAINED BY COMBINED DEHYDRATION: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Laborde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A healthy dehydrated food of high nutritional-quality and added-value was developed: low-calories raisin obtained by an ultrasonic assisted combined-dehydration with two-stage osmotic treatment (D3S complemented by drying. Pink Red Globe grape produced at Mendoza (Argentina, experienced a substitution of sugar by natural sweetener Stevia in two osmotic stages under different conditions (treatment with/without ultrasound; sweetener concentration 18, 20, 22% w/w; time 35, 75, 115 minutes, evaluating soluble solids (SS, moisture (M, total polyphenols (PF, antioxidant efficiency (AE and sugar profile. The multiple optimization of the process by response surface methodology and desirability analysis, allowed to minimize M, maximize SS (Stevia incorporation, and preserve the maximum amount of PF. After the first stage, the optimal treatment reduced the majority sugars of the grape in 32% (sucrose, glucose, and the 57% at the end of the dehydration process.

  3. Potential health benefits and quality of dried fruits: Goji fruits, cranberries and raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Stanisz, Ewa; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2017-04-15

    Dried fruits are important snacks and additives to other foods due to their taste and nutritional advantages. Therefore there is an important goal to control the quality of the food on the market for consumer's safety. Antioxidant activity of goji fruits (Lycium barbarum), cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon and oxycoccus) and raisins (Vitis vinifera) were studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays. Cu, Mn and Ge influencing antioxidant activity were determined together with selected toxic metals (Cd, Ni and Pb). Contamination with fungi was studied by quantification of their marker - ergosterol and important mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, and ochratoxin A) were also determined. Antioxidant activity of all tested dried fruits was confirmed with goji fruits being the most profitable for consumers. Contamination of the tested fruits with toxic metals and mycotoxins was low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Compost and humic substance effects on soil parameters of Vitis vinifera L cv Thompson seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fincheira-Robles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic amendments is common under the concept of integrated nutrient management (INM in Vi tis vinifera (Table grape to improve plant and soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate compost (C and humic substances (HS mixed with mineral fertilizer (MF in an INM program of V. vinifera cv Thompson seedless. The chemical, biochemi cal and microbiological parameters were evaluated in soil on 1 - year - old V. vinifera plants growing on Alfisol soil. Five treatments and control were evaluated: (T 1 C+MF, (T 2 HS+MF, (T 3 C, (T 4 HS, (T 5 MF and (T 6 absolute control. The results indicate d that the application of C and HS, increased β glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities, reaching values of 90.2 μg p - nitrophenol g - 1 h - 1 and 9.1 μg de TFP g - 1 24h - 1 , respectively . In addition, pH was similar in all treatments while electrical conductivity increased with application of mineral and orga nic amendments, reaching 0.41dS m - 1 in T 2 (HS+MF . Furthermore, yeast concentration increased with organic amendments or mineral. Correlation analysis indicated significant and positive relationships between PO 4 - P concentration with MF (0.579 and C (0.431 and nitrogen with MF (0.868. These results support that INM, which combines mineral fertilization and organic amendments, improve positive changes in chemical soil properties and C cycling measured in terms of enzymatic activity in V. vinifera .

  5. Synthesis and optical properties of small Au nanorods using a seedless growth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Snyder, Brian; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2012-06-26

    Gold nanoparticles have shown potential in photothermal cancer therapy and optoelectronic technology. In both applications, a call for small size nanorods is warranted. In the present work, a one-pot seedless synthetic technique has been developed to prepare relatively small monodisperse gold nanorods with average dimensions (length × width) of 18 × 4.5 nm, 25 × 5 nm, 15 × 4.5 nm, and 10 × 2.5 nm. In this method, the pH was found to play a crucial role in the monodispersity of the nanorods when the NaBH(4) concentration of the growth solution was adjusted to control the reduction rate of the gold ions. At the optimized pH and NaBH(4) concentrations, smaller gold nanorods were produced by adjusting the CTAB concentration in the growth solution. In addition, the concentration of silver ions in the growth solution was found to be pivotal in controlling the aspect ratio of the nanorods. The extinction coefficient values for the small gold nanorods synthesized with three different aspect ratios were estimated using the absorption spectra, size distributions, and the atomic spectroscopic analysis data. The previously accepted relationships between the extinction coefficient or the longitudinal band wavelength values and the nanorods' aspect ratios found for the large nanorods do not extend to the small size domain reported in the present work. The failure of extending these relationships over larger sizes is a result of the interaction of light with the large rods giving an extinction band which results mostly from scattering processes while the extinction of the small nanorods results from absorption processes.

  6. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  7. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  8. From Power-over to Power-to: Power Relations of Women in Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Saravia Vargas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of binary oppositions shaping Western thought, power has been traditionallyunderstood as male domination or as an unevenly distributed social resource between genders. However,an analysis of the power relationships of the three women in Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun inthe light of Derrida's thought shows that these notions do not take into account the dynamism andcomplexity of power relations and hints to the establishment of a new idea of power: transformativepower.

  9. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  10. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  11. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-10-10

    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape. © 2013.

  12. 葡萄干营养与功效的研究进展%Advances in Nutrition and Efficacy of Raisins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓明; 郭春苗; 樊丁宇; 张付春; 卢春生

    2015-01-01

    葡萄干作为一种天然的健康产品,其功效作用越来越受到重视。2013年以来,对葡萄干中的抗氧化活性成分及其对心血管疾病的健康功效有了深入的研究,葡萄干与龋齿、葡萄干与血糖等的关系有了进一步的阐明。本文通过对葡萄干营养与功效方面的研究进行综述,以期为葡萄干的深度研究与开发提供参考。%Raisins as a natural health food get more attention for its efficacy. The antioxidant activity and efficacy of cardiovascular disease in raisins already had bee studied profoundly since 2013. Effect of raisins on dental caries and glycemic also have been further clarified. In this article , the nutrition and efficacy of raisins were summarized. The objective of tle paper was to supply some references for raisins relative studies.

  13. 葡萄、葡萄皮%grape fruit,skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕙芳

    2006-01-01

    @@ 又名 Black Grape Raisins, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Calzin, Chardonnay, Emperor, Enocianina,Flame Seedless, Grape, Grapes, Grape Fruit, Grape Fruit Skin, Grape Juice, Grape Skin, Grape Skin Extract, Merlot, Petite Sirah, raisins, Red Globe, Red Malaga, sauvignon Blanc, Sultanas, Table Grapes, Thompson Seedless,wine Grapes.

  14. Transgenic plants from shoot apical meristems of Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, M; Li, Z T; Dhekney, S A; Gray, D J

    2007-12-01

    Shoot apical meristem explants of Vitis vinifera "Thompson Seedless" were used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. It was determined that the meristems had to be subjected to a dark growth phase then wounded to obtain transgenic plants. Morphological and histological studies illustrated the role of wounding to expose apical meristem cells for transformation. A bifunctional egfp/nptII fusion gene was used to select kanamycin resistant plants that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP). Kanamycin at a concentration of 16 mg L(-1) in selection medium resulted in recovery of non-chimeric transgenic plants that uniformly expressed GFP, whereas 8 mg L(-1) kanamycin allowed non-transgenic and/or chimeric plants to develop. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of transgenes and their stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants. Up to 1% of shoot tips produced stable transgenic cultures within 6 weeks of treatment, resulting in a total of 18 independent lines.

  15. Seedless velocimetry at 100  kHz with picosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Mance, Jason G; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Felver, Josef J; Stauffer, Hans U; Yi, Tongxun; Danehy, Paul M; Roy, Sukesh

    2017-01-15

    Picosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging (PLEET), a seedless picosecond-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in non-reactive flows at a repetition rate of 100 kHz with a 1064 nm, 100 ps burst-mode laser. The fluorescence lifetime of the PLEET signal was measured in nitrogen, and the laser heating effects were analyzed. PLEET experiments with a free jet of nitrogen show the ability to measure multi-point flow velocity fluctuations at a 100 kHz detection rate or higher. Both spectral and dynamic mode decomposition analyses of velocity on a Ma=0.8 free jet show two dominant Strouhal numbers around 0.24 and 0.48, respectively, well within the shear-layer flapping frequencies of the free jets. This technique increases the laser-tagging repetition rate for velocimetry to hundreds of kilohertz. PLEET is suitable for subsonic through supersonic laminar- and turbulent-flow velocity measurements.

  16. Optimization of antireflective zinc oxide nanorod arrays on seedless substrate for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo Choi, Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Alford, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    We report on the enhanced performance of hybrid photovoltaic devices consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene), (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays grown on seedless indium tin oxide (ITO) glass in aqueous zinc chloride solution. Introduction of optimized-length ZnO nanorod arrays between hole injection and ITO layers increased photocurrent density from 8.0 to 8.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor from 42% to 47%. The absence of a seed layer significantly reduced incident light reflection on the ITO glass and resulted in an overall 10% increase in photocurrent. A photovoltaic device based on a ZnO nanostructure length of 100 nm exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.4%, 15% higher than that of an equivalent device without ZnO nanorods.

  17. Occurrence of ochratoxin A, fumonisin B2 and black aspergilli in raisins from Western Greece regions in relation to environmental and geographical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; De Girolamo, Annalisa; Sarigiannis, Yiannis; Haidukowski, Miriam Edith; Visconti, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and black aspergilli in raisins from Western Greece regions (Messinia, Corinthia, Achaia, Ilia and Zante Island) was investigated in relation to the different geographic and climatic conditions in the 2011 growing season. The biseriate species Aspergillus niger "aggregate" and A. carbonarius were mainly identified. The population of A. niger "aggregate" species occurred in all raisin samples at colony-forming units (CFU) concentrations significantly higher (mean 2.2 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) homogenate) than those of A. carbonarius population (mean 4.9 × 10(3) CFU g(-1) homogenate), which occurred in 80% of the raisin samples. OTA was found in 73% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.1 µg kg(-1) to 98.2 µg kg(-1), with the highest level occurring in a raisin sample from Ilia that also contained the highest level of A. carbonarius. The European Union legal limit for OTA was exceeded in 15% of the raisin samples. FB2 was found in 29% of the raisin samples at levels ranging from 7.1 µg kg(-1) to 25.5 µg kg(-1), with 20% of the samples co-occurring with OTA. Principal-component analysis was applied to levels of mycotoxins, fungal contamination, geographical data and environmental conditions recorded in the harvesting (August) or drying (September) period. Principal-component analysis clearly indicated a good direct correlation of rainfall and relative humidity with OTA and A. carbonarius contamination. A lack of clustering was observed when A. niger and FB2 contamination were considered. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of the mycotoxins OTA and FB2 in dried vine fruits from Greece.

  18. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère : Une critique politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein cœur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman tout comme le film de John Ford (1940 furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  19. Projecting Politics: The Grapes of Wrath Les Raisins de la colère à l’écran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Whitfield

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Publié en 1939 et adapté à l’écran l’année suivante, Les Raisins de la colère, roman de John Steinbeck, eut un impact immédiat et extraordinaire pour le portrait sans concession qu’il dressait d’un capitalisme américain qui semblait avoir abandonné sa progéniture la plus loyale, la plus assidue et la plus courageuse, celle qui labourait la terre en plein coeur de la république. Écrit à la toute fin de la « Décennie rouge », mais juste avant que les États-Unis entrent dans la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Les Raisins de la colère exprimaient, d’une certaine manière, la colère accumulée contre un système économique qui avait trahi le prolétariat rural. Le roman, tout comme le film de John Ford (1940, furent compris par le grand public de l’époque, et bien des années plus tard, comme une protestation clairement gauchiste, voire radicale, contre une telle injustice. Mais cet essai montre combien les idées politiques de ces œuvres jumelées sont en réalité difficiles à saisir et combien il est hasardeux de définir, quel que soit l’effort rétrospectif, la critique que Steinbeck et Ford ont proposée dans leur version des Raisins de la colère, une œuvre inoubliable, déchirante mais ambiguë sur le plan politique.

  20. A town famous for its abundance of raisins and wines. Anglo–Spanish commerce in the XVII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Martínez Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the key role played by English merchants in the integration process of Malaga’s economy into seventeenth century international trade. Among other topics, it analyses —from primary sources— the size of the English colony in Malaga at different times during the period, the amount and composition of commodities exchanged, and the institutional factors that allowed Malaga to become an “English port” in Spain. It also stresses the importance that Malaga raisins had in Anglo-Spanish trade.

  1. Efeitos do CPPU e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos da uva de mesa 'Centennial Seedless' Effects of CPPU and gibberellic acid on the clusters characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo José Paioli Pires

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em vinhedo comercial, na região de Jundiaí-SP, com o objetivo de se estudar os efeitos do CPPU e do AG3 nas características dos cachos e dos bagos de uvas 'Centennial Seedless'. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se de CPPU a 0; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5mg.L-1. No segundo ensaio, empregou-se AG3 nas doses de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 mg.L-1. Tanto o CPPU como o AG3 aumentaram a massa e largura dos cachos; a massa, comprimento e largura dos bagos, e o diâmetro dos pedicelos. O aumento do comprimento dos cachos só foi significativo pela aplicação de AG3. Ambos os reguladores de crescimento reduziram o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto. Aplicações de CPPU e AG3 a 5 mg.L-1 proporcionaram aumento da massa dos bagos em 59,0 e 78,7%, respectivamente, e formação de cachos soltos, com pedicelos mais flexíveis. Doses superiores levaram à formação de cachos muito grandes, excessivamente compactos, com pedicelos rijos e muito engrossados e, portanto, de valor comercial reduzido.Two trials were conducted in a commercial vineyard, in the region of Jundiaí-SP, with the objective of studying the effects of CPPU and GA3 on the clusters and berries characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape. In the first experiment, it was used CPPU at 0; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5mg.L-1. In a second trial, GA3 was used at the doses of: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30mg.L-1. Both, CPPU and GA3 increased the clusters weight and width; the berries weight, length and width; and the pedicel diameter. The increase in cluster length was significant only for GA3 applications. Both growth regulators decreased the total soluble solids content. Applications of CPPU and GA3 at 5mg.L-1, provided increases in berries weight in 59.0 and 78.7%, respectively, and formation of untied clusters, with flexible pedicels. Higher doses led to formation of clusters too much large, excessively compact, with pedicels very

  2. 7 CFR 249.8 - Level of benefits and eligible foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., such as prunes (dried plums), raisins (dried grapes), sun-dried tomatoes, or dried chili peppers are..., wild rice, nuts of any kind (even raw), maple syrup, cider, seeds, eggs, meat, cheese, and seafood...

  3. Rapid Seedless Synthesis of Gold Nanoplates with Microscaled Edge Length in a High Yield and Their Application in SERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chen; Pengyu Xu; Yue Li; Junfei Xue; Song Han; Weihui Ou; Li Li; Weihai Ni

    2016-01-01

    We report a facile and reproducible approach toward rapid seedless synthesis of single crystalline gold nano-plates with edge length on the order of microns. The reaction is carried out by reducing gold ions with ascorbic acid in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Reaction temperature and molar ratio of CTAB/Au are critical for the formation of gold nanoplates in a high yield, which are, respectively, optimized to be 85 °C and 6. The highest yield that can be achieved is 60%at the optimized condition. The synthesis to achieve the microscaled gold nanoplates can be finished in less than 1 h under proper reaction conditions. Therefore, the reported synthesis approach is a time-and cost-effective one. The gold nanoplates were further employed as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates and investigated individually. Interestingly, only those adsorbed with gold nanoparticles exhibit pronounced Raman signals of probe molecules, where a maximum enhancement factor of 1.7 × 107 was obtained. The obtained Raman enhancement can be ascribed to the plasmon coupling between the gold nanoplate and the nanoparticle adsorbed onto it.

  4. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test.

  5. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices

    OpenAIRE

    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  6. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a raw material in the production of starch, tapioca and snack foods ... The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight. The surface with .... statistical package (MS Office, 2007). .... preservation and marketing.

  7. From Power-over to Power-to: Power Relations of Women in Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Because of binary oppositions shaping Western thought, power has been traditionally understood as male domination or as an unevenly distributed social resource between genders. However, an analysis of the power relationships of the three women in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun in the light of Derrida’s thought shows that these notions do not take into account the dynamism and complexity of power relations and hints to the establishment of a new idea of power: transformative power. ...

  8. Acute renal failure in dogs after the ingestion of grapes or raisins: a retrospective evaluation of 43 dogs (1992-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubig, Paul A; Brady, Melinda S; Gwaltney-Brant, Sharon M; Khan, Safdar A; Mazzaferro, Elisa M; Morrow, Carla M K

    2005-01-01

    A review of records from the AnTox database of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center identified 43 dogs that developed increased blood urea nitrogen concentration, serum creatinine concentration, or both as well as clinical signs after ingesting grapes, raisins, or both. Clinical findings, laboratory findings, histopathological findings, treatments performed, and outcome were evaluated. All dogs vomited, and lethargy, anorexia, and diarrhea were other common clinical signs. Decreased urine output, ataxia, or weakness were associated with a negative outcome. High calcium x phosphorus product (Ca x P), hyperphosphatemia, and hypercalcemia were present in 95%, 90%, and 62% of the dogs in which these variables were evaluated. Extremely high initial total calcium concentration, peak total calcium concentration, initial Ca x P, and peak Ca x P were negative prognostic indicators. Proximal renal tubular necrosis was the most consistent finding in dogs for which histopathology was evaluated. Fifty-three percent of the 43 dogs survived, with 15 of these 23 having a complete resolution of clinical signs and azotemia. Although the mechanism of renal injury from grapes and raisins remains unclear, the findings of this study contribute to an understanding of the clinical course of acute renal failure that can occur after ingestion of grapes or raisins in dogs.

  9. Diversity of black Aspergilli isolated from raisins in Argentina: Polyphasic approach to species identification and development of SCAR markers for Aspergillus ibericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj Merlera, G; Muñoz, S; Coelho, I; Cavaglieri, L R; Torres, A M; Reynoso, M M

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is a heterogeneous fungal group including some ochratoxin A producer species that usually contaminate raisins. The section contains the Series Carbonaria which includes the toxigenic species Aspergillus carbonarius and nontoxigenic Aspergillus ibericus that are phenotypically undistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from raisins and to develop a specific genetic marker to distinguish A. ibericus from A. carbonarius. The species most frequently found in raisins in this study were Aspergillus tubingensis (35.4%) and A. carbonarius (32.3%), followed by Aspergillus luchuensis (10.7%), Aspergillus japonicus (7.7%), Aspergillus niger (6.2%), Aspergillus welwitschiae (4.6%) and A. ibericus (3.1%). Based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting profiles of major Aspergillus section Nigri members, a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was identified. Primers were designed based on the conserved regions of the SCAR marker and were utilized in a PCR for simultaneous identification of A. carbonarius and A. ibericus. The detection level of the SCAR-PCR was found to be 0.01 ng of purified DNA. The present SCAR-PCR is rapid and less cumbersome than conventional identification techniques and could be a supplementary strategy and a reliable tool for high-throughput sample analysis.

  10. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-06-01

    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications.

  11. Comportamento de cultivares de uva sem sementes no submédio São Francisco Behavior of grape seedless varieties in the valley of São Francisco River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de introduzir, avaliar e selecionar variedades de uva sem sementes, adaptadas às condições tropicais semi-áridas e oferecer novas alternativas aos viticultores do Vale do São Francisco, implantou-se, em 1994, uma coleção com dezenove variedades de uvas sem sementes no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina - PE. Foram avaliadas treze variedades ao longo dos anos de 1997 e 1998, correspondendo a cinco ciclos de produção. As variedades utilizadas foram Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha e Loose Perlette, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Campinas'. Foram avaliados aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas e características e composição química dos frutos. Todas as variedades apresentaram cachos com tamanho pequeno. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless destacaram-se em relação ao diâmetro de bagas, apresentando, respectivamente, 17,83 e 18,26 mm, sem a necessidade de aplicação de reguladores de crescimento. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi elevado na maioria das variedades, enquanto a acidez total titulável foi reduzida, resultando em relações SST/ATT satisfatórias. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating and selecting seeddless grape varieties adapted to the semi-arid tropical conditions of the São Francisco River Valley, Northeastern - Brazil. The experiment was carried out in an experimental vineyard which belongs to Embrapa Semi-Árid, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil during five growing seasons in 1997 and 1998. The varieties tested were: Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha and Loose Perlette, grafted

  12. Otimização da desidratação osmótica de uva Crimson Seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    Full Text Available A uva Crimson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L. é uma das mais importantes variedades sem sementes, devido ao seu atraente cacho médio, e grandes bagas rosadas escuras. Apresenta característica sensorial excelente devido à sua textura firme e crocante, sabor que varia do doce ao neutro, e coloração uniforme. A desidratação osmótica apresenta-se como boa alternativa para reduzir a atividade de água desta uva, permitindo o seu armazenamento por períodos longos, melhorando a sua estabilidade e qualidade. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relacionar as influências de diferentes parâmetros para um eficiente processo de desidratação osmótica deste fruto, com a finalidade de reduzir as perdas pós-colheita e oferecer novas alternativas para o produtor. Para otimizar a desidratação osmótica foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: temperatura (30 a 50 ºC, tempo (1 a 4 horas e concentração (40 a 50 ºBrix, sendo constante o branqueamento (30 segundos e perfurações (8 perfurações cm-2; as variáveis dependentes foram PU (Perda de Umidade, IS (Incorporação de Sólidos e IED (Índice de Eficiência de Desidratação. As melhores condições para a desidratação osmótica utilizando o IED como parâmetro foi a aplicação de branqueamento, solução osmótica com 42 ºBrix, tempo de imersão de 1,6 horas e temperatura de 46 ºC. Os modelos de superfície de resposta obtidos foram preditivos para PU e IS, exceto para o IED. O produto selecionado ajustou melhor a equação de Page (R² = 0,995.

  13. Reducing surgical site infection incidence through a network: results from the French ISO-RAISIN surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astagneau, P; L'Hériteau, F; Daniel, F; Parneix, P; Venier, A-G; Malavaud, S; Jarno, P; Lejeune, B; Savey, A; Metzger, M-H; Bernet, C; Fabry, J; Rabaud, C; Tronel, H; Thiolet, J-M; Coignard, B

    2009-06-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a key target for nosocomial infection control programmes. We evaluated the impact of an eight-year national SSI surveillance system named ISO-RAISIN (infection du site opératoire - Réseau Alerte Investigation Surveillance des Infections). Consecutive patients undergoing surgery were enrolled during a three-month period each year and surveyed for 30 days following surgery. A standardised form was completed for each patient including SSI diagnosis according to standard criteria, and several risk factors such as wound class, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, operation duration, elective/emergency surgery, and type of surgery. From 1999 to 2006, 14,845 SSIs were identified in 964,128 patients (overall crude incidence: 1.54%) operated on in 838 participating hospitals. The crude overall SSI incidence decreased from 2.04% to 1.26% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -38%) and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance system (NNIS)-0 adjusted SSI incidence from 1.10% to 0.74% (P<0.001; relative reduction: -33%). The most significant SSI incidence reduction was observed for hernia repair and caesarean section, and to a lesser extent, cholecystectomy, hip prosthesis arthroplasty, and mastectomy. Active surveillance striving for a benchmark throughout a network is an effective strategy to reduce SSI incidence.

  14. On the use of Ethephon as abscising agent in cv. Crimson Seedless table grape production: combination of Fruit Detachment Force, Fruit Drop and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Aguilera-Sáez, Luis Manuel; Gallo, Vito; Cafagna, Isabella; Mastrorilli, Piero; Latronico, Mario; Pacifico, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela Maria Stella; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2015-03-15

    The effect of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon, in the following ETH) as abscising agent on cv. Crimson Seedless table grape was investigated by means of Fruit Detachment Force (FDF) and Fruit Drop (FD) analyses combined with a metabolomic study carried out by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effectiveness of ETH as abscising agent was ascertained with ETH concentration ranging from 1.4 to 4.0 g/L in a two-year study. The ETH treatments caused berry drops higher than 40% and induced an increase of tartaric acid, procyanidin P2, terpenoid derivatives and peonidin-3-glucoside as well as a decrease of catechin and epicatechin. HRMS-NMR covariance analysis was carried out to correlate the fluctuations of tartaric acid NMR signals to those of MS peaks of the secondary metabolites affected by ETH treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Every year a significant amount of organic table grapes is lost during postharvest mainly due to the incidence of decay, stem browning and fast alteration of the taste and aroma. The demand for this fresh product with immaculate appearance and high sensory quality in terms of flavor, is a hard challenge considering the difficulties to conserve them, with alternative safe treatments to the sulphur dioxide (SO2) which is not allowed in organic product. The aim of this experiment was to maintain the quality of organic table grapes and extend their shelf-life for medium and long term, in order to reach new distant promising markets, by using safe methods. The effectiveness of the combination of pretreatment with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, physical means and storage under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were performed by using detached organic table grape berries as alternatives to usual industrial SO2 application. The detached organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" berries were pretreated by: i) dipping in ethanol and potassium bicarbonate; ii) massive CO2 concentrations; iii) ozone (O3) fumigation; whereas, untreated berries were included in the trial as control. Moreover, all the samples were packed in thermo-sealed ALPAK bags with MAP of 2% O2:5% CO2:93% N2 and stored at 0°C for 45 days. Initially and after 15, 30 and 45 days of storage, weight loss, decay incidence, berry/skin firmness, pedicel detachment force, skin color parameters, SSC, pH, titratable acidity and sensory evaluation scores, were monitored. After 45 days of storage, the weight loss was higher in the sample pretreated with massive CO2 concentration at 70 - 90 % and the control. The samples pretreated with CO2 at 70% and O3 at 20 ppm maintained the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel, also the berry and skin firmness were statistically higher in samples pretreated with CO2 at 90 - 70% and O3 at 20 ppm in comparison with the control. The skin color parameters and

  16. Effect of different levels of raisin waste on performance, nutrients digestibility and protozoal population of Mehraban growing lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saremi, V.; Alipour, D.; Azarfar, A.; Segighi, R.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different inclusion levels of raisin waste (RW) in the diet on the animal performance and ruminal fermentation parameters of growing lambs. Four levels of RW inclusion (i.e., R0, R1, R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} for 0, 100, 200 and 300 g RW kg{sup -}1 dry matter of diet, respectively) were tested. The experimental diets were fed to 24 male lambs (six months old) and six animals were allocated to each treatment. In the first experiment, effects of different levels of RW on the animals performance, some rumen parameters and protozoa populations were studied. In the second experiment, the apparent total tract digestibility of diets and nitrogen balance were measured. The highest final body weights were observed for the R{sub 2} and R{sub 3} diets. The R{sub 3} diet had the lowest dry matter intake (1156 vs. 1303 g day{sup -}1 for R{sub 3} and R{sub 0}, respectively) and feed conversion rate (6.4 vs. 8.7 for R{sub 3} and R{sub 0}, respectively). Total number of protozoa increased with the addition of RW, but Epidinium spp. completely disappeared with the R{sub 3} diet. Inclusion of RW at levels higher than 200 g RW kg{sup -}1 DM of diet significantly reduced crude protein (p = 0.042) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.049). Our findings showed that RW could be included in the diets of growing lambs up to 200 g kg{sup -}1 DM without compromising their production performance. (Author)

  17. Surgical site infection after valvular or coronary artery bypass surgery: 2008-2011 French SSI national ISO-RAISIN surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossin, S; Malavaud, S; Jarno, P; Giard, M; L'Hériteau, F; Simon, L; Bieler, L; Molinier, L; Marcheix, B; Venier, A-G

    2015-11-01

    Multisite information regarding surgical site infection (SSI) rates for cardiac surgery programmes is not widely available. Ward characteristics that may affect outcomes have not been analysed previously. To determine individual- and ward-level factors associated with SSI occurrence after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valvular surgery. A dataset from the French national SSI database ISO-RAISIN 2008-2011 was used. Only adult patients were included. A standardized questionnaire was completed for each patient who underwent surgery, and patients with and without SSI were characterized. Patients and ward risk factors for SSI were analysed using a multilevel logistic regression model with SSI as binary outcome (two levels: patient and ward). Out of 8569 patients from 39 wards, the SSI rate was 2.2%. Micro-organisms were isolated in 144 patients (74%): 35% coagulase-negative staphylococci (N = 51), 23% Staphylococcus aureus (N = 33), 6% Escherichia coli (N = 8). Higher probability of SSI was associated with the duration of preoperative hospitalization, the duration of follow-up, the duration of surgery >75th percentile and the SSI rate in the surgery ward. The residual heterogeneity between wards (median odds ratio: 1.53) was as relevant as duration of preoperative hospitalization (odds ratio: 1.57). Although patient risk factors were more strongly associated with SSI occurrence, this study provided evidence for the existence of a ward-level effect. This should be taken into account when considering possible corrective interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Raisin Classification Based on Compressed Sensing%基于压缩感知理论的葡萄干分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广强; 卢焕达; 余心杰; 舒振宇

    2015-01-01

    为实现机器视觉准确判别葡萄干品种,提出了一种基于压缩感知理论( Compressed Sensing, CS)的葡萄干品种分类方法。以3种葡萄干为研究对象,并提取葡萄干图像的形态、颜色和纹理特征参数,得到葡萄干训练样本的数据词典矩阵。压缩感知理论分类算法首先利用由葡萄干图像特征参数组成的数据词典矩阵对每一个葡萄干测试样本进行稀疏性表示,得到稀疏向量。然后利用稀疏向量对葡萄干测试样本进行重构,并计算重构样本与测试样本之间的残差,最后通过比较残差的大小来确定测试样本的类别。将提出的方法与最小二乘法支持向量机( Least squares support vector machine,LSSvM)和BP( Back Propagation)网络的识别结果做了对比和分析。试验结果表明,基于压缩感知理论的分类方法对于3个葡萄干品种的综合分类准确率为99.17%,获得了最好的分类效果。%A classification method based on Compressed Sensing was proposed for discriminating the varieties of Raisin precisely. Three kinds of Raisins were investigated,and the shape,color and texture feature parameters of the Raisins image were extracted,and then,the data dictionary matrix was got. Firstly,this classification process was to represent the test samples of Raisins image by the matrix of data dictionary and to obtain the sparse vector. Second-ly,the residuals were calculated between the reconstructed samples and the test samples by making use of the sparse vector to reconstruct the test samples of Raisins image. Finally,the classification of test samples were deter-mined by comparing the sizes of residuals. In this study,the classification results on the proposed method were ana-lyzed and compared with those of Least Squares Support vector Machine( LSSvM)and BP network. Experimental results demonstrated that the overall classification accuracy of Compressed Sensing method is 99 . 17

  19. Optimization of the Production Techniques of Seedless Rosa sterilis Fruit Wine%无籽刺梨果酒酿制工艺优化初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红早; 张玉武; 刘盈盈; 孙超; 任春光

    2015-01-01

    为有效避免"果贱伤农"现象发生,促进无籽刺梨产业健康发展,开展无籽刺梨果酒酿制工艺优化研究,分别进行了全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵、无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵等3个处理,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对乙醇、丙三醇、乙酸、乳酸、丁二酸、柠檬酸等次生代谢产物进行了定量测定,经感官指标对3个处理的发酵产品进行了综合分析.结果表明,除乙醇产量外,无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵,丙三醇(4.75 g/L)、乙酸(0.52 g/L)、乳酸(0.18 g/L)、丁二酸(0.55 g/L)、柠檬酸(2.06 g/L)含量均高于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵,说明采用汁渣混合发酵,其产品品质在理化性质上明显优于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵.无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵的无籽刺梨果酒经陈酿后,具有和谐的无籽刺梨果香,陈酿的橡木香,醇和的酒香,幽雅浓郁;口味醇和、甘洌、沁润、细腻、丰满、绵柔,在感官上优于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵等处理.说明汁渣混合发酵能有效浸出无籽刺梨有效成分,从而达到最佳发酵效果,对提高产品品质具有重要意义.%In order to avoid the phenomenon of"low-priced fruits hurts the farmers"and to promote sound development of seedless Rosa steril-is industry, the technical optimization of seedless Rosa sterilis fruit wine was carried out in this study. Three treatment modes including whole fruit fermentation, juice fermentation, and mixed fermentation of juice and residue were adopted respectively. HPLC was applied for quantita-tive measurement of secondary metabolites including ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, etc. And the sensory indexes of the products by different treatment mode were analyzed. The results showed that, mixed fermentation of juice and residue had higher secondary metabolites content except ethanol yield ( glycerol:4.75 g/L, acetic acid:0.52 g/L, lactic acid:0.18 g

  20. The annealing effects on the micro-structure and properties of RuMoC films as seedless barrier for advanced Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jianxiong; Liu, Bo, E-mail: liubo2009@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: gh.jiao@siat.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Jiao, Guohua, E-mail: liubo2009@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: gh.jiao@siat.ac.cn; Lu, Yuanfu; Dong, Yuming [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Qiran [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS-Université Paris Sud UMR 8622, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-07

    100 nm thick RuMoC films and 5 nm thick RuMoC films with Cu capping have been deposited on Si(111) by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC confocal targets. The samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures ranging from 450 to 650 °C in vacuum at a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −4} Pa to study the annealing effects on the microstructures and properties of RuMoC films for advanced seedless Cu metallization applications. The sheet resistances, residual oxygen contents, and microstructures of the RuMoC films have close correlation with the doping contents of Mo and C, which can be easily controlled by the deposition power ratio of MoC versus Ru targets (DPR). When DPR was 0.5, amorphous RuMoC film (marked as RuMoC II) with low sheet resistances and residual oxygen contents was obtained. The fundamental relationship between the annealing temperatures with the microstructures and properties of the RuMoC films was investigated, and a critical temperature point was revealed at about 550 °C where the components and microstructures of the RuMoC II films changed obviously. Results indicated that below 550 °C, the RuMoC II films remained amorphous due to the well-preserved C-Ru and C-Mo bonds. However, above 550 °C, the microstructures of RuMoC II films transformed from amorphous to nano-composite structure due to the breakage of Ru-C bonds, while the supersaturated solid solution MoC segregated out along the grain boundaries of Ru, thus hindering the diffusion of Cu and O atoms. This is the main mechanism of the excellent thermal stability of the RuMoC films after annealing at high temperatures. The results indicated great prospects of amorphous RuMoC films in advanced seedless Cu metallization applications.

  1. A poliploidia artificial na obtenção de melancia sem sementes Artificial polyploidy in the production of seedless watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina

    1958-01-01

    tetraplóides.Watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. are in general provided with numerous seeds: large in the "American" varieties and small in the "Japanese" varieties. Triploids (2n=33 of the "Japanese" varieties are already under cultivation by American farmers who import the hybrid seeds from Japan and seedless fruits are being produced in ever increasing amounts. In Brazil the Japanese diploid (2n=22 varieties are only of recent introduction; among the American varieties (2n=22, "Keckley Sweet" is one of the best known and preferred for its good taste. For the obtention of seedless watermelons it seemed advisable to start the work with such a variety because of its commercial significance. The first step was the obtention of tetraploids (2n=44; the adopted method consisted in the treatment of germinating seeds in an aqueous colchicine solution; best results were achieved using an 0.1% solution for 8 to 12 hours. The tetraploids are of more stunted growth, with larger leaves and flowers; the fruits are smaller, round and few-seeded. In attempting to cross tetraploids with diploids, successfull results were obtained when ♀ 4n flowers were pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. Triploid (2n=33 plants, obtained from hybrid seeds, were completely male sterile but set fruits when pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. The triploid plants are somewhat intermediate between di- and tetraploids as to the size of leaves and growth habit; the fruits are less elongated than in the diploids and not round as in the tetraploids. Some fruits are seedless, i.e. with aborted seeds that can be eaten together with the pulp; others show from few to many empty seeds which are flacid, but not quite fit to be eaten. Comparative studies have been made of pollen, stomata and seeds of 2n, 3n and 4n plants. Studies are in progress to solve some problems encountered in the mass production and germination of tetraploid and triploid seed; up to now they are handicaps to the commercial

  2. Preparation of ultra long α-MnO2 and Ag@MnO2 nanoparticles by seedless approach and their photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Salma Ahmed; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Al-Arjan, Wafa Shamsan; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Khan, Zaheer

    2017-06-01

    The reaction between aqueous MnO4-, cysteine, and Ag + ions constitutes a new seedless arrangement for the production of α-MnO2 and Ag@MnO2 bimetallic nanocomposites at room temperature. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurement reveals that presence of Ag+ ions in an aqueous solution of MnO4- and cysteine changes the entire shape of the α-MnO2 visible spectrum, and leads to a formation of broad band at ca. 425 nm. Thus-prepared nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. For the degradation of methyl orange and congo red, nanomaterials were used as the photocatalyst. The results show almost complete degradation (ca. 99%) of congo red in ca. 25 min. The α-MnO2 nanorods possess high photo degradation efficiency toward congo red in comparison to methyl orange.

  3. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera 'Dzhandzhal Kara,' respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. 'Crimson Seedless.' We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases.

  4. Effect of different covering materials used during the pre-harvest stage on the quality and storage life of 'Sultana Seedless' grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Covering the grapevine rows to delay the maturity and harvest date became widely practiced in 'Sultana Seedless' vineyards. The research work was conducted to test different cover materials (polypropylene cross-stitch, life pack, mogul and transparent polyethylene in respect to their effects on grape quality and storability. Harvest was delayed for one month in covered plots. Harvested grapes were packed and transferred to storage rooms after pre-cooling. During packing, the grape clusters were sealed in PE bags with sulphur dioxide pads. The grapes were stored for 90 days in the first year and 120 days in the second year, at -0.5ºC and 90% RH. All the grape clusters were healthy and of marketable quality after 90 days of storage period. In the first year, at the end of the storage, only those grapes harvested from the rows covered with polypropylene cross-stitch showed fungal growth. The sensory quality scores revealed a lower level of preference after 120 days of storage. The effects of the covering materials tested were similar regarding grape quality and storage performance except the transparent polyethylene that damaged the grapevine leaves.

  5. 发酵葡萄干对面包烘焙特性及风味的影响%Influence of fermented raisins on the baking properties and volatile compound of bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂雅俊; 黄田苗; 赵宝; 杨哪; 徐学明

    2013-01-01

    研究发酵葡萄干添加量为3.33%、6.67%、10%对面包烘焙特性的影响.并应用固相微萃取技术(SPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)研究分别添加3.33%葡萄干或发酵葡萄干的面包和普通面包之间挥发性风味物质的差异.结果表明:发酵葡萄干的添加可以抑制面包芯水分的迁移,添加量越大,面包水分迁移速率越小;添加量为3.33%时,对面包比容和硬度的影响最小,与普通面包之间无显著性差异(P<0.05).葡萄干发酵液面包含有甲乙酐、癸醛、2-甲基丁酸等12种独有的风味物质.2,3-丁二醇、糠醛、异戊酸、丙位庚内酯、反式-2,4-癸二烯醛、香叶基丙酮和丙位癸内酯共同存在于葡萄干面包与葡萄干发酵液面包中,而普通面包中未检出.%The influence of breads made with 3.33% ,6.67% and 10% of fermented raisins on the baking properties were analyzed in this paper,respectively.The difference between common breads and breads containing 3.33% of fermented raisins in composition of volatile compound were quantified using solid phase micro-extraction(SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).The result indicated that adding fermented raisins could inhibit the moisture migration in crumb.The rate of moisture migration decreased with the amount of fermented raisins added.There was no significant difference between common breads and breads made with fermented raisins,when the added level of fermented raisins was 3.33% and its impact on bread specific volume and crumb firmness was smallest.12 kinds of volatile flavor compounds were only examined in bread made with fermented raisins,for example of decanal,2- methyl butyric acid and etc.2,3-butanediol, furfuraldehyde, isovaleric acid, heptanolide,trans-2,4-Decadienal,Geranylacetone and gamma-Decalactone were found both in breads made with raisins and the ones made with fermented raisins,but not in common breads.

  6. 有机无机复混肥对无核白葡萄产量和果实品质的影响%Effect of Organic -inorganic Compound Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Thomson Seedless Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热吉汗·阿不都热木; 齐曼·尤努斯; 玉山·库尔班; 艾克拜尔·伊拉洪; 谭建川

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study effects of different proportions organic - inorganic compound fertilizer on yield and quality of Turpan Thompson seedless grape, to provide theoretical and technical basis for scientific fertilization on Thompson seedless grape in this area. [Method] The 11 -years old Thompson Seedless grape was used as test materials. Four factors and 16 treatments were set in this experiment, and yield and several quality indexes were measured to determine the best formula of organic - inorganic compound fertilizer. [ Result ] After applying the different proportions of organic - inorganic compound fertilizer, the yield of 8 - 11 mus of proceed treatment was higher than that of the field by other treatments, among which the yields by treatment 10 and 11 were significantly higher than others, and the yields by treatment 1 and 16 were relatively lower; Treatments 9-12 have remarkable improvement effects on quality of Thompson seedless grapes; among them treatments 10 and 11 were the best formulas. After using fertilizer treatments 10 and 11, the 100 - grain weight, grain length and width, Vc content, soluble sugar and sugar - acid ratio of Thompson seedless grape were significantly higher than those by other formulations, and titration acid content was significantly lower than that by other treatments, while the hardness stayed at a high level. [ Conclusion]The organic - inorganiccompound fertilizer formulations 10 and 11 could significantly increase yield and quality of Thompson seedless grape, which have more popularization value in the area.%[目的]研究不同配比的有机无机复混肥对吐鲁番无核白葡萄产量、品质的影响,为该地区无核白葡萄的科学施肥提供理论技术依据.[方法]材料为11年生的无核白葡萄,实验设4个因素,16个处理,测定产量和几项品质指标,确定效果最佳的有机无机复混肥配方.[结果]施用不同配比的有机无机复混肥时,处理8~11的单产

  7. An Effective Method for Extracting Total RNA from Young Embryo of Seedless Litchi%一种有效提取无核荔枝幼胚总RNA的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 郑学勤

    2008-01-01

    A total RNA extraction method for young embryo of seedless litchi was introduced.CRAB,Phenol(saturated with water),chloroform,Guanidine isothiecyanate were used as main extraction reagents.Polyphenolic compounds were removed effectively by added PVP into the extraction buffer solution.RNA was purified intensively by phenol,chloroform extraction,and ethanol deposition after deposited by LiCl.Both the results of formaldehyde denatured agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis showed high integrity and purity of RNA.So the quality of extracted RNA could meet the demand of most molecular biology experiments that require higher quality RNA.

  8. 响应面法优化无核白葡萄酒澄清工艺的研究%Optimization of the Clarification of Seedless White Grape Wine by Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 雷静; 郭峰; 吴斌; 韩琛

    2016-01-01

    澄清度是衡量葡萄酒外观质量的重要指标。本实验以无核白葡萄酒作为研究对象,研究不同澄清剂(皂土、果胶酶、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮)、澄清温度、澄清时间对无核白葡萄酒澄清效果的影响,采用响应曲面Box-Behnken设计方法,建立无核白葡萄酒透光率与澄清剂添加量、澄清温度、澄清时间之间的回归模型,确定最佳澄清条件。研究结果表明,皂土澄清效果最佳,最佳的澄清条件为:皂土添加量0.41 g/L、澄清温度3.8℃、澄清时间7.85 h。在此条件下,无核白葡萄酒透光率为98.70%。本研究为当地无核白葡萄酒贮藏研究提供理论支持。%Clarity is an important index in the evaluation of wine appearance. In this experiment, seedless white grape wine was used as the re-search object, and the effects of different clarifying agents (bentonite, pectinase, and polyvinylpyrrolidone), clarifying temperature and clarify-ing time on the clarification of seedless white grape wine were explored. The regression model of wine light transmittance and the adding levels of clarifying agents, clarifying temperature, and clarifying time was set up using response surface Box-Behnken design. Furthermore, the opti-mum clarifying conditions were determined as follows:the adding level of bentonite was 0.41 g/L, clarifying temperature was at 3.8℃, and clarifying time was 7.85 min. Under these conditions, the actual light transmittance of seedless white grape wine was 98.70%. This study pro-vided theoretical support for the research on the storage of local seedless white grape wine.

  9. Estimation of water requirements and Kc values of 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes grown in the overhead trellis system, using the Eddy covariance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Villagra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop evapotranspiration (ETc is essential for irrigation scheduling. The amount of water consumed can be estimated by multiplying the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 by a crop coefficient (Kc; the value of Kc is usually obtained from FAO Paper nr 56. In table grapes (Vitis vinifera L., Kc are obtained from experiments in vines trained on trellis systems; however in Chile, the most used is the overhead trellis system (parronal. Therefore, the objective was to determine water requirements and Kc values of a table grape orchard cv. Thompson Seedless trained on an overhead trellis system in Calle Larga (32°52'40" S, 70°37'45" W, 795 m a.s.l., Aconcagua Valley, Chile, using the Eddy covariance method. During the 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons, the instruments required for ET0 and ETc measurement were installed on a 4 m tower above the soil (2 m above vine canopy. The ET0 was estimated according to the FAO Penman-Monteith equation and ETc by the Eddy covariance method. The Kc was obtained by ratio between ETc and ET0. The maximum ETc was 7 mm d-1 and total water consumption was 810 mm. The season maximum Kc value of 1.2 was obtained near harvest during the first season, and 20 d before veraison in the second season. The Kc increased linearly with the percentage of intercepted solar radiation (IRS by the vine canopy at noon, suggesting that an equation to convert the IRS to Kc is more useful than Kc tabulated according to phenology. The equation obtained in this experiment was Kc = 0.012 IRS - 0.1029, R² = 0.85.

  10. 花皮无籽西瓜新品种花花牛的选育%A New Triploid Seedless Watermelon Variety "Huahuaniu"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪敏; 朱佩; 马长江

    2013-01-01

    Seedless watermelon "Huahuaniu" is a main season hybrid MD05-8 ?MD03-6 that meets watermelon production and market demand. The whole growth period is 106 d and fruit development 35 d. The fruit is round with deep green skin and dark green narrow stripes. The central soluble solids content is 10.6%-11.83%. The average fruit weight is 4.5 kg. Yield on 667 m2 is about 2 510 kg, highest yield up to 3 500 kg per 667 m2. Field trials showed that the plants are easy to set fruit, slightly susceptible to anthracnose, and tolerant to virus disease and Fusarium wilt. This variety is suitable for planting in North, Northeast, Northwest China.%花花牛无籽西瓜是根据西瓜生产和市场需求,用MD03-6×MD05-8杂交选育而成的中熟花皮无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期106 d,果实发育期35 d,圆形果,果皮灰绿覆墨绿色锯齿条带,条纹清晰;瓜瓤红色,质脆汁多,无空心;品质优,中心可溶性固形物含量10.6%~11.83%.平均单果质量4.5 kg,平均667 m2产量2 510.0 kg,高产地块在3 500 kg以上.田间表现植株易坐果,轻感炭疽病,较耐病毒病、枯萎病.适宜我国华北、东北、西北等广大瓜区种植.

  11. Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshanyi' grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Conservação de uvas "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", submetidas a diferentes tipos de embalagens e dióxido de enxofre (SO2 Conservation of grapes "Crimson Seedless" and "Italia", submitted to different types of packings and sulfur dioxide (SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de embalagens e a ação do dióxido de enxofre (SO2 na conservação pós-colheita de uvas finas de mesa var. "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália". Os frutos, colhidos em propriedade agrícola situada no município de Boa Vista-RR (Lat. 2º 50' 06" N e Long. 60º 40' 28" W, apresentavam, no momento da colheita, sólidos solúveis (SS médios de 16,50 e 14,80°Brix, para as variedades "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", respectivamente. Antes da confecção dos tratamentos, os cachos foram higienizados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 100 mg.L-1, previamente acidificada, por dez minutos. Utilizaram-se, para a atmosfera modificada passiva, sacolas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, sem perfuração, com 0,010; 0,015 e 0,020mm de espessura,e acondicionadas em embalagens secundárias de papelão (4kg e de madeira (7,5kg. Para a geração do SO2, foram utilizados papéis Kraft de liberação rápida, com 3 e 8g de metabissulfito de sódio (Na2S2O5. Após a confecção dos tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados em câmara frigorífica a 4 ± 1°C e 95 ± 3% de umidade relativa (U.R.. As avaliações foram realizadas no momento da colheita e, 7; 21; 35; 42 e 56 dias de armazenamento refrigerado, quanto à porcentagem de perda de massa fresca, taxa de desgrana e de bagas deterioradas, qualidade do engaço e teor de SS dos frutos. Após oito semanas, foi realizado teste de preferência para as duas variedades. Verificou-se, em ambas as variedades, que as uvas submetidas à ação do gerador de SO2 , contendo 3g de metabissulfito de sódio e acondicionamento em embalagens de PEBD de 0,020mm de espessura, independentemente do tipo de embalagem secundária, apresentaram a menor perda de massa fresca, menor taxa de desgrana e de bagas deterioradas, e melhor qualidade do engaço. Os resultados da análise sensorial concordaram com os resultados das análises físico-químicas. Não foram detectadas

  13. ‘奥迪亚’葡萄杂交后代胚挽救及无核性状分子鉴定%Embryo rescue and seedlessness molecular identification of hybrid off- springs of ‘Otilia' grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程和禾; 吴雅琴; 吴永杰; 李玉生; 陈龙; 周锡明; 赵艳华

    2012-01-01

    【目的】为了研究影响杂交后代胚挽救萌发率的主要因素,并对其无核性状进行早期鉴定,【方法】以无核、抗病葡萄品种‘奥迪亚’为母本,‘玫瑰香’、‘摩尔多瓦’和‘红地球’3个主栽品种为父本进行杂交,通过L9(3^3)正交试验,建立简单高效的胚挽救体系,并用分子标记对杂交苗无核性状进行鉴定。【结果】结果表明,影响胚挽救萌发率的最关键因素为接种时期,其次为培养基种类和NAA浓度;以‘奥迪亚’为母本的杂交胚其适宜接种程序为授粉后49~56d剥取胚珠,接种在B5或NN69培养基上充分发育70d,再转入1/2B5培养基上萌芽,‘奥迪亚’ב摩尔多瓦’杂交胚通过此程序萌发率达到了50.48%;经分子标记鉴定,各组合后代的无核株系均超过50%。【结论】利用胚挽救方法以‘奥迪亚’为杂交母本可高效创新葡萄无核种质。%[Objective]What was the main factor which influenced the embryo germination rate and whether the hybrid off-springs were seedless or not were studied in this test. [Method ]Three hybrid combi- nations were set up which were ‘Otilia' בMuscat Hamburg', ‘ Otilia' בMoldova' and ‘Otilia' × ‘Red Globe', and the female parent ‘Otilia' was seedless and disease-resistant. L9 (33) orthogonal test were designed to establish simple and efficient embryo rescue progress, and using molecular marker to identify whether the hybrid off-springs were seedless or not. [Result] The results were as follows: the most important factor that influenced the embryo germination rate was inoculation period, which is followed by the medium type and NAA concentration; the suitable embryo rescue progress for hybrid embryos, whose female parents was Otilia, was that the embryos were first inoculated at 49-56 DAF (days after fertiliza- tion), and after developed on the B5 or NN69 medium for 70 d

  14. Micropropagation of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Komal; Sharma, R; Singh, P K; Singh, Govind

    2013-01-01

    A micropropagation protocol was developed for multiplication of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) using nodal explants. The maximum shoot regeneration was observed on low level of BAP (0.1 mg l(-1)) or kinetin (0.5 mg l(-1)). BA was recorded to be better than kinetin in terms of number of days taken to bud break. The maximum number of shoots per explant was observed on 0.1 mg l(-1) BA and 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin. Shoot proliferation decreased with increasing concentration of BA alone, but in case of a combination of BA and NAA (0.1 mg l(-1) each), it increased with increasing concentration of BA up to 10.0 mg l(-1). None of the treatments including BA or kinetin alone or BA in combination with NAA produced significantly more shoots for commercial exploitation. In the case of a combination of BA + kinetin + IBA, the maximum (5.5 shoots per explants) proliferation was observed on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA or 0.25 mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. Regenerated shoots showed root induction on MS basal medium or on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. It is concluded that a five-fold increase (1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA) in axillary shoot proliferation, while seven-fold increase (0.25 mg/l mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA) during the second cycle of multiplication could be obtained using the two plant growth regulator combinations. PCR amplification with 14 different random primers confirmed no somaclonal variant up to two cycles of shoot multiplication.

  15. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  16. Efeito do ácido giberélico, do bioestimulante crop set e do anelamento na produção e na qualidade da uva 'Thompson Seedless' no Vale do São Francisco Effect of gibberellic acid, girdling and the biostimulant crop set on yield and quality of bunches in grapes cv. Thompson Seedless in the São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricía Coelho de Souza Leão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido giberélico, do bioestimulante Crop Set e do anelamento sobre o aumento do tamanho de bagas e a produtividade da uva 'Thompson Seedless' no Vale do São Francisco. O experimento foi conduzido durante dois ciclos de produção (2001 e 2002, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, pertencente à Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina-PE. Utilizou-se do delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à aplicação de ácido giberélico em cinco fases de desenvolvimento da videira, nas doses de 10 + 15 + 15 +50 + 50 mg.L-1, do bioestimulante Crop Set em duas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e do anelamento no caule, isolados e combinados entre si. Os tratamentos combinados de anelamento + ácido giberélico e anelamento + ácido giberélico + Crop Set destacaram-se como aqueles que promoveram os maiores peso e tamanho de cachos e de bagas, com diferenças significativas em relação à testemunha. Entretanto, o anelamento não cicatrizou completamente, causando a morte de plantas, recomendando-se cautela na sua realização. Apesar de não se observar efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a produtividade, pode-se notar um aumento de 63% para o tratamento anelamento + ácido giberélico em relação ao ciclo de produção de 2001.The present research was aimed to evaluate the effects of the gibberellic acid, the biostimulant Crop-Set and girdling applied during bloom and post-bloom stage to improve yield and berry size of the grape cv. Thompson Seedless in the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast of Brazil. The trial was carried out throughout two growing seasons (2001 and 2002 in the Bebedouro Experimental Station, Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, PE. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates, each replicate consisting of a four-tree plot. The treatments were: gibberellic acid aplied during five

  17. Ácido giberélico no raleio de cachos de uva da cv. superior seedless, enxertada sobre o porta-enxerto 'SO4', cultivada na região do Vale do Submédio São Francisco Giberelic acid in grape cluster thinning, cv. superior seedless, grafted on the rootstock "SO4", cultivated at São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Maurício Viana Gonzaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de concentrações de ácido giberélico no raleio e melhoria da qualidade de cachos de uva da cv. Superior Seedless, foi realizado este experimento em pomar comercial na Fazenda Copa Fruit S.A., município de Petrolina-PE. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (GA3: 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0 mg.L-1, quatro repetições e duas plantas por parcela, e os dados foram interpretados por meio de análise de variância e regressão. As aplicações dos tratamentos foram realizadas em três fases, a primeira antes da antese e a segunda e terceira com aproximadamente25% e 80% de flores abertas, respectivamente, utilizando-se de um volume de calda de 2.000 litros/ha. Os cachos foram colhidos com 60 dias após a poda, e as características avaliadas foram: comprimento médio de cacho, engaço e "ombros"; densidade de bagas; massa da matéria fresca do cacho e bagas; e diâmetro e comprimento de bagas. os melhores resultados para o raleio foram obtidos com a concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, que proporcionou uma densidade de 5,39 bagas/cm de cacho, contra 8,24 bagas/cm de cacho obtido pela testemunha. Em relação à melhoria da qualidade de cachos e bagas, aplicações de GA3 acima de 2,0 mg.L-1, apesar de mostrarem eficiência no aumento do comprimento de cachos, tiveram efeitos negativos na massa da matéria fresca de cachos e bagas, inviabilizando os cachos comercialmente.With the objective to evaluate the effect of concentrations of gibberellic acid in thinning and in the quality improvement in grape clusters cv. Superior Seedless it was carried out an experiment in a commercial orchard in Copa Fruit S.A. farm, in Petrolina-PE. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with seven treatments (GA3: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg.L-1, four replications and two plants/plot, and the data were interpreted by analysis of variance and regression. The

  18. Effects of Bag-controlled Slow Release Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Crimson Seedless%袋控缓释肥对克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙占育; 郭春会; 刘小菊

    2011-01-01

    采用4个不同施肥处理,通过田间试验,研究了袋控缓释肥时克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响.结果表明:袋控缓释肥可提高克瑞森葡萄的产量和品质,产量达到37 257.4 kg.hm-2,比不施肥提高了51.2%,可溶性固形物含量达22.23%,高于其他处理;袋控缓释肥处理提高了叶片N、P、K含量、叶绿素含量及光合速率.袋控缓释肥简单易行,省工节肥,减少污染,有效解决了葡萄施肥中养分的平衡供应问题,是一种理想的施肥方式.%Field trial was conducted to study the effect of the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer on the yield and quality of Crimson seedless by the four treatments. The results showed that bag-controlled slow release fertilizer could improve the yield and quality of Crimson seedless. The yield was 37 257. 4 kg ? Hm~2 by applying the paper-bag-controlled slow release fertilizer, increased by 51. 2% compared with CK. Sugar content reached to 22. 23%, which was better than other treatments. The contents of N, P, K and chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate of the leaves were relatively increased by the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer. It is an ideal way of fertilization that could simply save labor and fertilizer and reduce pollution, which could effective solve the supply of nutrient balance of grape of fertilization.

  19. C18固相萃取柱-高效液相色谱法测定葡萄干中赭曲霉毒素A%Determination of ochratoxin A in raisins by SPE-HPLC-FLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓旭; 马丽艳; 杨丽丽; 李景明

    2012-01-01

    采用C18固相萃取柱对葡萄干样品中赭曲霉毒素A(OTA)净化,以高效液相色谱结合荧光检测器对提取样品进行检测,采用乙腈-水-冰乙酸为流动相,荧光检测器激发波长333nm,发射波长460nm,外标法定量.结果表明,在0.098~12.5μg/L范围内有良好的线性关系(R2=0.9998),检测限为0.07μg/kg,加标回收率在94.0%~108.4%之间,相对标准偏差为0.4%~1.0%,并对采集的10个葡萄干样品进行OTA含量检测,证实了该方法的可行性.该方法可满足对大批量葡萄干样品中赭曲霉毒素A检测的需要.%A method is described for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in raisin samples using Cl8 solid phase extraction clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Mobile phase was acetonitrile-water-acetic acid. The excitation wavelength was 333 nm and the emission wavelength was 460 nm, and the samples were quantified by external standard method. The experimental results showed a good linear relationship in the concentration range from 0. 098μg/L to 12. 5μg/L ( R2 =0. 9998) . The method detection limit was 0. 07μg/L, the recoveries for OTA were 94. 0% - 108. 4% , and the relative standard deviations were 0.4% - 1.0% for different kinds of raisins. This methods was successfully used to detect OFA in 10 raisin samples. The results show that the method is simple, rapid, cheap,accurate and applicable for the determination of OTA in raisins.

  20. Acúmulo e exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes Accumulation and exportation of macronutrients in seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C. Grangeiro

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o acúmulo e a exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes, híbrido Nova, conduziu-se um experimento em Itápolis (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2001, em um ARGISSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Distrófico. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 15; 30; 45; 60 e 70 dias após transplantio (DAT, sendo quantificados o acúmulo de massa seca e de macronutrientes na folha, caule + ramos e frutos. O acúmulo de peso seco foi lento até 30 DAT, intensificando-se a partir deste, alcançando no final do ciclo o total de 545,1 g planta-1, onde as folhas participaram com 30%, caule + ramos com 31% e os frutos com 39%. Até 30 DAT, o acúmulo de nutrientes também foi pequeno, sendo que com a frutificação, houve um forte incremento na quantidade de nutrientes acumulados, com maior demanda no período de 45 a 60 DAT. A ordem decrescente dos macronutrientes acumulados pela cultura foi: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. Os frutos exportaram 20,3 kg ha-1 de N; 4,0 kg ha-1 de P; 26,6 kg ha-1 de K; 1,4 kg ha-1 de Ca; 1,6 kg ha-1 de Mg e 1,4 kg ha-1 de S.The accumulation and exportation of nutrients of the seedless watermelon hybrid Nova was determined under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in Typic Paleudult soil, in the Itápolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling of the plants was done at 15; 30; 45; 60 and 70 days after transplanting date (DAT and the accumulation of dry mass and macronutrients was quantified in leaves, stem + branches and fruits. The dry mass accumulation was slow until 30 DAT, intensifying with the beginning of the fruit development. At the end of the cycle, the average contribution of leaves, stems + branches and fruits, was respectively of 30; 31 and 39%. The accumulation of nutrients followed the curve of dry mass accumulation. The larger demand for macronutrients occurred from 45 to 60 DAT. The order of nutrients accumulation for the culture was: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. The fruits exported 20.3 kg

  1. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  2. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work ..... determine profitability of rice businesses. ..... Government of Republic of Uganda, The ... Organization and the Japanese ... Analysis of incentives.

  3. Comparative evaluation of ensiled cassava peel meal and sun-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedimo Laptop

    Animal Production Research Advances, 6(4): 291 - 295, 2010. ISSN: 0794 - 4721 www.tapasinstitute.org/journals/apra. ©Tapas Institute of Scientific Research and Development, 2010. 291 ..... Cah, Colombia, 1 - 7 August,. 1976. Ottawa ...

  4. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2017-04-01

    Green bean ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly ( P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  5. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  6. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2016-08-01

    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  7. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Methods Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nige...

  8. Utilization of sun-dried on-farm generated poultry litter as a feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... maize in diets of growing-finishing pigs on weight basis to assess its implication ... and white blood cells (WBC) while the hemoglobin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine and glutamate ... The total bacterial count was consider-.

  9. 无核荔枝半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene of Seedless Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 刘娜; 李明芳; 郑学勤

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] This study aimed to clone the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of seedless litchi and analyze the sequence. [ Method] According to the EST sequence of cysteine proteinase inhibitor in constructed SSH subtractive library of seedless litchi abortion, nucleotide sequence of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene was obtained by using RACE technology and analyzed by using bioinformatics software. [ Result] A cysteine protease inhibitor gene was obtained with the sequence of 635 bp containing a 321 bp open reading frame. It was predicted that the encoded protein contained 106 amino acids with conserved domain of cysteine proteinase inhibitor and had relatively high homology with the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of several species. [ Conclusion] This study had laid the foundation for further exploring the physiological functions of this cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene in plants.%[目的]对无核荔枝的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因进行克隆,并对其序列下进行分析.[方法]根据构建的无核荔枝胚败育SSH消减文库的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂EST序列,通过RACE技术获得半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因的核苷酸序列并应用生物信息学软件进行分析.[结果]获得一个635 bp的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因序列,预测该序列含有321 bp的开放阅读框,推导其编码的蛋白质含106个氨基酸,具有半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂保守区,与多个物种的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因具有较高的同源性.[结论]为进一步研究半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂在植物中的生理功能奠定了基础.

  10. Caracterização fenológica e requerimentos térmicos de variedades de uvas sem sementes no Vale do São Francisco Phenological evaluation and thermal requirements of five seedless grapes in the San Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento fenológico e requerimentos térmicos de variedades de uvas sem sementes foram estudados nas condições do Vale do São Francisco durante os anos de 2001-2002, em seis diferentes datas de poda (12/2000, 04/2001, 06/2001, 10/2001, 01-02/2002 e 04/2002. O experimento foi realizado no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, em Petrolina-PE. As variedades utilizadas foram Superior Seedless (Festival, Thompson Seedless, Catalunha, Perlette e Marroo Seedless, enxertadas sobre porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Jales'. Avaliou-se a duração em dias dos estádios fenológicos, gemas dormentes (data de poda a gemas inchadas (1, gemas inchadas a início de brotação (2, início de brotação a 5-6 folhas separadas (3, 5-6 folhas separadas a início de floração (4, início de floração à plena-floração (5, plena-floração a "chumbinho" (6, "chumbinho" à "ervilha" (7, "ervilha" a ½ baga (8, ½ baga a início de maturação (9 e início de maturação à maturação plena (10. Os requerimentos térmicos foram obtidos em termos de graus-dia (GD necessários para atingir cada fase fenológica a partir da poda. O ciclo fenológico médio variou de 89 dias e 1.315 GD na variedade Superior Seedless a 105 dias e 1.514 GD na variedade Perlette, destacando-se as variedades Superior Seedless e Marroo Seedless como precoces e as demais com ciclo intermediário. Os períodos compreendidos entre o início e final da maturação, ½ baga a início de maturação e 5 a 6 folhas separadas a início de floração apresentaram a maior duração entre todos os subperíodos em todas as variedades.The phenological behaviour and heat summation requirements of seedless grapes were studied in the San Francisco River Valley during the seasons 2001-2002, for six pruning dates (12/2000, 04/2001, 06/2001, 10/2001, 01 and 02/2002 and 04/2002. The varieties evaluated were Superior Seedless (Festival, Thompson Seedless, Catalunha, Perlette and Marroo Seedless, grafted on IAC

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on nutritional properties of table grapes Benitaka and dark raisins; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante nas propriedades nutricionais das uvas de mesa Benitaka e uvas passas escuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda Galassi

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is a major producer of fruits, but its tropical climate with high humidity and temperature, eventually creates unfavorable conditions for the preservation of food and especially the fruit. Ionizing radiation has the potential to solve problems affecting the food supply in many countries. Using the right dose, this technology can be used to extend shelf life and safety of many fresh fruits in addition to controlling their rates of maturation. There are thousands of grape varieties around the world, most of them belonging Vitis vinifera. This fruit can be dried to obtain raisins in order to maintain the natural characteristics of the product and hinder the growth of microorganisms that can promote the deterioration of fresh fruit. One of the major sources of phenolic compounds are found in grapes, compared to other fruits and vegetables. One of the phenolic compounds represented by resveratrol is that stands out when it comes to fighting various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurological diseases. The irradiations were performed in {sup 60}Co irradiator Multipurpose Center installed on Radiation Technology (CTR-IPEN-CNEN/SP) with different doses: control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 kGy for the analysis of color, texture, sensory and microbiological shelf life. For analysis of phenolic compounds and resveratrol were radiated only at doses: control, 1.5 and 3 kGy. With the results it was found that doses of 0.5, 1.5 kGy grape variety Benitaka have been accepted well both in sensory and shelf life tests. Samples of raisins had no variation in this analysis. No microbial growth was found and after treatment with radiation it was possible to prove the presence of resveratrol in all samples. (author)

  12. Anelamento e reguladores de crescimento: efeitos sobre as medidas biométricas e qualidade de cachos da videira 'Superior Seedless' Girdling and growth regulators: effects on the biometric measurements and quality of bunches of vine 'Superior Sedless'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se obter maior tamanho de baga, peso médio de cacho e produtividade, os cachos da variedade Superior Seedless foram pulverizados com ácido giberélico (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bioestimulante Crop Set® nas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e com ou sem anelamento no caule. Esses tratamentos foram aplicados de forma isolada ou combinados entre si. O trabalho foi conduzido durante o período 2001-2002 (dois ciclos de produção, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina-PE. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e três repetições, sendo duas plantas por parcela. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos nos dois ciclos de produção. Entretanto, quando o ácido giberélico foi associado ao Crop Set® 0,1% e anelamento, observou-se uma tendência de aumento no peso de cachos, bem como no peso e tamanho de bagas na safra de 2001. Os cachos tratados com ácido giberélico apresentaram engaços mais grossos e pesados, embora não se observem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Algumas plantas submetidas ao anelamento apresentaram problemas de cicatrização, o que provocou a morte das mesmas, recomendando-se evitar a realização desta prática nas condições em que se realizou este trabalho.Aiming to increase the berry size, weight of bunches and yield, the bunches of the cv. Superior Seedless was powdered with gibberelic acid (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bio-stimulant Crop Set® in the dosis of 0.1 and 0.2%. In adition was used the treatment known as girdling. Those treatments were applied in an isolated way or combined to each other. The work was carried out during 2001-2002 (two harvest seasons, in the Experimental Station of Bebedouro, Semi-arid Embrapa in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design were in randomized blocks with 12 treatments and three replications. The differences among the treatments were not statistical significant in the two

  13. Field performance of "marsh seedless" grapefruit on trifoliate orange inoculated with viroids in Brazil Desempenho do pomeleiro "marsh seedles" enxertado em trifoliata inoculado com viróides no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some viroids reduce citrus tree growth and may be used for tree size control aiming the establishment of orchards with close tree spacing that may provide higher productivity than conventional ones. To study the effects of citrus viroids inoculation on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. grafted on trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], an experiment was set up in January 1991, in Bebedouro, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments with two plants per plot: viroid isolates Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd + Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and controls: two healthy buds (control, and no grafting (absolute control. Inoculation was done in the field, six months after planting by bud grafting. Both isolates reduced tree growth (trunk diameter, plant height, canopy diameter and volume. Trees not inoculated yielded better (average of eleven harvests than inoculated ones but the productivity was the same after 150 months. Fruit quality was affected by viroids inoculation but not in a restrictive way. The use of such severe dwarfing isolates for high density plantings of grapefruit on trifoliate orange rootstock is not recommended.Alguns viróides reduzem o crescimento dos citros e podem ser usados para o controle do tamanho das plantas objetivando a instalação de pomares adensados que podem ter maior produtividade que os pomares com espaçamentos convencionais. Para estudar o efeito da inoculação de viróides no desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos de pomeleiro 'Marsh Seedless' (Citrus paradisi Macf. enxertado em trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], foi instalado um experimento em Janeiro de 1991, em Bebedouro, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O delineamento

  14. 克瑞森无核葡萄简化栽培配套技术集成与应用研究%Integration and Application of Crimson Seedless Grapes Simplified Cultivation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭绍杰; 李铭; 陈新德; 杨卫忠; 兰小军; 李鹏程; 苏学德

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to simplify the operational measures and raise the level of mechanization in grape orchard management. [Method] Full adoption of orchard mechanization technology; aspects of culture in the tree, choose a compact easy to buried winter trunk type, the shoot was the level of leaves in the bondage of the main vine on both sides of the pinnate horizontal screen, and shoots load 4.50 x 10 ind/hm about; simplified tree cultivation and shoot management practices, long put of the pre-shoots and axillary shoot, axillary shoot thinning of the late crown density; change the traditional clean tillage system, the implementation of the orchard grass, straw mulching, and other measures. [Result] With this technique, the second annual output of Crimson seedless grape planting is 0.75 x 10 4 kg/m2, the third years is 1. 80 x 10 4 kg/hm2 or more, which achieved water saving36% , fertilizer saving41%. [Conclusion] Applying the model can optimize the production and management methods, reduce labor intensity, improve labor productivity, and enhance the level of the grape industry, perfect the quality of Crimson seedless grape.%[目的]提高葡萄园管理的机械化水平,简化操作措施.[方法]全面采用果园机械化生产技术;在树型培养方面,选择便于埋土越冬的紧凑龙干型,新梢在主蔓两侧羽状水平绑缚呈水平叶幕,新梢负载量4.50万个/hm2左右;简化树型培养和枝梢管理措施,前期对新梢和副梢长放,后期疏除造成树冠郁闭的副梢;改变传统的清耕制,实行果园生草、覆草等措施.[结果]采用该技术,克瑞森无核葡萄定植第2年产量达0.75万kg/hm2,3年以后1.80万kg/hm2以上,实现了节水36%、节肥41%.[结论]应用该模式能够优化生产管理方式,降低工人劳动强度,提高劳动生产率,提升葡萄产业化水平,改善克瑞森无核葡萄品质.

  15. Clarification effects of different clarifier on Papaya and seedless orange juice%不同澄清剂对番木瓜柑桔果汁澄清效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋侬辉; 钟云; 林秉斌

    2009-01-01

    以番木瓜和无核椪柑为主要原料.对番木瓜柑桔复合澄清果汁生产工艺进行了研究,采用正交试验法获得混合果汁的最优配方:番木瓜原汁20%、柑橘原汁20%、蔗糖8%、柠檬酸0.08%.试验表明,采用0.03%的果胶酶能明显提高果汁的出汁率和澄清度,采用1.0 g/L壳聚糖和2.0 g/L的明胶也有较好的澄清效果,3种澄清方法中以果胶酶的澄清效果最好.%A new tape of compound and clarified juice using papaya and seedless orange as the main material was made in this paper, the optimum process technics and the best reeipe of the beverage was screened out by an orthogonal test, and the best recipe was: papaya juice 20%, orange juice 20%, sugar 8%, citric aeid 0.08%. A content of 0.03% pectase improved the transmittance, natural layered rate and juice yield of compound juice, and the other clarifier such as 1.0 g/L ehitosan and 2.0 g/L glutin also have a good clarification effect ,but clarification with peetase is the best among them.

  16. 蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及整枝留果方式试验%Experiment of Plant Density and Fruit Pruning and Rentention Mothds of Mitong Small Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琪玖

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present work was to study plant density and fruit pruning and rentention mothds of Mitong seedless watermelon, the design of two factors were randomly divided into 4 groups, repeated 3 times, residential area of 15 m2 with a total of A and B factors. The results showed that optimum group of A2B4 with 400 plant/667 m2, the yield were to 5 818.47 kg by the mothds of 5 climbing and fruits pruning. We may conclude that plant density is the main factors effecting the fruit yield, the best combination of plant density and fruit pruning to stay is an important regulator of the factors to ob-tain high yield.%对蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及留瓜方式进行试验,采用复因素随机区组试验设计,重复3次,小区面积15 m2,设A、B共2个因素(各4个处理).结果表明:最优的处理为A284,即定植密度为400株/667 m2,采用5蔓留5果的整枝方式,产量达到5 818.47 kg.试验中密度是影响产量的主导因素,密度和整枝留果的最佳组合是获取高产重要调节因素.

  17. Determination of Preservatives and Bactericides in Raisins by Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography%固相萃取-液相色谱测定葡萄干中防腐杀菌剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史龙梅; 李欢; 周建科

    2015-01-01

    With anhydrous sodium sulfate as dispersant , Four kinds of preservatives and bactericides in raisins were extracted by solid phase dispersion method , the C18 solid phase extraction small column was used for purification. Thiabendazole, Baytan, Folpet and Prochloraz were separated by reversed -phase high performance liquid chromatography with C18 column. The mobile phase was the mixture of acetonitrile , methanol and water (50 ∶ 10 ∶ 40,v/v) and detection wavelength was 225 nm. The linearity of regression equations were good in the range of 0.01 μg/mL-200 μg/mL, with correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 3. Limit of detection is 2.0 ng/g-20.0 ng/g. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 3.18 %. This method is suitable for the analysis of relevant preservatives and bactericides in raisins.%以无水硫酸钠为分散剂,固相分散萃取葡萄干中噻苯咪唑、三唑醇、灭菌丹、咪酰胺4种防腐杀菌剂,C18固相萃取小柱净化处理,高效液相色谱法测定。反相C18色谱柱分离,乙腈-甲醇-水(50∶10∶40,体积比)为流动相,检测波长225 nm。在0.01μg/mL~200μg/mL范围内4组分线性关系良好,相关系数大于0.9993,方法检出限为2.0 ng/g~20.0 ng/g,相对标准小于3.18%,方法适合于葡萄干中相关防腐杀菌剂的检测。

  18. Qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of seedless watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em propriedade rural próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT e espessura da casca. O teor de sólidos solúveis aumentou à medida que se aumentou a dose de potássio, enquanto a relação SST/ATT reduziu. A acidez titulável não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. A maior espessura da casca foi obtida ao se utilizar a dose de 202 kg ha-1 de K2O na forma de KNO3, seguida pela dose de 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl.The experiment was carried out in the Borborema region, State of São Paulo, in the period of February the April to 2002, with the objective to evaluate the quality of seedless watermelon fruits (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai as a function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and sulphate and doses 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O. Total soluble solids (TSS, total titrable acidity (TTA, ratio TSS/TTA and rind thickness were evaluated. Soluble solids increased and ratio TSS/TTA decreased with increment of K dose. Sources and doses of potassium did not affect total titrable acidity. The biggest rind thickness was achieved with 202 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O of KNO3 and KCl, respectively.

  19. 叶面肥组配喷施对克瑞森无核葡萄产量和品质的影响%Effect of different combination of foliar fertilizers on the yield and quality of Crimson seedless grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车俊峰; 郭春会; 苏婷; 孙锋; 张乐; 骆强伟; 王跃进

    2011-01-01

    以氨基酸、腐殖酸、平衡营养肥、钙液肥为基础,根据当地土壤特性和葡萄需肥规律,设计在不同时期喷布不同组配叶面肥,研究其对克瑞森无核葡萄产量和品质的影响.结果表明,喷施组配叶面肥均可明显提高叶片的叶绿素含量(SPAD值),促进果穗发育,促使果实膨大,提高穗重和百粒重,增加葡萄产量(增幅为12.03%~27.58%),同时提高浆果硬度、可溶性固形物含量、还原型Vc含量和糖酸比,明显降低可滴定酸,其中按处理2喷施,浆果外观品质和糖/酸较适宜,而按处理5喷施,增产率最高.%Based on amino acid, humic acid, balanced nutrition, calcium-based liquid fertilizer, the effect of different groups of foliar fertilizers sprayed in different periods on the yield and qulity of Crimson seedless grape was studied.The result showed that sprayed with different combination of foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content (SPAD value) was significantly increased, the cluster growth and fruit enlargement were promoted, the yield was increased (the growth rate was 12.03% ~27.58% ), and the weight per panicle, 100-fruit weight, the berry hardness, soluble solids proportion,Vc content and sugar-acid rate were all increased, at the same time, the titrable acidity (TA) was significantly reduced.The appearance quality and sugar-acid rate of treatment 2 (amino acid + balanced nutrition, amino acid + calciumbased liquid fertilizer) were good, and the growth rate of treatment 5 (10 days prior to flowering: amino acid + humic acid + balanced nutrition, young fruit enlargement period and the second period of berry enlargement: amino acid +humic acid + calcium-based liquid fertilizer + balanced nutrition, 20 days before the fruit harvested: amino acid +humic acid + calcium-based liquid fertilizer) was the highest.

  20. 杀菌方式对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响%Effects of Sterilization Methods on Aromatic Components of Orange Juice from Seedless ‘Xuegan’ Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 黄明发; 吴厚玖; 王华; 沈海亮; 何朝飞

    2012-01-01

    采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析橙汁香气成分,内标法半定量,研究了巴氏杀菌和微波杀菌对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响。结果表明:无核雪柑鲜榨汁、巴氏杀菌汁、微波杀菌汁分别检测出56种、57种和53种香气成分,含量分别为1304.70、991.51mg/kg和887.67mg/kg,巴氏杀菌后橙汁香气成分总含量高于微波杀菌汁,但微波杀菌后叶醇、十二碳醛、γ-芹子烯等含量均高于巴氏杀菌处理,且未检出异味物质β-松油醇,2种杀菌处理后烃类、酯类物质总含量均下降,酮类物质上升。%Solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(SPME-GC-MS) and internal standard method for semi-quantification were used to study the effects of pasteurization and microwave sterilization on aromatic components of seedless ‘Xuegan’ sweet orange juice.The results showed 56,57 and 53 aromatic compounds were respectively identified from native sweet orange juice,pasteurized sweet orange juice and microwave sterilized sweet orange juice,with respective contents of 1.30,0.99 mg/g and 0.89 mg/g.Although pasteurized sweet orange juice was richer in total aromatic compounds than microwave sterilized sweet orange,microwave sterilized sweet orange contained more cis-3-hexenol,dodecanal and γ-selinene than pasteurized sweet orange juice but no β-terpineol,responsible for off-odor.Pasteurization and microwave sterilization resulted in a decrease in the total content of esters and hydrocarbons and an increase in ketones.

  1. 千岛无核柿发展存在的问题与对策%Development Status-quo, Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Thousand-isle Seedless Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 蒋念亮; 王晓玉; 徐高福

    2011-01-01

    千岛无核柿是浙江省淳安县特有柿树优良品种,论述千岛无核柿在原产地的生产现状和外地引种情况以及栽培技术研究现状。由于零星分布、分散经营,难以形成规模化生产;管理粗放,技术推广不到位,难以实施可持续经营;贮藏保鲜、产品加工滞后,销售市场组织化程度低,难以实现产业化。提出加强宣传与技术培训;加大良种生产和种源保护力度;优化栽培技术,实施标准化生产;优化政策和布局,扩大产业规模;加快产品加工和开发,积极开拓销售市场等发展对策。%Thousand-isle Seedless Persimmon is a special and fine persimmon variety in Chunan county Zhejiang province. This paper introduces the production status in origin, its out-of-town cultivating situation and planting technology research status. Scale-production is difficult to come into being due to scattered distribution and mainly dispersedly operation. Sustainable management is difficult to be putted into practice due to extensive operation and inadequate popularized technology. Industrialization is difficult to come true due to lagging storage, preservation, products manufacturing and low level organizational market. Furthermore, this paper puts forward development countermeasures such as strengthening propaganda and technology training, striving to produce fine breed and protect breed origin, implementing standardization production through optimizing cultivating technology, expanding industry scale through optimizing policy and layout, actively opening up markets through speeding up products process and development.

  2. Determination of Pyrolytic Products of Extract of Raisin by Py-GC-MS%热裂解气相色谱-质谱法测定葡萄干提取物的热裂解产物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国玲

    2012-01-01

    50g葡萄干用70%乙醇溶液300mL在80℃回流提取3h,提取两次,过滤提取物.滤液减压浓缩至干。残渣用5200裂解仪在400℃,50℃.600℃,800℃下处理,在各裂解温度下得到的裂解产物导入仪器进行气相色谱质谱分析。结果表明:主要裂解产物是糠醛、呋喃甲醇、5-甲基糠醛、5-羟甲基-2呋喃甲醛、2,3-二氢-3,5二羟基6-甲基-4H-吡喃酮,这些裂解产物是赋予卷烟具有独特香味和较好口感的重要物质。%50 g of raisin were exlracted twice by refluxing with 300 mI. of 70% ethanol at 80℃ for 3 h. The extracts wgre filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue was lrealed whh Pyroprohc 5200 at 400 C, 500℃, 600℃ and 800℃, the pyrolytic products obtained al eaeh of lhe pyrolylie tempuratures were introduced into the instrument and analyzed by (GC-MS. It was shown that the main pyrolytic products obtained were furfural, 2-furanmethanol, 5 mcthyl 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5 hydroxymethyl 2 furancarboxaldehyde, and 2, 3-dihydro-3, 5 dihydroxy6methyl.-4H-pyran-4one. These pyrolysates are the important substances to make cigarettes to have distinctive fragrance and better taste.

  3. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  4. Removal of cyanogens from cassava roots. Studies on domestic sun-drying and solid-substrate fermentation in rural Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop, but its potential toxicity has led to some health problems in Africa. The potential toxicity comes from endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin, which may degrade by linamarase to cyanohydrins and subsequently to hydrocyanic acid (HCN). A study into a

  5. Drying rates of Rubi grapes submitted to chemical pretreatments for raisin production Taxas de secagem de uva Rubi submetida a pré-tratamentos químicos para a produção de passas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Regina Nicoletti Telis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most appropriated chemical treatment to be used to dry grapes cv. Rubi for raisin production. Drying curves for convective drying with air at 50ºC, in a tray drier, were obtained for grapes submitted to chemical pretreatments with different concentrations of potassium carbonate and olive oil, and different dipping times, according to factorial designs. Convective drying curves were also obtained for grapes pretreated in aqueous suspensions of soybean lecithin, at varied lecithin concentrations and dipping times. Page model was adjusted to the experimental drying curves, and the calculated drying times showed that the best pretreatment consisted in dipping grapes for 2 minutes in a 5% olive oil and 6% K2CO3 emulsion, at 50ºC, which resulted in a drying time close to that of the pretreatment with 2.5% of olive oil, but with a lower consumption of this substance. In addition, the immersion of grapes in an aqueous suspension of 2% soy lecithin, at 50ºC, for 5 minutes, resulted in a total drying time slightly higher than the most effective pretreatment.O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar o pré-tratamento químico mais apropriado para a secagem de uvas cv. Rubi para a produção de passas. Foram obtidas curvas de secagem convectiva com ar a 50ºC, em um secador de bandejas, para uvas submetidas a pré-tratamentos químicos com diferentes concentrações de carbonato de potássio e azeite de oliva, e diferentes tempos de imersão, de acordo com planejamentos fatoriais. Também foram obtidas curvas de secagem convectiva, para uvas pré-tratadas em suspensões aquosas de lecitina de soja, em várias concentrações de lecitina e diferentes tempos de imersão. O modelo de Page foi ajustado às curvas de secagem experimental, e os tempos de secagem calculados mostraram que o melhor pré-tratamento consistiu na imersão das uvas por 2 minutos, em uma emulsão de 5% de azeite de oliva e 6% de K2CO3, a

  6. 光质对火焰无核葡萄胚挽救及试管苗生长发育的影响%Effect of light quality on embryo rescue and test-tube plantlets growth and development of Flame Seedless

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 王勇; 郭平峰; 伍国红; 骆强伟

    2015-01-01

    以火焰无核自交胚珠为试材,研究了红光、蓝光、白光及暗处理对胚发育、胚萌发及试管苗生长发育的影响。结果表明:3种光质处理对胚发育均有一定促进作用,但与对照未达到显著性水平。在胚萌发阶段,红光对胚萌发有明显的促进作用。在试管苗发育成苗阶段,以蓝光处理的试管苗最为矮壮,红光下葡萄胚挽救苗试管苗节间最长,发育最高,叶绿素含量最低;各处理试管苗继代后移栽成活率均可达到90%以上。%The open pollination ovules from flame Seedless were used to investigate the effect of diffierent light quality on the proportion of embryo development and germination ,and test-tube plantlets growth and development in vitro, including red light, blue light, white light and dark condition. The results showed that three lights had positive effect on embryo during ovule development, but did not significantly; Red light could promote obsively embryo germination; the plantlets were the most stocky under blue light. Red light was favorable to the longitudinal growth of the test-tube Plantlets, Chlorophyll content were the lowest. Each treatment plantlets transplant survival rate could reach 90%.

  7. Avaliações microclimáticas e das características de qualidade da uva de mesa 'Romana' com proteção individual dos cachos Microclimatic and quality characteristics evaluations for the 'Romana' seedless table grape bunch grown under individual protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do uso de proteção individual de cachos, contra incidência de chuvas durante o período de maturação, no microclima, no controle de rachaduras e podridões e, principalmente, nas características de qualidade, foi realizado um experimento, em vinhedo da cultivar de uva de mesa sem sementes Romana (A1105, na região de Jundiaí (SP. Os tratamentos, constituídos pelo tipo de proteção individual dos cachos, foram: sem proteção; saco plástico transparente com fundo aberto; saco de papel impermeável com fundo aberto e papel impermeável translúcido (chapéu-chinês. Medições de temperatura do ar e umidade relativa foram efetuadas no nível do cacho nos tratamentos sem proteção e com proteção durante o período de maturação das uvas até a colheita. Os valores obtidos de temperatura foram: 23,9; 22,9 e 22,0 ºC, respectivamente, para os tratamentos saco plástico; chapéu-chinês e sem proteção. Os valores médios de umidade relativa foram mais elevados próximo dos cachos sem proteção (86,1% quando comparados aos tratamentos: saco plástico (76,0% e chapéu-chinês (73,2%. Em relação aos itens de qualidade dos cachos e controle de podridões, os tratamentos chapéu-chinês e saco de papel impermeável foram mais eficientes quando comparados ao tratamento sem proteção.A field trial was carried out at Jundiaí, São Paulo State, Brazil, in a 'Romana' (A1105 seedless table grape vineyard aiming to evaluate the influence of individual bunch protection on microclimate and bunch quality, mainly for rot control. The different individual bunch protection against rain during the maturation period were: impermeable paper and polyethylene bunch cover. Measurements of temperature and relative humidity in the protected and unprotected bunchs were taken from beginning of maturation process to harvest. The obtained values of mean temperature were: 23.9; 22.9 and 22.0ºC, respectively for the treatments

  8. Características de produção de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Fruit yield characteristics of seedless watermelon as influenced by sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C Grangeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em uma propriedade rural, próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de frutos de melancia sem sementes, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo avaliadas as fontes cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses 50, 100, 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, em Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo Distrófico. O maior número de frutos por planta (1,7 foi obtido com as fontes KNO3 e KCl, respectivamente nas doses de 172 e 182 kg ha-1 de K2O. A massa do fruto foi influenciada somente pela dose de potássio e a maior massa foi obtida com 158 kg ha-1 K2O. As produtividades máximas foram obtidas com 94,1; 183 e 193,4 kg ha-1 de K2O, respectivamente, nas fontes K2SO4, KCl e KNO3. Para cada 1 kg de K2O utilizado na fonte K2SO4, obteve-se 201,6 kg de frutos, enquanto a mesma quantidade de K2O nas fontes KCl e KNO3 proporcionou a produção de 111,5 e 109,6 kg ha-1 de frutos.The experiment was carried out on a farm, in the Borborema County, State of São Paulo, from February to April 2002, in Typic Paleudult. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of sources and doses of potassium on fruit yield characteristics of seedless watermelon. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, corresponding respectively to potassium sources (potassium chloride, nitrate, and sulphate and doses (50, 100, 200, and 300 kg K2O ha-1. The highest number of fruits per plant (1,7 was achieved with 172 and 182 kg ha-1 K2O, using respectively KNO3 and KCl as fertilizers. Fruit weight was influenced only for potassium doses and 158 kg ha-1 K2O promoted the largest weight. Maximum yield were obtained with 94.1, 183.0, and 193.4 kg ha-1 K2O, using respectively K2SO4, KCl

  9. Accumulation of nutrients and agronomic performance of grafted seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Simone dos Santos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical fertilizing is one of the main inputs that increase watermelon production costs. Watermelon grafting with compatible rootstocks and a vigorous root system may increase the efficiency of nutrients absorption. This study aimed at determining the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients, as well as the agronomic performance of grafted watermelon. The triploid 'Precious Petite' watermelon was used as graft and the Line BGCIA941 (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides as rootstock. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks, in a split-plot, with six replicates. The 'Precious Petite' grafted onto Line BGCIA941, ungrafted 'Precious Petite' and ungrafted Line BGCIA941 were evaluated in the plot, while the subplot corresponded to the sampling time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 days after transplanting. 'Precious Petite' grafted onto Line BGCIA 941 accumulated more macro and micronutrients than the ungrafted plants, increasing fruit yield, flesh firmness and rind thickness, but it did not affect the soluble solids contents. The decreasing order for nutrient accumulation in the grafted plants was N > K > Ca > Mg > P > S > Fe > Mn > Zn > B > Cu, whereas for ungrafted 'Precious Petite' it corresponded to N > K > Ca > Mg > P > S > Mn > Fe > B > Zn > Cu.

  10. 21 CFR 145.140 - Canned seedless grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with cider vinegar, cloves, and cinnamon oil”. (2) The color type and style of the grape ingredient as... optional ingredients: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or...

  11. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  12. River Raisin National Battlefield Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. 7 CFR 989.156 - Raisin diversion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the vines, spur-prune the vines, remove the bunches or take other means to preclude grapes from being... next diversion program. For spur-pruned vines, this date may be extended 2 weeks from the date of the inspection of a producer's vineyard if more than 4 bunches on spur-pruned vines are present at the time...

  14. Identification by HPLC-MS of Anthocyanin Derivatives in Raisins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition in red grapes dried under controlled conditions has been studied. Pyranoanthocyanins and condensed anthocyanins with flavanols by a methylmethine bridge have been identified. Typically, these compounds appear in wine after the fermentation process, as they require compounds such as pyruvic acid, acetoacetic acid, and acetaldehyde for their formation. During the chamber-drying process a stress situation is originated, inducing significant changes in the grape metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic, and as a result it produces the activation of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme (ADH and others that would cause the formation of these compounds. These derivatives are very interesting because they give greater stability to the color of red wine.

  15. SN IA in the IR: RAISIN A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert P.; The RAISIN TEAM

    2014-01-01

    SN Ia have proven to be a powerful tool for cosmology. Near-IR observations of SN Ia promise even better results because the supernovae are more nearly standard candles at those wavelengths and absorption by dust is diminished by a factor of 4 compared to rest-frame B-band observations. Near IR observations of cosmologically-distant SN Ia discovered with PanSTARRS are underway using the infrared camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (GO-13046). These targets are discovered in the difference images created in the CfA/JHU pipeline, confirmed spectroscopically at the MMT, Magellan, Gemini, or Keck, and inserted in a non-disruptive way into the HST observing schedule for WFC3-IR. We have observed over 20 SN Ia in the range 0.2 color and reddening by dust. Since SN IA behave better in the IR in both these ways, there is reason to expect that this approach will be effective in driving down the systematic errors over time. If we are diligent in building up the size of the sample that is observed in the rest-frame infrared, we can expect more certain knowledge of the properties of dark energy. Unsolved problems include constructing precise K-corrections and firming up the fundamental photometric system in y, J, H, and K, but this approach seems a promising one for the HST era now, JWST soon, and WFIRST in good time.

  16. 7 CFR 989.67 - Disposal of reserve raisins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be physically disposed of promptly in any available outlet not competitive with normal market... delinquent; and further, that such rate of interest be added to the bill monthly until the...

  17. Inhibition of membrane lipid super oxidization and browning by rapid dehydration technique during drying of grapes%快速脱水抑制葡萄干制过程中膜脂过氧化及褐变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰娟; 孟阳; 白羽嘉; 刘春月; 黄文书; 冯作山

    2014-01-01

    Xinjiang is abundant in grapes. According to statistics, the production of grape accounted for 28.4%of the whole fruit production in Xinjiang in 2012. Since the mature period of grapes is very short, dehydrated drying after grape harvest is an important method of processing. Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera L. var Wuhebai) is the main species of green raisins. As green raisins produced from traditional dry room are likely to browning, it’s well acknowledged as a key issue for the development of Xinjiang raisins. It was reported that the browning of actinidia arguta, longan, litchi and peach was caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) contacting with the phenolic substrates, which resulted in the strengthen of the membrane lipid peroxidation and the increase of cell membrane permeability in fruits. These researches were focused on the relationship between browning caused by dehydration treatment before storage or nature water loss during storage and the membrane lipid peroxidation. But the dehydration was different from dehydration drying process. In order to investigate the mechanism that rapid dehydration inhibited the membrane lipid peroxidation, PPO, browning of Thompson seedless grapes during the drying, the changes of physiological and biochemical properties caused by grape browning in dehydration drying process were investigated in this study, and subsequently obtained the theoretical basis for preventing raisins browning and maintaining the quality of Thompson seedless grapes. Xinjiang Thompson seedless grapes were used as experiment materials. After being operated by the drying agent, two treatments, i.e. rapid dehydration and slow dehydration were conducted. Samples were taken every 10%loss in weight of the samples and stored for further use. The effects of different drying methods on dry basis moisture content, drying rate, browning, membrane permeability (relative conductivity), malonaldehyde (MDA) content, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, superoxide

  18. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  19. High Temperature Seedless Synthesis of Au NRs Using BDAC/CTAB Co-surfactant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Li; Lai Wei; Xian Zhang; Xue-feng Yu

    2008-01-01

    Au nanorods have been successfully synthesized at 90 ℃ by using hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and benzyldimethylammoniumchloride hydrate (BDAC) co-surfactant. At 90 ~C, the reaction time was less than 10 s, and the longitudinal surface plasmon absorption band could vary between 680 and 770 nm by adjusting the molar ratio of BDAC to CTAB from 2 to 0.5. At 90 ~C, nanorods with a longitudinal surface plasmon absorption peak of 770 nm can be obtained when the molar ratio of BDAC to CTAB was 3:2.

  20. Effect of sulphur forms on colour and residue of sulphur during the storage at drying grapes by sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boztepe Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the world leader in the manufacture and export of seedless raisins. Requirement of golden bleached raisins is increasing in food Industry of especially cake, bread and pastry year by year. In this research, the lowest residual value and the practical realization of such production was intended to determine by drying grapes with application of sulphur. In this case, sulphur residue and colour situations were determined during 12-mounth-storage according to sulphur forms. In this study sulphur studies were applied by Vitis Vinifera cv. “Sultani Çekirdeksiz” with Na2S2O5, which is liquid source of sulphur and SO2, which is gas source of sulphur. SO2 application were studied during 3, 6 and 8 hours and liquid form of sulphur is Na2S2O5 that was used during by 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Applications were prepared with 3 replicates which contain 20 kg fresh grape in each replicate. In conclusion, changes in dried grape have been identified in point of colour (chroma and hue and the sulphur content was determined according to sulphur forms in packing. Gas form of sulphur (SO2 which was applied 3 hours, gave the best result during 12-mounth-storage for colour and sulphur residue.

  1. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of...

  2. Elaboration and characterization of Japanese Raisin Tree (Hovenia dulcis Thumb. pseudofruits fermented alcoholic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tensol PINTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Hovenia dulcis pseudofruits have underexplored properties for food purposes, despite their pleasant sensory characteristics and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was the elaboration and chemical characterization of the alcoholic fermented beverage of H. dulcis, using selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CCMA 0200. The resulting fermented beverage presented high content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity when compared to other fruits and beverages (DPPH and ABTS assay. The alcohol content was 12.9 oGL and total sugars 3.57g/L. By the GC-MS analysis, 39 compounds were identified including metabolites with therapeutic potential such as eugenol, trans-farnesol salicylates. The flavonoid dihidromyricetin was identified and quantified (75.17 mg/L by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results reinforce the interest on nutraceutical and functional properties of this beverage and opens perspectives for new studies that value this underexplored pseudofruit.

  3. 7 CFR 989.159 - Regulation of the handling of raisins subsequent to their acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts... lot remains intact and identifiable, and shipment or other final disposition takes place within five... other which fails to meet all of the applicable minimum standards, respectively. Any lot of mixed...

  4. 7 CFR 52.1852 - Grades of raisins with seeds-except layer or cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have a good typical color with not more than 10 percent, by weight, that may be dark reddish-brown... that have similar varietal characteristics; that have a reasonably good typical color with not more... similar varietal characteristics; that have a fairly good typical color with not more than 20 percent,...

  5. Processing Technology of Seedless Kiwi-fruit Sauce%猕猴桃无籽果酱的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 王波; 刘蜀坤; 游敬刚; 肖颜林; 张颖

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, we take fresh kiwi-fruit which was squeezed juice as raw material for developing the jam, studying the processing technology, defining the process parameters such as viscosity, citric acid, sugar con-tent and concentration time which produce influence on product quality. In order to assure processes of kiwifruit jam, the experiment discussed through single factor levels, orthogonal test and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the most optimal content of the compound Jam were agar 0.5%, citric acid 0.3%, sugar 30% and con-centration time is 120 minutes which had a good effect on color, scent, relish and state.%本实验以猕猴桃取汁后的果肉为原料研究猕猴无籽果酱的最佳制作工艺,探讨了琼脂添加量、柠檬酸加量、白砂糖加量和浓缩时间对产品质量的影响,并且确定了猕猴桃果酱的基本加工工艺.通过单因素实验和正交实验,得出成品的最佳参数为琼脂0.5%、柠檬酸0.3%、白砂糖30%、热浓缩时间120min,在此工艺参数下制出的猕猴桃果酱在色泽、香味、滋味、组织状态上都具有良好的表现性.

  6. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  7. Efecto del agua aplicada en las relaciones hídricas y productividad de la vid 'Crimson Seedless'

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Este estudio fue dirigido para evaluar la relación agua-rendimiento en vid de mesa cv. Crimson y establecer valores críticos para las mediciones del estado hídrico de las plantas. Los estudios de campo se desarrollaron durante tres años, en el Valle de Aconcagua, Chile, a 32º47'S y 70º42'O, en un suelo de textura franco arcillosa. Se proporcionaron a las plantas diferentes cantidades de agua de riego entre 40 y 100% de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (Etc). El potencial hídrico xilemático m...

  8. 无核扁柑高产栽培技术%The High Output Cultivation Technology of Seedless Mandarine Tangerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓中旺

    2003-01-01

    @@ 无核扁柑属芸香科柑桔亚科,由于其果实呈扁圆形且无核或少核而得名.果皮海绵状稍薄易剥离,肉质鲜美,品质上乘,老少皆宜.单果重一般80至120克,亩产4000-6000公斤.耐贮藏,贮藏期长达四个月,畅销区内外及出口东南亚,市场前景非常广阔,是农业产业化调整的一种非常有前途的经济作物.无核扁柑属于半阴生植物,适宜生长温度为23-31℃,停止生长的最高温度为39℃,低于-2.2℃,则会受冻害.灵山县伯劳镇属丘陵山地,年平均气温21.7℃,日最高气温≤37.2℃,冬季最低气温≥-1.2℃,年均降雨量1649毫米,年均日照时数1674小时,年均无霜期长达349天,非常适合无核扁柑的栽培.

  9. Study on in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract and Anthocyanin from ‘Zi-Juan’ Sun-dried Green Tea%‘紫娟’晒青绿茶中花色苷与水提物体外抗氧化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范艺凡; 隋华嵩; 陈佑长; 龚加顺

    2013-01-01

    Analyzes the vitro antioxidant ability of purple Juan ‘a’ green green tea and water extractings anthocyanins through the comparation of antioxidant among anthocyanins,water extractings,ascorbic acid and two butadiene styrene hydroxyl toluene (BHT) to illustrat the ability of anthocyanins and water extractings which can resists lipid oxidation and peroxide oxidation. It shows that the antioxidant effect of anthocyanins is better than water extraction content but both oil oxidation resistance effect are less than the two butadiene hydroxyl toluene (BHT). Anthocyanins resistance of lipid peroxidation things are better than water extraction, and both lipid peroxidation resistance are better than the effect of ascorbic acid. Anthocyanins and water extraction have strong reducing power and the activity of clearing hydroxyl radicals and DPPH free radical which shows anthocyanins>water extractings>ascorbic acid.%分析了‘紫娟’晒青绿茶中水提物与花色苷体外抗氧化的能力。通过花色苷、水提物、抗坏血酸及二丁基羟基甲苯(BHT)之间的抗氧化比较,说明花色苷与水提物具有抗油脂氧化和过氧化的能力,花色苷的抗氧化效果优于水提物,但抗油脂氧化性能二者均不如二丁基羟基甲苯(BHT);花色苷抗脂质过氧化优于水提物,且二者抗脂质过氧化的效果均优于抗坏血酸;花色苷与水提物均具有较强的还原力,同时具有清除羟自由基、DPPH自由基的活性,且花色苷>水提物>抗坏血酸。

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions ofMegalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems during sun drying of pond%团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段温室气体排放通量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱林; 朱浩; 车轩; 刘晃; 刘兴国; 时旭; 杨家朋; 王小冬; 顾兆俊; 程果锋

    2016-01-01

    为探讨团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段温室气体的排放规律及综合增温潜势,采用静态暗箱——气相色谱法对团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段温室气体(CO2,CH4,N2O)的排放进行原位测定。结果显示,团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统晒塘阶段均表现为CO2,CH4和N2O的排放源,其中CO2排放通量达(86.72±12.46) g/m2,CH4排放量达(2.01±0.34) g/m2,N2O排放量达(7.44±0.98) mg/m2;在100 a的时间尺度上,团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统在晒塘阶段综合增温潜势为(157.28±24.31) g/m2,团头鲂池塘养殖生态系统温室气体减排空间较大。%Global warming and ozone depletion caused by greenhouse gases are currently two major global environmental issues. While China's freshwater aquaculture production has long been ranked first in the world, greenhouse gas emissions from freshwater ponds becomes an important source of China's greenhouse gas emissions. But the research on greenhouse gas emission in freshwater aquaculture ecosystem is limited. In order to investigate greenhouse gas emissions and comprehensive global warming potential ofMegalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems during pond basked, we used the static opaque chamber-GC techniques to conduct anin situ determination of greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) of Megalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems. The results showed that the CO2 fluxes measured in every 15 days were (2652.46±325.36), (2313.82±245.14), (1456.42±124.67) and (1373.27±167.39) mg/(m2·d) respectively for the air temperature of 8.9, 7.2, 5.8 and 6℃, at the ponds during sampling. The potential of hydrogen at the ponds during the sampling at each temperature was (7.73±0.26), (8.26±0.35), (7.75±0.37) and (7.68±0.48), respectively. The total organic carbon at the ponds for each sampling was (3.61±0.43), (3.32±0.17), (3.16±0.31) and (3.23±0.27), respectively. The redox potential for each sampling was (206.7±34.9), (216.8±27.6), (56.8±9.3) and (124.8±16.5) mV, respectively. The moisture content of sediment for samples taken at 11.2, 10.3, 9.6 and 9.8℃ was (55.25%±2.54%), (54.53%±5.61%), (46.62%±4.38%), and (48.35%±3.14%), respectively. Among December 28, January 13, January 28, February 13, 2014, when the pond temperature was the highest on December 28, the CO2 emission flux peaked (2652.46±325.36) mg/(m2·d)). In comparison, on February 13 2015, the smallest CO2 emission flux (1373.27±167.39) mg/(m2·d)) corresponded with the lowest pond temperature, CH4 is transformed from methane bacteria via an organic carbon source. As culturing activity increased with rising temperatures, phytoplankton dies and the organic artificial diets left over by fish increases, providing a rich carbon source for methane bacteria. In this study, CH4 emission flux paralleled that of CO2, and in general, CH4 emission flux was positively correlated with temperature. On December 28, 2014, there was a peak of CH4 emission flux (82.42 ± 6.32) mg/(m2·d)) in the freshwater ponds. From December 28, 2014 to February 13 2015, the measured CH4 emission fluxes were (82.42±6.32), (81.08±7.43), (7.63±1.84) and (7.06±2.93) mg/(m2·d), respectively. On February 13 2015, the lowest water temperature was accompanied by the smallest CH4 emission flux (7.06±2.93) mg/(m2·d). From December 28, 2014 to February 13 2015, the N2O emission fluxes were (172.34±10.56), (204.57±16.84), (160.36±12.87), and (90.39±10.67)μg/(m2·d), respectively.Megalobrama amblycephala culture ponds during pond basked were the source of CO2, CH4 and N2O, of which CO2 emission during pond basked amounted to (86.72.10±12.46) g/m2, CH4 emission of (2.01±0.34) g/m2, and N2O emission of (7.44±0.98) mg/m2. For 20-years Megalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems during pond basked, greenhouse gas warming potential had an increase trend. Comprehensive global warming potential was (157.28±24.31) g/m2. Therefore, there was a great potential in greenhouse gas emission reduction inMegalobrama amblycephala culture pond ecosystems.

  11. Modification des conditions de maturation du raisin en Bourgogne viticole liée au réchauffement climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Madelin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les répercussions du changement climatique, en particulier celles qui sont liées à l’augmentation des températures, s’observent dans de nombreux vignobles dans le monde. En Bourgogne, depuis 20 ans, cette évolution thermique modifie les conditions de la maturation, moment-clef pour la typicité du vin et sa signature terroir-millésime. Après une étude de l’évolution des températures en Bourgogne montrant en particulier une rupture en 1987-1988, une analyse comparée des conséquences phénologiques, à partir des données thermiques et des dates des stades de développement, est proposée pour deux sites côte-d’oriens en Côte et en Hautes-Côtes de Beaune (Savigny-lès-Beaune et La Rochepot. Les résultats montrent un transfert latitudinal et altitudinal des températures et des indices viticoles sur 20-30 ans, ainsi qu’un « double effet » du réchauffement climatique lors de la maturation, lié à l’augmentation des températures et au décalage temporel de cette période, qui se place de plus en plus souvent en août.Impacts of climate change such as those related to global warming, are observed in many vineyards in France and as in other vineyards in the world. In Burgundy, since 20 years, this evolution of the temperatures changes the maturation conditions, key time for "typicité" and signature of "terroir-millésime". After a study of the changes in Burgundy temperatures (which shows a thermal rupture in 1987-1988, a comparative analysis of the phenologic consequences is performed using thermal data and development dates for two vineyard sites in Côte and Hautes-Côtes de Beaune (Savigny-lès-Beaune et La Rochepot. The results show a latitudinal and vertical transfer of the temperatures and vine’s indexes over a 20-30 year period as well as a double effect of climate warming in the maturation stage attributed to the increase in temperatures and the time shift of this period (which occurs most often in August.

  12. 7 CFR 989.59 - Regulation of the handling of raisins subsequent to their acquisition by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... rules and regulations of city, county, State, Federal, or other agencies having jurisdiction....

  13. 75 FR 63724 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Use of Estimated Trade Demand To Compute Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on August 6, 2010 (75 FR 47490), on the use of an estimated trade demand... Register on August 6, 2010 (75 FR 47490), on the establishment of an estimated trade demand figure to..., 2010 (75 FR 47490), is hereby withdrawn. List of Subjects in 7 CFR Part 989 Grapes,...

  14. Effects of Mischievous Responding on Universal Mental Health Screening: I Love Rum Raisin Ice Cream, Really I Do!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Michael J.; Fullchange, Aileen; Dowdy, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Student surveys are often used for school-based mental health screening; hence, it is critical to evaluate the authenticity of information obtained via the self-report format. The objective of this study was to examine the possible effects of mischievous response patterns on school-based screening results. The present study included 1,857 high…

  15. Identification and determination of carboxylic acids in food samples using 2-(2-(anthracen-10-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (APIETS) as labeling reagent by HPLC with FLD and APCI/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiwei; You, Jinmao; Song, Cuihua; Xia, Lian

    2011-08-15

    A new labeling reagent for carboxylic acids, 2-(2-(anthracen-10-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (APIETS) has been designed and synthesized. It was used to label eight fatty acids (lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and four hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids (oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid and maslinic acid), successfully. APIETS could easily and quickly label carboxylic acids in the presence of K(2)CO(3) catalyst at 85°C for 35 min in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent. The carboxylic acids derivatives were separated on a C(8) reversed-phase column with gradient elution and fluorescence detection at λ(ex)/λ(em)=315/435 nm. Identification of these derivatives was carried out by online mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. The detection limits obtained were 13.37-30.26fmol (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The proposed method has been applied to the quantification of carboxylic acids in sultana raisin (Thompson seedless), hawthorn flake (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.), Lycium barbarum seed oil and Microula sikkimensis seed oil with recoveries over 95.3%. It has been demonstrated that APIETS is a prominent labeling reagent for determining carboxylic acids with high performance liquid chromatography.

  16. 7 CFR 52.1844 - Definition of terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER... seeds. (d) Damaged raisins means raisins affected by sunburn, scars, insect injury, mechanical injury... quality of the raisins. In seeded Raisins with Seeds, mechanical injury resulting from normal seeding...

  17. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  18. Exploring the Struggle for Survival and Clashes of Generation Gap and Racial Pride in Lorraine Hansberry’s ‘A Raisin in the Sun’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Baby Maheswari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the complexities in the lives of African-Americans. It discusses the psycho-social challenges they faced in the twentieth century and their relentless efforts to attain, secure and define a sense of dignity to lead their lives. It also discusses the vulnerability of their existence and the sad dilemma in which the blacks were caught. The play has been deliberately selected for investigation as Lorrane Hansberry depicts, very skillfully, not only the gaps and inconsistencies of the two generations, but also the clashes in their aspirations and values. These struggles and clashes are epitomized in Walter and Mama Lena in the play and are discussed, from various perspectives, in the present article. Offering background to both the writer and the play, the article explores how Hansberry juxtaposes these ideas; that is, Mama finding the freedom to be sufficient for her happiness; where as, her children perceiving money as the new path to provide sense of happiness. The rebellion of Beneatha against the African-American value system and her rejection of the ideals of the family as well as the aspirations of younger generation for self- fulfillment, the sufferings of older generations, the pain of racial discrimination and the struggles for gaining the rights and dignity also form the very important topics of discussion in the paper.

  19. Indigenous Knowledge of Shea Processing and Quality Perception of Shea Products in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Akissoe, N.H.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey among 246 people belonging to 14 ethnic groups and living in 5 different parklands in Benin revealed different practices to process shea kernels (namely boiling followed sun drying and smoking) and extract shea butter. A relation between parklands, gathering period, and sun-drying condition

  20. ANELAMENTO E ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO NA FRUTIFICAÇÃO DA UVA 'MARIA' SEM SEMENTES GIRDLING AND GIBBERELLIC ACID ON THE FRUTIFICATION OF 'MARIA' SEEDLESS GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanita Paulino da Costa Kalil

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta do cultivar Maria (IAC 514-6 ao anelamento e à aplicação de ácido giberélico na concentração de 200ppm, no início ou após o florescimento, para as características dos cachos, bagos e engaços. O experimento foi realizado em Jundiaí, SP, e o delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, com doze tratamentos e cinco repetições. Não foram detectados efeitos de época de anelamento ou de aplicação de ácido giberélico. Efeitos significativos do anelamento no tronco ou nos ramos e da aplicação do ácido giberélico ou de ambos os tratamentos foram detectados para as características estudadas. Os incrementos verificados para essas características foram semelhantes ao serem aplicados os fatores isoladamente ou em conjunto.This work was conducted to evaluate the response of grapevine cultivar Maria (IAC 514-6 to branches and trunk girdling at the beginning or after flowering, associated or not with gibberellic acid sprating (200ppm on clusters, berries and raquis characteristics. The experiment was conducted at Jundiaí, SP, Brasil, in a complete randomized design, with 12 treatments and 5 replications. No effect of girdling time nor GA3 application were detected. Significative effects of trunk or branche girdling and GA3 application or from both treatments together for all the characteristics evaluated of the berries, clusters and raquis were observed. The application of each treatment alone or in combination influenced grape quality in a similar manner.

  1. 金星无核葡萄种胚培养最佳接种期的选择%Selecting of the Best Inoculation Date of Embryo Culture of Seedless Grape Variety "Venus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋春光

    2003-01-01

    金星无核葡萄的胚珠可正常受精,绝大多数受精胚在花后21 d开始败育.当胚发育最为充分而又尚未败育时取胚珠进行培养,存活胚的比例较高.金星无核葡萄最适宜的接种时期为花后36~39 d,此时正是浆果开始软化和着色前期.

  2. Effect of GA3 on Seedlessness and Berry Quality of Zaozi Grape%赤霉素对早紫葡萄无核及果实品质的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会宁; 肖锋利

    2006-01-01

    以大棚栽培的3年生早紫葡萄(Vitis vinifera )为材料,研究了在花前10 d喷施不同浓度的赤霉素(GA3)溶液对果实品质、无核率及座果率的影响.结果表明:喷施赤霉素(GA3)溶液后都能达到无核化的效果,其中以50 mg/L的赤霉素(GA3)溶液无核处理的效果最好,无核率可达93.33%;果实的可溶性糖及可溶性固性物含量也均最高,而且其着色度、表面光洁度等外观品质也最好.

  3. Studies on the Tissue Culture of the Stems and Vitro-grafting Technology in Seedless Watermelon%无籽西瓜茎段组织培养与嫁接育苗技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王闯; 李中勇; 刘敏; 豆惠敏; 毛志泉

    2010-01-01

    以无籽西瓜(Citrullus lantus)墨童无菌苗的茎段为外植体,对组织培养与嫁接育苗技术研究进行了研究.结果表明:不同消毒剂对种胚萌发有一定影响,其中消毒剂二氧化氯250 mg/L处理有利于种胚萌芽,萌发率达82.5%;子叶芽诱导的最佳培养基配方为1/2MS+IAA0.2 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂7g/L;不同激素浓度对芽丛增殖和单芽生根也有一定影响,其中MS+6.BA0.4 mg/L+IAA 0.2 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂7 g/L继代培养增殖率最高;MS+NAA0.5 mg/L生根率最高(96.2%).

  4. Identification Tolerance of Red Globe and Centenial Seedless Grape to the Sodium Carbonate%红地球和无核白鸡心葡萄对碳酸钠的耐性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁余; 鲁晓燕; 刘其久; 樊新民

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study extraction technology of flavonoids from Aloe arborescens Mill, by microwave method. [ Method ] Taking extraction rate of flavonoids as index, singer-factor and orthogonal test were applied to optimize the extraction technology of flavonoids from Aloe arborescens Mill, by microwave' method. [ Results ] The optimum extraction technology of flavonoids was as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:50, ethanol concentration of 80% , microwave power of 560 W and microwave treatment time of 40 s. Under this condition, the extraction rate of flavonoids was 5.604%. [Conclusion] Compared with ethanol extraction method, microwave method was characteristic of shorter extraction time, less ethanol volume and higher extraction rate, which was a an ideal method to extract flavonoids from Aloe arborescens Mill.%[目的]研究红地球和无核白鸡心葡萄对不同浓度Na2CO3的耐性.[方法]以红地球和无核白鸡心葡萄扦插苗为材料,在盆栽条件下进行盐分胁迫处理.[结果]与对照相比,Na2CO3胁迫下,葡萄叶绿素含量、电解质渗透率、过氧化物酶活性都有不同程度的变化.[结论]经比较,无核白鸡心葡萄对Na2CO3的耐性较强,而红地球葡萄对Na2CO3的耐性较弱.

  5. Ethnic fermented and preserved fish products of India and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Thapa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The people of the Eastern Himalayan regions of Nepal, Bhutan; and Darjeeling hills, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, and Manipur in North East India prepare and consume different types of traditionally processed smoked/sun-dried/fermented/salted fish products. Suka ko maacha and gnuchi are ethnic smoked and dried fish products; sidra and sukuti are sun-dried fish products; ngari, hentak, tungtap, and shidal are fermented fish products; and karati, bordia, and lashim are sun-dried and salted fish products. No fish sauce or shrimp products are prepared and used as condiments in the local diet in the Eastern Himalayan regions.

  6. Ethephon As a Potential Abscission Agent for Table Grapes: Effects on Pre-Harvest Abscission, Fruit Quality, and Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Giuseppe; Mazzeo, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela M. S.; Pacucci, Carmela; Trani, Antonio; Fidelibus, Matthew W.; Gambacorta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color, and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but pre-harvest abscission was much lower (≅49%) in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruits were slightly darker than non-treated fruits, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits. PMID:27303407

  7. Ethephon as a potential abscission agent for table grapes: effects on pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality and residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eFerrara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some plant growth regulators, including ethephon, can stimulate abscission of mature grape berries. The stimulation of grape berry abscission reduces fruit detachment force (FDF and promotes the development of a dry stem scar, both of which could facilitate the production of high quality stemless fresh-cut table grapes. The objective of this research was to determine how two potential abscission treatments, 1445 and 2890 mg/L ethephon, affected FDF, pre-harvest abscission, fruit quality, and ethephon residue of Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless grapes. Both ethephon treatments strongly induced abscission of Thompson Seedless berries causing >90% pre-harvest abscission. Lower ethephon rates, a shorter post-harvest interval, or berry retention systems such as nets, would be needed to prevent excessive pre-harvest losses. The treatments also slightly affected Thompson Seedless berry skin color, with treated fruit being darker, less uniform in color and with a more yellow hue than non-treated fruit. Ethephon residues on Thompson Seedless grapes treated with the lower concentration of ethephon were below legal limits at harvest. Ethephon treatments also promoted abscission of Crimson Seedless berries, but dropper-harvest abscission was much lower (49% in Crimson Seedless compared to Thompson Seedless. Treated fruit were slightly darker than non-treated fruit, but ethephon did not affect SSC, acidity, or firmness of Crimson Seedless, and ethephon residues were below legal limits.

  8. experimental investigation of the effect of microwave drying and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alayande Ibraheem

    Effect of microwave oven drying and reactor temperature has been investigated in this study. Cassava ... sample was water washed to remove excess alkali metal present through hydrolysis, sun dried and ground to obtain a ... and 2050 [1, 2].

  9. Nat in N tural occu Nigeria urrence o of aflatoxi in residue es in fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    effects like aflatoxicosis, exacerbated malnutrition, suppression of growth and immune ... optimal after contamination, there is also a risk of mycotoxin production [7]. ... samples each of fresh and sun-dried pieces of cow beef and edible organs ...

  10. Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo ... Fresh leaves were shredded and sun dried before milling into vegetable powder and ... Amaranthus and Talinum recorded high mineral contents.

  11. 9 CFR 95.9 - Glue stock; requirements for unrestricted entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... render each piece of the hardness of a sun-dried hide. (c) Glue stock taken from cattle, sheep, goats, or... bearing the seal of the proper department of said national government and signed by an official...

  12. determination of the specific growth rate on degradation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Menten Equation. In order ... Wastewater from cassava starch industry usually is a ... include sun drying, oven drying, and treatment with ..... Analysis of Contaminated Water Resources Due to. Cassava Wastewater Effluent Disposal. European.

  13. CHAPTER 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    Studies on Antimicrobial Potentials of three Ganoderma species. *Jonathan ... Invitro antagonistic effect of the ethanol, methanol and distilled ... could not be visualized with ordinary eyes. (Zoberi,. 1972 ... sun dried for two weeks. Each species ...

  14. ФСХСТЛХ ГИФЛЕГРГ Department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIU

    2014-07-04

    Jul 4, 2014 ... Department of Microbiology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... preserved for 14 weeks using different treatments: sun drying, oven drying, ... the short shelf life, objectionable packaging materials, stickiness and the characteristic.

  15. An overview of some ethnic fermented fish products of the Eastern Himalayan region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranendra K. Majumdar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: It was revealed that as the northeastern states of India, being the highest rainfall area of the world, did not provide a congenial environment for simple sun drying of fish and fermentation was the only option to preserve fish.

  16. New vineyard fields: Grape Juice. Selection of grapevine species, juice making, stabilization / Nouvelle filière : jus de raisin. Sélection des cépages, élaboration, stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudier Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed by FOULON-SOPAGLY society and INRA, a six years applied research program was developed in France to enable creation of create specific lines to elaborate high quality juice with new adapted grapevine varieties and specialized vineyards, with adapted technology. 448 vine varieties from INRA Vassal first international collection of grapevine species were evaluated to finally select 14: 2 V.vinifera,9 hybrids, and 3 from INRA creation (ref A. Bouquet by hybridization. These last references, obtained from 4 or 5 back crossing between Muscadinia. rotondifolia.X.V.vinifera, have in particular a high level of resistance against mildew and oidium.These varieties have RUN 1 and RPV1. resistance genes, with several other secondary genes on one chromosome locus. This makes access to organic market easier. Agronomic criteria are studied for this selection. Among the 14 selected grapevine species, some have high level of polyphenols (6 times more than alicante. Others (white and red have a high aromatic potential. Others have a low sugar content 135 g/l to 150 g/l and adapted sugar/ acidity ratio. -In the cellar: The absence of fermentation and alcohol requires optimization of the process for juice making. For example by increasing polyphenols extraction and colour stability by using thermo-treatment. Flash release process coupled with enzymatic soaking on grapes at 45°C for example, increases 2 or 3 fold polysaccharide juice content, and increases anthocyanins extraction and hence colour intensity. With this process the draining of grape marc and juice production increase. Pressure technology by on line horizontal decanter is possible. -In juice storehouse. Electro membrane process, (oenodia membrane process with specific membranes gives possibilities to achieve two objectives on juice: - Decrease pH and increase acidity of juice and colour stabilization, without any additive.

  17. Nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit: when should Pseudomonas aeruginosa be suspected? Experience of the French national surveillance of nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit, Rea-Raisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, A-G; Lavigne, T; Jarno, P; L'heriteau, F; Coignard, B; Savey, A; Rogues, A-M

    2012-01-01

    Individual and ward risk factors for P. aeruginosa-induced urinary tract infection in the case of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit were determined with hierarchical (multilevel) logistic regression. The 2004-2006 prospective French national intensive care unit nosocomial infection surveillance dataset was used and 3252 patients with urinary tract infection were included; 16% were infected by P. aeruginosa. Individual risk factors were male sex, duration of stay, antibiotics at admission and transfer from another intensive care unit. Ward risk factors were patient turnover and incidence of P. aeruginosa-infected patients.

  18. Revue sur les analogies et les différences relevées entre un cône de houblon et une baie de raisin : arômes soufrés et azotés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankolongo Cibaka, ML.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Similarities and differences between hop cones and grape berries: sulfur and nitrogen aromas. A review. Introduction. Similarities can be found between the flavors of hop cones and grapes. The present paper will focus on their sulfur and nitrogen odorants. Literature. Although initially investigated in vines, recent research has led to the identification of a larger number of polyfunctional thiols in hop cones. These have included the pleasant-smelling grapefruit- or passion fruit-like 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol. Surprisingly, to date, the occurrence of sulfides, polysulfides and thioesters (onion, vegetable or cheese-like flavors, as well as various thiophenes and terpenic episulfides has been described extensively only in the hop literature, while methoxypyrazines have been described only in vine cultivars. Conclusion. Among the sulfur and nitrogen odorants, many similarities have been observed between hop and grape polyfunctional thiols. Thiophenes, episulfides, sulfides, polysulfides and thioesters are mainly found in hop cones, while methoxypyrazines have been described only in grape.

  19. RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase, the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, leads to parthenocarpic tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Martens, S.; Jonker, H.H.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this a

  20. RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase, the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, leads to parthenocarpic tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Martens, S.; Jonker, H.H.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this

  1. PORTA-ENXERTOS, CITOCININAS, RETARDANTES DE CRESCIMENTO E URACIL NA FERTILIDADE DE GEMAS DE VIDEIRAS APIRÊNICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PLÍNIO SALGADO FONSECA DE MELO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth retardants Paclobutrazol (PBZ and Cycocel (CCC had been used, in spraying, associates or not with two cytokinins: Benziladenina (BAP and Thidiazuron (TDZ, and a nitrogenous base, the Uracil, with the purpose of studying its effect in the bud fertility of the 'Superior Seedless', grafted on the 'Harmony' and IAC-766 'Campinas', and of the 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Thompson Seedless', grafted on the 'Harmony', in the conditions of the São Francisco Valley, Brazil. It was observed that the separately use of the products had not promoted significant differences in the studied of the bud fertility, but, the association of the growth retardants with the TDZ it induce the 'Thompson Seedless' to a bigger productivity, and that the expression of the bud fertility of the 'Seedless Superior' benefits on to being grafted on the 'Harmony' rootstock.

  2. The Effects of Packaging conditions on the Sensory Quality of Trail Mix after Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    To determine the effects of vacuum packaging versus oxygen scavengers on the stability of nut raisin trail mix, samples were assessed by sensory...samples agglomerated upon storage, especially with increased storage temperatures and increased raisins. Vacuum packaging may have deleterious effects that

  3. 7 CFR 52.1841 - Product description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins 1 § 52.1841 Product description. Processed Raisins are dried grapes of the Vinifera varieties, such as Thompson...

  4. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... weight dockage system. The creditable weight of each lot of raisins acquired under the maturity dockage system shall be obtained by multiplying the net weight of the lot of raisins by the applicable...

  5. 7 CFR 989.212 - Substandard dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... percent, by weight, of substandard raisins may be acquired by a handler under a weight dockage system. A..., by weight, of substandard raisins under a weight dockage system. The creditable weight of each lot...

  6. 40 CFR 180.254 - Carbofuran; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (of which no more than 1 ppm is carbamates) 2 12/31/09 Coffee, bean, green 0.1 12/31/09 Corn, field..., raisin (of which no more than 1.0 ppm is carbamate 2.0 12/31/09 Grape, raisin, waste (of which no more...

  7. 77 FR 28493 - Propylene Oxide; Tolerance Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Cacao bean, cocoa powder 200 Cacao bean, dried bean 200 Fig 3.0 Garlic, dried 300 Grape, raisin 1.0... or on the commodity. Parts per Commodity million Basil, dried leaves 6000 Cacao bean, cocoa powder 20.0 Cacao bean, dried bean 20.0 Fig 3.0 Garlic, dried 6000 Grape, raisin 4.0 Herbs and spices,...

  8. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    a bit further, hence furan is relatively stable in food products. Of the food items surveyed relatively many sundried fruit and vegetable products like raisins, tomatoes, and dried bananas contained furan, for example a sample of raisins contained 83 ng/g and banana crisps 11ng/g furan. Furthermore one...

  9. Studies on the use of Colocasia esculenta (taro cocoyam) in the diets of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwunobi, L N; Angwukam, P O; Cora, O O; Isika, M A

    2002-05-01

    Sixty weanling Large White x Duroc pigs were allocated to five groups of 12 pigs per group and fed on one of five diets. The five diets comprised 0, 50% and 100% unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels (Colocasia esculenta) and 50% and 100% boiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels as replacements for maize. The levels of some antinutritional factors were also determined in both boiled and unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam. Boiling reduced (p 0.05) in feed intake, weight gain or feed efficiency between the diets containing boiled taro cocoyam cormels. However, for unboiled, sun-dried taro cocoyam cormels, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in weight gain and feed efficiency, these being depressed at more than 50% replacement of maize. This may be due to the relatively high amounts of antinutritional factors in the unboiled, sun-dried taro cormels. Boiled taro cocoyam cormels were comparable to maize as an energy source in the diets of weanling pigs.

  10. A purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-fumigation is known to reduce volatile compounds that are the main active components in herbs used in herbal medicine. We investigated changes in chemical composition between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae using a purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds, and two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification. Using sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples as a reference, the results showed that 73 volatile compounds, including 12 sulfide compounds, were found to be present only in sulfur-fumigated samples. Furthermore, 32 volatile compounds that were found in sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples disappeared after sulfur-fumigation. The proposed method can be applied to accurately discriminate sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae from different commercial sources.

  11. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  12. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic tetraploid plants have been used for production of seedless triploid watermelon lines being pollinated with diploid plants. When compared to their diploid or triploid counterparts, the tetraploid exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Though many factors, including alternative splicing (AS),...

  13. (Jacq) on the flowering and fruiting of okra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-31

    May 31, 2010 ... the fruiting of Thompson seedless grape plants was induced by ... guinea corn is used for the treatment of cancer of the nose (Gill, 1992). ... Plant materials. Okra and groundnut seeds were obtained from the seed service.

  14. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  15. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp) dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

    OpenAIRE

    Husen Asbanu; Sam Herodian; Sutrisno

    2012-01-01

    The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp) as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of sli...

  16. COMPATIBILIDADE COM PORTA-ENXERTOS, RENDIMENTO E QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS EM CULTIVARES DE MELANCIA TRIPLOIDE

    OpenAIRE

    JOICE SIMONE DOS SANTOS; RITA DE CÁSSIA SOUZA DIAS; LEÍLSON COSTA GRANGEIRO; MARIA AUXILIADORA COELHO DE LIMA; KATYA MILENA NONATO SILVA SOUZA ANDRADE

    2014-01-01

    The use of compatible rootstocks, besides protecting sensive plant risk of soil- borne pathogens, can increase the yield and improve the quality of the fruit. The study aimed evaluated compatibility, yield and fruit quality of rootstocks and seedless watermelon. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with a 2x3 (two varieties of seedless watermelon: Shadow and RWT8154; three type of root system: without rootstock and upon BGCIA229 and BGCIA941, selected for their resistance/tolerance ...

  17. Pollen tube behavior in different Mandarin hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Gentile, Alessandra; Tribulato, Eugenio; Herrero Romero, María

    2009-01-01

    Seedlessness is an important trait in the evaluation of commercial mandarin for fresh consumption. However, in the last decade, the presence of seeds in fruit of cultivars considered as seedless has become a problem in different citrus-growing areas because the commercial value is depreciated. Seeds have appeared concomitantly with the introduction of new cultivars that appear to be cross-compatible. To overcome this problem, different strategies have been explored, but a definitive answer is...

  18. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  19. Predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the traditional malting of sorghum grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Glover, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional processes of sorghum grains malting were investigated in Tamale (Northern Ghana)from the raw materials through to the sun-dried malted sorghum including steeping and germinationstages. Samples were taken at each processing stage and cultured for the isolation of LAB. The isolatesw......The traditional processes of sorghum grains malting were investigated in Tamale (Northern Ghana)from the raw materials through to the sun-dried malted sorghum including steeping and germinationstages. Samples were taken at each processing stage and cultured for the isolation of LAB...

  20. Predominant lactic acid bacteria associated with the traditional malting of sorghum grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Glover, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional processes of sorghum grains malting were investigated in Tamale (Northern Ghana)from the raw materials through to the sun-dried malted sorghum including steeping and germinationstages. Samples were taken at each processing stage and cultured for the isolation of LAB. The isolatesw......The traditional processes of sorghum grains malting were investigated in Tamale (Northern Ghana)from the raw materials through to the sun-dried malted sorghum including steeping and germinationstages. Samples were taken at each processing stage and cultured for the isolation of LAB...

  1. NUTRIENT AND ANTINUTRIENT CONTENT OF AN UNDEREXPLOITED MALAWIAN WATER TUBER NYMPHAEA PETERSIANA (NYIKA)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nymphaea petersiana Klotzsch (Nyika) is an important wild tuber eaten in some districts of Malawi. The tubers were processed by boiling/freeze-drying(BFD) and sun-drying(USD). The tuber's nutrient and antinutrient composition was determined to produce a preliminary nutrient data base for use in sub-Saharan Africa.There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in protein content of BFDand USD samples. Sun-dried samples were significantly (P < .05) higher in ash than boiled samples while boiled...

  2. Drying of Malaysian Capsicum annuum L. (Red Chili) Dried by Open and Solar Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Yusof Othman; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of solar drying in the Malaysian red chili (Capsicum annuum L.). Red chilies were dried down from approximately 80% (wb) to 10% (wb) moisture content within 33 h. The drying process was conducted during the day, and it was compared with 65 h of open sun drying. Solar drying yielded a 49% saving in drying time compared with open sun drying. At the average solar radiation of 420 W/m2 and air flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, the collector, drying system, and pickup de...

  3. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening.

  4. 喷树增产耐贮剂对沙糖桔果实生长成熟期的影响%Effects of “Foliar Reagents for Enhancing Fruits Yield and Storability” on the Growth of Seedless Citrus Shatangju in the Stage of Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁广坚; 邵玲; 钟镜波; 陈艺菁

    2012-01-01

    以沙糖桔为材料,在果实转色期喷施“喷树增产耐贮剂”.与对照组相比,该处理可增加果实成熟期可溶性糖和可溶性固形物的含量。增幅分别为8.5%和8.9%;同时,显著减少了维生素c的降幅,比对照组低了16.26%.经喷施耐贮荆处理60d后,处理组比对照组可溶性糖含量增加了8%,可溶性固形物增加了10%,维生素c增加了20%.果实与果径生长动态分析表明:经“喷树增产耐贮剂”处理后21~40d的果径生长速率与对照组相比差异显著,采果时经过处理的果树单果质量显著增加,采果时的落果率显著减少.%When the green-colored Citrus reticulata Banco (cv. 'Shatangju') fruits was transforming into orange, the aqueous solution of “Foliar Reagents for Enhancing Fruits Yield and Storage” was sprayed on the trees. During the fruits maturation, compared with the control group, the treatment significantly enhanced the increasing rates of soluble sugar and soluble solids by 8.5% and 8.9% respectively; and reduced the dropping rate of vitamin C content by 16.26%. 60 d after the treatment, the contents of soluble sugar and soluble solids and vitamin C in the treated fruits were increased by 8% and 10% and 20% than those of untreated fruits respectively. The dynamic analysis of fruits and fruit diameters shows that the treatment of spraying also increased the growth rate of fruit diameters after 21 d to 40 d of treatment, significantly increased the single fi'uit quality, obviously reduced the drop rate of fi-uits during the maturation period.

  5. 不同施肥配比对干旱戈壁地克瑞森无核果实性状及产量的影响%Effect of combined application of fertilizer on fruit characters and yield of Crimson Seedless grape in gobi soil of dry region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭; 张建新; 郭绍杰; 苏学德; 吴鹏; 郑强卿

    2010-01-01

    通过"3414"施肥配比处理,研究了干旱区戈壁地不同施肥配比对干旱区戈壁地克瑞森无核葡萄果实性状及产量的影响.结果表明:N肥有利于葡萄产量的增加,但延迟果实成熟;而P、K肥有利于果实品质的提高,并能促进果实提早成熟.在本试验条件下,根据回归方程以及N、P2O5、K2O肥和葡萄价格计算,滴灌葡萄化肥的最佳施用量,N肥为13.8kg/667m2,P2O5肥为8.0kg/667m2,K2O肥为8.4kg/667m2.最高产量施肥量,N肥为14.6kg/667m2,P2O5肥为8.3kg/667m2,K2O肥为9.4kg/667m2.滴灌葡萄N、P2O5、K2O肥的最佳追肥配合比例为N:P2O5:K2O=1:0.58:0.61.

  6. Efeitos de doses e formas de aplicação de reguladores de crescimento em uvas sem sementes, cv. BRS Clara, em região tropical Effects of plant growth regulators for growth in seedless grape, cv. BRS Clara, in tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Teodoro de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do uso dos reguladores vegetais, ácido giberélico e tidiazuron, no tamanho de bagas da cultivar BRS Clara em Região Tropical. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em 2006 e 2007, na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, em Jales-SP, região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, em plantas da cv. BRS Clara. Foram testadas diferentes concentrações de GA3 aplicadas isoladamente, combinadas com Crop Set ou tidiazuron, em aplicações únicas ou sequênciais (2 e 4 vezes. As avaliações foram feitas por ocasião da maturação das uvas, considerando-se a massa fresca dos cachos, dos engaços e das bagas, determinadas por meio de balança analítica; o comprimento e o diâmetro médio das bagas, utilizando-se de paquímetro; e o teor de sólidos solúveis (SS, por meio de refratômetro manual. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, representados por uma planta, com 15 repetições, no ano de 2006, e 10 repetições, no ano de 2007. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e, para a comparação das médias dos tratamentos, foi utilizado o teste Skott Nott, ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Observou-se que o uso dos reguladores promoveu o crescimento das bagas na cultivar BRS Clara em todos os tratamentos, diferindo da testemunha.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the use of plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and thidiazuron about the size of the berries BRS Clara in Tropical Region. The experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007, in the Experimental Station of Tropical Viticulture in Jales, SP, northwestern state of São Paulo. Were tested different concentrations of GA3 applied in isolation, combined with Crop set and thidiazuron, in single or sequential applications (2 and 4 times. The assessments were made during the ripening of the grapes, considering the masses of fresh bunch of rachis and berry, determined by analytical balance, the average length and diameter of the berries, using caliper and the content of soluble solids (TSS, through manual refractometer. The experiments were conducted on experimental design in randomized blocks, represented by a plant, with 15 repetitions in 2006 and 10 repetitions in the year 2007. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and for comparison of the average number of treatments, was used to test Skott Nott at the level of 5% probability. It was observed that the use of plant growth regulators promoted the growth of berries in BRS Clara, with all treatments differing of the control.

  7. Cystic fibrosis - nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in recipes. Add marshmallows to fruit or hot chocolate. Add raisins, dates, or chopped nuts and brown ... AP, Quinton H. Evidence-based practice recommendations for nutrition-related management of children and adults with cystic ...

  8. Anemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... molasses, and raisins. If your child is a vegetarian , make an extra effort to ensure sufficient iron ... About Sickle Cell Anemia? About Anemia Becoming a Vegetarian Blood Blood Transfusions Coping With Common Period Problems ...

  9. Glycemic Index Diet: What's Behind the Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breakfast cereals Medium GI: Sweet corn, bananas, raw pineapple, raisins, oat breakfast cereals, and multigrain, oat bran ... also be attributed to the low-calorie, high-fiber content of the diets prescribed in the study. ...

  10. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... fruits (excluding dark raisins and prunes), lemon and lime juices, wine, molasses, and sauerkraut juice... scenario is considered ``worst-case,'' in that it assumes the ventilation stack is at the edge of...

  11. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  12. Celiac Support Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free soy sauce goat cheese goat cheese, crumbled golden raisins good-quality semisweet or bittersweet chocolate, chopped ... mayonnaise lime juice lime zest long-grain white rice, simmered until tender low fat Swiss cheese lump ...

  13. 75 FR 75955 - Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... canned ripe olives, raisins, and dates which are required to be inspected by AMS, subject to exemptions... the regulations regarding all licensed samplers upon approval of the application. Estimate of...

  14. 7 CFR 989.66 - Reserve tonnage generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... his intention to substitute, the exact location of the raisins for which substitution is to be made... pack or purchase his share of each offer. (f) Handlers shall be compensated for receiving,...

  15. 7 CFR 989.31 - Failure to nominate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.31 Failure to nominate. In the event nomination for a member or alternate member position on the committee is not certified pursuant to... position without regard to nomination....

  16. Linezolid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not kill viruses that can cause colds, ... raisins; bananas; sour cream; pickled herring; liver (especially chicken liver); dried meats and sausage (including hard salami ...

  17. Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, and other ... raisins; bananas; sour cream; pickled herring; liver (especially chicken liver); dried meats and sausage (including hard salami ...

  18. Fiber and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole-grain (corn or whole wheat) soft-taco shells or tortillas to make burritos or wraps. Fill ... won't be drastically different. Add raisins, berries, bananas, or chopped or pureed apples to the mix ...

  19. Unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, S; Rai, R R; Agarwal, S; Vijayvergiya, R

    1995-01-01

    We report management of unusual foreign bodies of upper gastrointestinal tract, namely beer bottle cap, raisins and pistachu, mango peel, betelnut and plum seed at a university hospital in Northern India.

  20. The Relationship Between Beta-Adrenoreceptor Density and Immune Function Before and After Acute Stressor Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-12

    should also be examined for their influences on immunity (eg. growth hormone, ACTH, prolactin ). Since~­ adrenoreceptors only accounted for between 14 and...raisins, prunes, orange peel, banana or pineapple. Cheese bread, nut bread containing walnuts. Raisin bran. Desserts containing walnuts, sour cream or...fruit cocktail with pineapple. Tomato, broad beans (fava beans), eggplant or any vegitable in cheese sauce. Chicken liver, herring, smoked or pickled

  1. An Appraisal of Fish Processing and Handling in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... This study was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of adopting sun-drying as an ... Field survey, processing operation and laboratory analyses were the research methods used. ... within four days of drying, while 15%, 15.9% and 15.86% were obtained for the market samples.

  2. Characteristics of traditionally processed shea kernels and butter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honfo, G.F.; Linnemann, A.R.; Akissoe, N.; Soumanou, M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional production of shea butter requires a heat treatment of the nuts. This study compared the end products derived by two commonly used heat treatments, namely smoking and boiling followed by sun-drying. Neither treatment influenced the moisture content of the kernels (8–10%), but the boi

  3. EFFECT OF PRESSING ON THE SHELF LIFE OF SUNDRIED WHITE SARDINE (ESCUALOSA THORACATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Priyadarshini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate and explore a method for preparation of salted and dried white sardine which would have organoleptically sound attributes viz., color, flavor, taste and texture. It could however be concluded from the results of present study that the sun dried pressed samples were in better condition than the unpressed sample.

  4. Misconceptions about diabetes mellitus among adult male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-11

    Oct 11, 2009 ... prevalence of 2.8% was reported in 2000 and a projected prevalence of 4.4% is ... awareness about the disease, its risk factors, complications ..... characteristics of three native sun-dried date (phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties.

  5. EFFECT OF BLANCHING METHODS ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof(Mrs)T-Akintunde

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... Drying is carried out traditionally by sun-drying because it is a cheap, simple ... Therefore, another factor that is required for optimization of the drying ... beneficial because of the protection it offers the fruit or vegetable from ...

  6. 2 Arsenic Leaching in Mill Tailings at.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    contamination water sources, As may ... were 0.45–8.73 mg/l and 4.3–8.4, respectively, while the results in the water bodies ranged from 0.04–7.23 mg/l .... distilled water and sun dried to avoid ..... Chronic Arsenic Poisoning and Respiratory.

  7. AKA“, LO, OBIDlKE', Rl, IGBOKWEZ, (3.0. and EZEMA'. ws

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of feeding a 50 % feed supplementation with breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), prepared differently as raw unpeeled sun dried (T ... antinutritional factor(s) n its raw or poorly heat treated forms. ... Current researches in animal nutrition are focused on the use ..... in dogs and cats (Coles, 1986) and severe hepatitis produces ...

  8. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  9. A comparative study on preservation of soy flour (Glycine max.(l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    commodity. Although the ... cultivated in tropical Africa and the seeds arc used as a condiment or spice. ... In this study. an alll.!mpt was made to presene soy flour using extracts of ... Production Department in the School or J\\gricultural Engineering. ... market and \\\\ere sun dried and kept in Laboratory cabinet for further use.

  10. Performance Evaluation of a Forced Convection Solar Drier with Evacuated Tube Collector for Drying Amla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Umayal Sundari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A forced convection solar drier is designed with evacuated tube collector and a blower. The performance of the designed drier is evaluated by carrying drying experiments at Thanjavur District, Tamilnadu, India with amla. Solar drying of amla is carried at different air velocity flow rates – 4m/s, 4.25m/s and 4.5m/s and is compared with natural sun drying. The temperature of the dryingchamber ranges from 53ºC to 82ºC while the ambient temperature ranges from 29ºC to 32ºC. The efficiency of the designed drier varies from 38.61% to 43.7% where as the efficiency of sun drying varies from 12.5% to 14.15%. It is observed that the efficiency of the drier increases with increase in air velocity flow rates. Initial moisture content of amla ranges between 83.6% and 84.3% and the equilibrium moisture content ranges between 0.1% and 0.6%. Solar drying takes 5 to 7 hours to reach safe moisture content where as sun drying takes 13 to15 hours. Also the quality of solar dried amla is better in terms of colour, odour, flavour and appearance than the sun dried amla. The observed result of the present work shows that the proposed solar drier is good for drying amla in this region.

  11. Influence of Processing Methods on Proximate Composition and Dieting of Two Amaranthus Species from West Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffo Kamela, Arnaud Landry; Mouokeu, Raymond Simplice; Ashish, Rawson; Maffo Tazoho, Ghislain; Glory Moh, Lamye; Pamo Tedonkeng, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various processing methods on the proximate composition and dieting of Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus cruentus from West Cameroon were investigated in this study. Both amaranths leaves were subjected to same treatments (sun-dried and unsliced, sliced and cooked), milled, and analysed for their mineral and proximate composition. Thirty-Six Wistar albino rats of 21 to 24 days old were distributed in six groups and fed for 14 days with 10% protein based diets named D0 (protein-free diet), DI (egg white as reference protein), DII (sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus), DIII (cooked and sliced A. hybridus), DIV (sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus), and DV (cooked and sliced A. cruentus). The protein bioavailability and haematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in rats. The results showed that K, P, Mg, Zn, and Fe had the higher content in both samples regardless of processing method. The sun-dried and unsliced A. cruentus contained the highest value of crude protein 32.22 g/100 g DM (dry matter) while the highest crude lipid, 3.80 and 2.58%, was observed, respectively, in sun-dried and unsliced A. hybridus and cooked and sliced A. cruentus. Cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus contained high crude fiber of 14 and 12.18%, respectively. Rats fed with diet DIII revealed the best protein bioavailability and haematological parameters whereas 100% mortality rate was recorded with group fed with diet DIV. From this study, it is evident that cooked and sliced A. hybridus and A. cruentus could play a role in weight reduction regimes. PMID:28078277

  12. A screening for benzo[a]pyrène in cocoa beans subjected to different drying methods during on farm processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eboua N. Wandan,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benzo[a]pyrene as well as moisture and physical characteristics of cocoa bean subjected to different mode of drying were evaluated during the second period of cocoa harvesting in Côte d’Ivoire. The moisture content of smoked beans (8.22±0.06 was significantly lower compared to those sun-dried (8.97±0.18. Among the physical characteristics, purple beans were over 4%, and slaty beans 1.57±0.20%. The percentage of moldy beans was significantly higher for sun-dried beans (8.72±0.17% than for smoked beans (2.13±0.14%.Supplementing sun-drying with smoking during the rainy season helped reduce the level of moldy beans which are favored by their high moisture content. The level of free fatty acid found in beans was in average 1.74% with those subjected to sun drying having significantly (P=0.04 higher levels. These levels were higher than the expected levels (< 1.0% to meet the acceptable level of 1.75% in cocoa butter extracted from the dry cocoa beans. This high level of free fatty acid found might be favored by the high level of moulds found in beansmostly in sun-dried beans. Benzo[a]pyrene was found at the levels ranging from 7.698 to 3701/25 μg/kg in beans sun-dried/smoked or smoked only. When beans were dried by smoking only, the level of Benzo[a]pyrene found was significantly (p<0.05 elevated (3709.25±526.03. Based on an estimated daily chocolate consumption of 5,53 g/day, the daily intake of carcinogenic BaP was found to 1.05 μg/day. This level was two times the recommended background concentration of 0.5 μg/kg recommended by the WHO in food samples.

  13. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; O'Keeffe, Teresa L; Ho, Yvonne S; Santillan, Carlo J

    2015-04-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almonds, pistachios, and walnuts were collected from small and large supermarkets in seven areas of the United States between 2012 and 2014. Of the 665 samples analyzed, OTA was detected in 48 raisin samples, 4 fig samples, 4 pistachio samples, and 1 date sample. OTA contamination levels ranged from 0.28 to 15.34 ng/g in dried fruits and 1.87 to 890 ng/g in pistachios; two raisin samples and one pistachio sample exceeded the European Union regulatory limit of 10 ng/g. PCR detection of potential OTA-producing Aspergillus species revealed the presence of A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius in 20, 7, and 7 of the 57 OTA-contaminated samples, respectively. However, OTA-producing A. carbonarius was isolated from only one raisin sample, and no other OTA-producing Aspergillus species were found. These results suggest that raisins are more frequently contaminated with low levels of OTA than are other dried fruits and nuts and that Aspergillus species are the likely source of that contamination.

  14. Desarrollo de nuevas variedades de uva (Vitis vinifera L.) sin semilla mediante rescate de embriones

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ernesto Tiznado Hernández; Alejandro Miranda Jiménez; Ángel J. Ojeda Contreras; Alberto Sánchez Estrada; Héctor J. Arreola Ortiz; Gerardo Martínez Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Uno de los objetivos principales de un programa de mejoramiento genético de uva es el desarrollo de variedades sin semilla. Sin embargo, para lograr esto se requiere combinar la técnica de rescate de embriones con la genética tradicional. El objetivo de este trabajo fue desarrollar híbridos de cruzas con las siguientes variedades de uva sin semilla: Perlette, Black Seedless, Crimson Seedless, Crispy, Flame, Superior, Princesa, Red Globe, Fiesta, Fresno y Thompson, utilizadas como padre y como...

  15. Natural versus commercial carbohydrate supplementation and endurance running performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Too Brandon W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the metabolic, performance and gastrointestinal (GI effects of supplementation with a natural food product (raisins compared to a commercial product (sport chews. Methods Eleven male (29.3 ± 7.9 yrs; mean and SD runners completed three randomized trials (raisins, chews and water only separated by seven days. Each trial consisted of 80-min (75%VO2max treadmill running followed by a 5-km time trial (TT. Heart rate (HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, blood lactate, serum free fatty acids (FFA, glycerol and insulin, plasma glucose and creatine kinase, GI symptoms and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded every 20-min. We employed a within-subject two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures with a Fisher’s post hoc analysis to determine significant differences. Results VO2, HR, lactate, glycerol and RPE did not differ due to treatment. Average plasma glucose was maintained at resting levels (5.3 ± 0.4 mmol·L-1 during the sub-maximal exercise bout (5.9 ± 0.6, 5.7 ± 0.6 and 5.5 ± 0.5 mmol·L-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively, and was significantly higher with chews than water only. RER and % of non-protein macronutrient oxidation derived from carbohydrate was highest with chews, followed by raisins and water was the lowest (74.4 ± 6.4, 70.0 ± 7.0 and 65.1 ± 8.7% for chews, raisins and water respectively during the sub-maximal exercise period. Serum FFA was higher in the water treatment versus both raisins and chews at 80 min of sub-maximal exercise. Serum insulin was higher with the chews than both raisins and water (5.1 ± 2.0, 3.1 ± 0.8, 1.9 ± 0.6 uU·ml-1 for chews, raisins and water respectively. Plasma creatine kinase, corrected for baseline values, for the last 40 min of the sub-maximal exercise bout, was higher with raisins compared to other treatments. The TT was faster for both carbohydrate supplements (20.6

  16. Design and Experimentation of Collector based Solar Dryer with Recirculation for Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ganesh There

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sun drying system is very common method of preserving agricultural product. Solar energy is used for heating of air and to dry food substance. In open sun drying food is unprotected from rain, wind-borne dirt and dust, infestation by insects, rodents and other animal. This process is practically attractive and environmentally sound. Shell life of agricultural product is improve by drying. This paper present design and construction of active solar dryer with recirculation technique. It consists of solar collector, drying chamber with netted trays and recirculation arrangement. Air is allowed through inlet and it is heated up in collector. Then it is circulated in drying chamber where it is utilize for drying. The design based on geographical location Wardha and meteorological data were obtained for proper design specification. Locally available materials were used for construction such as polyurethane glass, mild steel metal sheet, plywood sheet and insulating material.

  17. Long argan fruit drying time is detrimental for argan oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Kartah, Badr Eddine; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

    2010-11-01

    Argan oil is extracted from the kernels of argan fruits that have been sun-dried for either a few days or up to several weeks. The influence of the fruit drying time on the quantity, quality, and preservation of solvent-extracted argan oil was compared with press-extracted argan oil. Quantitatively, the time necessary for efficient fruit peeling and the amount of extracted oil were determined with regard to the fruit drying time (0 to 28 days). Argan oil quality was studied using, as markers, moisture content, specific extinction, acid index, peroxide index, fatty acid composition, and Rancimat oxidative stability. Oil from fresh fruit presents a high moisture content, high acidity and peroxide values, and short shelf life. Ten to fourteen days of sun-drying is optimum to obtain high quality argan oil.

  18. Effect of different drying methods on the essential oils of mint (Mentha haplocalyx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yachun; Chen, Yajun; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Hao; Wu, Li; Li, Huan; Xu, Lijuan; Caib, Baochang

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils of fresh, shade-dried, sun-dried, and oven-dried mint of Mentha haplocalyx Brig., and the shade-dried herbs after one hour of soaking were analyzed by GC-MS to provide a scientific basis to regulate the drying methods. Fifty-nine compounds were isolated and identified, including 35 from fresh herbs, 25 from shade-dried herbs, 23 from sun-dried herbs, 17 from oven-dried herbs and 48 from shade-dried mint after one hour of soaking. Eighteen compounds were common to all five samples, including menthol, menthone, and isomenthone, which were the main components. Several of these significantly decreased in shade-dried mint soaked in water. Thus in cleaning and drying processes soaking mint in water should be avoided as far as possible, in case major components are extracted thus producing an inferior product that will undermine its curative effect.

  19. Qualitative analysis of a sulfur-fumigated Chinese herbal medicine by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry using colorized fuzzy difference data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Zhang, Hong-Yan

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the chemical transformation of volatile compounds in sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Sinensis. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF/MS) with colorized fuzzy difference (CFD) method was used to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on the volatile components from Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Twenty-five compounds that were found in sun-dried samples disappeared in sulfur-fumigated samples. Seventeen volatile components including two sulfur-containing compounds were newly generated for the first time in volatile oils of sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Sinensis. The strategy can be successfully applied to rapidly and holistically discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Sinensis. GC×GC-HR-TOF/MS based CFD is a powerful and feasible approach for the global quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Sinensis as well as other herbal medicines.

  20. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Open, Simple and Modified Greenhouse Dryers for Drying Potato Flakes Under Forced Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Kumar Sahu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying using burning of fossil fuels and open sun drying are traditional way to dry crops, fruits, vegetables etc. But there are some disadvantages associated with them such as crops are affected by dirt and other impurities. To overcome the problems associated with open sun drying and drying using burning of fossil fuels, solar greenhouse drying is found out to be the best alternative. In present work the performance of simple and modified greenhouse dryer is evaluated and effort is made to increase the drying rate of greenhouse dryer which has been achieved in modified greenhouse dryer with inclined roof. Total weight of potato flakes was reduced by 80.1 % in modified greenhouse dryer in just 5 hours whereas it took 6 hours in simple greenhouse dryer for achieving nearly same values.

  2. Effect of different pretreatments on the quality of mushrooms during solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurdeep

    2013-02-01

    Freshly harvested mushrooms are highly perishable because of high moisture content metabolism and susceptible to enzymatic browning. Mushroom is a fungal fruiting body which is cultivated throughout the world. Effect on quality of dried mushrooms was studied for various chemical pretreatments viz. 1.0% potassium metabisulphite, 0.5% citric acid, 0.5% potassium metabisulphite + 0.2% citric acid, control and low cost drying methods viz. domestic solar dryer, medium size solar dryer and open sun drying. It was observed that application of 1% potassium metabisulphite treatment prior to drying using medium size solar dryer gave best quality dried mushrooms with results in accordance with statistical analysis. The drying time and final moisture content was also comparatively less than the mushrooms dried under shading plates and open sun drying.

  3. Experimental investigation on the comparison of fenugreek drying in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Vipin; Kumar, Anil

    2016-09-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient is an essential parameter for designing of any solar drying system. In this paper heat transfer modeling in term of convective heat transfer coefficient is performed and compared with open sun drying. The data obtained from experimentation under open sun and indirect solar drying conditions have been used to find values of the experimental constant `C' and exponent `n' by regression analysis and, consequently, convective heat transfer coefficient. From this study it is concluded that the convective heat transfer coefficient is decreasing with drying time it is due to decrease in moisture content. Results also showed that convective heat transfer coefficients are more in indirect solar dryer system than under open sun drying.

  4. Solar Drying of Hazelnut by Three Different Types of System

    OpenAIRE

    Olgun, Hayati; RZAYEV, Perviz

    2000-01-01

    Hazelnut is the most important agricultural product of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, and is exported to the world market dried and unshelled. The traditional sun drying process used by hazelnut farmers takes about 3 to 10 days depending on the weather conditions. If precipitation is high during the harvesting period, drying takes longer and causes the harvest to be spoilt. Although Turkey grows almost 75% of the world's hazelnuts, due to the current difficulties in th...

  5. Quality characteristics of Moroccan sweet paprika (Capsicum annuum L. at different sampling times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Zaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available "La Niora" is a red pepper variety cultivated in Tadla Region (Morocco which is used for manufacturing paprika after sun drying. The paprika quality (nutritional, chemical and microbiological was evaluated immediately after milling, from September to December. Sampling time mainly affected paprika color and the total capsaicinoid and vitamin C contents. The commercial quality was acceptable and no aflatoxins were found, but the microbial load sometimes exceeded permitted levels.

  6. Crispene A, B, C and D, Four New Clerodane Type Furanoid Diterpenes from Tinospora crispa (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Hossen; Rubaida Ahasan; Mohammad Rashedul Haque; Bilkis Begum; Choudhury Mahmood Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tinospora crispa (L.) is used to alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. It is also used for hypertension and to treat malaria, remedy for diarrhea, and as vermifuge. Materials and Methods: Stems of T. crispa were collected, sun dried for several days followed by oven dried for 24 h at a considerably low temperature and then ground into coarse powder. The powdered stems were soaked in methanol at room temperature for 14 days with occasional shaking. The extra...

  7. Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Solar Assisted Paddy Dryer for on Farm Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Ashfaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continued escalation in population growth and the expansion of international food trade and demand of high quality product for food security at low cost has created considerable interest in the development of new post-harvest technologies. This is particularly important for developing countries where post-harvest losses of cereals are between 10-20% and of fruits and vegetables as high as 20- 100% A new solar assisted paddy dryer with central air distribution model (along the length of drying chamber has been developed. Due to this distinct feature of the dryer high drying rate was achieved during the drying processes .Other components of the dryer are perforated drying chamber, blower and flat plat solar air collector. Dryer was evaluated using 100kg of freshly harvested paddy at 23.78% moisture content (wb. Performance evaluation results showed that the mean drying rate of the solar assisted paddy dryer was 0.87kg/hr per for every 100kg, whereas 0.46kg/hr was the sun drying rate comparatively. The faster drying rate of the dryer reveals its suability to dry the paddy for its safe storage moisture content rapidly. By using the solar assisted paddy dryer, approximately 50% saving in time was also achieved as compared with the traditional sun drying method. Solar assisted paddy dryer took 10hr for drying the 100kg paddy up to 14%, while sun drying method dried paddy up to 13.89% in 19 hours. Cost analysis also showed that, by using solar assisted paddy dryer we candry good quality paddy at low cost as compared with the open sun drying method. For development of agriculture in the rural areas, commercial size of the solar assisted paddy dryer can be amplified and produced at community level.

  8. Peking Chutney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    2 pounds (about 4 cups of pulp) of ripe Ming Tomb persimmons1 1/2 cups of light or dark Turpan raisins (haven’t recently been to Turpan? then any raisins will do)2 cups of dried apricots from Turpan2 freshly picked tart apples from Maoling, tomb of the 9th Emperor of the Ming Dynasty2 tablespoons of fresh ginger 1 green chili pepper chopped 1 tablespoon of mustard seed3 1/2 cups water1 1/2 cups white vinegar (I used rice wine vinegar) 1 1/4 cups brown sugar

  9. Effect of different drying methods on the composition of steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Moguel-Ordóñez, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Drying techniques can modify the composition of certain plant compounds. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of different drying methods on steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves. Four different drying methods were applied to Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves, which were then subjected to aqueous extraction. Radiation or convection drying was performed in stoves at 60°C, whereas shade or sun drying methods were applied at 29.7°C and 70% of relative humidity. Stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, rebaudioside D, dulcoside A, and steviolbioside were quantified by a validated HPLC method. Among steviol glycosides, the content (g 100 g-1 dry basis) of stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, and rebaudioside C varied according to the drying method. The total glycoside content was higher in sun-dried samples, with no significant differences compared to shade or convection drying, whereas radiation drying adversely affected the content of rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C (p <0.01) and was therefore a method lowering total glycoside content. The effect of the different drying methods was also reflected in the proportion of the sweetener profile. Convection drying could be suitable for modern food processing industries while shadow or sun drying may be a low-cost alternative for farmers.

  10. Desorption isotherms, drying characteristics and qualities of glace tropical fruits undergoing forced convection solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamradloedluk, Jindaporn; Wiriyaumpaiwong, Songchai [Mahasarakham Univ. Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Solar energy, a form of sustainable energy, has a great potential for a wide variety of applications because it is abundant and accessible, especially for countries located in the tropical region. Drying process is one of the prominent techniques for utilization of solar energy. This research work proposes a forced convection solar drying of osmotically pretreated fruits viz. mango, guava, and pineapple. The fruit cubes with a dimension of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm were immersed in 35% w./w. sucrose solution prior to the drying process. Drying kinetics, color and hardness of the final products obtained from solar drying were investigated and compared with those obtained from open air-sun drying. Desorption isotherms of the osmosed fruits were also examined and five mathematical models were used to fit the desorption curves. Experimental results revealed that solar drying provided higher drying rate than natural sun drying. Color of glace fruit processed by solar drying was more intense, indicated by lower value of lightness and higher value of yellowness, than that processed by sun drying. Hardness of the products dehydrated by both drying methods, however, was not significantly different (p>0.05). Validation of the mathematical models developed showed that the GAB model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated mango and pineapple whereas Peleg's model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated guava. (orig.)

  11. Antioxidants in yacon products and effect of long term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl. H. Robinson is a storage root originally grown in the Andean highlands. The fresh roots are perishable and quickly turn brown during handling and processing. Aiming to prolong shelf-life and to preserve the antioxidant compounds in yacon roots, 3 mm thick yacon slices were dried in a drying cabinet at 40, 50, and 60 ºC to a moisture content of 10-14%, and yacon strips were sun dried to a moisture content of 15-20%. The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the quenching capacity was evaluated by measuring the amount of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pidrylhydrazyl inhibited in samples after drying and after 7 months of storage. The results showed that it is possible to preserve the antioxidant capacity in yacon after cabinet or sun drying. Both yacon chips and strips presented total phenolic content values similar to those of fresh yacon roots. Both products also showed a high inhibition capacity of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pidrylhydrazyl. A significant decrease in the phenolic content was observed in the yacon chips after storage, which indicates that the sun dried strips are more suitable for storage.

  12. The effects of preparing methods and enzyme supplementation on the utilization of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium meal in the diet of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Al-Harthi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brown marine algae (BMA; Sargassum dentifebium were collected from Jeddah on the shores of the Red Sea and sun dried at an average daily temperature of 40°C until constant weight was obtained. Part of the sun dried brown marine algae was subsequently processed by boiling (BBMA;boiled brown marine algae in water and by autoclaving (ABMA; autoclaved brown marine algae. The SBMA, BBMA and ABMA were included in laying hen diet during weeks 23-42 of age at concentrations of 0.0%, 3.0% and 6.0%. The diets were given with or without enzyme supplementation. This resulted in 3 (preparation methods × 2 (concentrations of supplemented BMA, i.e. 3 and 6 % × 2 (with and without enzyme supplementation diet programs plus two control groups (with and without enzyme supplementation for a total of 14 treatments. Each treatment was represented by six replicates of five hens each. Sun dried or autocalved brown marine algae at 3% without enzyme supplementation in the laying hen diet could be fed to laying hens without any adverse effect on laying performance. However, enzyme supplementation to a diet containing 6% autocalved brown marine algae improved productive performance and eggshell quality.

  13. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying needed 62 hours. Compared to open sun drying, this dryer yielded 82% saving in drying time. The drying rate, the specific moisture extraction rate, and thermal efficiency of the dryer were estimated in average to be about 1.57 kg/h, 0.14 kg/kWh, and 9.03%, respectively. Three mathematical models, the Newton, Henderson-Pabis, and Page models, were fitted to the experimental data on red chillies dried by solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace and open sun drying. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2, mean bias error (MBE, and root mean-square error (RMSE. The Page model gave the best results for representing drying kinetics of red chillies.

  14. Performance of free convective solar driers for cocoa in St. Lucia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhani, Z.; Madramootoo, C. A. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Macdonald Coll.; Bonaparte, A.; Satney, M.

    1998-01-01

    Four different solar driers were tested under field conditions in St. Lucia (West Indies) in order to demonstrate their ability to reduce the moisture content of cocoa beans to a level not requiring subsequent polishing. The four driers were: (1) an indirectly heated solar drier (ISD), (2) a direct solar drier (DSD), (3) open air sun drying on perforated steel (OAS), and (4) open air sun drying on non-perforated wooden surfaces (OAW). The ability of each drier to reduce moisture in cocoa beans for loading capacities of 13.7 and 40.0 kg/sq m was determined and compared. All four driers were more efficient at the lower loading level, particularly in the initial stages. Sun drying on a wooden surface proved to be more effective than other methods at 13.7 kg/sq m loading. ISD was found to be more effective at a higher loading capacity but was judged to be impractical for all but the largest operators because of the high cost and short cocoa harvest season. DSD was less effective than ISD, but its simple design, considerably lower cost and the fact that it does not require the beans to be covered during rainfall, made it more attractive to handle smaller harvests. Improved ventilation would further enhance the drying efficiency of the direct dryer, hence even more attractive to smaller scale operations. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Practicality of solar drier for drying tropical fruits and marine products as income generating for rural development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility and technical efficiency of a polythene solar drier for drying tropical fruits and marine products was investigated. Four popular tropical fruits were studied, namely: mango, langka (jackfruit), papaya and banana. These four fruits are generally popular on the market. In this study, the results of a polythene solar drier are compared to those of direct sun drying and it was found that the drier products had the more appealing color and texture. Also, a 25 to 40% reduction in drying time was obtained when the above fruits were dried using the solar drier as compared to direct sun drying. The solar drier was also found to be highly practical and efficient for the drying of marine products, namely: striped mackerel (Rastrelliger chrysozonus), short-bodied mackerel (R. brachysomus) and squid (Loligo opalescens). The drying time was reduced from 20 to 14 hours using the solar drier as compared to direct sun-drying. A reduction of 40% of the required salt resulted from the use of the solar drier, since microbial contamination from the environment was totally arrested. Solar technology is considered practical for rural communities because of the following advantages: low investment, labor cost savings, low delivery costs, products free from insect and mold contamination, longer product shelf life and better organoleptic characteristics. Solar drying provides a processing technology which results in higher profits and more savings for rural processors. 20 references.

  16. The use of tropical protein-rich leaves as supplements to Thai swamp buffalo receiving a basal diet of rice straw and treated leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetana, T; Vongpipatana, C; Usawang, S; Thongruay, S

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine (i) the effects of protein-rich trees (PRTs) and (ii) the effects of leucaena treated with NaOH solution and leucaena plus polyethylene glycol (PEG) on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, urinary purine derivatives excretion and blood metabolites in Thai swamp buffaloes. In Experiment 1, animals were fed with rice straw as a basal diet and one of the four PRT supplements: (i) oven-dried rain tree pods (RTPP, control); (ii) sun-dried leucaena leaves; (iii) sun-dried cassia leaves and (iv) sun-dried mulberry leaves. Fibre digestibility and N balance were lower (P leucaena were treated in one of three ways: (i) untreated (control), (ii) leucaena treated with NaOH solution and (iii) leucaena + PEG. Fibre digestibility and N balance in the rumen improved (P leucaena + PEG, but microbial N was not increased. The study demonstrated a way of using local PRTs for a suitable and worthwhile method to improve the quality of buffalo feeding systems in the tropics.

  17. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  18. Application of microwave energy in the manufacture of enhanced-quality green tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ashu; Rawat, Renu; Singh, Brajinder; Ravindranath, S D

    2003-07-30

    Green tea manufacture was standardized with respect to the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), rolling, and drying for quality manufacture. Inactivation of PPO by parching, steaming, microwave heating, and oven heating was monitored in tea shoots. The inactivated shoots were rolled under regimens of high and low pressures and dried by microwave heating, oven heating, or sun-drying; total phenols and catechins were estimated. Parched and sun-dried teas contained the lowest levels of total phenols and catechins, and their infusions were dull in color with a slightly burnt odor. Microwave-inactivated and-dried teas showed the highest levels of total phenols and catechins, and their infusions were bright in color and sweet in taste with a subtle pleasant odor. In steam-inactivated and oven/microwave-dried teas, total phenol and catechin contents were intermediate between parched and sun-dried teas and microwave-inactivated and microwave-dried teas, and their infusions were bright with a umami taste.

  19. Drying method effects on the antioxidant activity of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Gheisari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quince has many health benefits. Dried quince has been used as a tea for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of two drying methods on the antioxidant activity of the quince. Materiał and methods. Fifty two fresh Iranian ąuinces (Cydonia oblonga were obtained from different parts of Shiraz. Half of the ąuinces were peeled and both peel and flesh immediately frozen at -20°C individually. The remainder was divided in two groups, and dried with sun and oven drying methods. Proximate analysis, caloric, minerał and vitamin C contents were determined in the fresh ąuinces. The total phenolic, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power analysis were done on flesh, peel, sun-dried and ovendried ąuinces. Results. The proximate and nutritional composition of the fresh ąuinces was similar to those reported by other researchers. Oven-dried and ąuince peel contained higher amounts of phenolics than the sun-dried and flesh ąuinces, respectively. Sun-dried and flesh samples showed lower radical scavenging effect and reducing antioxidant capacity than oven-dried and ąuince peel, respectively. Conclusion. Overall, oven drying can better preserve the antioxidative activity of the ąuince.

  20. In vitro embryo rescue culture of F1 progenies from crosses between different ploidy grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, W; Li, G R; Luo, Y X; Ma, X H; Wang, M; Ren, R

    2015-12-29

    Crossing different ploidy grapes is an effective way to obtain new seedless cultivars. Although embryo rescue has been extensively applied in breeding seedless and triploid grapes, only a few improved cultivars have been developed. Based on preliminary studies, we set five crosses between tetraploid and diploid grape varieties to obtain new hybrid triploid germplasms. Additionally, we compared two different methods of performing in vitro embryo rescue and sowing in the development of hybrid triploid grape plants. The results showed that the germination rate of hybrid seeds was much lower (0-22.8%) than that of the self-pollinated seeds (50.9-61.2%) obtained though the same method of in vitro culture. Meanwhile, the seed germination rates of all crosses obtain through in vitro culture (0-61.2%) were higher than those obtained through sowing (0-42.0%). Identification of ploidy level confirmed that three lines obtained from the crosses of 'Ruby Seedless (2x) x Black Olympia (4x)' and 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' were triploid, and one line from the cross of 'Big black (2x) x Kyoho (4x)' was haploid, and the others were diploid, tetraploid, or aneuploidy plants. Moreover, 4 haploid and 42 triploid surviving grape seedlings were planted in a vineyard after propagation. Therefore, an efficient system of breeding triploid seedless grapes using embryo rescue was established and 42 hybrid triploid germplasms were obtained for use in future studies.

  1. Microsatellite profiles as a basis for intellectual property protection in grape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of microsatellite analysis in a forensic procedure for establishing infringement on plant breeders¿ rights in vegetatively propagated crops was evaluated. A reference collection of 45 seedless grape varieties was chosen as reference collection. Matching probabilities of grape microsatellite

  2. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  3. Evaluation of watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew and Phytophthora fruit rot, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory farm in Charleston, SC. The soil was Yonges loamy fine sand. This study was undertaken to determine the performance of seeded and seedless commercial watermelon varieties for tolerance to powdery mildew (PM) and Phytophthora fruit rot as...

  4. Comparison of Cold-Resistance in Some Iranian and European Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nejatian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in vineyards of Iran is sensitivity of grape cultivars to winter cold. Considering the rich genetic diversity of grape cultivars in Iran vineyards and severe cold winter in 2007, this situation was used as a natural treatment in order to identify cold tolerance and assess damages in 21 Iranian grape varieties and 8 European grape varieties in a factorial experiment, based on completely randomized blocks design with four replications and three plants per unit. In each plant, four branches (one year old were selected and the number of healthy and damaged sprouts were counted. Then, statistical and cluster analysis was performed. Descriptive statistics (coefficient of variation of phenotypic traits of the obtained data from assessment of grape cultivars was calculated. Using the correlation coefficient (Pearson r, bilateral relationship between traits was measured and the attributes which their selection could increase the efficiency were determined. The results indicated that grape cultivars were located in four groups of sensitive, semi-sensitive, semi-tolerant and completely tolerant. Ghermez Bidaneh, Fakhri, Siyah Gazvin, Khalili and Rish Baba cultivars showed the highest tolerance. Most of the European cultivars including Ruby Seedless, Superior, Fiesta, Black Seedless, Perlette, Flame Seedless, Tompson Seedless and Torkmanistan 4 were in semi-tolerant to susceptible groups. Tolerance threshold against winter cold was was 15 ±1 ◦C in normal varieties and 20 ±1 ◦C in tolerant cultivars. There was a significant phenotypic correlation between the studied traits.

  5. Improving yield and berry quality for zygomorphic blooms of blueberry: the role of the plant growth regulators, gibberellic acid and coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A putative mutant gene(s) induces a high degree of zygomorphy that eliminates or deforms the tubular corollas of rabbiteye blueberries. Once thought to have a benign affect on V. ashei pollination and fruit set, zygomorphy is linked to greater seedlessness, lower fruit set, and is suspected to be a ...

  6. Oxygenation of the Root Zone and TCE Remediation: A Plant Model of Rhizosphere Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    photosynthetic, and eukaryotic organisms. There are four main plant groups: bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, gymnosperms, and angiosperms . The 28... angiosperms , or flowering plants, are the dominant group of plants on land, and are divided into two classes: the monocotyledons (monocots), and

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Microwave-Assisted Convective Heating and Drying of Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research studied the processing performance and product quality of Thompson seedless grapes dried using microwave-assisted convective hot air drying as well as the effect of blanching and dipping pretreatments. Two pretreatment methods were compared, dipping into 2% ethyl oleate (V/V) and 5% p...

  8. Fine QTL mapping of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit characters using high-throughput SNP markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedlessness, flavor, and color are top priorities for mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) cultivar improvement. Given long juvenility, large tree size, and high breeding cost, marker-assisted selection (MAS) may be an expeditious and economical approach to these challenges. The objectives of this s...

  9. Therapeutic chemical treatment of grape vines for root diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to develop post-plant treatment of soil pests for perennial vine and tree crops. Field trials were performed to evaluate post-plant treatment of established grape vines (Vitis vinifera var. Thompson Seedless) with known problems of soilborne plant-parasitic nematodes and pathogens us...

  10. ‘Valley Pearl’ table grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Valley Pearl’ is an early to mid-season, white seedless table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for commercial table grape production where V. vinifera can be grown. Significant characteristics of ‘Valley Pearl’ are its high and consistent fruit production on spur pruned vines and large round berr...

  11. Structure of pectic polysaccharides from sunflower salts-soluble fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript discusses the structural features of pectin polysaccharides extracted from seedless sunflower head residues. The analysis using 1H, 13C and two-dimensional gHSQC NMR showed various numbers of methyl and hydroxyl groups attached to the anomeric carbons in the pectin backbone at differe...

  12. Nivel de aceptabilidad para cinco variedades de uva de mesa en el mercado español Nivel de aceitabilidade para cinco variedades de uva de mesa no mercado espanhol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rosso Piva

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el nivel de aceptabilidad con relación a distintas variedades de uva de mesa, la Unidad de Comercialización y Divulgación Agraria del Departamento de Economía y Ciencias Sociales Agrarias (E.T.S.I.Agrónomos, de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, realizó la presente investigación en julio de 1999. Se utilizó el análisis sensorial en Sala de Catas como herramienta para la evaluación del nivel de aceptabilidad de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Se puso énfasis en conocer las posibles diferencias de carácter sensorial entre las variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble, variedades que coinciden en su época de cosecha en España. En los análisis hechos, las variedades Cardinal y Superior Seedless fueron las más preferidas en comparación con Flame Seedless, Victoria y Redgloble. La variedad Superior Seedless fue muy valorada por su ausencia de semillas, además de su buen sabor, lo que la torna de gran potencial para el mercado español. El sabor, seguido de la jugosidad, fueron los elementos determinantes en el proceso de aceptación de la uva.Com o objetivo de avaliar o nível de aceitabilidade de distintas variedades de uva de mesa, a Unidade de Comercialização e Divulgação Agrária do Departamento de Economia y Ciências Sociales Agrárias (E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, da Universidade Politécnica de Madri, realizou o presente estudo em julho de 1999. Empregou-se a análise sensorial para a avaliação do nível de aceitabilidade de cinco variedades de uva de mesa. Procurou-se determinar especial atenção em conhecer as possíveis diferenças de caráter sensorial entre as variedades Flame Seedless, Cardinal, Superior Seedless, Victoria e Redgloble. Nos pomares espanhóis, essas variedades atingem a maturação de colheita na mesma época. Nas análises realizadas, as variedades Cardinal e Superior Seedless foram as mais preferidas em comparação com Flame Seedless

  13. Characterization of the 'Xiangshui' lemon transcriptome by de novo assembly to discover genes associated with self-incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuwei; Ding, Feng; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Huang, Guixiang; Hu, Ying

    2015-02-01

    Seedlessness is a desirable character in lemons and other citrus species. Seedless fruit can be induced in many ways, including through self-incompatibility (SI). SI is widely used as an intraspecific reproductive barrier that prevents self-fertilization in flowering plants. Although there have been many studies on SI, its mechanism remains unclear. The 'Xiangshui' lemon is an important seedless cultivar whose seedlessness has been caused by SI. It is essential to identify genes involved in SI in 'Xiangshui' lemon to clarify its molecular mechanism. In this study, candidate genes associated with SI were identified using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 61,224 unigenes were obtained (average, 948 bp; N50 of 1,457 bp), among which 47,260 unigenes were annotated by comparison to six public databases (Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO). Differentially expressed genes were identified by comparing the transcriptomes of no-, self-, and cross-pollinated stigmas with styles of the 'Xiangshui' lemon. Several differentially expressed genes that might be associated with SI were identified, such as those involved in pollen tube growth, programmed cell death, signal transduction, and transcription. NADPH oxidase genes associated with apoptosis were highly upregulated in the self-pollinated transcriptome. The expression pattern of 12 genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A putative S-RNase gene was identified that had not been previously associated with self-pollen rejection in lemon or citrus. This study provided a transcriptome dataset for further studies of SI and seedless lemon breeding.

  14. Furan and Alkylated Furans in Heat Processed Food, Including Home Cooked Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Mariotti, Maria S.; Pedreschi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    of carbohydrates. Interestingly, breakfast cereals, dry bread products, and dried fruit products including raisins, plums and bananas contained furan at levels up to 387 mu g/kg. Furan was also found in the dry ingredients of cookies and bread, and in snacks such as crisps and popcorn. The 2-alkylfurans, 2...

  15. 77 FR 13499 - Fenamiphos; Data Call-in Order for Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code... remain for residues of fenamiphos on the following commodities: Bananas, grapes, pineapples, and raisins.... (75 FR 44181). The proposed data call-in order included the following studies: 1....

  16. 78 FR 14461 - Fenpyrazamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... fruit, crop subgroup 13-07F at 3.5 ppm; grape, juice at 7.0 ppm; grape, raisins at 4.5 ppm; low growing... accordance with the Agency's 2005 Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment, EPA classified fenpyrazamine as... FQPA SF = 1x........ day. [based on decreased body weight and food consumption]. Cancer (Oral, dermal...

  17. 77 FR 13502 - Pyriofenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...; and 100% of all grapes are treated with pyriofenone. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit... metabolites and degradates, in or on grape and grape, raisin. ISK BioSciences Corporation requested these...-trimethoxy- 6-methylphenyl) methanone, in or on grape at 0.2 parts per million (ppm). That notice referenced...

  18. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... (ppm); brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B at 50 ppm; grape at 5.0 ppm; grape, raisin at 8 ppm; hop... concern was identified in the available data. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has concluded that ametoctradin does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a dietary...

  19. 77 FR 59106 - Glufosinate Ammonium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... identified. Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation) Classification: ``Not likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans... apple juice, pear juice, grape juice, and raisins, for which factors derived from the processing studies... crops that are currently registered for glufosinate ammonium if available. iii. Cancer. Based on the...

  20. 7 CFR 989.166 - Reserve tonnage generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Committee or the receiving handler. (2) Mixed varietal types. A handler who acquired any lot of natural condition raisins of mixed varietal types (commingled within their containers) shall meet the reserve...

  1. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blend. 989.16 Section 989.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins. ...

  2. Life insurance securitisation in Europe : An overview on the effects of alternative capital resources and its relation to regulator and IFRS guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhof, P.; Dorsman, A.B.; Thibeault, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Life Insurance Securitisation practices have been probed in dedicated areas to access the wider capital markets. These developments have shown a rising interest among leading insurers and reinsurers to start building experience with securitisation practices, either for risk transfer, raisin

  3. 7 CFR 5.4 - Commodities for which parity prices shall be calculated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cotton; rice; peanuts;1 and the following types of tobacco: flue-cured, types 11-14; Virginia fire-cured... use); apples for processing; apricots for fresh consumption; apricots for processing (except dried..., dried; all grapes, excluding raisins, dried; nectarines for fresh consumption; nectarines for...

  4. 7 CFR 989.104 - Lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot. 989.104 Section 989.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... means: (1) For in-line inspection (i.e., where samples are drawn from a flow of raisins prior to...

  5. Madera Unified School District, 2004-2009. District Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot Learning Partners, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Situated in the heart of the fertile San Joaquin Valley twenty miles north of Fresno, the city of Madera has a population of 56,710 people. Agriculture is the driving force behind the local economy; the area produces more than 100 crops including raisin grapes, almonds, figs, pistachios, alfalfa, corn, milk, cattle and poultry. The total value of…

  6. 75 FR 28009 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Industries, Inc., 3-7-1, Kanda Nishiki-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan c/o Lewis & Harrison, 122 C Street, NW... quantification of amisulbrom from grape field and grape processing (raisin, juice, and wine) data. The limit of...; cottonseed; edible podded legume vegetable, subgroup 6A; and sorghum, grain at 0.5 ppm; and rice, grain at 1...

  7. A Bibliography of Plays Written by Black Americans: 1855 to the Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Roger, Comp.

    This 342-item alphabetized bibliography of plays by black Americans covers the period from 1855 to the present. Some of the playwrights and their works are Paul L. Dunbar's "Uncle Eph's Christmas," 1905; James W. Johnson and Bob Cole's "The Shoo-Fly Regiment," 1907; Lorraine Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun," 1959; James Baldwin's "Blues for Mr.…

  8. Constipation - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... constipation worse. Snacks such as raisin cookies, fig bars, and popcorn. You can also sprinkle 1 or 2 teaspoons (5 to 10 mL) of bran flakes, ground flax seeds, wheat bran, or psyllium on foods such as yogurt, cereal, and soup. Or, add them to your smoothie.

  9. Madera Unified School District, 2004-2009. District Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot Learning Partners, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Situated in the heart of the fertile San Joaquin Valley twenty miles north of Fresno, the city of Madera has a population of 56,710 people. Agriculture is the driving force behind the local economy; the area produces more than 100 crops including raisin grapes, almonds, figs, pistachios, alfalfa, corn, milk, cattle and poultry. The total value of…

  10. Field Acceptance and Nutritional Intake of the Meal, Ready-to-Eat and Heat and Serve Ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Cocoa Orange Juice Chocolate Milk ...Fresh Fruits Apple Orange Pear Cream Of Wheat Raisin, Dates & Nuts Maple & Brown Sugar Regular Beverages Chocolate Milk Cocoa Orange Juice...Coffee Cocoa White Milk Chocolate Milk Peanut Butter Jelly Hot Sauce 0 O O 1234 56789 888888888 ooooooooo ooooooooo 888888888 DO

  11. Occurrence of ochratoxin a contamination and detection of ochratoxigenic aspergillus species in retail samples of dried fruits and nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium and is a potential contaminant of a wide variety of food products. To determine the incidence of OTA contamination in dried fruits and tree nuts, retail packaged and bulk raisins, dates, figs, prunes, almon...

  12. Improving the Learning and Attitudes of Elementary Students: A Nutrition Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Duane E.; Noli, Pamala M.

    This study investigated the attitudes, behavior, and mathematics achievement of 200 second- through fifth-grade children who received a midmorning snack of nuts and raisins. It was hypothesized that a nutritious snack would counter low blood sugar in children who consumed a high-sugar breakfast or had no breakfast at all. Experimental subjects…

  13. Effect of new training technique on affinity of cynomolgus monkeys for animal care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Ai; Tachibana, Yuki; Takaura, Kaoru; Ochi, Takehiro; Koyama, Hironari

    2015-01-01

    To confirm our hypothesis that the sex and age of cynomolgus monkeys influences the effect of training, we employed a new training technique designed to increase the animal's affinity for animal care personnel. During 151 days of training, monkeys aged 2 to 10 years accepted each 3 raisins/3 times/day, and communicated with animal care personnel (5 times/day). Behavior was scored using integers between -1 and 5. Before training, 35 of the 61 monkeys refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (Score -1, 0 and 1). After training, 28 of these 35 monkeys (80%) accepted raisins offered directly by animal care personnel (>Score 2). The mean score of monkeys increased from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 4.3 ± 0.2. The minimum training period required for monkeys to reach Score 2 was longer for females than for males. After 151 days, 6 of the 31 females and 1 of the 30 males still refused raisins offered directly by animal care personnel. Beneficial effects of training were obtained in both young and adult monkeys. These results indicate that our new training technique markedly improves the affinity of monkeys for animal care personnel, and that these effects tend to vary by sex but not age. In addition, abnormal behavior and symptoms of monkeys were improved by this training.

  14. 7 CFR 989.34 - Vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Raisin Administrative Committee § 989.34 Vacancies. To fill any vacancy occasioned by the failure of any person selected as a member or as an alternate member of the committee to... set forth in §§ 989.29 and 989.30, insofar as such provisions are applicable. If nomination to...

  15. Increased soluble phosphorus loads to Lake Erie: Unintended consequences of conservation practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumulative daily flux timeseries show that the early 2000s marked the start of large-scale and widespread increases in riverine soluble reactive phosphorus fluxes entering western Lake Erie basin, from three major tributaries: the Maumee, Sandusky and Raisin Rivers. These elevated soluble reactive ...

  16. 7 CFR 989.72 - Exemption of educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemption of educational institutions. 989.72 Section... educational institutions. The committee may exempt, wholly or in part, from the volume regulation provisions of this part, that volume of raisins received or acquired by public or private educational...

  17. Emotions on the loose: emotional contagion and the role of oxytocin in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimert, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Kemp, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    We studied emotional contagion, a simple form of empathy, and the role of oxytocin herein in pigs. Two training pigs per pen (n = 16 pens) were subjected to a positive treatment (pairwise access to a large compartment filled with peat, straw and some chocolate raisins) and a negative treatment

  18. USAF Food Habits Study. Part I. Method and Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    071 Bananas 072 Cola 073 Avocado Salad 074 Frijole Salad 075 Burritos 076 Fresh Coffee 077 Buttered Mixed Vegetables 07ft Beef Stew 079...Avocado Salad 172 Raisin Pie 74 Frijole Salad 177 Funistrada 79 Guacamole Dip 179 Buttered Zucchini Squash 95 Wheat Germ 184 Banana Salad 98 Fried Okra

  19. HPLC-ESI-MS Analysis of Pigments in Zijuan Green Tea and Its Stability%“紫娟”晒青绿茶色素的HPLC-ESI-MS分离鉴定及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚加顺; 隋华嵩; 彭春秀; 范建功; 李亚莉

    2012-01-01

    研究“紫娟”晒青绿茶主要呈色成分及其稳定性.采用酸性甲醇-水和水分别提取“紫娟”晒青绿茶色素,利用HPLC-ESI-MS/MS方法对其主要色素进行了分离鉴定.结果显示,“紫娟”晒青绿茶含有14种花色素苷、24种黄酮、8种酚类以及3种生物碱.主要的花色苷类物质为天竺葵素-3-葡萄糖苷或天竺葵素-3-半乳糖苷、天竺葵素-3-(6-香豆酰基)-葡萄糖苷、飞燕草素-3-葡萄糖苷、飞燕草素-3-芸香糖苷、飞燕草素-3-O-(6-香豆酰基)-葡萄糖苷、Prodelphinidin B-2(or 4)3’-O-gallate、Procyanidin B-2(or 4)3'-O-gallate、Petunidin-3-glc-4-vinylphenol和Malvidin-3-glc-4-vinylepicatechin等.酸性甲醇-水提取的“紫娟”晒青绿茶红色素水溶性好,颜色随pH值变化而变化.酸性条件下该色素对光、低温有很好的稳定性,耐氧化性与耐还原性较强.Cu2+、Fe3+使色素稳定性变差.明确了“紫娟”晒青绿茶呈现紫色的主要物质基础.%The pigments and its stability in Zijuan sun-dried green tea were investigated in this study. The pigments from Zijuan sun-dried green tea were extracted by acidic methanol-H2O solution and H2O, and the main compounds were identified by means of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS techniques. 14 anthocyanin, 24 flavonols, 8 phenolics and theaflavins and 3 alkaloids were identified from the extracts of Zijuan sun-dried green tea. The main anthocyanins, such as Cyanidin-3-glucoside, Cyaniding-3-galactoside, Cyanidin-3-0-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, Delphinidin-3-glucoside, Delphinidin-3-rutinoside, Delphinidin-3-0-(6-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, Prodelphinidin B-2(or 4)3'-0-gallate, Procyanidin B-2(or 4)3'-O-gallate, Pefunidin-3-glc-4-vinylphenol and Malvidin-3-glc-4- vinylepicatechin etc were identified in Zijuan sun-dried green tea. The pigment extracted from Zijuan sun-dried green tea by using acidic methanol-methanol-HiO as solvent showed good water-solubility and was stable to light and heat in acid

  20. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index singly and combined on vine growth of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Raski, D J; Goheen, A C

    1976-10-01

    Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines.

  1. THE EFFECT OF DRYING METHOD AND TYPES OF NATURAL FIXATIVE ON THE COIR OF KELAPA GADING (COCOS NUCIFERA EBURNEA TOWARD COLOR INTENSITY AND COLOR DURABILITY OF BATIK CLOTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewanti B.S.D.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the effect of drying method of Kelapa Gading fiber or coir, and fixation material toward color intensity and color durability in batik cloth by using natural colorant. The study uses Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD. The first factor is the method of drying the fiber, i.e. sun drying and wind drying. The second factor is the type of fixation materials that is alum, quicklime (calcium oxide, and iron or tunjung. The best treatment result using Multiple Attribute method is sun drying with quicklime (CaO fixator on the concentration of 15% (w/v. Color intensity value that is brightness L* 46.8, a* value (red color intensity 24.13 and b* value (yellow color intensity 16.93; the color difference is 13.6 which means a big influence exists. The dryness and wetness test shows SS (Staining Scale value of 4 (good and 4 (good. The color durability test for shows SS value of 4-5 (good and GS (Gray Scale value of 4 (good. The result of color intensity test of L* indicates that the alum fixator can bind L* (brightness level more strongly. Quicklime fixator is capable of binding the value of a* (red color and b* (yellow color more strongly. The fixation material of iron produces weaker L*, a* and b* values. The sun dried coir of Kelapa Gading binds more red (a* and yellow (b* color. The longer the drying time, the higher the oxidation process and the higher the tannin content which makes the product more damaged.

  2. A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer using polycarbonate cover: Modeling and testing in a tropical environment of Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm; Intawee, Poolsak; Kaewkiew, Jinda; Sritus, Chanoke [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Khamvongsa, Vathsana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, National University of Laos, P O Box 7322, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2011-03-15

    A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer with a loading capacity of 1000 kg of fruits or vegetables has been developed and tested at field levels. The dryer has a parabolic shape and the dryer is covered with polycarbonate sheets. The base of the dryer is a black concrete floor with an area of 7.5 x 20.0 m{sup 2}. Nine DC fans powered by three 50-W solar cell modules are used to ventilate the dryer. The dryer was installed at Champasak (15.13 N, 105.79 E) in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It is routinely used to dry chilli, banana and coffee. To assess the experimental performances of the dryer, air temperature, air relative humidity and product moisture contents were measured. One thousand kilograms of banana with the initial moisture content of 68% (wb) was dried within 5 days, compared to 7 days required for natural sun drying with the same weather conditions. Also three hundred kilograms of chilli with the initial moisture content of 75% (wb) was dried within 3 days while the natural sun drying needed 5 days. Two hundred kilograms of coffee with the initial moisture content of 52% (wb) was dried within 2 days as compared to 4 days required for natural sun drying. The chilli, coffee and banana dried in this dryer were completely protected from insects, animals and rain. Furthermore, good quality of dried products was obtained. The payback period of the dryer is estimated to be 2.5 years. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of chilli, coffee and banana in the greenhouse dryer was developed. These equations were solved by using the finite different method. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. This model can be used to provide the design data for this type of dryer in other locations. (author)

  3. Utilization of chitosan waste in chicken diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pasaribu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been conducted to determine the possibility of using waste from chitosan processing, which contain shrimp soluble, as poultry feed. The fresh waste was immediately mixed with wheat pollard (1:1, w/w and sun dried. Another portion of the waste was stored, at low pH (4.5 for 1 month before sun drying. Experimental rations were formulated to be isoprotein (21% and isoenergy (3000 kcal/kg, with 25% wheat pollard (R1, WPUL 26.3% (R2, wheat polard 12.5% (R3 WPUL 13.2% (R4, WPUB 13.2% (R5. Each ration was fed to 40 doc broiler, divided into 5 cages (4 male and 4 female/cage. Feed and water were given ad lib during the 4 weeks trial period. Body weight gain of treatment R2 (762.8 gram was significantly (P <0.05 lower than the other treatments, while there was no significant difference between treatment R1 (817.2 gram, R3 (816.0 gram, R4 (839.2 gram and R5 (830.1 gram. And the FCR values were significantly different (P<0.05 between treatment R2 with R1, R3, R4, and R5, i.e. is 2.43; 2.24; 2.16; 2.16; and 2.06. Respectively it is concluded that chitosan waste, after sun drying and mixed with wheat pollard, could only be included in the formulation up to 13.2%.

  4. Use of Satellite Imagery to Monitor the Oasis Agriculture in the Turpan Depression, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China--A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Stein in the years 1900- 1901, 1906-1908, and 1913-1916, under the sponsorship of the Government of India . His primary area of concentration in western...home service, 29 May 78, W996, 6 Sept 78, p. 13. In Tulufan County this year, the area of seedless grape, Hami melon, walnut and other economic crops...Halsted Press, 1980. United Nationsl Conference on Desertification. August 29- September 9, 1977. Nairobi Kenya. "China, Tame the Wild , Harness the Sand

  5. Avaliação de seis variedades de uvas sem sementes no Submédio São Francisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leão Patrícia Coelho de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas, às características físicas e à composição química dos frutos de seis variedades de uvas sem sementes nas condições do Submédio São Francisco. Os dados foram registrados durante os anos de 1997 e 1998. As variedades utilizadas foram enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 (`Jales'. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas nos ciclos de produção. Houve diferenças significativas na resposta da maioria das variedades entre as épocas de poda. O peso médio dos cachos variou entre 164,8 g na variedade Marroo Seedless, e 203,5 g na `Beauty Seedless'. O diâmetro médio das bagas foi superior a 15,7 mm em todas as variedades. Foram obtidos teores de sólidos solúveis compreendidos entre 14,05ºBrix na variedade Canner e 19,6ºBrix na `Vênus', enquanto a acidez total titulável foi inferior a 0,91 g de ácido tartárico/100 mL de suco, resultando em adequadas relações SST/ATT, que variaram entre 19,05 na variedade Beauty Seedless a 28,57 na `Vênus'. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.

  6. Identificação de marcas moleculares associadas à ausência de sementes em videira Identification of molecular markers associated to the absence of seeds in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A ausência de sementes tem sido uma característica bastante exigida pelos consumidores de uvas de mesa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar marcas moleculares associadas à ausência de sementes, utilizando as técnicas RAPD e fAFLP. Foram utilizadas folhas jovens de 19 cultivares. Na análise RAPD 30, iniciadores possibilitaram amplificação de todas as amostras, produzindo 392 bandas polimórficas. Foi possível encontrar uma marca específica para a ausência de sementes, utilizando o iniciador UBC 443, que poderá futuramente ser utilizado para o desenvolvimento de marcadores SCAR, possibilitando a criação de um teste de identificação rápida e precoce de apirenia em videira. A análise fAFLP proporcionou a visualização de um dendrograma com grupos específicos de cultivares com sementes, sem sementes e porta enxertos.Seedless has been an important characteristic of table grapes required by consumers. The objective was to identify molecular markers associated to seedless, by RAPD and fAFLP techniques with young leaves samples of 19 cultivars. Thirty primers were used for RAPD analysis, producing a total of 337 polymorphic bands. It was also to find a specific mark for seedless, using UBC 443 primer. This mark would be transformed in a scar marker, making possible the early identification of seedless grape possible. The fAFLP analysis provided a visualization of a dendrogram with specific groups, separated in three different cultivars: with seeds, without seeds and the rootstocks.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM; Ahmed Mohamed MUSA AHMED; Abdelwahab M ADAM IBRAHIM; Fathi MIRGHANI YOUSIF

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp.), and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species). Averages of total length, standard length (cm) and gross body weight (gm) were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 f...

  8. Effect of species, pretreatments, and drying methods on the functional and pasting properties of high-quality yam flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bashirat A; Adebowale, Abdul-Rasaq A; Sanni, Silifat A; Sobukola, Olajide P; Obadina, Adewale O; Kajihausa, Olatundun E; Adegunwa, Mojisola O; Sanni, Lateef O; Tomlins, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the functional properties of HQYF (high-quality yam flour) from tubers of four dioscorea species. The tubers were processed into HQYF using two pretreatments (potassium metabisulphite: 0.28%, 15 min; blanching: 70°C, 15 min) and drying methods (cabinet: 60°C, 48 h; sun drying: 3 days). Significant differences (P yam species for diverse food applications. The pastes of flour from Dioscorea dumetorum pretreated with potassium metabisulphite and dried under a cabinet dryer were stable compared to other samples, hence will have better applications in products requiring lower retrogradation during freeze/thaw cycles.

  9. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying...

  10. 网摘(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    "Ybu urban kids,who are being raised in the midst ofhap piness,often fail to appreciate what happiness really means.Enjoying famous-brand clothes and toys,many ot you otten get into a huff whenever you feel discontented,and you threaten your parents that you will never go to school.Do you realize that some children your age live in difficulties and hardships?Take my students for eXample;the children study in a house,made from sun-dried mud brjcks,on the edge of a dune

  11. Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and health safety of recycled slaughterhouse wastes-derived fertilizer and the produce obtained through its application is not well understood. Waste bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed, cooked and sun-dried to obtain bovine-blood-and-rumen-digesta-mixture (BBRDM, NPK 30.36:1:5.75). 1.26 ± 0.18 log CFU mL−1 fecal coliforms were recovered in BBRDM. E. coli O157:H7, Mycobacteria, Clostridium sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Brucella sp. were absent. No re-growth of p...

  12. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  13. Experimental testing of a new solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiris, Cigdem; Ozbalta, Necdet (Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.); Tiris, Mustafa; Dincer, Ibrahim (TUBITAK, Kocaeli (Turkey). Marmara Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Drying of agricultural products is an energy-intensive operation. High prices and shortages in fossil fuels increase the emphasis on using solar energy as an alternative energy source, especially in developing countries. In this respect, a new solar dryer, which consisted of a solar air heater and a drying chamber, was developed and used for drying various fruits and vegetables, i.e. sultana grapes, green beans, sweet peppers and chili peppers and was successfully tested. In order to make a comparison, the traditional sun-drying experiments were employed. Results showed that the solar dryer reduced the drying time significantly and prevented mass losses, and essentially provided better product quality. (author)

  14. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou

    2015-01-01

    cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two...... found in potash, DW, cooking water and at 8h fermentation. The "emetic" type B. cereus were present in DW, the seed mash at 48-72h of fermentation and in the final product, while the remaining isolates (PanC type IV) were detected in ash, at 48-72h fermentation and in the final product. This work sheds...

  15. Nutritive value index of treated wheat straw with Pleurotus fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Fazaeli H.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat straw was inoculated with spawns of two species of Pleurotus fungi (coded: PF and PO) and incubated in a fermentation room at 22+5oC and 70+5, relative humidity. After 17 days of spawning, when the substrate was completely covered by fungal mycelia, half of the bags were removed from the fermentation room, sun dried and used for in vitro measurements and in vivo study as well, using of sheep. For the remainder of the bags, fermentation was allowed for seven weeks during which the fruiti...

  16. Characterization of maturity and quality of Brazilian apirenic grapes in the São Francisco river Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and correlate maturity and quality of the first varieties of Brazilian seedless grapes 'BRS Clara', 'BRS Linda', 'BRS Morena', and 'Advanced Selection 8' compared with the American variety 'Crimson Seedless' in compliance with the Brazilian Normative/2002 and export standards Advanced Selection 8' is dark reddish, has large clusters, and is a very large ellipsoid berry; 'BRS Morena' is black with medium sized clusters and large berry shaped as ellipsoid to globoid; 'BRS Linda' is light green and has large sized clusters; 'Crimson' is pink and has small clusters with berries varying from medium to large sizes and ellipsoid shaped; and 'BRS Clara' is green yellowish has medium sized clusters and small berry of elongated ellipsoid shape. All varieties evaluated meet the standard for domestic market established as berry size minimum diameter 12 mm. 'BRS Clara' does not meet the export requirements of diameter. Berries of the red grapes 'BRS Morena' and 'Crimson Seedless' are firmer. The pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids meet the official standards. Larger clusters are less acidic and present higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratios implying that they are the sweetest type when ripe.

  17. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies.

  18. Effect of Different Moisture Absorbents on Silage Fermentation Quality of Wet Potato Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agricultural-industrial waste is one way to overcome the shortage of animal feed. Potato is one of the most important products in the world after rice, wheat and maize. Potato pulp is a by-product which remains after extraction of starch, and can be used as animal feed. Because of the high moisture content of the potato pulp, silage is the best way to maintain it. However, its high moisture content leads to inappropriate ensilage. Adding of moisture absorbents (MA not only reduce the effluents, but also improve the silage quality. Materials with high content of cell wall are suitable candidates to be used as MA. Agro-industrial co-products including raisin wastes and pomegranate seed pulp have high cell wall and no report was found for their usage as MA. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different absorbents on potato pulp silage fermentation quality. Materials and Methods Fresh potato pulp was obtained from Alvand potato processing company (Hamedan, Iran. After transfer, the potato pulps were immediately ensiled with MAs including wheat bran, raisin pedicles, rejected raisins, pomegranate peel, wheat straw and raisin rachis. The treatments were: 100% potato pulp (control, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat bran, 80% potato pulp and 20% raisin pedicles, 71% potato pulp and 29% rejected raisin, 80% potato pulp and 20% pomegranate peel, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat straw and 80% potato pulp and 20% rachis. After 74 days, the silos were opened for investigation. Chemical composition (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Fleig point, pH and lactic acid concentration were determined. In vitro gas production was used to assess fermentation parameters of treatments. Therefore, volume of gas production after 24 hours of incubation, rate of gas production, asymptotic gas production, lag phase, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, microbial

  19. Significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard

    Fumonisins is a well-studied group of mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by Fusarium species. However with the recent discovery of a fumonisin production by Aspergillus niger, other food commodities are at risk, since A. niger is a ubiquitous contaminant of many food and feed products....... The objective of this thesis was to determine the significance and occurrence of fumonisins from Aspergillus niger in food, the frequency of fumonisin production in A. niger isolates, as well as studies of the effect of physiological factors affecting fumonisin production. Major findings in this context have...... been the ocumentation of the production of fumonisins in raisins and peanuts, and occurrence of A. niger derived fumonisins in retail wine and raisins. Physiological investigations have demonstrated that fumonisin production in A. niger occurs at temperatures between 20-37 °C. Three water activity...

  20. Changement climatique et viticulture en Champagne : du constat actuel aux prévisions du modèle ARPEGE-Climat sur l’évolution des températures pour le XXIe siècle 

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Beltrando; Elodie Briche

    2010-01-01

    Dans le vignoble de Champagne, le changement climatique, perceptible depuis la fin des années 1980, se manifeste par une tendance à la précocité des stades phénologiques et par une amélioration de la qualité des raisins vendangés. Mais cette évolution interpelle le milieu professionnel car, si elle se poursuit, elle pourrait devenir néfaste pour la qualité de la production de raisin (chaleur estivale trop importante, taux d’alcool élevé…). Afin d’apporter des éléments de réponse sur l’évoluti...

  1. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    Furan is formed in canned, jarred or browned food items. As furan is carcinogenic in animal experiments, attention has been drawn to the presence in commercial and home-cooked foods. The formation of furan in home cooked foods were studied as well as the stability of furan during cooking, saving...... and reheating of meals. In addition the occurrence of furan in some commercially dried and browned food products were determined. Several recipes of European homemade food were prepared but in most cases fortunately furan was not found. I few exceptions were e.g. apple pie (133 ng/g furan in the rasp) and tea...... buns with raisins (83 ng/g furan in the raisins). The influence on heating and reheating of ready to eat foods like different soups, baked beans and vegetable meals known to contain furan, showed that heating roughly reduced the furan level to half the initial level and reheating reduced the level...

  2. Production Guides for Vegetable Entrees, Soups, Desserts, Pastries and Salads Developed for Use in Central Food Preparation Facilities. Fort Lee, Interim Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-01

    105 Tossed Vegetable Salad 106 Tossed Lettuce, Cucumber and Tomato Salad 107 Cottage Cheese Salads Cottage Cheese Salad 108 Cottage Cheese and...Salad) Mixed Fruit Salad Salads with Dressing Carrot and Raisin Salad Sliced Cucumber and Onion Salad Cabbage and Carrot Slav with Cream...Dressing Cole Slav with Cream Dressing Vegetable Slav with Cream Dressing Waldorf Salad Macaroni Salad Potato Salad Kidney Bean Salad Pickled Beet and

  3. Planning and Operational Considerations for Units Utilizing Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    ophen, ibuprofen), xylitol chewing gum , and grapes or raisins.7 Dogs should always be supervised, and such items should be stored out of their reach...and stress can greatly increase the risk of a bite. (Figure 4) Ensure handlers properly re- strain and muzzle dogs for all medical procedures or any...structures are injured, a surgeon should be consulted. The dog handler should examine the MWD’s mouth for missing or broken teeth which may be left in the

  4. An approach to sexuality from primary care nursing, what to assess?

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Figueroa-Martín; Gonzalo Duarte-Clíments; María Begoña Sánchez-Gómez; Pedro Ruyman Brito-Brito

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the content validity and criterion of different parts of the interview relationed with the sexuality pattern and studies the clinimetric and psychometric characteristics of the selected instruments in the review of literature -scoping review-.. By the inclusions criteria, 28 items have been selected; of which seven questionnaires assess sexuality in women and men. The contribution of this study to nursing care is to provide suitable tools for valuation of sexuality, raisin...

  5. An Evaluation of the Ration, Cold Weather, April 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Spaghet ti SNACKS Orange Nut Cake Brownie Nut Raisin Mix Granola Bars Oatmeal Cookie Bar Chocolate Bar with Toffee Fig Bar Caramels DRINKS...2. 3. 4. 5 . 6 . The Orange Nut Cake and Apricot Fruit Soup have been eliminated from the menus due to low acceptability. The caramels have...occurred in those for Orange Nut Cake, Brownie, Granola Bar, Orange Beverage, and the fruit soupr. Spaghetti stayed at 6.2 and Apricot Fruit Soup stayed

  6. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-10

    is involved in agriculture. Products for export include fruits, raisins, melons, pomegranate juice (Anar), nuts, carpets, lapis lazuli gems, marble...Afghan leaders complain that not enough has been done to revive such potentially lucrative industries as minerals mining, such as of copper and lapis ... lazuli (a stone used in jewelry). In November 2007, the Afghan government signed a deal with China Metallurgical Group for the company to invest

  7. 40 CFR 180.384 - Mepiquat (N,N-dimethylpip-eridinium); tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... byproducts 0.1 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth..., raisin 5.0 Hog, fat 0.1 Hog, meat 0.1 Horse, fat 0.1 Horse, meat 0.1 Sheep, fat 0.1 Sheep, meat 0.1 (b... or on the following commodities: Commodity Parts per million Cattle, meat byproducts 0.1 Cotton,...

  8. JPRS Report, Supplement. East Europe: Recent Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    land—arable, vineyards, orchards, vine and fruit tree nurseries, hops and bean fields, pastures, hay fields, greenhouses, hothouses, and others...orchard plantations ; b) Arable land in flat regions, needed to complement vineyards intended for table grapes and raisins, as well as peach and apricot...orchards, established by specialized organs in the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, can be transformed into vineyard and orchard plantations ; c

  9. A System for the Preference Evaluation of Cycle Menus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    Lemon Cookies 5. Sardines, Sea SI oped Potatoes, Peas and Carrots , 4,20 2-IG Pickled Beets and Onion Salad, Marble Cake 4. Meatbali...Bean Salad, Chocolate Chip Cookies 36. Sweet and Scur Pork, Fried Rice, Eggplant, Carrot Raisin & Celery Salad, Ice Cream 37. Barbecued Beef Cubes...Banana Split 99. Sweet & Sour Pork, Baked Potato, Carrots , Jellied Banana Salad, Chocolate Chip Cookies 100. Sardines, Fritters, French Fried Onion

  10. Fungi and ochratoxin A: Frequency in food and raw materials for their production in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Škrinjar Marija M.; Mašić Zoran; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination of various types of foods (cereals and their products, raisins dry sausages, cheese) with moulds and ochratoxin A (OTA) was examined. All samples were contaminated with moulds to a different degree. About 25% of wheat samples from the localities Niš and Leskovac, 70% from the locality Kikinda, graham flour (1 sample), barley flakes (1 sample), graham bread barley bread, 60% of "healthy food" product samples, 20% of dry sausage samples and 20% of melted cheese samples were contam...

  11. Detection of citrinin in ochratoxin A-containing products by a new HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, U

    2003-03-01

    A new method for citrinin was developed and validated, which is based on solid phase extraction with polyamide columns and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Sufficient skill with the method given, precise results, i.e. variation coefficients cocoa shells and raisins. Citrinin was detected in 14 OTA-containing samples (1-8 µg/kg). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that citrinin also can be determined in red mold rice according to the new method.

  12. Long-Term Storage Studies on Dehydrated Ration Items and Food Packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    objective tests. The benefits of combining sensory tests with selected objective tests may also be divided into two categories. First, they establish...months. Army epreed at 70°F remained accepteble after 18 months. Cheese spreed and powdered whole milk remained acceptable for 18 months at each of...years. Products stored at 0°F vera unchanged. Of the producte atored at 70°F, tea was acored borderline; raisins, cocoa , ealmon, vegetable soup

  13. 77 FR 25954 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... at 3 ppm; avocado, mamey sapote and mango at 0.05 ppm; and fruit, pome, group 11-10 at 0.15 ppm. The...; raisins at 5 ppm; cotton, seed at 0.6 ppm; cotton, gin byproducts at 9.0 ppm; tea at 20 ppm; milk at 0.03...; mango; papaya; sapodilla; and star apple. The petition additionally requests to amend the tolerances...

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and wound healing properties of seven traditional medicinal plants from India in experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesuthankaraj Grace Nirmala; Arunagiri Caroline; Suneera Lincy; Melda Saj; Divya Durai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula, Curcuma longa, Cleome gynandra, Triticum aestivum, Vitis vinifera L - Black Raisins (Zante Currants) and brown raisins (Sultanas) for in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and wound healing activity. Methods: The free radical scavenging activity was studied in vitro by measuring DPPH, reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and total antioxidant assays of these plant extracts. Antibacterial activities were evaluated against five microorganisms using agar well diffusion method. The wounds were created on the skin of the rabbits by crushing the Paederus fuscipes beetles and applying the pederin which produced inflammation and wound after two days. Results: Antibacterial activities were evaluated against five microorganisms in which A. indica, C. longa, T. bellirica, E. officinalis and T. chebula showed significant activity with a MIC of 1.562 mg/ml, 3.125 mg/ml respectively. The plant extracts of brown raisins Vitis vinifera, A. indica, T. bellirica, E. officinalis and T. chebula showed remarkable antioxidant activity. The topical application of individual and combination of plant extracts on wounds caused significantly faster healing (83%) in wound area as compared to the commercial ointment (76.6%). Conclusions: This results shows that the combination of these plant extracts possess effective wound healing properties due to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities by possessing the active compounds such as flavonoids (polyphenols), terpenes, alkaloids, saponins.

  15. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  16. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  17. Influence of Ripeness and Drying Process on the Polyphenols and Tocopherols of Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ballistreri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights, for the first time, the changes in the phenolics fraction (anthocyanins, flavonoids and stilbenes and tocopherols of unpeeled Pistacia vera L. var. bianca with ripening, and the effect of the sun-drying process. The total polyphenol levels in pistachios, measured as mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE, were: 201 ± 10.1, 349 ± 18.3 and 184.7 ± 6.2 mg GAE/100 g DM in unripe, ripe and dried ripe samples, respectively. Most phenolics in ripe pistachios were found to be anthocyanins. They increased with ripening, while the sun drying process caused a susbtantial loss. Flavonoids found in all pistachio samples were daidzein, genistein, daidzin, quercetin, eriodictyol, luteolin, genistin and naringenin, which decreased both with ripening and drying. Before the drying process both unripe and ripe pistachios showed a higher content of trans-resveratrol than dried ripe samples. γ-Tocopherol was the major vitamin E isomer found in pistachios. The total content (of α- and γ-tocopherols decreased, both during ripening and during the drying process. These results suggested that unpeeled pistachios can be considered an important source of phenolics, particularly of anthocyanins. Moreover, in order to preserve these healthy characteristics, new and more efficient drying processes should be adopted.

  18. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  19. Nutritive value of brewers’ grain and maize silage for fattening rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guermah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific knowledge of the nutritive value of raw materials is fundamental to formulate balanced diets for rabbits and allows greater use of by-products and non-conventional feedstuffs. This paper examines the feeding value of sun-dried brewers’ grain and maize silage (whole plant for fattening rabbits. Twenty-four individually caged 8-wk-old rabbits were used to determine the digestibility. Both wet products were sun-dried and ground before being incorporated into a basal diet. The inclusion level at the expense of all basal ingredients amounted to 30%. Basal diet and both experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 rabbits during the 4-d balance trial. The determined digestibility of protein, fat, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre digestibility amounted to 76.2 and 77.2%; 86.5 and 99.1%; 8.1 and 8.3% and 28.0 and 13.5%, respectively, for brewers’ grain and maize silage. The digestible energy content amounted to 11.66 MJ/kg dry matter (DM (brewers’ grain and 11.10 MJ/kg DM (maize silage. Both by-products have potential as alternative feedstuff in rabbit diets. However, further experiments are necessary to determine the effect of ensilaging the whole maize plant, as a significantly lower (P<0.001 feed intake was observed.

  20. Observations sur l'effet de différentes méthodes de transformation de manioc sur les dégâts dus aux insectes sur les cossettes en stockage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tata-Hangy, K.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation on the Effects of Different Methods of Processing Cassava Chips on Chips Damage Due to Insect Attacks during Storage. The influence of four traditionnal methods of processing cassava chips in the Republic Democratic of Congo has been evaluted regarding damages caused by insect attacks during storage. The methods tested were : chips from peeled, soaked and sun dried cassava, Bas-Congo type, chips from peeled and sun dried cassava, Kasai type, chips from peeled, soaked and smooked cassava, Haut-Congo/Ecuador type and chips from non-peeled, soaked and smooked cassava, Maindombe type. The more important pests are three coleopteras : Sitophilus sp., Tribolium sp. and Rhizoperta dominica. The chips of Kasai type were almost completely destroyed by insects within four months. Those of Bas-Congo type showed a weight loss of about 40 % after six months. Chips of Haut-Congo and Maindombe types are more suitable to storage, loss of 10 % but they have a dark aspect due to the smoke. They need a further effort to remove the dark colour before meal preparation. Chips of Bas-Congo type are preferred and would be suitable for storage if preventive measures are taken to prevent early infestations and if the duration of storage does not exceed three months.

  1. Physico-chemical Properties and Assessment of Edible Oil Potential of Peanuts Grown in Kurram Agency, Parachinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahib Hussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the oil potential of peanuts for domestic and commercial uses. Peanut oil yield and the physico-chemical properties of extracted oil were investigated on different temperatures (50, 55, 60 and 65 °C and sun drying. Results showed maximum oil yield of 47.2 % at sun drying and lowest values of 37.0 % at 65 °C. Highest and lowest acid values are 25.52 and 5.89 mg/KOH/g at 60 °C and 50 °C respectively. The Free Fatty Acid (FFA content were obtained 12.76 and 2.94 mg/g at 60 °C and 50 °C, while saponification values were 61.71 and 32.25 mg/KOH/g at 60 °C and 50 °C respectively. The highest Peroxide value of 92 mg/KOH/g was recorded at 55 °C which dropped to 43.4 mg/KOH/g at 65 °C. Refractive index (RI and density were not changed significantly (p≤0.05 on all temperatures, while pH was somewhat higher on 50 °C. The moisture content was found lowest up to 3.0 % on 65 °C while highest was 5 % on 50 °C.

  2. Design and performance evaluation of a new hybrid solar dryer for banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, B.M.A. [Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Hossain, M.A. [FMP Engineering Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701 (Bangladesh); Gottschalk, K. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim, 100 Max-Eyth-Allee, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    A hybrid solar dryer was designed and constructed using direct solar energy and a heat exchanger. The dryer consists of solar collector, reflector, heat exchanger cum heat storage unit and drying chamber. The drying chamber was located under the collector. The dryer was operated during normal sunny days as a solar dryer, and during cloudy day as a hybrid solar dryer. Drying was also carried out at night with stored heat energy in water which was collected during the time of sun-shine and with electric heaters located at water tank. The efficiency of the solar dryer was raised by recycling about 65% of the drying air in the solar dryer and exhausting a small amount of it outside the dryer. Under Mid-European summer conditions it can raise up the air temperature from 30 to 40 C above the ambient temperature. The solar dryer was tested for drying of ripe banana slices. The capacity of the dryer was to dry about 30 kg of banana slices in 8 h in sunny day from an initial moisture content of 82% to the final moisture content of 18% (wb). In the same time it reduced to only 62% (wb) moisture content in open sun drying method. The colour, aroma and texture of the solar dried products were better than the sun drying products. (author)

  3. Meta-analysis of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Liu, Y; Ding, Y; Liu, X J

    2014-01-01

    The combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits were analysed by a meta-analysis approach. Data were collected from many publications and used to calculate response ratios, confidence intervals and intra-assay coefficients of variation. The response ratios for washing by tap water, boiling and sun drying were 0.59, 0.71 and 0.65, respectively, indicating that they could reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Peeling and juicing, where response ratios were 0.11 and 0.14, respectively, showed they could reduce the pesticide residues to a very small extent. An increase of pesticide residues was indicated by oven drying with a response ratio of more than 1. Oven drying and sun drying indicated both a reduction and an increase at the 99.5% confidence interval. The response ratios given by a meta-analysis approach could be used as processing factors in food safety risk assessment and as a guide for consumers on how to reduce pesticides effectively in fruit.

  4. Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdadi, F; Mirzaei, H O; Daraei Garmakhany, A

    2015-03-01

    Edible parts of two varieties of date palm (Mazfati and Kalute varieties) (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits (DPF) from Iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (AA). Antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and total antioxidant method. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the DPF was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau method. The samples used in this study included samples were gathered at three stages of khalaal, rutab, tamr and dried date from Bam and Jiroft date. The TPC ranged from 2.89 to 4.82, 1074 to 856.4 and 782.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 gdw sample) for khalal, rutab and tamr stage of Mozafati variety, respectively. This work demonstrates the potential of Iranian dates as good sources of antioxidant which can be used as functional food ingredients. The influence of sun drying process and oven drying at temperature ranged 50-80 °C on phenolic compounds and AA of date palm fruits were investigated. Result of drying process showed that TPC and AA varied with temperature and decreased by increase of drying temperature (from 667.3 to 610.5 mg galic acid in sun dried dates of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively to 314.2 and 210.4 in dried dates (80 °C) of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively).

  5. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  6. Growth Stage and Drying Methods Affect Essential Oil Content and Composition of Pickling Herb (Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ŞANLI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted during 2012 in order to determine the essential oil content and composition of Echinophora tenuifolia subsp. sibthorpiana Tutin. Plants were collected during rosette, vegetative growth, full flowering and fruit-ripening stages. Oil was extracted using Clavenger hydro-distillation apparatus from either fresh, shade dried or sun dried samples. Oil composition was determined with a GC/MS. Oil content of samples showed significant variation during the vegetative stages of development. Oil contents of fresh samples were found to be 0.76% at seedling stage whereas oil content has risen to 1.06% at seed set. The shade-dried samples had higher oil contents than the fresh and sun dried samples. The oil composition of pickling herb changed with drying method and growth stage. Throughout the growth stage of the plant, the oil was composed of 21 components and the main components were found to be α- phellandrene (47.43 - 66.39% and methyl eugenol (21.29 – 38.72%. While methyl eugenol content decreased during vegetation period for both fresh and dried samples, α-phellandrene level increased. Attention should be given to the collection time and drying method of pickling herb for different uses since vegetative stage and drying method influence oil content and composition.

  7. An electronic nose for amine detection based on polymer/SWNT-COOH nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorwongtragooll, Panida; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2011-12-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) system based on polymer/carboxylic-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-COOH) was developed for sensing various volatile amines. The SWNT-COOH dispersed in the matrix of different polymers; namely, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cumene terminated polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (cumene-PSMA), poly(styrenecomaleic acid) partial isobutyl/methyl mixed ester (PSE), and polyvinylpyrrolidon (PVP), were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes to make the gas sensors. The response of these sensors to volatile amines was studied by both static and dynamic flow measurements. It was found that all sensors exhibited behaviors corresponding to Plateau-Bretano-Stevens law (R2 = 0.81 to 0.99) as the response to volatile amines. Real-world application was demonstrated by applying this e-nose to monitor the odor of sun-dried snakeskin gourami that was pre-processed by salting-preservation. This electronic nose can discriminate sun-dried fish odors with different stored days using a simple pattern recognition based on the principal component analysis (PCA).

  8. Physico-chemical Properties and Assessment of Edible Oil Potential of Peanuts Grown in Kurram Agency, Parachinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahib Hussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the oil potential of peanuts for domestic and commercial uses. Peanut oil yield and the physico-chemical properties of extracted oil were investigated on different temperatures (50, 55, 60 and 65 °C and sun drying. Results showed maximum oil yield of 47.2 % at sun drying and lowest values of 37.0 % at 65 °C. Highest and lowest acid values are 25.52 and 5.89 mg/KOH/g at 60 °C and 50 °C respectively. The Free Fatty Acid (FFA content were obtained 12.76 and 2.94 mg/g at 60 °C and 50 °C, while saponification values were 61.71 and 32.25 mg/KOH/g at 60 °C and 50 °C respectively. The highest Peroxide value of 92 mg/KOH/g was recorded at 55 °C which dropped to 43.4 mg/KOH/g at 65 °C. Refractive index (RI and density were not changed significantly (p≤0.05 on all temperatures, while pH was somewhat higher on 50 °C. The moisture content was found lowest up to 3.0 % on 65 °C while highest was 5 % on 50 °C.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON PHENOLICS CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOME EDIBLE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzeloo Moghadam et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants have important role in prevention and treatment of disorders and plants are considered as rich sources of radical scavenging compounds. Nowadays, many herbs are used in dried form which is possible to affect their antioxidant activity. In the present investigation, the effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant capacity and total phenolics content of some culinary plant species have been studied. Leaves of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Thymus vulgaris and Anethum graveolense were dried in sun, shade, oven and microwave and extracted with methanol. Antioxidant activity of each extract was determined by DPPH free radicals and total phenolics content was measured by folin cio-calteus reagent. The results revealed that drying process reduced the antioxidant activity of Anethum graveolense whereas sun-drying and shade-drying increased the antioxidant activity of Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae. During sun-drying and shade-drying, total phenolics content increased for the three plants of Lamiaceae while oven- and microwave-drying reduced the phenolics content. Drying also declined the phenolics content of Anethum graveolense which gives the conclusion that some kind of correlation could be established between total phenolics content and antioxidant behavior for the three Lamiaceae and Anethum graveolense. Our study brought the view that diversity in the methods of drying could lead to different phenolics content and antioxidant behavior, suggesting that each plant needs a special drying method.

  10. Drying of green bean and okra under solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İBRAHİM DOYMAZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sun drying characteristics of green bean and okra were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted in Iskenderun-Hatay, Turkey. The drying study showed that the times taken for drying of green bean and okra from the initial moisture contents of 89.5% and 88.7% (w.b. to final moisture content of around 15±0.5% (w.b. were 60 and 100 h in open sun drying, respectively. The constant rate period is absent in drying curves. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to thirteen thin-layer drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Estimations by Approximation of diffusion (for green bean and Midilli et al. models (for okra were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained.

  11. Influence of Rootstocks on Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Content in Petioles of Four Table Grape Varieties Influencia de Portainjertos sobre el Contenido Peciolar de Nitrógeno, Fósforo y Potasio en Cuatro Variedades de Uva de Mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ibacache G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Four field trials were conducted at Vicuña Experimental Center (30°02' S, 70°44' W located in the Coquimbo Region, Chile, over four seasons, 2002-2003 to 2005-2006, to determine the influence of 10 rootstocks (Freedom, Harmony, Saint George, Salt Creek, SO4, 1613C, 1103P, 99R, 110R, 140Ru, as well as own roots vines on nutrient content in petioles of vars. Flame Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Superior Seedless and Red Globe grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.. The trials took place at a site that had previously planted to vineyard. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replicates. Petioles opposite to clusters were taken at bloom as samples and analyzed for total N, P and K content. Significant differences in nutrient levels due to rootstocks were found in all varieties. Rootstocks increased the levels of petiole nutrients (except P over the values usually reported in literature for table grapes. Vines grafted onto the rootstock ‘Salt Creek’ had significantly higher petiole N and P content than those on their own roots vines. Total N level increased 67% in ‘Flame Seedless’, 77% in ‘Red Globe’, 33% in ‘Thompson Seedless’ and 8.5% in ‘Superior Seedless’. On the other hand, the petiole P level doubled in all varieties by using ‘Salt Creek’ as rootstock. Potassium status was also affected by rootstocks. ‘Harmony’ and ‘1613C’ showed higher K levels by at least 60% in vars. Flame Seedless, Red Globe and Thompson Seedless as compared to plants grown on their own roots. The present investigation demonstrates that rootstocks may have a considerable effect on grapevine nutrition.Se realizaron cuatro ensayos en Vicuña (30°02' S, 70°44' O, Región de Coquimbo, Chile, durante cuatro temporadas, 2002-2003 a 2005-2006 para determinar la influencia de 10 portainjertos de vid (Vitis vinifera L. (Freedom, Harmony, Saint George, Salt Creek, SO4, 1613C, 1103P, 99R, 110R, 140Ru, además de plantas sobre sus

  12. Factors influencing the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis: the results of structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongling Guo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed production and quality are important factors influencing population regeneration in many seed plants. We used structural equation modeling to investigate how plant and fruit traits interact with each other to influence the fruit crops and seed fates of Pistacia chinensis. From May to September 2009, we sampled 45 fruiting female trees and measured plant traits (height, DBH and crown area, fruit traits (infructescence size, fruit size and the fruit crop of each sampled tree in Jiyuan City of Henan Province, Central China. The fruit crops of P. chinensis were positively correlated with tree height, crown area and infructescence size but not significantly correlated with DBH or fruit size. The fruit crop of an individual tree had no negative direct effect on the infestation of seeds by wasps (Eurytoma plotnikovi. Such a direct effect would be predicted by the predator satiation hypothesis. Tree height and fruit size had a positive direct effect on the seed predation rate, but a significant negative correlation was found between the seed predation rate and the rate of seedlessness. Our results indicate that seedless fruits may serve as a defensive mechanism against insect seed predators. In addition, both seedless and insect-infested fruits had a negative direct effect on seed survival, and DBH, infructescence size and fruit crop had a positive indirect effect on seed survival. However, tree height and fruit size had negative indirect effects on seed survival. In conclusion, we have shown that both plant and fruit traits can strongly influence fruit crops and insect seed predation and subsequently determine the seed quality and population regeneration of P. chinensis.

  13. Chromosome numbers and pollen stainability of three species of Pacific Island breadfruit (Artocarpus, Moraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragone, D

    2001-04-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined for 48 accessions of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, A. mariannensis, and A. camansi [Moraceae]) from 16 Pacific Island groups, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Artocarpus camansi and A. mariannensis exhibit counts of 2n = 56; 2n = 56 (diploidy) and 2n = 84 (triploidy) were observed for A. altilis. Most diploid cultivars of A. altilis were seeded, but two cultivars with reduced seed number were observed. Micronesian accessions included putative interspecific hybrids between A. altilis and A. mariannensis. The majority of these accessions were seedless diploids, but triploid putative hybrids were also observed. Pollen stainablility was shown to correlate with the degree of seediness.

  14. Fruit quality properties of some virus-free grapefruit varieties grafted on different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay KURT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanitation studies against virus and virus like diseases causing large economic losses in citrus plantations in Turkey were begun at Antalya Citrus Research Institute in 1988. As a result of the study, some virus-free grapefruit varieties (Redblush, Rio Red, Ray Ruby, Henderson, Star Ruby and Marsh Seedless budded on Local sour orange and Troyer citrange rootstocks were planted at breeding parcel in 1995. Effects of rootstocks on fruit quality properties were investigated in these grapefruit varieties. Local sour orange and Troyer citrange affected similarly on the fruit quality of grapefruit cultivars. It could be suggested that these rootstocks could be recommended for grapefruit growing.

  15. Comparative Study of Photosynthetic and Fluorescence Characters of the Grape under High Temperature and High Light in Turpan%吐鲁番高温强光下不同葡萄品种的光合及荧光特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾杨; 廖康; 马微; 江振斌; 骆强伟; 孙锋; 伍国红

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to explore the photosynthetic characteristics of Turpan grapes under high temperature and strong light conditions. [Method] Using six grape varieties as experimental materials, the photosynthesis and fluorescence parameters of the grape varieties under high temperature and high light were deter-mined. [Result] The results showed that Thompson Seedless showed strong self-protection ability on the photosynthetic mechanism in the adversity, and lower photo inhibition on photosynthesis under high temperature and high light than other vari-eties in which Crimson Seedless was second place. Otherwise the damage on photosynthetic mechanism of Kyoho and Red Globe under the adversity environment is more dipper than the other varieties, and poor self-protection ability. [Conclusion] Thompson Seedless and Crimson Seedless had a strong adaptability for high tem-perature and strong light. But the adaptability of Kyoho and Red Globe were rela-tively poor.%[目的]为探讨吐鲁番高温强光条件下葡萄的光合特性。[方法]以6个主栽葡萄品种为试材,测定在高温强光下的光合及荧光参数。[结果]无核白在高温强光下受到的光抑制要低于其他品种,无核白对自身光合机制自我保护能力较强,淑女红次之,而巨峰和红地球在此环境下光合机制受到的损伤较大,且自我保护能力相对较差。[结论]无核白和淑女红对高温和强光的适应性较强,反之巨峰和红地球对高温强光适应性较弱。

  16. Gene Cloning, Expression and Enzyme Activity of Vitis vinifera Vacuolar Processing Enzymes (VvVPEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yujin; Wang, Ruipu; Gong, Peijie; Li, Shuxiu; Wang, Yuejin; Zhang, Chaohong

    2016-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have received considerable attention due to their caspase-1-like activity and ability to regulate programmed cell death (PCD), which plays an essential role in the development of stenospermocarpic seedless grapes ovules. To characterize VPEs and the relationship between stenospermocarpic grapes and the VPE gene family, we identified 3 Vitis vinifera VPE genes (VvβVPE, VvγVPE, and VvδVPE) from the PN40024 grape genome and cloned the full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) from the 'Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir' and 'Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless' varietals. Each of the VPEs contained a typical catalytic dyad [His (177), Cys (219)] and substrate binding pocket [Arg (112), Arg (389), Ser (395)], except that Ser (395) in the VvγVPE protein sequence was replaced with alanine. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 Arabidopsis thaliana and 6 Vitis vinifera VPEs revealed that the 10 VPEs form 3 major branches. Furthermore, the 6 grapevine VPEs share a similar gene structure, with 9 exons and 8 introns. The 6 grapevine VPEs are located on 3 different chromosomes. We also tested the enzymatic activity of recombinant VPEs expressed in the Pichia Pastoris expression system and found that the VvVPEs exhibit cysteine peptidase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that VvδVPE is only expressed in flowers, buds and ovules, that VvγVPE is expressed in various tissues, and that VvβVPE was expressed in roots, flowers, buds and ovules. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) suggested that VvβVPE in seeded grapes increased significantly at 30 days after full-bloom (DAF), close to the timing of endosperm abortion at 32 DAF. These results suggested that VvβVPE is related to ovule abortion in seedless grapes. Our experiments provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism of stenospermocarpic seedlessness and represent a useful reference for the further study of VPEs.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF DRYING AND SHELLING ON ASPERGILLUS FLAWS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION OF MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. DHARMAPUTRA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of drying and shelling on Aspergillus fla-us infection and aflatoxin production of maize stored under laboratory conditions were investigated together with the intactness of grain and change of moisture content during the storage period. Fully matured maize var. Arjuna and CPI-2 were harvested at 90 and 97 days after planting, respectively, after which they were unhusked and divided into 4 pans. The 1st and the 2nd parts were sun dried up to 20^ moisture content (m.c. and then shelled and re-dried up to 17 and 14% m.c.. respectively. The 3rd part was sun dried up to 17% m.c. and then shelled but not re-dned. The 4th pan was sun dried up to 17% m.c. and then shelled and re-dried up to 14% m.c. The maize was sun dried by spreading either the cobs or the kernels on the paved floor. The nail-down wood and mechanical sheller were used for shelling the maize. After drying and shelling, maize samples were stored in the jars which were covered with muslin cloth for 3 months under laboratory conditions. A. flavus was isolated using dilution method on Aspergillus Flavus and Parasiticus Agar (AFPA. The damaged kernel analysis was carried out at the beginning of storage to obtain the percentage of damaged kernel caused by shelling. The m.c. and aflatoxin were determined using oven and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC methods, respectively. The m.c. decreased at 1 month of storage and then it was almost constant at 2 and 3 months of storage. The percentage of damaged kernels of maize var. CPI-2 was higher than those of var. Arjuna. The percentage of damaged kernels of maize shelled at 20% m.c. was higher than that shelled at 17% m.c. The percentage of damaged kernels of maize shelled by mechanical sheller was higher than that shelled by nail-down wood.Paper presented at the Symposium on Pest Management for Stored Food and Feed, 5-7 September 1995 Bogor, Indonesia. 29 The Effects of Drying and Shelling on Aspergillus flavus Infection

  19. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties.

  20. Studies on sweet potatoes. Pt. 2. Isolation and characterization of starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusudhan, B.; Susheelamma, N.S.; Tharanathan, R.N. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India). Dept. of Food Chemistry)

    1993-01-01

    By differntial sedimentation and centrifugation steps four starch isolates were recovered from sun dried sweet potato flour. The granules in these isolates were of different size, shape and population characteristics, and were anionic in nature. They showed a single stage swelling with 30 to 35% solubility in water and only [proportional to]30% solubility in DMSO even after 72 h. Their starch content varied from [proportional to]48 to 88%. The presence of thermostable amylases in sweet potato resulted in considerable decrease in Brabender viscosity values as amylographic studies in the presence of HgCl[sub 2] showed significant increase in peak (PV) and setback (SBV) viscosities. The starch isolate I had 25% higher PV as compared to the isolate II but retrogradation was much low in this. Susceptibility to glucoamylase digestion showed a decreasing trend from the isolate I to the IV on solid basis, but comparable on starch basis. (orig.).

  1. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...... with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding....

  2. Microbial quality and safety of fresh and dried Rastrineobola argentea from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baniga, Zebedayo; Dalsgaard, Anders; Mhongole, Ofred J

    2017-01-01

    Rastrineobola argentea (silver cyprinid/sardines) is an important commercial fish species found in Lake Victoria. It is an important protein source for consumers in several African countries including Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted using standard methods to assess...... the bacteriological quality of fresh and dried sardines from Lake Victoria. Sardine samples were randomly collected from main landing sites and retail markets in the city of Mwanza. Total viable counts (TVC) in fresh sardines were in the range of 5.18–7.90 log10 cfu/g while those dried on racks contained 3...... sites contained 30% (n = 20) and those from the markets contained 15% (n = 20) Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were not detected in sardines dried on racks. To conclude, sun drying of sardines on racks is an effective drying method providing a safe product for human consumption....

  3. Lipid extracted algae as a source for protein and reduced sugar: a step closer to the biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Rawat, Ismail; Guldhe, Abhishek; Bux, Faizal

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using lipid extracted algae (LEA) as a source for protein and reduced sugar, and the effects of various procedural treatments on their yields. LEA provided comparable yields of protein and reduced sugars to those from total algae. Oven drying provided highest yields of all products followed by freeze drying, while sun drying significantly lowered their yields. Effective cell disruption by microwave and autoclave increased the lipid yields from algae, but resulted in increased loss of other compounds with lipid extracting solvents lowering their yields during sequential extraction. Relatively inefficient cell disruption by ultrasonication and osmotic shock lowered the amount of cell protein lost to the lipid extracting solvents. These results highlight the complexity of concurrent extraction of all value added products from algae, and the need for proper selection of the processes to achieve the objectives of integrated biorefinery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 不同加工方式连翘叶中连翘酯苷A和连翘苷的含量测定%Determination of Forsythiaside A and Phillyrin ofForsythia Suspensa Leaves Processed by Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马梅芳; 杨晓日; 高慧; 宋敬丽; 李洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the content of forsythiaside A and phillyrin ofForsythia suspensa leaves processed by different methods.Methods HPLC was used to determine the content of forsythiaside A and phillyrin, the column employed was BDS Hypersil-C18 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5µm); the mobile phase for separation of forsythiaside A was acetonitrile-0.4 % acetic acid (15:85); as for phillyrin, the mobile phase was acetonitrile-water (25:75);the detection wavelength for forsythiaside A and phillyrin were 330 and 277 nm, respectively; the column temperature was 40℃;the flow rate was 0.8 mL/min; the injection volume was 10μL.Results The contents of forsythiaside A and phillyrin ofForsythia suspensa leaves processed by different metods were high, and the content order was: steaming and oven drying>frying and oven drying>steaming and sun drying>frying and sun drying>oven drying>sun drying. Conclusion The content of forsythiaside A and phillyrin ofForsythia suspensa leaves are influenced by different processing methods. Steaming or frying and oven drying are beneficial to conservation of forsythiaside A and phillyrin, oven drying is more beneficial to conservation of forsythiaside A and phillyrin than sun drying.%目的:测定不同加工方式连翘叶中连翘酯苷A和连翘苷的含量。方法采用高效液相色谱法,色谱柱:BDS HYPERSIL -C18(4.6 mm×150 mm,5µm);流动相:连翘酯苷A为乙腈-0.4%冰醋酸溶液(15:85);连翘苷为乙腈-水(25:75);检测波长:连翘酯苷A为330 nm;连翘苷为277 nm;柱温:40℃;流速:0.8 mL/min;进样量10μL。结果连翘叶中连翘酯苷A和连翘苷的含量均较高,其含量顺序为:蒸后烘干>炒后烘干>蒸后晒干>炒后晒干>烘干>晒干。结论不同加工方式对连翘叶中连翘酯苷A和连翘苷的含量有较大影响,蒸、炒后干燥有利于连翘酯苷A和连翘苷成分的保存,烘干比晒干更有利于连翘酯苷A和连翘苷成分的保存。

  5. The ethnobotany of chamairo: Mussatia hyacinthina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E W

    1983-12-01

    Recent fieldwork in the eastern lowlands of Bolivia and Peru has revealed a traditional use of coca (Erythroxylum coca Lam.) as a medicine and stimulant that is distinct from the well-documented customs of the Northwest Amazon and the Andean highlands. In Bolivia some nine indigenous tribes centered mainly in the Rio Beni drainage masticate entire sun-dried coca leaves, yet use as an alkaline additive the crude ash of the spathe or leafbase of the motacú palm (Scheelea princeps (Mart.) Karst.). To the quid they add a piece of the bark of the bignoniaceous liana chamairo (Mussatia sp.), which markedly sweetens the chew. In the montaña of Peru, the liana is also used and a new species is reported from the upper Apurimac river. The ethnobotany of chamairo throughout its range is examined and the need for pharmacological screening is emphasised.

  6. Simultaneous determination of free amino acids in Pu-erh tea and their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuchen; Luo, Yinghua; Wang, Pengpu; Zhao, Mengyao; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Pu-erh ripened tea is produced through a unique microbial fermentation process from the sun-dried leaves of large-leaf tea species (Camellia sinensis (Linn.) var. assamica (Masters) Kitamura) in Yunnan province of China. In this study, the changes of amino acid profiles during fermentation of Pu-erh tea were investigated, based on the improved HPLC-UV method with PITC pre-column derivatization for the simultaneous determination of twenty free amino acids. Results showed that aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, alanine, theanine and tyrosine were the major amino acids in tea samples. Fermentation significantly influenced on the amino acid profiles. The total free amino acid contents significantly decreased during fermentation (pamino acids and acrylamide contents in Pu-erh ripened tea.

  7. Effect of the Freshness of Starting Material on the Final Product Quality of Dried Salted Shark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnerassery Sukumaran Sudheesh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the freshness of the starting raw material (fish and the final product quality in experimentally dried shark fish. Sharks were stored at room temperature (25ºC for 0, 24 and 48 h and then salted, processed and sun dried at ambient temperatures ranging from 35 to 42ºC. There was marked difference in sensory and microbiological quality of fresh fish stored to different time periods, but, after drying, the quality difference was negligible. The results of this study show that storage of fish up to 48 h under experimental conditions at room temperature does not affect major microbiological quality and proximate composition of the final dried product.

  8. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.

    2012-01-01

    with nutritional and health benefits as perceived by the locals. Traditional food processing methods such as boiling, fermentation and sun drying were identified. Thus exploitation of the species possessing nutrient, health and processing benefits needs to be explored in complementary feeding.......The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...... cruentus L. was found to be consumed as a leafy vegetable while another variety, Amaranthus hybridus L. was found to be consumed as a grain. Four species of winged termites, a grasshopper, black ant and dagaa fish were also identified. Twelve of the traditional foods were found to be associated...

  9. Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Zhenming; Meng, Qingxiang; Huo, Yunlong; Wang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of different treatments on nutritive value of bamboo shoot shell (BSS). Five treatments were sun-drying (control), ammoniation (5%/dry matter (DM) urea), Ca(OH)2 (4%/DM calcium hydroxide), NaOH (4%/DM sodium hydroxide), and AHP (4%/DM sodium hydroxide plus 1%/DM hydrogen peroxide). The results showed that chemical composition of BSS was greatly changed by chemicals (P chemical treatments significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content except AHP (P chemical treatments (P Chemical treatments greatly improved effective degradability (ED) of DM (P chemical treatments greatly improved nutritive value of BSS with highest value obtained from ammoniation, followed by strong alkalization, alkaline hydrogen peroxide and modest alkalization.

  10. Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05). PMID:16345191

  11. Development of ochratoxin A during robusta (Coffea canephora) coffee cherry drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, P; Kanchanomai, C; Meyer, I; Pittet, A

    2000-04-01

    The occurrence and formation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Robusta coffee was studied for three consecutive seasons under tropical conditions in Thailand. Sun drying of coffee cherries consistently led to OTA formation in the pulp and parchment (husks) of the cherries. In replicated trials, dried coffee beans (green coffee) were shown to contain on average OTA concentrations that were approximately 1% of those found in husks. OTA contamination of green coffee depended on cherry maturity, with green cherries being the least, and overripe cherries the most susceptible. Defects, and in particular the inclusion of husks, are the most important source of OTA contamination. OTA contamination occurred independently of whether cherries were placed on concrete, on bamboo tables, or on the ground. The study suggests that better raw material quality, an appropriate drying and dehulling procedure combined with a reduction of green coffee defects can effectively contribute to the reduction of OTA in green coffee.

  12. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  13. Replacement value of blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis) for fishmeal and a vitamin-mineral premix for broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, L V; Somasekaran, T; Becker, E W

    1994-07-01

    1. The effect of sun-dried Spirulina platensis in poultry diets was studied in a 12-week feeding trial by replacing either fishmeal (FM) or groundnut cake (GC) in a commercial diet with algae at isonitrogenous concentrations of 140 g/kg and 170 g/kg respectively. Additional vitamins/minerals were omitted from the algal diets because Spirulina is rich in them. 2. Efficiency of food utilisation, protein efficiency ratio and dressing percentage indicated that substitution of FM or GC by alga did not affect the performance of broilers. 3. None of the diets affected the weights, compositions and histopathology of the various organs of the chicks. 4. Meat quality remained unchanged except for a more intense colour in the case of birds fed on the alga-containing diets.

  14. Saccharification of tapioca starch residue with a multienzyme preparation of Aspergillus ustus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamala, T.R.; Sreekantiah, K.R.

    1986-12-01

    Enzyme preparation obtained by cultivating Aspergillus ustus on rice straw-wheat bran mixture (7:3) possessed cellulase, D-xylanase, ..beta..-D-glucosidase, ..cap alpha..-amylase, amyloglucosidase and pectinase activities. Used at 2% level with tapioca starch residue (TSR) slurry gelatinized at 80/sup 0/C or pressure cooked, it yielded 45-60% reducing sugar and degraded 52-65% of the fiber material. Enhanced saccharification (72%), fiber degradation (75%) could be achieved by pretreating the substrate with mineral acid. Fermentation of the hydrolysates with Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 29-36 ml alcohol per 100 g of sun dried TSR. Data on TSR hydrolysis by ..cap alpha..-amylase and amylo-glucosidase, A. ustus enzyme preparation individually and in combination with amyloglucosidase, in acid pretreated or untreated TSR are presented.

  15. Adsorption isotherm of uranyl ions by fish scales of corvina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Caroline Hastenreiter; Santos, Bruno Zolotareff dos; Yamamura, Amanda Pongeluppe Gualberto; Yamaura, Mitiko, E-mail: hc.caroline@gmail.co, E-mail: bzsantos@gmail.co, E-mail: amandaifusp@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: myamaura@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Fish scale is by-product of fishery. The scales are mainly formed by hydroxyapatite and collagen forming a kind of natural composite with a large specific surface area that intensifies the adsorption process. In this paper the potential of adsorption of scales of Corvina fish for uranyl ions from nitric solutions was studied. The scales were washed several times with faucet water, sun-dried, triturated and sieved. Equilibrium and kinetic studies in adsorption of uranyl ions in batch systems were carried out at room temperature. Equilibrium time was reached at 5 min for 0.1 g L{sup -1} uranyl solution with removal efficiency over 82%, and at 1 min of contact was observed about 60% of removal. The equilibrium isotherm was obtained and the Langmuir model fitted best. These preliminary results are very promising, showing great perspectives of application of the fish scales as biosorbent for uranyl ions in radioactive wastewater treatment processes with a sustainable technology. (author)

  16. Design and application of a mini all-weather solar dryer%小型全天候太阳能干燥机的设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汴生; 申晓曦; 刘伟涛; 阮征

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems in traditional drying technology of preserved fruits, a mini all-weather solar dryer was designed and manufactured based on characteristics and requirements of preserved fruits produced in Guangdong province. The solar dryer is composed of heat-collection plate, drying chamber and blower. It can collect sun radiation to heat air and water, store heat through hot water tank. It also has an assistant heating system in water tank.Forced air convective drying, natural convective drying and greenhouse drying can be reached by the designed dryer.The experiments of drying Ganshimei (intermediate moisture salted plum) were carried out to test the dryer's performance. The working efficiency of heat-collection plate and drying chamber, the material balance and energy consumption of the drying system were calculated. And the parameters of the dryer were determined. The total drying efficiency of the forced air convective drying reached to a high level of 63.40%.Comparing with the traditional open sun drying, the drying rate of the forced air convective drying was 9.99 g/(100 g·h), which was 201.2% of the open sun drying's. And the drying time of the forced air convective drying was 12 h, much less than 50 h of the open sun drying's.Meanwhile the sugar and acid content loss of the forced air convective drying samples were less than that of the open sun drying samples.%为了解决凉果传统自然日晒干燥中存在的干燥过程耗时长,占地面积大、受天气控制和环境条件影响等问题,根据凉果的特性和干燥要求,设计研制了小型全天候太阳能干燥机.设备由集热器、干燥室和鼓风机等主要部分组成,具有集热、贮能和辅助加热等功能,可实现强制对流干燥、自然对流干燥和温室干燥等干燥模式.以干湿梅作为样品进行了干燥机的干燥性能试验,对干燥机集热器和干燥室的工作效率进行了计算、对干燥过程中的物料及能量

  17. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  18. Four-year surveillance for ochratoxin a and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Koji; Nakajima, Masahiro; Tabata, Setsuko; Ishikuro, Eiichi; Tanaka, Toshitsugu; Norizuki, Hiroko; Itoh, Yoshinori; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Kai, Shigemi; Tsutsumi, Toru; Takahashi, Masanori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Iizuka, Seiichiro; Ogiso, Motoki; Maeda, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Shigeaki; Sugiyama, Kei-Ichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2010-02-01

    Between 2004 and 2007 we examined foods from Japanese retail shops for contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3). A total of 1,358 samples of 27 different products were examined for OTA, and 831 samples of 16 different products were examined for fumonisins. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 microg/kg for OTA and 2 to 10 microg/kg for the fumonisins. OTA was detected in amounts higher than limits of quantification in wheat flour, pasta, oatmeal, rye, buckwheat flour and dried buckwheat noodles, raisins, wine, beer, coffee beans and coffee products, chocolate, cocoa, and coriander. OTA was found in more than 90% of the samples of instant coffee and cocoa, and the highest concentration of OTA, 12.5 microg/kg, was detected in raisins. The concentration of OTA in oatmeal, rye, raisins, wine, and roasted coffee beans varied remarkably from year to year. Fumonisins were detected in frozen and canned corn, popcorn grain, corn grits, cornflakes, corn soups, corn snacks, beer, soybeans, millet, and asparagus. The highest concentrations of fumonisins B(1), B(2), and B(3) were detected in corn grits (1,670, 597, and 281 microg/kg, respectively). All of the samples of corn grits were contaminated with fumonisins, and more than 80% of the samples of popcorn grain and corn snacks contained fumonisins. OTA and fumonisins were detected in several food products in Japan; however, although Japan has not set regulatory levels for these mycotoxins, their concentrations were relatively low.

  19. Phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in an ongoing species invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Matesanz

    Full Text Available The ability to succeed in diverse conditions is a key factor allowing introduced species to successfully invade and spread across new areas. Two non-exclusive factors have been suggested to promote this ability: adaptive phenotypic plasticity of individuals, and the evolution of locally adapted populations in the new range. We investigated these individual and population-level factors in Polygonum cespitosum, an Asian annual that has recently become invasive in northeastern North America. We characterized individual fitness, life-history, and functional plasticity in response to two contrasting glasshouse habitat treatments (full sun/dry soil and understory shade/moist soil in 165 genotypes sampled from nine geographically separate populations representing the range of light and soil moisture conditions the species inhabits in this region. Polygonum cespitosum genotypes from these introduced-range populations expressed broadly similar plasticity patterns. In response to full sun, dry conditions, genotypes from all populations increased photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency, and allocation to root tissues, dramatically increasing reproductive fitness compared to phenotypes expressed in simulated understory shade. Although there were subtle among-population differences in mean trait values as well as in the slope of plastic responses, these population differences did not reflect local adaptation to environmental conditions measured at the population sites of origin. Instead, certain populations expressed higher fitness in both glasshouse habitat treatments. We also compared the introduced-range populations to a single population from the native Asian range, and found that the native population had delayed phenology, limited functional plasticity, and lower fitness in both experimental environments compared with the introduced-range populations. Our results indicate that the future spread of P. cespitosum in its introduced range will likely be

  20. Drying of hot chilli using solar tunnel drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M.A. [Farm Machinery and Postharvest Process Engineering Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701 (Bangladesh); Bala, B.K. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 (Bangladesh)

    2007-01-15

    A mixed mode type forced convection solar tunnel drier was used to dry hot red and green chillies under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh. The drier consisted of transparent plastic covered flat-plate collector and a drying tunnel connected in series to supply hot air directly into the drying tunnel using two fans operated by a photovoltaic module. The drier had a loading capacity of 80 kg of fresh chillies. Moisture content of red chilli was reduced from 2.85 to 0.05 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in 20 h in solar tunnel drier and it took 32 h to reduce the moisture content to 0.09 and 0.40 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in improved and conventional sun drying methods, respectively. In case of green chilli, about 0.06 kg kg{sup -1} (db) moisture content was obtained from an initial moisture content of 7.6 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in 22 h in solar tunnel drier and 35 h to reach the moisture content to 0.10 and 0.70 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in improved and conventional sun drying methods, respectively. The use of a solar tunnel drier and blanching of sample led to a considerable reduction in drying time and dried products of better quality in terms of colour and pungency in comparison to products dried under the sun. The solar tunnel drier and blanching of chilli are recommended for drying of both red and green chillies. (author)

  1. Using a Double-pass solar drier for drying of bamboo shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Ehl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three different drying methods, a forced convection double-pass solar drier (DPSD, typical cabinet type natural convection solar drier (CD and traditional open-sun drying (OSD were used for draying of bamboo shoots in central Vietnam. During drying the operational parameters such as drying temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, insolation and water evaporation have been recorded hourly. The mean drying temperatures and relative humidity in the drying chamber were 55.2°C, 23.7%; 47.5°C, 37,6%; 36.2°C, 47.8% in DPSD, CD and OSD, respectively. The mean global radiation during all experimental runs was 670 Wm−2. The result also shows that fastest drying process was occurred in DPSD where the falling-rate period was achieved after 7 hours, in change to OSD where it took 16 hours. The overall drying efficiency was 23.11%, 15.83% and 9.73% in case of DPSD, CD and OSD, respectively. Although the construction cost of DPSD was significantly higher than in CD, the drying costs per one kilogram of bamboo shoots were by 42.8% lower in case of DPSD as compared to CD. Double-pass solar drier was found to be technically and economically suitable for drying of bamboo shoots under the specific conditions in central Vietnam and in all cases, the use of this drier led to considerable reduction in drying time in comparison to traditional open-sun drying.

  2. Experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Lamlert, N.; Intawee, P. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Mahayothee, B. [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Bala, B.K. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Nagle, M.; Mueller, J. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70593 (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate plates on a concrete floor. Three fans powered by a 50-W PV module ventilate the dryer. To investigate the experimental performances of the solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana, 10 full scale experimental runs were conducted. Of which five experimental runs were conducted for drying of peeled longan and another five experimental runs were conducted for drying of banana. The drying air temperature varied from 31 C to 58 C during drying of peeled longan while it varied from 30 C to 60 C during drying of banana. The drying time of peeled longan in the solar greenhouse dryer was 3 days, whereas 5-6 days are required for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The drying time of banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was 4 days, while it took 5-6 days for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The quality of solar dried products in terms of colour and taste was high-quality dried products. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of peeled longan and banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was developed and this system of non-linear partial differential equations was solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical solution was programmed in Compaq Visual FORTRAN version 6.5. The simulated results reasonably agreed with the experimental data for solar drying of peeled longan and banana. This model can be used to provide the design data and is also essential for optimal design of the dryer. (author)

  3. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  4. Inhibitory effect of burdock leaves on elastase and tyrosinase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Wu, Hsing-Chen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Wang, Hui-Yun; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Fu-An

    2017-01-01

    Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) leaves generate a considerable amount of waste following burdock root harvest in Taiwan. To increase the use of burdock leaves, the present study investigated the optimal methods for producing burdock leaf extract (BLE) with high antioxidant polyphenolic content, including drying methods and solvent extraction concentration. In addition, the elastase and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of BLE was examined. Burdock leaves were dried by four methods: Shadow drying, oven drying, sun drying and freeze-drying. The extract solution was then subjected to total polyphenol content analysis and the method that produced BLE with the highest amount of total antioxidant components was taken forward for further analysis. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl scavenging, antielastase and antityrosinase activity of the BLE were measured to enable the evaluation of the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activities of BLE. The results indicated that the total polyphenolic content following extraction with ethanol (EtOH) was highest using the freeze-drying method, followed by the oven drying, shadow drying and sun drying methods. BLE yielded a higher polyphenol content and stronger antioxidant activity as the ratio of the aqueous content of the extraction solvent used increased. BLE possesses marked tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activities, with its antielastase activity notably stronger compared with its antityrosinase activity. These results indicate that the concentration of the extraction solvent was associated with the antioxidant and skin aging-associated enzyme inhibitory activity of BLE. The reactive oxygen species scavenging theory of skin aging may explain the tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of BLE. In conclusion, the optimal method for obtaining BLE with a high antioxidant polyphenolic content was freeze-drying followed by 30–50% EtOH extraction. In addition, the antielastase and antityrosinase activities of the

  5. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  6. DESIGN AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR BIOMASS HYBRID DRYER FOR CASHEW DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhanuskodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying of Cashew nut to remove testa is one of the most energy-intensive processes of cashew nut process industry. For this reason a hybrid dryer consisting of a solar flat plate collector, a biomass heater and a drying chamber is designed and fabricated. 40 kg of Cashew nut with initial moisture of 9 % is used in the experiment. The performance test of the dryer is carried out in two modes of operation: hybrid-forced convection and hybrid-natural convection. Drying time and drying efficiency during these two modes of operation are estimated and compared with the sun drying. The system is capable of attaining drying temperature between 50º and 70ºC. In the hybrid forced drying, the required moisture content of 3% is achieved within 7 hours and the average system efficiency is estimated as 5.08%. In the hybrid natural drying, the required moisture content is obtained in 9 hours and the average system efficiency is 3.17%. The fuel consumption during the drying process is 0.5 kg/hr and 0.75 kg/hr for forced mode and natural mode, respectively. The drying process in the hybrid forced mode of operation is twice faster than the sun drying. The dryer can be operated in any climatic conditions: as a solar dryer on normal sunny days, as a biomass dryer at night time and as a hybrid dryer on cloudy days. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that the developed hybrid dryer is suitable for small scale cashew nut farmers in rural areas of developing countries.

  7. Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Petersen, Lene Maj; Lyhne, Ellen Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been...... reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type...

  8. Biomaterials Science An Integrated Clinical and Engineering Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    "This book is essential when designing, developing and studying biomedical materials...provides an excellent review-from a patient, disease, and even genetic point of view-of materials engineering for the biomedical field...This well presented book strongly insists on how the materials can influence patients' needs, the ultimate drive for biomedical engineering...[presents an] Interesting and innovative review from a patient focus perspective-the book emphasizes the importance of the patients, which is not often covered in other biomedical material's books." -Fanny Raisin-Dadre, BioI

  9. A Virtual Community of Practice Proposal for Business Intelligence Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana TÂRNĂVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an economical post-crisis context, the general tendency is to migrate to stronger alliances that offer support. One solution is a virtual community of practice (VCoPs that offers an im-portant knowledge management tool, as it is based on common goals and shared interests on a large period of time, it is capable to develop the social capital, create new knowledge, exploit the existing tacit knowledge, stimulate innovation and disseminate the results. An organization can remain an important competitor in a changing market only optimizing performance, constantly taking advantage of the raisin opportunities, risking and being flexible at new multiple demands.

  10. Fungi and ochratoxin A: Frequency in food and raw materials for their production in Serbia

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    Škrinjar Marija M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of various types of foods (cereals and their products, raisins dry sausages, cheese with moulds and ochratoxin A (OTA was examined. All samples were contaminated with moulds to a different degree. About 25% of wheat samples from the localities Niš and Leskovac, 70% from the locality Kikinda, graham flour (1 sample, barley flakes (1 sample, graham bread barley bread, 60% of "healthy food" product samples, 20% of dry sausage samples and 20% of melted cheese samples were contaminated with OTA.

  11. 紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混贮发酵品质和营养成分分析%Quality of mixed naked oats (Avena nuda)and alfalfa (Medicago sativa)silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛剑; 杨翠军; 杨志敏; 白雪梅; 赵海香; 刘贵河

    2015-01-01

    以新鲜及晾晒后的紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦为原料,分别设计紫花苜蓿单贮、裸燕麦单贮、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶1、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1及裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶2混贮等5个处理,青贮60 d 后,对其感官评分、发酵品质和营养成分等进行分析。结果表明,鲜贮苜蓿在感官评定、V-Score 及 Kaiser 评价体系中表现一般,而晾晒及混合青贮各处理组均能不同程度提高青贮评分。晾晒和混合青贮对发酵品质产生影响,两者显著或极显著降低 pH值、PA(丙酸)、AA(乙酸)、BA(丁酸)和 AN/TN(氨态氮/总氮)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),显著或极显著升高LA(乳酸)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),其中以裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1降低或升高最明显。晾晒对青贮饲料的干物质、可溶性碳水化合物及粗灰分含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分含量影响不大(P >0.05)。混合比例对青贮饲料的所有发酵项目均有极显著影响(P <0.01),对粗蛋白质、可溶性碳水化合物及中性洗涤纤维含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分指标影响不显著(P >0.05)。晾晒和混合青贮的交互作用可显著提高青贮饲料的发酵品质,但对养分含量影响不明显。因此,从青贮后感官评价、发酵品质及养分含量来看,紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混合青贮品质优于单独青贮,且晾晒相对于鲜贮更易于青贮,而无论晾晒和鲜贮,当裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1时,青贮品质均优于其他各组。%Using sun-dried or fresh alfalfa and naked oats as materials,five silages,including alfalfa silage,na-ked oats silage,three mix silage,(alfalfa∶naked oats =1∶1,alfalfa∶naked oats =1 ∶2 and alfalfa∶naked oats =2 ∶1 ),were prepared.After 60 days ensiling,the sensory

  12. Kajian Dasar Mekanisme Pemisah Biji Buah Asam (Tamarindus indica Leguminosae sp dalam Rangka Perancangan Prototipe Mesin Pengolah Asam tanpa Biji

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    Husen Asbanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of fruit and seed separation on Tamarind is a challenge for agricultural mechanization technology that must be solved. The purpose of this study is to develop a basic study of the Tamarind fruit separation mechanism (Tamarindus indica sp as a part of design process on Tamarind seedless processing machine. Initial design of Tamarind seeds separation machine was made by studying the work of slashing unit and seed separation unit. Tamarind seedless processing machine consist of slicer and peeler. The slicer function is to slice the fruit before it sent into peeler unit which contains two cylindrical peeler. The peeler unit installed parallel so it let through the fruit pulp but still hold the Tamarind seeds that had been separated by the separator unit. Tamarind seeds separation prototype model has been succesfully made. Model testing was done by measuring the rotary speed of spindle peelers on 1065 rpm which considered work effectively for the test load of 100 grams, 200 grams and 300 grams. Further, shaft torque measurements in the process of peeling showed a significant increase in value and it is proportional to the increase in load level for all treatments. Greatest torque happened at 890 rpm rotation speed with a value of 1.45 Nm at 300 gram load. While the rotary speed of 1220 rpm produce 1.17 Nm torque at 300 grams load.

  13. Thin Layer Modeling of the Convective Drying of Barberry Fruit (Berberis vulgaris

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    Akram Sharifi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the drying kinetics of seedless barberry fruit was studied at 55, 65 and 75˚C air temperatures and 1±0.2 m/s air velocity in a laboratory thin layer dryer with forced convection. Samples were subjected to two different pretreatments (citric acid and vapor. The drying of seedless barberry fruit took place in the falling rate drying period. Ten thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio. Compared with other models the Midilli et al. (2002 drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the drying curves of barberry with highest amounts of coefficient of determination (r2 and lowest amounts of reduced chi-square(x2, Mean Bias Error (MBE and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff of barberry increased as the drying air temperature increased. An Arrhenius relation with activation energy values of 45.577 kJ/mol (citric acid pretreatment expressed the effect of temperature on the diffusivity.

  14. The role of the embryo and ethylene in avocado fruit mesocarp discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Pesis, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Chilling injury (CI) symptoms in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit, expressed as mesocarp discoloration, were found to be associated with embryo growth and ethylene production during cold storage. In cvs Ettinger and Arad most mesocarp discoloration was located close to the base of the seed and was induced by ethylene treatment in seeded avocado fruit. However, ethylene did not increase mesocarp discoloration in seedless fruit stored at 5 degrees C. Application of ethylene to whole fruit induced embryo development inside the seed. It also induced seedling elongation when seeds were imbibed separately. Persea americana ethylene receptor (PaETR) gene expression and polyphenol oxidase activity were highest close to the base of the seed and decreased gradually toward the blossom end. By contrast, expressions of PaETR transcript and polyphenol oxidase activity in seedless avocado fruit were similar throughout the pulp at the base of the fruit. Application of the ethylene inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene, decreased mesocarp browning, embryo development, seedling growth, and ion leakage, and down-regulated polyphenol oxidase activity. The results demonstrate that ethylene-mediated embryo growth in whole fruit is involved in the mesocarp response to ethylene perception and the development of CI disorders.

  15. Production of tetraploid plants of non apomictic citrus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleza, Pablo; Juárez, José; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Ploidy manipulation in Citrus is a major issue of current breeding programs aiming to develop triploid seedless mandarins to address consumer demands for seedless fruits. The most effective method to obtain triploid hybrids is to pollinate tetraploid non apomictic cultivars with pollen of diploid varieties. Such non apomictic tetraploid lines are not found in the citrus germplasm and need to be created. In this work we describe a new methodology based on in vitro shoot-tip grafting combined with treatment of the micro-grafted shoot-tip with colchicine and oryzalin to achieve chromosome doubling and a dechimerization procedure assisted by flow cytometry. Stable tetraploid plants of Clemenules, Fina and Marisol clementines and Moncada mandarin have been obtained directly from shoot tip grafting combined with colchicine and oryzalin treatments or after dechimerization of mixoploids plants (2x-4x). These stable tetraploid plants have been used in 4x x 2x hybridizations, to recover over 3,250 triploid hybrids in 3 years.

  16. The role of the embryo and ethylene in avocado fruit mesocarp discoloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.; Pesis, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Chilling injury (CI) symptoms in avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruit, expressed as mesocarp discoloration, were found to be associated with embryo growth and ethylene production during cold storage. In cvs Ettinger and Arad most mesocarp discoloration was located close to the base of the seed and was induced by ethylene treatment in seeded avocado fruit. However, ethylene did not increase mesocarp discoloration in seedless fruit stored at 5 °C. Application of ethylene to whole fruit induced embryo development inside the seed. It also induced seedling elongation when seeds were imbibed separately. Persea americana ethylene receptor (PaETR) gene expression and polyphenol oxidase activity were highest close to the base of the seed and decreased gradually toward the blossom end. By contrast, expressions of PaETR transcript and polyphenol oxidase activity in seedless avocado fruit were similar throughout the pulp at the base of the fruit. Application of the ethylene inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene, decreased mesocarp browning, embryo development, seedling growth, and ion leakage, and down-regulated polyphenol oxidase activity. The results demonstrate that ethylene-mediated embryo growth in whole fruit is involved in the mesocarp response to ethylene perception and the development of CI disorders. PMID:19196750

  17. Transfer and Mass Balance of Ellagitannins, Anthocyanins, Flavan-3-ols, and Flavonols during the Processing of Red Raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) to Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sójka, Michał; Macierzyński, Jakub; Zaweracz, Wojciech; Buczek, Maria

    2016-07-13

    The putative health benefits of raspberries and raspberry-based products are potentially attributable to the presence of polyphenolic compounds, such as ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols. Their content in the products of raspberry processing into juice may be affected by the fruit cultivar, technological process parameters, and the properties of the polyphenolics themselves. The objective of the study was to investigate the composition and quantity of the above polyphenolics in raspberries and the products of their processing (that is, juice and press cake, including its seed and seedless fractions). The study also examined the relationship between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. The average percentage contributions of ellagitannins, anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols to total polyphenolics in the fruits were 64.2%, 17.1%, 16.9%, and 1.8%, respectively. Analysis of raspberry products showed that the dominant compounds in juice were anthocyanins, with 65.1% contribution to total polyphenolics, while in raspberry press cake, they were tannins (98.0%, mainly ellagitannin including lambertianin C and sanguiin H-6). As shown by our mass-balance calculations, on average, 68.1% of ellagitannins and 87.7% of flavanols were retained in press cake, especially in its seedless fraction. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between the molecular mass of ellagitannins and their transfer to juice. An increase in molecular mass from 1568 to 2805 Da resulted in a more than 10-fold decrease in ellagitannin transfer.

  18. Vacuum Drying of Barberry Fruit (Berberis vulgaris and Selection of a Suitable Thin Layer Drying Model

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    Akram Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In an investigation on kinetics of seedless barberry drying at 35, 45 and 55°C in vacuum and with water vapor and citric acid pre-treatments, the value of effective moisture Diffusivity (Deff was calculated using the second Fick's diffusion equation, activation energy was determined and drying process was simulated by 10 common mathematical equations of thin layer-drying models. Results which were obtained from regression analysis of studied models showed that approximation of diffusion model had the best fitting for vacuum-drying of barberries through available data. Drying barberry took place in the falling rate drying period and pre-treated samples had higher drying rate. The effective diffusivity coefficient for vacuum-drying of barberry fruits was evaluated between 0.022810-10 and 0.253810-10m2/s, which increased along with temperature rise. An Arrhenius equation for drying of seedless barberry with activation energy values ranged from 27.618 to 92.493 kJ/mol expressed the effect of temperature on moisture diffusivity.

  19. On-chip Fabrication of High Performance Nanostructured ZnO UV Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Mohammad R.; Henley, Simon J.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-02-01

    Developing rationally controlled bottom-up device fabrication processes is essential for the achievement of high performance optimal devices. We report a controlled, seedless and site-selective hydrothermal technique to fabricate high-performance nanostructured ZnO UV-detectors directly on-chip. We demonstrate that by controlling the nanowire growth process, via tuning the experimental parameters such as the concentration of reactants and the growth time, and by introducing a refresh of the growth solution, the device structure efficiency can be enhanced to significantly improve its performance. The on-chip fabricated bridging nanosyringe ultraviolet detector demonstrates improved sensitivity (~105), nanowatts detectability, and ultrafast response-time (90 ms) and recovery-time (210 ms). The improvement in response-time and recovery-time is attributed to the unique nanowire-nanowire junction barrier dominated resistance and the direct contact between ZnO and Au electrodes. Furthermore, the enhanced sensitivity and nanowatts detectability of the bridging nanosyringe device are due to the reduction in dimensionality and ultrahigh surface-to-volume ratio. This work paves the way toward low cost, large scale, low temperature, seedless and site-selective fabrication of high performance ZnO nanowire sensors on flexible and transparent substrates.

  20. Characterization of maturity and quality of Brazilian apirenic grapes in the São Francisco river Valley Caracterização da maturidade e qualidade de uvas apirênicas brasileiras no Vale do São Francisco

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    Robson de Jesus Mascarenhas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize and correlate maturity and quality of the first varieties of Brazilian seedless grapes 'BRS Clara', 'BRS Linda', 'BRS Morena', and 'Advanced Selection 8' compared with the American variety 'Crimson Seedless' in compliance with the Brazilian Normative/2002 and export standards Advanced Selection 8' is dark reddish, has large clusters, and is a very large ellipsoid berry; 'BRS Morena' is black with medium sized clusters and large berry shaped as ellipsoid to globoid; 'BRS Linda' is light green and has large sized clusters; 'Crimson' is pink and has small clusters with berries varying from medium to large sizes and ellipsoid shaped; and 'BRS Clara' is green yellowish has medium sized clusters and small berry of elongated ellipsoid shape. All varieties evaluated meet the standard for domestic market established as berry size minimum diameter 12 mm. 'BRS Clara' does not meet the export requirements of diameter. Berries of the red grapes 'BRS Morena' and 'Crimson Seedless' are firmer. The pH, titratable acidity, and soluble solids meet the official standards. Larger clusters are less acidic and present higher soluble solids/titratable acidity ratios implying that they are the sweetest type when ripe.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e correlacionar a maturidade e qualidade das primeiras variedades de uvas apirênicas 'BRS Clara', 'BRS Linda', 'BRS Morena', mais a 'Seleção Avançada 8' em fase de lançamento, comparado-as com a variedade norte-americana 'Crimson Seedless', conforme as Normativas Brasileiras/2002 e os padrões para exportação. A Seleção Avançada 8 é avermelhada escura, possui cacho grande, com baga muito grande tipo elipsoide; a 'BRS Morena' é preta com cacho médio, baga grande tipo elipsoide a globosa; a 'BRS Linda' é verde clara, de cacho grande; e a 'Crimson', rósea de cacho pequeno, ambas, com bagas médias a grandes e elipsoides; a 'BRS Clara' éverde amarelada

  1. Formation of sclerotia and production of indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and other species in section Nigri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Petersen, Lene M; Lyhne, E Kirstine; Larsen, Thomas O

    2014-01-01

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type were detected by liquid chromatography and diode array and mass spectrometric detection where sclerotia were formed, including 10,23-dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine. Sclerotium induction can thus be a way of inducing the production of new secondary metabolites from previously silent gene clusters. Cultivation of other species of the black aspergilli showed that raisins induced sclerotium formation by A. brasiliensis, A. floridensis A. ibericus, A. luchuensis, A. neoniger, A. trinidadensis and A. saccharolyticus for the first time.

  2. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

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    Z. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

  3. Fighting the Financial Crisis in Greece: The Privileged Company to Protect Production and Trade in Currants (1905 as International Bank Cooperation

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    Korinna Schönhärl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis in the 1890s affected the economy of Greece severely, and in 1893 the Greek State had to stop servicing its foreign debt. Part of theproblem was the lack of diversity of Greek agricultural production, which was focused on raisins and currants (especially flavourful raisins, grown exclusively in the area around Corinth for export. The collapse of market prices for this good seriously affected the Greek treasury and society in the growing regions. The Greek government responded by trying to withhold part of the harvest in fertile years to stabilise world market prices. Plans to organise a monopoly company for the currant trade necessitated high sums of capital from abroad. This article investigates the question of how foreign bankers in London (Hambro & Son, Emile Erlanger and Paris (Banque de l’Union Parisienne could be convinced to participate in the project. Which factors allowed foreign bankers to trust in the Greek national economy despite its poor reputation? What factors influenced their risk management? The focus is on the role of Greek brokers in persuading the foreigners to invest in Greece, especially the role played by Ioannis Pesmazoglou, the director of the young and innovative Bank of Athens.

  4. The effects of surface morphology on the aerosol performance of spray-dried particles within HFA 134a based metered dose formulations

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    Feifei Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce fine particles with different corrugated degree of surface by spray-drying and to investigate the effect of surface morphology on in vitro aerosol performance of the particles within HFA 134a based metered dose formulations. Compositions of rizatriptan and scutellarin were spray-dried using different spray-drying parameters, and particles were suspended within HFA 134a. The surface morphology were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, while the aerodynamic performance of MDIs was evaluated using a next generation pharmaceutical impactor. The surface morphology of spray-dried particles could vary from smooth to moderately corrugated, and to raisin-like depending upon spray-drying parameters and preparation compositions. In general, increasing inlet temperature, decreasing feed concentration and/or adding leucine to the feed solution tended to increase the corrugated degree of particle surface. Deposition results indicated that raisin-like particle based MDIs for all compositions of the two drugs produced significantly better aerodynamic performance in terms of fine particle fractions and mass median aerodynamic diameters relative to the formulations of the corresponding smooth or slightly corrugated particles when the particle compositions were the same. The present results demonstrated that wrinkled particles increased fine particle fractions within surfactant-free MDI formulations.

  5. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H; Niazi, N S; Kohn, J S

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts) and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins) were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM) counts (5.34 log10 CFU g(-1)) were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger, relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00-2.84 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log10 CFU g(-1)). The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log10 CFU g(-1)) of yeasts.

  6. Absorção de macronutrientes por porta-enxertos e cultivares de videira em hidroponia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Teresinha Costa Silveira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho foi detectar a capacidade de absorção de macronutrientes nos porta-enxertos de videira ?Tropical? - IAC 313, ?Jales? - IAC 572, ?Campinas? - IAC 766, ?Dog Ridge?, ?Salt Creek? e ?Harmony? de possível utilização para as cultivares Thompson Seedless e Italia. Os porta-enxertos e as produtoras foram propagados por estacas semi-lenhosas com 2 gemas, enraizadas em areia grossa lavada até que o sistema radicular permitisse o transplantio para recipientes de 3L de volume, contendo 2 partes de sílica e 1 parte de areia grossa. As mudas foram uniformizadas através de poda, tanto do sistema radicular quanto da parte aérea. A solução nutritiva foi aplicada por irrigação em sistema fechado de gotejamento, acionado por temporizador. Quando as plantas apresentavam, em média, um ramo com 1,50m de comprimento, foi realizada a poda do sistema aéreo, colocando-se o material para secar. As amostras foram moídas e analisadas quanto ao teor de macronutrientes. A análise dos dados permitiu concluir que: a produção de biomassa apresenta alta correlação com a quantidade acumulada de nutrientes; o porta-enxerto ?Jales? apresentou o maior valor de produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, sendo pois considerado o mais vigoroso, vindo a seguir os porta-enxertos ?Tropical? e ?Campinas?; as produtoras ?Thompson Seedless? e ?Italia? e os porta-enxertos ?Harmony?, ?Dog Ridge? e ?Salt Creek? apresentaram valores menores de produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, considerados portanto menos vigorosos que os demais materiais estudados; o porta-enxerto ?Jales? foi o que extraiu maior quantidade de N, P, K e Ca, igualando-se ao ?Tropical? na extração de Mg; de modo geral, a extração de N, P, K, Ca e Mg pelas cultivares Thompson Seedless e Italia foi semelhante aos porta-enxertos ?Campinas?, ?Harmony?, ?Dog Ridge? e ?Salt Creek?.

  7. Impacts of drying methods on the main chemical ingredients and antioxidant activities in cultured hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza%不同干燥方法对丹参毛状根有效成分含量及其抗氧化活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨翼信; 李焱; 周铜水

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨不同干燥方法对丹参毛状根中主要化学成分含量及其抗氧化活性的影响,尤其关注采后干燥对丹参毛状根酚酸类成分是否也有类似对植物根一样的胁迫诱导作用。方法丹参毛状根经冷冻干燥、真空干燥、阴干和晒干四种不同干燥方式处理后,采用高效液相色谱法测定毛状根中包括9种酚酸类和4种酮类成分的含量;利用1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼( DPPH)自由基清除试验、超氧阴离子清除试验、脂质过氧化抑制试验测定毛状根提取物的抗氧化活性。结果与冷冻干燥相比,真空干燥和阴干对酚酸类成分的影响不大,但酮类成分下降约50%;晒干处理后二类成分均严重损失达90%左右;晒干样品提取物抗氧化活性也显著下降。结论冷冻干燥是最适合丹参毛状根的干燥方法;与丹参根不同,采后干燥对毛状根的酚酸类成分无诱导作用。%Objective To explore the effects of different drying methods on concentrations of main bioactive ingredients and antioxidant activities of extract from cultured hairy roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge ( Danshen ) .Methods Contents of 9 salvianolic acids and 4 tanshinones in freeze,vacuum,shade,and sun dried samples of hairy roots were determined by HPLC;meanwhile,antioxidant activities of the samples were assessed using DPPH assay ,superoxide anion scavenging assay ,and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay respectively . Results Dehydrated samples in vacuum and shade contained mainly similar levels of salvonolic acids as those of freeze sample ,while the amount of tanshiones dropped significantly to around 50%.Great loss (~90%) of main ingredients was suffered after sun drying . The sun dried sample exhibited the lowest level of antioxidant activity .Conclusions Freeze drying may be the most appropriate method for hairy roots of this plant;unlike roots of the plant ,post-harvest drying process seemed to

  8. Antioxidants in yacon products and effect of long term storage Antioxidantes em produtos de yacon e efeito de armazenamento a longo prazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl. H. Robinson is a storage root originally grown in the Andean highlands. The fresh roots are perishable and quickly turn brown during handling and processing. Aiming to prolong shelf-life and to preserve the antioxidant compounds in yacon roots, 3 mm thick yacon slices were dried in a drying cabinet at 40, 50, and 60 ºC to a moisture content of 10-14%, and yacon strips were sun dried to a moisture content of 15-20%. The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the quenching capacity was evaluated by measuring the amount of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pidrylhydrazyl inhibited in samples after drying and after 7 months of storage. The results showed that it is possible to preserve the antioxidant capacity in yacon after cabinet or sun drying. Both yacon chips and strips presented total phenolic content values similar to those of fresh yacon roots. Both products also showed a high inhibition capacity of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pidrylhydrazyl. A significant decrease in the phenolic content was observed in the yacon chips after storage, which indicates that the sun dried strips are more suitable for storage.Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. e Endl. H. Robinson é uma cultura de raiz de reserva, originária dos planaltos andinos. As raízes frescas são perecíveis e escurecem facilmente durante o manuseio e o processamento. Com o objetivo de aumentar o tempo de prateleira e a preservação de antioxidantes nas raízes frescas, rodelas finas (chips de raízes de 3 mm de tamanho foram secas numa estufa a 40, 50 e 60 ºC e pedaços de raízes também foram secas ao sol até apresentarem umidade de 10-14% e 15-20%, respectivamente. O conteúdo de fenóis totais foi determinado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteu, e a estabilidade oxidativa foi avaliada através da determinação da quantidade de DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pidrylhydrazyl inibida nas amostras após a secagem e durante os 7

  9. Synthesis of gold nanoflowers using deep eutectic solvent with high surface enhanced Raman scattering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani Mahyari, Farzaneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Safavi, Afsaneh

    2016-09-01

    A facile, seed-less and one-pot method was developed for synthesis of gold nanoflowers with multiple tips through reduction of HAuCl4 with deep eutectic solvent at room temperature. This solvent is eco-friendly, low-cost, non-toxic and biodegradable and can act as both reducing and shape-controlling agent. In this protocol, highly branched and stable gold nanoflowers were obtained without using any capping agent. The obtained products were characterized by different techniques including, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The as-prepared gold nanoflowers exhibit efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties which can be used as excellent substrates for SERS.

  10. Detecting gravitational-wave transients at five sigma: a hierarchical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Eric

    2015-01-01

    As second-generation gravitational-wave detectors prepare to analyze data at unprecedented sensitivity, there is great interest in searches for unmodeled transients, commonly called bursts. Significant effort has yielded a variety of techniques to identify and characterize such transient signals, and many of these methods have been applied to produce astrophysical results using data from first-generation detectors. However, the computational cost of background estimation remains a challenging problem; it is difficult to claim a 5{\\sigma} detection with reasonable computational resources without paying for efficiency with reduced sensitivity. We demonstrate a hierarchical approach to gravitational-wave transient detection, focusing on long-lived signals, which can be used to detect transients with significance in excess of 5{\\sigma} using modest computational resources. In particular, we show how previously developed seedless clustering techniques can be applied to large datasets to identify high-significance ...

  11. Micropropagation of Citrus spp. by organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Citrus spp., the largest fruit crops produced worldwide, are usually asexually propagated by cuttings or grafting onto seedling rootstocks. Most of Citrus genotypes are characterized by polyembryony due to the occurrence of adventive nucellar embryos, which lead to the production of true-to-type plants by seed germination. Tissue culture and micropropagation, in particular, are valuable alternatives to traditional propagation to obtain a high number of uniform and healthy plants in a short time and in a small space. Moreover, in vitro propagation provides a rapid system to multiply the progeny obtained by breeding programs, allows the use of monoembryonic and seedless genotypes as rootstocks, and it is very useful also for breeding and germplasm preservation.In this chapter, two protocols regarding organogenesis of a rootstock and somatic embryogenesis of a cultivar have been described.

  12. The detectability of eccentric compact binary coalescences with advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Thrane, Eric; Luo, Jialun; Christensen, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO and advanced Virgo. While most binaries are expected to possess circular orbits, some may be eccentric, for example, if they are formed through dynamical capture. Eccentric orbits can create difficulty for matched filtering searches due to the challenges of creating effective template banks to detect these signals. In previous work, we showed how seedless clustering can be used to detect low-mass ($M_\\text{total}\\leq10M_\\odot$) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems, assuming a circular post-Newtonian expansion. Here, we describe a parameterization that is designed to maximize sensitivity to low-eccentricity ($0\\leq\\epsilon\\leq0.6$) systems, derived from the analytic equations. We show that this parameterization provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting eccentric low-mass compact binaries. Base...

  13. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-04-01

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Surface area-dependent second harmonic generation from silver nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Luong, Thanh Tuyen; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-08-17

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of metallic nanoparticles strongly depend on their size and shape. Metallic gold nanorods have already been widely investigated, but other noble metals could also be used for nanorod fabrication towards applications in photonics. Here we report on the synthesis and NLO characterization of silver nanorods (AgNRs) with controllable localized surface plasmon resonance. We have implemented an original, one-step and seedless synthesis method, based on a spontaneous particle growth technique in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. Colloidal solutions of AgNRs with various aspect ratios (5.0; 6.3; 7.5; 8.2 and 9.7) have been obtained and characterized using Harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm, in order to investigate their quadratic NLO properties. From HLS experiments, we demonstrate that hyperpolarizability (β) values of AgNRs display a strong dependence on their surface area.

  15. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  16. DINÂMICA DE INÓCULOS E DOENÇAS EM VIDEIRA SOB SISTEMA CONVENCIONAL E PROTEGIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIÓGENES DA CRUZ BATISTA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the covered and conventional cultivation of grapevine (cv. Superior Seedless on the aerial dispersion of pathogen inoculum and dynamic of diseases was investigated in two-year (2009 and 2010 and period similar to the year. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of Embrapa semiarid. The traps were maintained at 0.5 meters above the canopy of the grapevine, and the samples taken every 24 hours with the exchange of slides 9:00 a.m. Greater dispersion of pathogens (Plasmopara viticola, Phakopsora euvitis, Alternaria alternata and intensity of diseases (downy mildew, rust, and bacterial canker were detected in grapevines under conventional cultivation. The aerial dispersal of the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae was similar under grapevine covered and uncovered.

  17. Fabrication of Metallic Hollow Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sr., Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Metal and semiconductor nanoshells, particularly transition metal nanoshells, are fabricated using dendrimer molecules. Metallic colloids, metallic ions or semiconductors are attached to amine groups on the dendrimer surface in stabilized solution for the surface seeding method and the surface seedless method, respectively. Subsequently, the process is repeated with additional metallic ions or semiconductor, a stabilizer, and NaBH.sub.4 to increase the wall thickness of the metallic or semiconductor lining on the dendrimer surface. Metallic or semiconductor ions are automatically reduced on the metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles causing the formation of hollow metallic or semiconductor nanoparticles. The void size of the formed hollow nanoparticles depends on the dendrimer generation. The thickness of the metallic or semiconductor thin film around the dendrimer depends on the repetition times and the size of initial metallic or semiconductor seeds.

  18. Use of Aloe vera gel coating preserves the functional properties of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Guillén, Fabian; Castillo, Salvador; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Valero, Daniel

    2006-05-31

    Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Crimson Seedless) were coated with Aloe vera gel according to our developed patent (SP Patent P200302937) and then stored for 35 days at 1 degrees C, and the subsequent shelf life (SL) was monitored at 20 degrees C. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid loss of functional compounds, such as total phenolics and ascorbic acid. These changes were accompanied by reduction of the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and increases in total anthocyanins, showing an accelerated ripening process. On the contrary, table grapes coated with Aloe vera gel significantly delayed the above changes, such as the retention of ascorbic acid during cold storage or SL. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating, a simple and noncontaminating treatment, maintained the functional properties during postharvest storage of table grapes.

  19. Detecting Gravitational-Wave Transients at 5σ: A Hierarchical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Eric; Coughlin, Michael

    2015-10-30

    As second-generation gravitational-wave detectors prepare to analyze data at unprecedented sensitivity, there is great interest in searches for unmodeled transients, commonly called bursts. Significant effort has yielded a variety of techniques to identify and characterize such transient signals, and many of these methods have been applied to produce astrophysical results using data from first-generation detectors. However, the computational cost of background estimation remains a challenging problem; it is difficult to claim a 5σ detection with reasonable computational resources without paying for efficiency with reduced sensitivity. We demonstrate a hierarchical approach to gravitational-wave transient detection, focusing on long-lived signals, which can be used to detect transients with significance in excess of 5σ using modest computational resources. In particular, we show how previously developed seedless clustering techniques can be applied to large data sets to identify high-significance candidates without having to trade sensitivity for speed.

  20. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  1. Chasing 5-sigma: Prospects for searches for long-duration gravitational-waves without time slides

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Thrane, Eric; Christensen, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The detection of unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts by ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors is a major goal for the advanced detector era. These searches are commonly cast as pattern recognition problems, where the goal is to identify statistically significant clusters in spectrograms of strain power when the precise signal morphology is unknown. In previous work, we have introduced a clustering algorithm referred to as "seedless clustering," and shown that it is a powerful tool for detecting weak long-lived (10-1000s) signals in background. However, as the algorithm is currently conceived, in order to carry out an all-sky search on a $\\approx$ year of data, significant computational resources may be required in order to carry out background estimation. Alternatively, some of the sensitivity of the search must be sacrificed to control computational costs. The sensitivity of the algorithm is limited by the amount of computing resources due to the requirement of performing background studi...

  2. A single-step route for large-scale synthesis of core-shell palladium@platinum dendritic nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide with enhanced electrocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Xu, Yan-Ru; Wang, Ai-Jun; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    In this report, a facile, seed-less and single-step method is developed for large-scale synthesis of core-shell Pd@Pt dendritic nanocrystals anchored on reduced graphene oxide (Pd@Pt DNC/rGO) under mild conditions. Poly(ethylene oxide) is employed as a structure-directing and stabilizing agent. Compared with commercial Pt/C (20 wt%) and Pd/C (20 wt%) catalysts, the as-obtained nanocomposite has large electrochemically active surface area (114.15 m2gmetal-1), and shows superior catalytic activity and stability with the mass activities of 1210.0 and 1128.5 mAmgmetal-1 for methanol and ethanol oxidation, respectively. The improved catalytic activity is mainly the consequence of the synergistic effects between Pd and Pt of the dendritic structures, as well as rGO as a support.

  3. Differential gene expression and alternative splicing between diploid and tetraploid watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Nimmakayala, Padma; Manohar, Sumanth; Malkaram, Sridhar; Almeida, Aldo; Cantrell, Robert; Tomason, Yan; Abburi, Lavanya; Rahman, Mohammad A; Vajja, Venkata G; Khachane, Amit; Kumar, Brajendra; Rajasimha, Harsha K; Levi, Amnon; Wehner, Todd; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-03-01

    The exploitation of synthetic polyploids for producing seedless fruits is well known in watermelon. Tetraploid progenitors of triploid watermelon plants, compared with their diploid counterparts, exhibit wide phenotypic differences. Although many factors modulate alternative splicing (AS) in plants, the effects of autopolyploidization on AS are still unknown. In this study, we used tissues of leaf, stem, and fruit of diploid and tetraploid sweet watermelon to understand changes in gene expression and the occurrence of AS. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed along with reverse transcription quantitative PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR to demonstrate changes in expression and splicing. All vegetative tissues except fruit showed an increased level of AS in the tetraploid watermelon throughout the growth period. The ploidy levels of diploids and the tetraploid were confirmed using a ploidy analyser. We identified 5362 and 1288 genes that were up- and downregulated, respectively, in tetraploid as compared with diploid plants. We further confirmed that 22 genes underwent AS events across tissues, indicating possibilities of generating different protein isoforms with altered functions of important transcription factors and transporters. Arginine biosynthesis, chlorophyllide synthesis, GDP mannose biosynthesis, trehalose biosynthesis, and starch and sucrose degradation pathways were upregulated in autotetraploids. Phloem protein 2, chloroplastic PGR5-like protein, zinc-finger protein, fructokinase-like 2, MYB transcription factor, and nodulin MtN21 showed AS in fruit tissues. These results should help in developing high-quality seedless watermelon and provide additional transcriptomic information related to other cucurbits. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Phylogeny and expression profiling of CAD and CAD-like genes in hybrid Populus (P. deltoides × P. nigra: evidence from herbivore damage for subfunctionalization and functional divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD proteins function in lignin biosynthesis and play a critical role in wood development and plant defense against stresses. Previous phylogenetic studies did not include genes from seedless plants and did not reflect the deep evolutionary history of this gene family. We reanalyzed the phylogeny of CAD and CAD-like genes using a representative dataset including lycophyte and bryophyte sequences. Many CAD/CAD-like genes do not seem to be associated with wood development under normal growth conditions. To gain insight into the functional evolution of CAD/CAD-like genes, we analyzed their expression in Populus plant tissues in response to feeding damage by gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar L.. Expression of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus tissues (xylem, leaves, and barks was analyzed in herbivore-treated and non-treated plants by real time quantitative RT-PCR. Results CAD family genes were distributed in three classes based on sequence conservation. All the three classes are represented by seedless as well as seed plants, including the class of bona fide lignin pathway genes. The expression of some CAD/CAD-like genes that are not associated with xylem development were induced following herbivore damage in leaves, while other genes were induced in only bark or xylem tissues. Five of the CAD/CAD-like genes, however, showed a shift in expression from one tissue to another between non-treated and herbivore-treated plants. Systemic expression of the CAD/CAD-like genes was generally suppressed. Conclusions Our results indicated a correlation between the evolution of the CAD gene family and lignin and that the three classes of genes may have evolved in the ancestor of land plants. Our results also suggest that the CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved a diversity of expression profiles and potentially different functions, but that they are nonetheless co-regulated under stress conditions.

  5. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  6. COMPATIBILIDADE COM PORTA-ENXERTOS, RENDIMENTO E QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS EM CULTIVARES DE MELANCIA TRIPLOIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOICE SIMONE DOS SANTOS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compatible rootstocks, besides protecting sensive plant risk of soil- borne pathogens, can increase the yield and improve the quality of the fruit. The study aimed evaluated compatibility, yield and fruit quality of rootstocks and seedless watermelon. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with a 2x3 (two varieties of seedless watermelon: Shadow and RWT8154; three type of root system: without rootstock and upon BGCIA229 and BGCIA941, selected for their resistance/tolerance to nematodes and/or Fusarium spp with four blocks and six plants/plot. The grafting method was approaching. Hipocotyl diameter of seed- lings of ‘Shadow' was similar to BGCIA229, and 'RWT8154' to BGCIA941. Verified a hight compatibility in combinations 'RWT8154' with BGCIA941 and BGCIA229. Through grafting it was found: Higher survival was observed in 'Shadow' grafted on BGCIA229. increased vegetative growth of 'Shadow' and reduction in 'RWT8154'; delayed of the 'RWT8154' female flowering; increase in fresh plant weight; increase in the yield of 'RWT8154', and reduction in 'Shadow'; increased fruit weight in 'Shadow' grafted on BGCIA229 and 'RWT8154' grafted on BGCIA941; increase in 'RWT8154' peel thickness; greatest firmness; increase in bright- ness and color intensity of the 'Shadow' pulp. The titratable acidity of the cultivars increased and that the SS/ TA ratio decreased in the tested combinations. So there is specificity among cultivars and rootstocks. The com- bination 'RWT 8154' grafted on rootstock BGCIA 941 provided higher yield and fruit quality.

  7. Post-transcriptional silencing of flavonol synthase mRNA in tobacco leads to fruits with arrested seed set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Mahajan

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are synthesized by phenylpropanoid pathway. They are known to participate in large number of physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Parthenocarpy and male sterility has earlier been reported by silencing chalcone synthase (CHS encoding gene. Silencing of CHS has blocked the synthesis of most of useful flavonoids including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Also, these studies could not identify whether parthenocarpy/male sterility were due to lack of flavan-3-ols or flavonols or both. Flavonol synthase (FLS is an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway that catalyzes the formation of flavonols. In this article, we propose a novel strategy towards the generation of seedless or less-seeded fruits by downregulation of flavonol biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS of FLS encoding mRNA. The FLS silenced lines were observed for 20-80% reduction in FLS encoding gene expression and 25-93% reduction in flavonol (quercetin content. Interestingly, these FLS silenced tobacco lines also showed reduction in their anthocyanidins content. While the content of flavan-3-ols (catechin, epi-catechin and epi-gallocatechin was found to be increased in FLS silenced lines. The delayed flowering in FLS silenced lines could be due to decrease in level of indole acetic acid (IAA at apical region of their shoots. Furthermore, the pollen germination was hampered and pollens were unable to produce functional pollen tube in FLS silenced tobacco lines. Pods of FLS silenced lines contained significantly less number of seeds. The in vitro and in vivo studies where 1 µM quercetin was supplied to germination media, documented the restoration of normal pollen germination and pollen tube growth. This finding identified the role of flavonols particularly quercetin in pollen germination as well as in the regulation of plant fertility. Results also suggest a novel approach towards generation of seedless

  8. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic ('seedless') table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Fruita seca i fruita assecada, una especiatitat de l´àrea econòmica catalana-valenciana-balear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer i Mallol, Maria Teresa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals about some foodstuffs which are peculiar of the Mediterranean area: nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, chestnuts, walnuts, pine-nuts and dried fruits (figs, raisins, dates. Hazelnuts, almonds and pine-nuts were basic goods of exportation from Catalonia, Valencia and Majorca both to the East and to Flanders, while raisins and figs were exported specially to Italy and to England and Flanders. Walnuts and chestnuts had a shorter diffusion. Dates, produced in Elx, were also imported from Maghreb and often re-exported. While almonds could be found in the three countries, hazelnuts and pine-nuts were a Catalan product. Figs were dried in the three territories, though Valencia and Majorca produced a little more quantity. Raisins were a valencian speciality. The article is ilustrated with twenty-seven tables that demonstrate the trade of all these products, merchants, contracts, weights and measures.

    L'article tracta d'uns productes de l'alimentació propis de l'àrea Mediterrània, com ho son la fruita seca (ametlles, avellanes, castanyes, nous i pinyons i la finita assecada (figues, panses, dàtils. Avellanes, ametlles i pinyons eren productes basics d'exportació de Catalunya, Valencia i Mallorca, tant cap a Orient com cap a Flandes, mentre que panses i figues eren exportades especialment cap a Itàlia i cap a Anglaterra i Flandes. Les nous i les castanyes tenien una difusió mes limitada. Els dàtils, produïts a Elx, eren també importats del Magreb i reexportats després. Mentre que les ametlles es trobaven a tots tres territoris, les avellanes i els pinyons eren una producció catalana. Les figues s'assecaven també a tots tres territoris, però amb predomini del País Valencia i Mallorca i les panses eren una especialitat valenciana. L'article es completa amb vint-i-set quadres en els quals hi és detallat el comerç d'aquests productes. S'indiquen també els noms dels comerciants, la seva nacionalitat, el tipus de contracte

  10. A study of inter-particle bonds in dry bauxite waste resulting in atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Thompson, Bentley

    1988-02-01

    Bauxite and Alumina production are one of the main activities of several third world countries such as Jamaica, Brazil, India, Guinea, eastern European countries such as Hungary and Rumania and advanced countries such as Australia, West Germany, Japan and the United States. The mining operations lead to dust pollution, but the refining of bauxite to alumina yield large amounts of highly caustic sludge waste, called "Red Mud". Millions of tons of the waste produced in every country are stored in containment dams or natural valleys. This leads to ground water pollution, destruction of plant and bird life and is hazardous to human settlement in earthquake prone regions like Jamaica. As a result several companies have been looking into dry mud stacking which involves thickening the mud in the refining plants and sprying it on the slopes to sun dry it. Typically it involves a drying field of about two hundred acres, which could act as a potential source of caustic dust. In Jamaica one company has started disposing of the mud in this way. The aerosol formation from such areas depends mainly on the integrity of the top dry layers. Presently this is done by studying the approximate parameters such as the friability of the mud. However, following the recent advances in powder technology it has been possible for us to develop an instrument to study the average interparticle forces between the red mud particles. The instrument is based on the principle of a tensometer and a split cell is used to load specimens. A load cell is used to measure the force and a chart recorder is used for plotting separation and the force. The present study reports elemental composition of the dust and its health hazards. It also reports the physical measurement of the average interparticle force as a function of their separation in the Jamaican mud. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the strength of the material is studied to see the effect of sun-drying of the waste. The five-fold increase

  11. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  12. Solar drying and organoleptic characteristics of two tropical African fish species using improved low-cost solar driers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K; Ajibola, Taiye B; Salako, Abdulbashir F; Ademola, Sunmola K

    2014-05-01

    This study was done to evaluate the drying performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of five different types of improved low-cost solar driers in terms of moisture loss from two tropical African fish species Clarias gariepinus (African sharp tooth catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and testing the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples. The driers used were made from plastic, aluminum, glass, glass with black igneous stone, and mosquito net, with traditional direct open-sun drying as a control. A significant (P drying with black stone-inserted glass drier showing the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day and in O. niloticus on the eighth day. The slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species were recorded on and 13th day and 11th day, respectively. Volunteers were used to assess the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples and they showed lowest acceptability for the open-sun drying, while samples from the glass drier containing black stone had the highest acceptability in terms of the taste, flavor, appearance, texture, odor, palatability, and shelf-life. The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture. The highest drying time, efficient performance, drying effectiveness, and high acceptability of the organoleptic parameters of the dried products from the black stone-inserted glass drier were due to the ability of the glass and the black stone to retain, transmit, and radiate heat to the fish sample all the time (day and night). These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to maintain and operate, hygienic in use, reliable, effective, occupies less area, dry products faster with increased shelf-life, save man-hour, user-friendly, use renewable energy, protect the drying samples from filthiness, wetness, and invasion by pests

  13. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized on orange peel as biocatalyst for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessas, S.; Bekatorou, A; Koutinas, A.A.; Soupioni, M. [University of Patras (Greece). Department of Chemistry, Food Biotechnology Group; Banat, I.M.; Marchant, R. [University of Ulster, Coleraine, N. Ireland (United Kingdom). School of Biomedical Sciences

    2007-03-15

    A biocatalyst was prepared by immobilizing a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (baker's yeast) on orange peel pieces for use in alcoholic fermentation and for fermented food applications. Cell immobilization was shown by electron microscopy and by the efficiency of the immobilized biocatalyst for alcoholic fermentation of various carbohydrate substrates (glucose, molasses, raisin extracts) and at various temperatures (30-15 {sup o}C). Fermentation times in all cases were low (5-15 h) and ethanol productivities were high (av. 150.6 g/ld) showing good operational stability of the biocatalyst and suitability for commercial applications. Reasonable amounts of volatile by-products were produced at all temperatures studied, revealing potential application of the proposed biocatalyst in fermented food applications, to improve productivities and quality. (author)

  14. Germanium detectors and natural radioactivity in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbini, Lucia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GeDet-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Potassium is a very important mineral for many physiological processes, like fluid balance, protein synthesis and signal transmission in nerves. Many aliments like raisins, bananas or chocolate contain potassium. Natural potassium contains 0.012% of the radioactive isotope Potassium 40. This isotope decays via β{sup +} decay into a metastable state of Argon 40, which reaches its ground state emitting a gamma of 1460 keV. A commercially produced Germanium detector has been used to measure the energy spectra of different selected food samples. It was calibrated with KCl and potassium contents were extracted. Results verify the high potassium content of commonly recommended food samples. However, the measurement quantitatively differ from the expectations in several cases. One of the most interesting results concerns chocolate bars with different percentages of cacao.

  15. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  16. Consumption of productive electric power and value of agricultural production in Botucatu region; O consumo de energia eletrica produtiva e o valor da producao agropecuaria na regiao de Botucatu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo Andre de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], e-mail: pauloandre@fca.unesp.br; Simon, Elias Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mail: ejsimon@fca.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper objective was to settle the electric energy consumption in the countryside and the agriculture and cattle raisin production value in the counties of the Rural Development Office (EDR) of Botucatu, in the period of 1990 to 2000, trying to establish an analysis pattern to do future studies in other regions. This pattern could be used as an analysis instrument to make decisions to implement programs that look for an increase of use of electric energy as an input to join value to the rural product. In conclusion the data adjoined as EDR region do not present enough information to the relation between the production rough value and the electric energy consumption, being necessary, therefore, its disaggregation in counties. (author)

  17. Nutritionally Fortified Fruitcake (Thermoprocessed, Flexibly Packaged) Developed for Shuttle Flight Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    0.47 ± 0.02 0.48 ± 0.01 Iodine, meg 57.0 ± 15.56 51.5 1 3.54 Fiber , g 2.57 ± 0.25 2.60 ± 0.44 Carbohydrate, g 57.79 60.18 (by difference...halves. 3»1*9 Pineapple , candied - Pineapple shall be thoroughly processed with sugar to 75 percent soluble solids. The pineapple pieces shall be cut...10.k Pineapple , candied 8.6 Pecans, shelled 13.8 Raisins, bleached 15.6 Clove powder .06 Nutmeg .06 Cinnamon .12 100.00 3#3 Preparation 3.3.1

  18. Determination of total aflatoxines in dryed and nuted fruits present in macedinian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajrulai-Musliu Zehra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals are exposed to aflatoxins by consuming foods contaminated with products of fungal growth. Such exposure is difficult to avoid because fungal growth in foods is not easy to prevent. Even though heavily contaminated food supplies are not distributed at market in developed countries, concern still remains for the possible adverse effects as a consequence of long-term exposure to low levels of aflatoxins in the food supply. Thence the aim of this study was determination of total aflatoxins in dry fruits and nuts. Only products in the open market places such as peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds and raisins, were analysed. Nineteen of 30 analysed samples (63.33% were over the detection limit, whereas 11 of analysed samples (36,6% were the same limit.The highr then allowed value of aflatoxins concentration was determined only in one sample of walnut (21 µg/kg.

  19. Description et caractérisation de la diversité microbienne durant l'élaboration du vin : Interactions et équilibres – Relation avec la qualité du Vin

    OpenAIRE

    Renouf, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Sur le raisin coexiste, dans un système organisé, une grande variété de microorganismes, dont une partie comprend les principales espèces utiles à la vinification. Après le foulage, les interactions entre les levures et les bactéries assurent les fermentations alcoolique et malolactique et, après le sulfitage, les suivis des espèces résiduelles suggèrent que ces interactions persistent durant la période d'élevage du vin ce qui peut conduire à une altération des vins si des espèces comme la le...

  20. Mindfulness reduces the correspondence bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopthrow, Tim; Hooper, Nic; Mahmood, Lynsey; Meier, Brian P; Weger, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    The correspondence bias (CB) refers to the idea that people sometimes give undue weight to dispositional rather than situational factors when explaining behaviours and attitudes. Three experiments examined whether mindfulness, a non-judgmental focus on the present moment, could reduce the CB. Participants engaged in a brief mindfulness exercise (the raisin task), a control task, or an attention to detail task before completing a typical CB measure involving an attitude-attribution paradigm. The results indicated that participants in the mindfulness condition experienced a significant reduction in the CB compared to participants in the control or attention to detail conditions. These results suggest that mindfulness training can play a unique role in reducing social biases related to person perception.