Sample records for sun-dried seedless dipped

  1. 7 CFR 989.7 - Golden Seedless raisins. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden Seedless raisins. 989.7 Section 989.7... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.7 Golden Seedless raisins. Golden Seedless raisins means raisins, the production of which includes soda dipping, sulfuring, and artificial...

  2. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices. (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K


    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  3. EffeCts of Direct sUn Drying of Maize Grains on Perforated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Sun drying ofmqize grains on unperforated and perforatedsurfaceswas ... and 40 mm in the field The response variables measured were weight loss at all depths and moisture con- ..... tent (on milled grains and on whole grains): The.

  4. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices


    Workneh, T. S.; Zinash, A.; Woldetsadik, K.


    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. ...

  5. Mycoflora and vitamin content of sun-dried food condiments in Nigeria. (United States)

    Ekundayo, C A


    The fungi most frequently isolated (of 20-100% incidence) from fresh okra, pepper fruits and melon seeds are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichoderma harzianum, Mucor mucedo and Fusarium oxysporum. The major mycoflora of the fruits which had been sun-dried for twenty days are comprised of Aspergillus spp and Penicillium spp which initially had formed the minor components (of less than 20% incidence) of the colonising population. The effect of sun-drying on the fruits was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) decrease in the riboflavin content and a generally small and non-significant decrease in the concentrations of thiamine, niacin, biotin and ascorbic acid. The effect of mouldiness during sun-drying was to further decrease the concentration of the vitamins.

  6. Gamma irradiation of sun-dried apricots (Prunus armeniaca L.) for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India); Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M. [Astrophysical Science Division, Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar, Kashmir-190006 (India)


    The study is aimed at the optimization of gamma irradiation treatment of sun-dried apricots for quality maintenance and quarantine purposes. Sun-dried apricots pre-treated with potassium meta-bisulphite (KMS) at 2.5% w/v were procured from progressive apricot grower of district Kargil, Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. The sun-dried apricots were packed in 250 gauge polyethylene packs and gamma irradiated in the dose range 1.0-3.0 kGy. The gamma irradiated fruit including control was stored under ambient (15{+-}2-25{+-}2 {sup o}C, RH 70-80%) conditions and periodically evaluated for physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality parameters. Radiation treatment at dose levels of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy proved significantly (p{<=}0.05) beneficial in retention of higher levels of {beta}-carotene, ascorbic acid, total sugars and color values without impairing the taste as perceived by the sensory panel analysists. The above optimized doses retained the {beta}-carotene content of sun-dried apricots to the extent of 71.2% and 72.6% compared to 63.9% in control samples after 18 months of storage. Irradiation treatment facilitated the release of residual sulfur dioxide in KMS pre-treated sun-dried apricots significantly (p{<=}0.05) below the prescribed limit for dried products. During storage, two-fold decrease in sulfur dioxide content was recorded in irradiated samples (3.0 kGy) as compared to 16.9% in control. The above optimized doses besides maintaining the higher overall acceptability of sun-dried apricots resulted in 5 log reductions in microbial load just after irradiation and 1.0 and 1.3 log reductions in yeast and mold and bacterial count after 18 months of ambient storage.

  7. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials. (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I


    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation.


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    Jyoti Bala Chauhan


    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi L. has various beneficial properties including antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. The effect of traditional sun drying on the stability of fresh A. bilimbi fruits was investigated by using different methanol/water extracts, and their total phenolic content (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC compared. The TAC was evaluated using established in vitro models such as 1,1,diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2´-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid scavenging assay, total reducing power, phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelating activity. All the extracts of the dried fruit showed lower TPC compared to the fresh bilimbi extracts by 23-88%, TAC of which corresponded accordingly. The investigation revealed that A. bilimbi was a good source of antioxidants; however, the drying process of the fruit significantly affected the bioactive compounds.

  9. 7 CFR 52.1847 - Colors of golden seedless raisins. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colors of golden seedless raisins. 52.1847 Section 52... Raisins § 52.1847 Colors of golden seedless raisins. The color of Golden Seedless Raisins is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The color requirements applicable to the respective...

  10. Detecting compact binary coalescences with seedless clustering (United States)

    Coughlin, M.; Thrane, E.; Christensen, N.


    Compact binary coalescences are a promising source of gravitational waves for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. Although matched filtering is the optimal search method for well-modeled systems, alternative detection strategies can be used to guard against theoretical errors (e.g., involving new physics and/or assumptions about spin or eccentricity) while providing a measure of redundancy. In a previous paper, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to detect long-lived gravitational-wave transients in both targeted and all-sky searches. In this paper, we apply seedless clustering to the problem of low-mass (Mtotal≤10M⊙) compact binary coalescences for both spinning and eccentric systems. We show that seedless clustering provides a robust and computationally efficient method for detecting low-mass compact binaries.

  11. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria. (United States)

    Olufunmilayo, Gbonjubola Oyero; Oyefolu, Akeeb Bola


    In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nigeria were analysed for contaminating mycoflora using the plate count and micromorphological methods, while aflatoxin detection and quantification was by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Mycological analysis of samples revealed a higher contamination level in the sun-dried samples. Eighteen fungi species belonging to 8 genera, namely, Aspergillus, Penicilliu, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Neurospora, Rhizopus and yeast were identified. The predominant genus Aspergillus yielded 7 species while the potential toxicogenic fungi represented 38% of the isolated mycoflora. The genera requiring higher water activity for growth ( Alternaria, Fusarium and yeast) were not obtained from the dried meat. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were detected in all the samples analysed. The fresh samples with the exception of the total aflatoxin G (AFG) in kidney gave the highest mean concentrations for all aflatoxins, also an exceptionally high aflatoxin content was found in all the kidney samples. Aflatoxin detection in meat should be addressed urgently to avert the possible adverse health effects like aflatoxicosis, exacerbated malnutrition, suppression of growth and immune functions on consumers. Also the animal health inspectors should pay more attention to the feeding conditions of the animals on farm and the abattoirs.

  12. 7 CFR 989.110 - Varietal types. (United States)


    ...) Natural (sun-dried) Seedless includes all sun-dried seedless raisins possessing similar identifiable... Seedless includes all seedless raisins whose color generally varies from golden yellow to dark amber....

  13. Desempenho agronômico das videiras 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' no norte de Minas Gerais Agronomic performance of 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' vines in the north region of Minas Gerais

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    Nelson Pires Feldberg


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do vigor dos porta-enxertos '1103 Paulsen' e 'IAC-572 Jales', no desempenho agronômico das cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental da Epamig, em Mocambinho, distrito de Jaíba, MG, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com sete repetições em esquema fatorial 2x2. Foram analisadas a fertilidade de gemas, o número e a massa de cachos e a massa de ramos. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' proporcionou os melhores resultados nas cultivares Crimson Seedless e Superior Seedless quanto à massa e número de cachos por planta e fertilidade de gemas, com produtividade média de 31,9 e 22,4 t ha-1 ano-1 , respectivamente. O porta-enxerto 'IAC-572 Jales' proporcionou maior vigor, com maior massa de ramos por planta nas duas cultivares. O porta-enxerto '1103 Paulsen' induziu a maiores fertilidade de gemas e produtividades em 'Crimson Seedless' e 'Superior Seedless' e pode ser indicado para o cultivo na região de Jaíba, MG.The objective of this work was to study the influence of the '1103 Paulsen' and 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstocks vigor in the agronomic performance of the cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless'. The experiment was carried in the Epamig Experimental Farm located in Mocambinho, Jaíba, MG, Brazil, in completely randomized experimental design with seven replications in factorial 2x2. The following variables were studied: bud fertility, number and weight of clusters and cane weight. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock showed better results for cultivars 'Crimson Seedless' and 'Superior Seedless' regarding the number of clusters and their weight by plant and bud fertility, with average productivity of 31.9 and 22.4 t ha-1 year-1 , respectively. The 'IAC-572 Jales' rootstock provided higher vigor, comprising greater weight of canes per plant in both cultivars. The '1103 Paulsen' rootstock induced higher bud fertility and

  14. 7 CFR 52.1846 - Grades of seedless raisins. (United States)



  15. 7 CFR 52.1845 - Sizes of seedless raisins. (United States)



  16. The earlier identification of the seedless characteristic of the wampee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 13, 2010 ... 2Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment of Ministry of Education, ... increase burliness rate in hybridization. ... progeny, the objective of this work is to identify molecular markers linked to seedless trait through.

  17. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying. (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im


    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  18. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

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    Dayang Fredalina Basri


    Full Text Available The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS and open sun drying (OSD. The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  19. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers


    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, JD; Byaruhanga, YB


    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometery at 450nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of vari...

  20. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers. (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B


    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (pdrying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (pdrying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  1. A seedless approach to continuous flow synthesis of gold nanorods. (United States)

    Bullen, Craig; Latter, Melissa J; D'Alonzo, Nicholas J; Willis, Glen J; Raston, Colin L


    A direct seedless method for the continuous synthesis of gold nanorods has been developed using a sequential rotating tube-narrow channel processing microfluidic configuration, with the stock feed solutions (HAuCl(4)/CTAB/acetylacetone and AgNO(3)/CTAB/carbonate buffer) being stable for weeks.

  2. Multi-component analysis in sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix by single marker quantitation and chemometric discrimination

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    Yajing Lou


    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix before and after sulfur-fumigation using quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS. Materials and Methods: The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ferulic acid as the internal reference substance, and the contents of senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide were calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meanwhile, the influence of sulfur-fumigation on these chemical components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were evaluated and discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Results: There was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method. Furthermore, sulfur-fumigation reduced the contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix by some degree, and the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigation processing could be easily discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Conclusion: QAMS is a convenient and accurate approach to analyzing multi-component when reference substances are unavailable, simultaneously, chemometrics is an effective way to discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

  3. Isolation and characterization of latent and active polyphenoloxidase in BRS Clara (CNPUV 154-147 × Centennial seedless) and BRS Morena (Marroo seedless × Centennial seedless) seedless table grapes. (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Pavezzi, Fabiana Carina; Martin, Natália; Gomes, Eleni; Da Silva, Roberto


    The seedless grapes BRS Clara and BRS Morena, developed in Brazil, are currently growing in popularity due to their premium texture and taste. However, there are no reports on the polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from these cultivars. In this paper, active and latent PPO from BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless grapes were extracted using the non-ionic detergents Triton-X-100 (active) and Triton-X-114 (latent), and their catecholase activities were characterized. The PPO extracted using Triton-X-110 exhibited maximum activities at pH 6.0 and at 25 °C. Above 30 °C, a gradual decline in activities was noted, with complete inactivation at 60 °C. The PPO from grapes extracted with Triton-X-114 was activated with 0.2% of the ionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and exhibited maximum activities at pH 5.5 and at 30 °C. It was stable until the temperature reached 60 °C.

  4. Seedless synthesis of gold nanorods using resveratrol as a reductant (United States)

    Wang, Wenjing; Li, Jing; Lan, Shijie; Rong, Li; Liu, Yi; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai


    Gold nanorods (GNRs) attract extensive attention in current diagnostic and therapeutic applications which require the synthesis of GNRs with high yields, adjustable aspect ratio, size monodispersity, and easy surface decoration. In the seed-mediated synthesis of GNRs using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micelles as templates, the additives of aromatic compounds have been found to be important for improving the size monodispersity of the as-synthesized GNRs; this is hopeful in terms of the further optimization of the synthetic methodology of GNRs. In this work, resveratrol, a natural polyphenol in grapes with an anti-oxidization behavior, is employed as the reductant for the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity and a tunable aspect ratio. Accordingly, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak is tunable from 570 to 950 nm. The success of our approach is attributed to the aromatic structure and mild reducibility of resveratrol. The embedment of resveratrol into CTAB micelles strengthens the facet-selective adsorption of CTAB, and therewith facilitates the anisotropic growth of GNRs. In addition, the mild reducibility of resveratrol is capable of supporting GNR growth by avoiding secondary nucleation, thus allowing the seedless synthesis of GNRs with a good size monodispersity. As a chemopreventive agent, the combination of resveratrol in GNR synthesis will consolidate the theranostic applications of GNRs.

  5. E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip (United States)

    ... Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip What We Know About E-Cigarettes ... Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip What We Know About E-Cigarettes ...

  6. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

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    Biswal Chichilichi


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  7. Cytogenetic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sun Dried Seeds of Soursop (Annona muricata on The Male Germ Line Cells of The African Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L.

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    Seino RA


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona muricata on some meiotic parameters in the pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Adult grasshoppers were treated with 28μl of the Ethanol extract of sun dry seeds of Annona muricata and absolute ethanol (control for 48 hours and all the parameters (chiasma frequency, formation of rod and ring shaped bivalents and meiotic anomalies were affected by the extract. Chiasma formation was observed to significantly (P<0.05 increase following treatment and this was correlated by a significant increase in the formation of ring shaped bivalents. The incidences of meiotic anomalies such as laggards and bridges at first and second meiotic Anaphases, second meiotic Metaphase as well as in first and second meiotic Telophases were observed to increase when insects were treated with the ethanol extract. These observations indicated that the Ethanol extract of the seeds of A. muricata contain substances that could induce cytotoxicity. The importance of such property in the formulation of grasshopper pest control measures cannot be overemphasized.

  8. Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes. (United States)

    Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S


    Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the

  9. Mechanism of seedlessness in a new lemon cultivar 'Xiangshui' [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F]. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Gui-Xiang; Ding, Feng; He, Xin-Hua; Pan, Jie-Chun


    Seedlessness is an important economic trait of lemon. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon requires detailed data on pollen and embryo sac fertility, embryo development and compatibility mechanisms governing self- and cross-pollination. The results of the current study indicate that the fertility of pollen and mature embryo sac remains normal. When flowers were self- or cross-pollinated, pollen grains of 'Xiangshui' were able to germinate on the stigma. In the case of self-pollination, pollen tubes became twisted, tube tips enlarged and tubes ruptured in the bottom of stigma. Following cross-pollination, tubes were able to grow normally in the style and ovary and enter the embryo sac, where double fertilization took place. Embryonic development resulting from cross-pollination was normal. After cross-pollination, the zygote began to divide at 2 weeks post-pollination, with early globular embryos observed after 3 weeks, globular and heart-shaped embryos at 4 weeks, torpedo-shaped embryos at 5 weeks, cotyledonary embryos at 6 weeks and thereafter germinable seeds. After self-pollination, however, ovules began to abort at 2 weeks post-pollination, with ovules disappearing at 5 weeks, ultimately producing seedless fruits. Emasculated unpollinated flowers also developed into seedless fruits, indicating that seedlessness contributes to parthenocarpy. However, gametophytic self-incompatibility has a major role in seedlessness in 'Xiangshui' lemon by blocking fertilization at the bottom of the stigma.

  10. Effect of ensiled mulberry leaves and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace on finishing steer growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Zhou

    Full Text Available Fifty-one Simmental crossbred steers (357.0 ± 16.5 kg were used to compare a standard total mix ration (TMR with variants on animal performance, ruminal fermentation, blood biochemical parameters, and carcass characteristics. Corn grain and cotton seed meal were partially replaced by ensiled mulberry leaves (EML or sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP. Experimental diets had similar amounts of crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and metabolizable energy (ME. Animals were divided into three groups: control group (CONT, 8% EML group, and 6.3% SMFP group. Performance, including average daily weight gain (ADG, and dry matter intake (DMI, was measured. Blood and rumen samples were collected at the end of the experiment (16 weeks. There were no differences in final body weight (P = 0.743, ADG (P = 0.425, DMI (P = 0.642, or ADG/DMI (P = 0.236 between the groups. There were no differences (P = 0.2024 in rumen pH values; ammonia N was lower (P = 0.0076 in SMFP than in the EML and CONT groups. There were differences in the concentrations of total and individual volatile fatty acids, while no differences were determined in blood biochemical parameters (i.e., plasma glucose, urea concentrations, triglycerides, total protein, insulin, IgG, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase, P ≥ 0.098. No differences were observed in carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.513, tenderness (P = 0.844, adipose and lean color values (P ≥ 0.149, and chemical composition (P ≥ 0.400; however, intramuscular fat was lower in the EML and SMFP groups compared to the CONT animals (P = 0.034. In conclusion, diets supplemented with these two mulberry products in an isocaloric and isonitrogenous manner have similar effects to corn grain and cotton seed meals on steer performance, blood biochemical parameters and carcass characteristics, with the exception of ruminal VFA concentrations and lower intramuscular fat content.

  11. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Niu

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had similar crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and metabolizable energy. Following the feeding trial, the steers were slaughtered and ruminal liquid samples were collected to study the ruminal microbiome. Extraction of DNA, amplification of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and Illumina MiSeq pyrosequencing were performed for each sample. Following sequence de-noising, chimera checking, and quality trimming, an average of 209,610 sequences were generated per sample. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to examine the selected bacterial species in the rumen. Our results showed that the predominant phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.90%, Firmicutes (39.06%, Proteobacteria (4.31%, and Tenericutes (2.04%, and the predominant genera included Prevotella (13.82%, Ruminococcus (2.51%, Butyrivibrio (2.38%, and Succiniclasticum (2.26%. Compared to the control group, EML and SMFP groups had a higher abundance of total bacteria (p < 0.001; however, the bacterial community composition was similar among the three groups. At the phylum level, there were no significant differences in Firmicutes (p = 0.7932, Bacteroidetes (p = 0.2330, Tenericutes (p = 0.2811, or Proteobacteria (p = 0.0680 levels among the three groups; however, Fibrobacteres decreased in EML (p = 0.0431. At the genus level, there were no differences in Prevotella (p = 0.4280, Ruminococcus (p = 0.2639, Butyrivibrio (p = 0.4433, or Succiniclasticum (p = 0.0431 levels among the groups. Additionally, the dietary treatments had no significant effects on the archaeal community composition in the rumen. Therefore, EML and SMFP supplementation had no significant effects on the ruminal bacterial or archaeal

  12. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis (United States)

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing


    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV-visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  13. Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DIP database catalogs experimentally determined interactions between proteins. It combines information from a variety of sources to create a single, consistent...

  14. KIC 8462852 optical dipping event (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.


    T. Boyajian (Louisiana State University) et al. reported in ATel #10405 that an optical dip is underway in KIC 8462852 (Boyajian's Star, Tabby's Star) beginning on 2017 May 18 UT. Tentative signs of small dips had been seen beginning April 24, and enhanced monitoring had begun at once at Fairborn Observatory (Tennessee State University). Photometry and spectroscopy from there on May 18 and 19 UT showed a dip underway. Cousins V photometry showed a drop of 0.02 magnitude, the largest dip (and the first clear one) seen in more than a year of monitoring. AAVSO observer Bruce Gary (GBL, Hereford, AZ) carried out V photometry which showed a fading from 11.906 V ± 0.004 to 11.9244 V ± 0.0033 between UT 2017 May 14 and May 19, a drop of 1.7%. Swift/UVOT observations obtained May 18 15:19 did not show a statistically significant drop in v, but Gary's photometry is given more weight. r'-band observations from Las Cumbres Observatory obtained 2017 May 17 to May 19 showed a 2% dip. Spectra by I. Steele (Liverpool JMU) et al. taken on 2017 May 20 with the 2.0 meter Liverpool Telescope, La Palma, showed no differences in the source compared to a reference spectrum taken 2016 July 4 when the system was not undergoing a dip (ATel #10406).Dips typically last for a few days, and larger dips can last over a week. It is not clear that this dip is over. Precision time-series V photometry is urgently requested from AAVSO observers, although all photometry is welcome. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter ( See full Alert Notice for more details. KIC 8462852 was the subject of AAVSO Alert Notices 532 and 542. See also Boyajian et al. 2016, also available as a preprint ( General information about KIC 8462852 may be found at

  15. Characterization and semiquantitative analysis of volatiles in seedless watermelon varieties using solid-phase microextraction. (United States)

    Beaulieu, John C; Lea, Jeanne M


    Seedless triploid watermelons have increased in popularity since the early 1990s, and the demand for seedless fruit is on the rise. Sweetness and sugars are crucial breeding focuses for fruit quality. Volatiles also play an important role; yet, we found no literature for seedless varieties and no reports using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in watermelon. The objective of this experiment was to identify volatile and semivolatile compounds in five seedless watermelon varieties using carboxen divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fully ripe watermelon was squeezed through miracloth to produce rapid juice extracts for immediate headspace SPME GC-MS. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and one furan (2-pentyl furan, a lipid oxidation product) were recovered. On the basis of total ion count peak area, the most abundant compounds in five varieties were 3-nonen-1-ol/(E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (16.5-28.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (10.6-22.5%), and (Z)-6-nonenal (2.0-11.3%). Hexanal was most abundant (37.7%) in one variety (Petite Perfection) [corrected] The most abundant ketone was 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (2.7-7.7%). Some sensory attributes reported for these compounds are melon, citrus, cucumber, orange, rose, floral, guava, violet, vegetable, green, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, fatty, sweet, and waxy. Identifying and relating these compounds to sensory attributes will allow for future monitoring of the critical flavor compounds in seedless watermelon after processing and throughout fresh-cut storage.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Valdevino Pommer


    Full Text Available Fantasia' e `Ruiva' são dois cultivares de uva de mesa desenvolvidos pelo Departamento de Agricultura dos E.U.A., lançadas na Califórnia em 1989 e introduzidos no Brasil, no mesmo ano, pelos autores. No final do inverno de 1991, garfos dos dois cultivares foram enxertados sobre três diferentes porta-enxertos, a saber: Kober 5BB, Ripária do Traviú (106-8 Mgt e IAC 766 `Campinas', no Centro Experimental de Campinas, do IAC. Garfos também foram distribuídos para alguns viticultores selecionados em diferentes regiões paulistas. Resultados de observações preliminares são apresentados. Para a familiarização pelos viticultores, bem como facilitar a pronúncia em português, os cultivares foram renomeados como sendo `Fantasia' para "Fantasy Seedless" e `Ruiva' para "Crimson Seedless". `Fantasia' é uma uva preta, de ciclo precoce a médio, com cachos médios (350-550g, de 13-20cm de comprimento e de compacidade média a solta. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 4-9g, com diâmetro de 17 a 22mm e 20-30mm de comprimento e ovais. `Ruiva' é uma uva avermelhada, de ciclo médio, com cachos médios a grandes (460-620g, com 18-30cm de comprimento e levemente compactos. Os bagos são naturalmente grandes, apesar de apirenas, pesando em média 3,5-8,0g, diâmetro de 16-21mm e 18-30mm de comprimento e cilíndricas a ovais. A duração do ciclo vegetativo (da poda à colheita em Campinas, para ambos os cultivares foi aproximadamente o mesmo, independentemente do porta-enxerto utilizado. Por outro lado, o vigor, avaliado por intermédio do diâmetro do tronco e do peso de ramos podados, foi mais pronunciado para Ruiva enxertado sobre Kober 5BB. O comportamento de ambos cultivares em São Paulo, avaliado nas condições enunciadas, mostrou elevado potencial produtivo, aliado a excelentes características comerciais."Fantasy Seedless" and "Crimson Seedless" are two vinifera table grape cultivars released in 1989

  17. ICE-DIP kicks off

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Last month, Marie Curie Actions* added a new member to its ranks: ICE-DIP (the Intel-CERN European Doctorate Industrial Program). The programme held its kick-off meeting on 18-19 February in Leixlip near Dublin, Ireland, at Intel’s premises.   Building on CERN’s long-standing relationship with Intel in the CERN openlab project, ICE-DIP brings together CERN and industrial partners, Intel and Xena Networks, to train five Early Stage ICT Researchers. These researchers will be funded by the European Commission and granted a CERN Fellow contract while enrolled in the doctoral programmes at partner universities Dublin City University and National University of Ireland Maynooth. The researchers will go on extended secondments to Intel Labs Europe locations across Europe during their three-year training programme. The primary focus of the ICE-DIP researchers will be the development of techniques for acquiring and processing data that are relevant for the trigger a...

  18. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park


    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  19. Seedless clustering in all-sky searches for gravitational-wave transients

    CERN Document Server

    Thrane, Eric


    The problem of searching for unmodeled gravitational-wave bursts can be thought of as a pattern recognition problem: how to find statistically significant clusters in spectrograms of strain power when the precise signal morphology is unknown. In a previous publication, we showed how "seedless clustering" can be used to dramatically improve the sensitivity of searches for long-lived gravitational-wave transients. In order to manage the computational costs, this initial analysis focused on externally triggered searches where the source location and emission time are both known to some degree of precision. In this paper, we show how the principle of seedless clustering can be extended to facilitate computationally-feasible, all-sky searches where the direction and emission time of the source are entirely unknown. We further demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a considerable reduction in computation time by using graphical processor units (GPUs), thereby facilitating more sensitive searches.

  20. Length tunable penta-twinned palladium nanorods: seedless synthesis and electrooxidation of formic acid (United States)

    Tang, Yongan; Edelmann, Richard E.; Zou, Shouzhong


    Palladium nanorods with controlled lengths from 100 to 500 nm and a fixed width of 20 nm were synthesized for the first time by a seedless approach. These rods show higher peak current densities than Pd cubes for formic acid oxidation and the catalytic activity decreases with increasing rod length.Palladium nanorods with controlled lengths from 100 to 500 nm and a fixed width of 20 nm were synthesized for the first time by a seedless approach. These rods show higher peak current densities than Pd cubes for formic acid oxidation and the catalytic activity decreases with increasing rod length. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00299g

  1. Murcott seedless: influence of gamma irradiation on citrus production and fruit quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermejo, A.; Pardo, J.; Cano, A.


    A Seedlessness is an important economic trait relating to fruit quality, and gamma irradiation is a common technique used to obtain seedless citrus fruits. Herein, we report a study of new seedless Murcott mandarin clones obtained by bud irradiation from the self-compatible not parthenocarpic Murcott mandarin. All irradiated clones examined presented lower seed numbers (from 0.23 to 2.47 seeds per fruit) and reduced pollen germination (from 1.40% to 8.55%) whereas the wild-type Murcott showed an average number of 9.03 seeds per fruit and a pollen germination value of 47.15%. Fruit quality and nutritional bio-components were affected differently; some clones presented no changes compared to the control Murcott mandarin, while other clones showed significant differences. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds, using photodiode array, mass and refractive index detectors. Our results indicated high contents in natural antioxidants as vitamin C (from 20.13 to 25.73 mg/100 mL) and phenolic compounds, as flavonoids, in these citrus varieties cultived under the Mediterranean climate. Some of these clones, which ripen late in the season and whose fruit quality is maintained or improved, are in the process of registration. In conclusion, budwood irradiation is a suitable technique to improve cultivars, produce seedless cultivars, adjust ripening time or raise the content of health-promoting compounds. Also this study investigates the influence of temperature during flowering on the number of seeds formed. Findings indicate that low temperatures during flower formation decreased pollen germination and seed number. (Author) 35 refs.

  2. 9 CFR 72.25 - Dipping methods. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dipping methods. 72.25 Section 72.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... CATTLE § 72.25 Dipping methods. Dipping is accomplished by thoroughly wetting the entire skin by...

  3. Pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties cultivated under protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Gabriel Abrahão Bomfim


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral biology and pollination requirements of seeded and seedless mini watermelon varieties, and to determine the best varieties to cultivate under protected environment. Three seedless (HA-5106, HA-5158, and HA-5161 and two seeded (Minipol and Polimore genotypes were tested. Flowers were monitored from the pre-anthesis stage to senescence, and fruit quality was also evaluated. The evaluated treatments were hand-geitonogamous pollination (MG, cross-pollination with pollen from the Polimore variety (MCP, cross-pollination with pollen from the Minipol variety (MCM, and restricted pollination. All varieties had monoecious plants with diclinous flowers, and the stigmas remained receptive throughout anthesis. Fruit set rates of 84.62% (MG, 61.54% (MCP, 48% (MCM, and 0% (restricted were obtained for seeded varieties, but of 0% (MG, 76.36% (MCP, 82.69% (MCM, and 0% (restricted for seedless varieties. Fruits did not differ in quality among treatments within each genotype. Therefore, all the studied varieties require a pollination agent and diploid pollen for fruit set to occur, regardless of the donor variety; and Minipol or Polimore with HA-5106 or HA-5158 are the varieties recommended for cultivation in protected environment.

  4. Gastroprotective effect ofAcacia nilotica young seedless pod extract:Role of polyphenolic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar Bansal; Rajesh Kumar Goel


    ABSTRACT Objective:To systematically evaluate antiulcer potential ofAcacia nilotica in different ulcer models in rats.Methods:Different extracts [ethanolic,50% hydroethanolic(50:50),70% hydroethanolic(70:30) and aqueous] of young seedless pods were examined in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats.Various parameters like, volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index , mucin content and antioxidant studies were determined and were compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control following ulcer induction. The most active extract was also evaluated in swimming stress induced andNSAID induced gastric ulceration.Results:Among different extracts of young seedless pods only hydroethanolic extracts showed significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation induced ulceration.Even more the70% hydroethanolic extract showed better protection as compared to50% hydroethanolic extract.Further70% hydroethanolic extract also showed significant mucoprotection in swimming stress induced and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs induced gastric ulceration.Conclusions:The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of young seedless pods of Acacia nilotica has antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation, swimming stress andNSAID induced rat ulcer models.The extract containing more amount of phenolic components show high antiulcer activity, indicating the phenolic component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.

  5. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage (United States)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni


    Every year a significant amount of organic table grapes is lost during postharvest mainly due to the incidence of decay, stem browning and fast alteration of the taste and aroma. The demand for this fresh product with immaculate appearance and high sensory quality in terms of flavor, is a hard challenge considering the difficulties to conserve them, with alternative safe treatments to the sulphur dioxide (SO2) which is not allowed in organic product. The aim of this experiment was to maintain the quality of organic table grapes and extend their shelf-life for medium and long term, in order to reach new distant promising markets, by using safe methods. The effectiveness of the combination of pretreatment with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) compounds, physical means and storage under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were performed by using detached organic table grape berries as alternatives to usual industrial SO2 application. The detached organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" berries were pretreated by: i) dipping in ethanol and potassium bicarbonate; ii) massive CO2 concentrations; iii) ozone (O3) fumigation; whereas, untreated berries were included in the trial as control. Moreover, all the samples were packed in thermo-sealed ALPAK bags with MAP of 2% O2:5% CO2:93% N2 and stored at 0°C for 45 days. Initially and after 15, 30 and 45 days of storage, weight loss, decay incidence, berry/skin firmness, pedicel detachment force, skin color parameters, SSC, pH, titratable acidity and sensory evaluation scores, were monitored. After 45 days of storage, the weight loss was higher in the sample pretreated with massive CO2 concentration at 70 - 90 % and the control. The samples pretreated with CO2 at 70% and O3 at 20 ppm maintained the strength of the berry linked to its pedicel, also the berry and skin firmness were statistically higher in samples pretreated with CO2 at 90 - 70% and O3 at 20 ppm in comparison with the control. The skin color parameters and

  6. Effect of Robusta (Coffea canephora P.) coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on contamination by fungi and ochratoxin A (OTA) under tropical humid zone (Côte d'Ivoire). (United States)

    Kouadio, Irène Ahou; Koffi, Louis Ban; Nemlin, Jean Gnopo; Dosso, Mireille Bretin


    The effect of coffee cherries quantity put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, chemical components variation, fungal growth and ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries quantity on the drying area was important, the slower they dried. Indeed, the drying durations were 12, 17, 21, 26, 31 and 32 days respectively for the lots of 10 kg, 20 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg, 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area. The slowness of the drying led to the increasing of fungal development and ochratoxin A production in the cherries. Indeed, samples more contaminated were those from the lots of 50 kg and 60 kg of cherries by square meter of drying area with between 10% and 100% of infected beans and with levels of ochratoxin A ranging from 0.92 to 118.47 and 1.4 to 131.33 μg kg(-1) respectively. The slowness of the drying led also to the acidification of the cherries (pH=5.55-4.54) and the degradation of their chlorogenic acids content (13.03-11.69) while for their caffeine content (2.52-2.54), any significant difference was observed whatever the drying duration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 21159 - Additional Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks); Extension of the... (United States)


    ... Operations (Dip Tanks); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval of the Information... Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)). DATES: Comments must be submitted (postmarked... Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)). The Agency is requesting to retain its previous burden...

  8. Screening tests for new teat dips. (United States)

    Farnsworth, R J; Johnson, D W; Dewey, L


    Increased use of after-milking teat dips has resulted in the appearance of many new teat dips and a need for methods of evaluation of efficacy. A method was developed for determining the ability of a disinfectant to kill bacteria on the teat ends. Results from several known efficacious products indicated an approximate 95% reduction in bacterial flora. Additional data are presented on some experimental products. This method will provide a measure of effectiveness of a producton teat-skin disinfection. The effect of some changes in the testing procedure on bacterial reduction is demonstrated: 1) Increased times between inoculation and dipping and between dipping and swabbing tended to decrease recoveries on control teats. 2) Saline dips on controls teats provided increased recoveries of test organisms.

  9. Comparative transcript profiling of gene expression between seedless Ponkan mandarin and its seedy wild type during floral organ development by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray. (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Ming; Zhu, An-Dan; Wang, Yao; Chai, Li-Jun; Ge, Xiao-Xia; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu


    Seedlessness is an important agronomic trait for citrus, and male sterility (MS) is one main cause of seedless citrus fruit. However, the molecular mechanism of citrus seedlessness remained not well explored. An integrative strategy combining suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library with cDNA microarray was employed to study the underlying mechanism of seedlessness of a Ponkan mandarin seedless mutant (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Screening with custom microarray, a total of 279 differentially expressed clones were identified, and 133 unigenes (43 contigs and 90 singletons) were obtained after sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO) distribution based on biological process suggested that the majority of differential genes are involved in metabolic process and respond to stimulus and regulation of biology process; based on molecular function they function as DNA/RNA binding or have catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity. A gene encoding male sterility-like protein was highly up-regulated in the seedless mutant compared with the wild type, while several transcription factors (TFs) such as AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC and C2C2-GATA zinc-finger domain TFs were down-regulated. Our research highlighted some candidate pathways that participated in the citrus male gametophyte development and could be beneficial for seedless citrus breeding in the future.

  10. Fatty acid extraction of Thompson seedless raisin by different methods%不同方法提取无核白葡萄干中脂肪酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小梅; 李园月; 吴广枫


    ABSTRACT:Objective To develop an effective method for the extraction of fatty acid in raisin. Methods Thompson seedless raisin was analyzed in this study, and its fatty acid composition and content were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Four extraction methods were adopted to extract the fatty acid in Thompson seedless-Sun dried raisins (TS-SD, soluble solids content is 84.69%). Results No category difference of fatty acid was detected between different methods. 16 kinds of fatty acids were determined in TS-SD, including 11 kinds of saturated fatty acids and 5 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids. When liquid-liquid extraction-methanol (LLE-M) was used as extraction method, the total content of saturated fatty acid (SFA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and the fatty acid (FA) was found to be higher. Conclusion LLE-M method is an effective way to extract fatty acid in raisins, and this will contribute to the research of flavor in raisin.%目的:确立葡萄干中脂肪酸提取的有效方法。方法采用气相色谱质谱联用技术的方法,对无核白葡萄干中的脂肪酸进行了研究。采用4种提取方法,对自然晒干工艺制成的无核白葡萄干(可溶性固形物含量84.69%)进行脂肪酸种类和含量的研究。结果当采用不同提取方法时,检测到的葡萄干中的脂肪酸种类无差异,仅存在含量上的差别。无核白葡萄干中共鉴定出16种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸11种,不饱和脂肪酸5种。当采用液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法提取葡萄干中脂肪酸时,不饱和脂肪酸总含量、饱和脂肪酸总含量以及脂肪酸总含量均优于其他方法提取出的脂肪酸含量。结论液液萃取-甲醇辅助提取方法是提取葡萄干中脂肪酸的有效方法,这为葡萄干中风味物质研究打下基础。

  11. Iron (III Ion Sensor Based on the Seedless Grown ZnO Nanorods in 3 Dimensions Using Nickel Foam Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi


    Full Text Available In the present work, the seedless, highly aligned and vertical ZnO nanorods in 3 dimensions (3D were grown on the nickel foam substrate. The seedless grown ZnO nanorods were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The characterised seedless ZnO nanorods in 3D on nickel foam were highly dense, perpendicular to substrate, grown along the (002 crystal plane, and also composed of single crystal. In addition to this, these seedless ZnO nanorods were functionalized with trans-dinitro-dibenzo-18-6 crown ether, a selective iron (III ion ionophore, along with other components of membrane composition such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 2-nitopentylphenyl ether as plasticizer (NPPE, and tetrabutyl ammonium tetraphenylborate (TBATPB as conductivity increaser. The sensor electrode has shown high linearity with a wide range of detection of iron (III ion concentrations from 0.005 mM to 100 mM. The low limit of detection of the proposed ion selective electrode was found to be 0.001 mM. The proposed sensor also described high storage stability, selectivity, reproducibility, and repeatability and a quick response time of less than 10 s.

  12. Mantle wedge serpentinization effects on slab dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eh Tan


    Full Text Available The mechanical coupling between a subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge is an important factor in controlling the subduction dip angle and the flow in mantel wedge. This paper investigates the role of the amount of mantle serpentinization on the subduction zone evolution. With numerical thermos-mechanical models with elasto-visco-plastic rheology, we vary the thickness and depth extent of mantle serpentinization in the mantle wedge to control the degree of coupling between the slab and mantle wedge. A thin serpentinized mantle layer is required for stable subduction. For models with stable subduction, we find that the slab dip is affected by the down-dip extent and the mantle serpentinization thickness. A critical down-dip extent exists in mantle serpentinization, determined by the thickness of the overriding lithosphere. If the down-dip extent does not exceed the critical depth, the slab is partially coupled to the overriding lithosphere and has a constant dip angle regardless of the mantle serpentinization thickness. However, if the down-dip extent exceeds the critical depth, the slab and the base of the overriding lithosphere would be separated and decoupled by a thick layer of serpentinized peridotite. This allows further slab bending and results in steeper slab dip. Increasing mantle serpentinization thickness will also result in larger slab dip. We also find that with weak mantle wedge, there is no material flowing from the asthenosphere into the serpentinized mantle wedge. All of these results indicate that serpentinization is an important ingredient when studying the subduction dynamics in the mantle wedge.

  13. Dip-separated structural filtering using seislet transform and adaptive empirical mode decomposition based dip filter (United States)

    Chen, Yangkang


    The seislet transform has been demonstrated to have a better compression performance for seismic data compared with other well-known sparsity promoting transforms, thus it can be used to remove random noise by simply applying a thresholding operator in the seislet domain. Since the seislet transform compresses the seismic data along the local structures, the seislet thresholding can be viewed as a simple structural filtering approach. Because of the dependence on a precise local slope estimation, the seislet transform usually suffers from low compression ratio and high reconstruction error for seismic profiles that have dip conflicts. In order to remove the limitation of seislet thresholding in dealing with conflicting-dip data, I propose a dip-separated filtering strategy. In this method, I first use an adaptive empirical mode decomposition based dip filter to separate the seismic data into several dip bands (5 or 6). Next, I apply seislet thresholding to each separated dip component to remove random noise. Then I combine all the denoised components to form the final denoised data. Compared with other dip filters, the empirical mode decomposition based dip filter is data-adaptive. One only needs to specify the number of dip components to be separated. Both complicated synthetic and field data examples show superior performance of my proposed approach than the traditional alternatives. The dip-separated structural filtering is not limited to seislet thresholding, and can also be extended to all those methods that require slope information.

  14. Large Capacity SMES for Voltage Dip Compensation (United States)

    Iwatani, Yu; Saito, Fusao; Ito, Toshinobu; Shimada, Mamoru; Ishida, Satoshi; Shimanuki, Yoshio

    Voltage dips of power grids due to thunderbolts, snow damage, and so on, cause serious damage to production lines of precision instruments, for example, semiconductors. In recent years, in order to solve this problem, uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS) are used. UPS, however, has small capacity, so a great number of UPS are needed in large factories. Therefore, we have manufactured the superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system for voltage dip compensation able to protect loads with large capacity collectively. SMES has advantages such as space conservation, long lifetime and others. In field tests, cooperating with CHUBU Electric Power Co., Inc. we proved that SMES is valuable for compensating voltage dips. Since 2007, 10MVA SMES improved from field test machines has been running in a domestic liquid crystal display plant, and in 2008, it protected plant loads from a number of voltage dips. In this paper, we report the action principle and components of the improved SMES for voltage dip compensation, and examples of waveforms when 10MVA SMES compensated voltage dips.

  15. The ubiquitin extension protein S27a is differentially expressed in developing flower organs of Thompson seedless versus Thompson seeded grape isogenic clones. (United States)

    Hanania, Uri; Velcheva, Margarita; Sahar, Nachman; Flaishman, Moshe; Or, Etti; Degani, Oded; Perl, Avihai


    In Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless, fertilization occurs but seeds abort, a type of stenospermocarpy. To clone transcripts with differential expression during flower development, suppressive subtractive hybridization was carried out using two isogenic clones 'Thompson seedless' and 'Thompson seeded', at three stages of inflorescence development (from bud break to ~20 days prior to anthesis). Differential screening and sequencing of a forward and reverse subtractive cDNA library yielded several singleton ESTs. One differentially expressed clone in 'Thompson' seeded versus seedless isogenic clones was the ubiquitin extension protein S27a. In situ hybridization demonstrated its significantly higher expression in the carpel and ovaries of 'Thompson' seedless versus seeded isogenic clones during flower development. Overexpression of this gene resulted in abnormal plant regeneration and inhibited shoot development compared to controls; its silencing in embryogenic callus induced cell necrosis and callus death, evidencing tight regulation of this gene in developing organs of grape. S27a overexpression in carpels and integuments of the seedless flower may interfere with normal development of these organs, leading to embryo abortion and seedlessness.

  16. Relationship between Root Growth of 'Thompson Seedless' Grapevines and Soil Temperature Relación entre el Crecimiento Radical de Vid 'Thompson Seedless' y la Temperatura del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Callejas R


    Full Text Available With the purpose of characterizing the growth of the root system of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless and its relationship with soil temperature, research was carried out during the 2004-2005 growing season in vineyards in the Copiapó and Huasco Valleys. Four plants were chosen and rhizotrons were used to measure the growth of the root system. Measurements were performed once a week from September 2004 to September 2005, estimating the intensity of root growth and its annual distribution in the ranges of 0 to 40, 40 to 80 and 80 to 120 cm of soil depth. Temperature sensors were installed in four plants at 25, 50, 75 and 100 cm of soil depth, and the temperature was registered every 1 h. The thermal diffusivity of the soil was calculated based on the annual mean temperature and annual thermal amplitude values. Root growth occurred throughout the year, presenting lower intensity in July (winter. Root systems presented different patterns in the distribution of growth intensity in the three soil depths, with variations in the order of five times in maximum annual growth intensity among sites. High thermal diffusivity in soils favored root growth.Con el objetivo de caracterizar el crecimiento del sistema radical de la vid (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless y su relación con la temperatura del suelo, durante la temporada 2004-2005 se llevó a cabo un estudio en parronales ubicados en los valles de Copiapó y Huasco. Se instalaron cuatro cámaras de observación de raíces o rizotrones en plantas homogéneas, en plena producción, pie franco, sanas, y ubicadas en diferentes localidades de la región. Las mediciones del crecimiento de las raíces se efectuaron semanalmente, desde septiembre de 2004 hasta completar 1 año, estimándose la intensidad de crecimiento radical anual y su distribución en los rangos de 0 a 40, 40 a 80 y 80 a 120 cm de profundidad. Adicionalmente, se instalaron sensores de temperatura a 25, 50, 75 y

  17. 75 FR 17162 - Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and... (United States)


    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval of the Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirement... collection requirement specified in its Standard on Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA


    as water activity and sodium chloride were analyzed. In both groups the results obtained in microbial analysis were quite high. In the samples of the inspected establishments the averages of mesophylic counts bacterias, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms were 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g and 1,34Log NMP/g respectively and, in the samples without inspection, the averages were 7,41Log UFC/g, 4,44Log UFC/g, 6,78Log UFC/g and 2,6Log NMP/g, respectively. The microbial results suggest errors in the processing and manipulation of both samples, and the fecal contamination was much higher in the samples collected in establishments without inspection. The variation of the sodium chloride content and water activity of the sample indicated lack of standardization during sun dried meat processing. There is the need tho establish microbiological and physical-chemical legal parameters capable of offering safe food to the consumer.

  19. Expression Patterns and Potential Biological Roles of Dip2a.

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    Luqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Disconnected (disco-interacting protein 2 homolog A is a member of the DIP2 protein family encoded by Dip2a gene. Dip2a expression pattern has never been systematically studied. Functions of Dip2a in embryonic development and adult are not known. To investigate Dip2a gene expression and function in embryo and adult, a Dip2a-LacZ mouse model was generated by insertion of β-Gal cDNA after Dip2a promoter using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Dip2a-LacZ mouse was designed to be a lacZ reporter mouse as well as a Dip2a knockout mouse. Heterozygous mice were used to study endogenous Dip2a expression and homozygotes to study DIP2A-associated structure and function. LacZ staining indicated that Dip2a is broadly expressed in neuronal, reproductive and vascular tissues, as well as in heart, kidney, liver and lung. Results demonstrate that Dip2a is expressed in ectoderm-derived tissues in developing embryos. Adult tissues showed rich staining in neurons, mesenchymal, endothelial, smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes by cell types. The expression pattern highly overlaps with FSTL1 and supports previous report that DIP2A to be potential receptor of FSTL1 and its protective roles of cardiomyocytes. Broad and intense embryonic and adult expression of Dip2a has implied their multiple structural and physiological roles.

  20. Improved seedless hydrothermal synthesis of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Jinghua; Hu Jie; Li Sisi; Zhang Fan; Liu Jun; Shi Jian; Li Xin; Chen Yong [Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS-ENS-UPMC UMR 8640, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Tian Zhongqun, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and LIA CNRS XiamENS ' NanoBioChem' , College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China)


    Seedless hydrothermal synthesis has been improved by introducing an adequate content of ammonia into the nutrient solution, allowing the fabrication of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas on a substrate. The presence of ammonia in the nutrient solution facilitates the high density nucleation of ZnO on the substrate which is critical for the nanowire growth. In order to achieve an optimal growth, the growth conditions have been studied systematically as a function of ammonia content, growth temperature and incubation time. The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) has also been studied but shown to be of no benefit to the nucleation of ZnO. Ultradense and ultralong ZnO nanowires could be obtained under optimal growth conditions, showing no fused structure at the foot of the nanowire arrays. Due to different reaction kinetics, four growth regimes could be attributed, including the first fast growth, equilibrium phase, second fast growth and final erosion. Combining this simple method with optical lithography, ZnO nanowires could be grown selectively on patterned areas. In addition, the as-grown ZnO nanowires could be used for the fabrication of a piezoelectric nanogenerator. Compared to the device of ZnO nanowires made by other methods, a more than twice voltage output has been obtained, thereby proving an improved performance of our growth method.

  1. Phenolic composition of the Brazilian seedless table grape varieties BRS Clara and BRS Morena. (United States)

    Lago-Vanzela, Ellen Silva; Da-Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; García-Romero, Esteban; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro


    The detailed phenolic composition (anthocyanins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, stilbenes, and flavan-3-ols) in the skin and flesh of the new BRS Clara and BRS Morena seedless table grapes has been studied using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The two grapes, especially BRS Morena, contained high amounts of phenolic compounds, mainly located in their skins and qualitatively not different from those found in Vitis vinifera grapes. In addition, BRS Morena (a teinturier variety) showed qualitatively different phenolic compositions in its skin and flesh, mainly affecting the anthocyanin and flavonol profiles. Consistent with high phenolic contents, high antioxidant capacity values were registered for both grape varieties, especially for BRS Morena. Proanthocyanidins and hydroxycinnamoyl-tartaric acids were the major phenolic compounds found in BRS Clara and were also important in BRS Morena, although anthocyanins were the main phenolic compounds in the latter case. These results suggest that the entire grapes, including the skin, may potentially possess properties that are beneficial to human health. In this context, the BRS Morena grape can be considered as a high resveratrol producer.

  2. Development of highly transparent seedless ZnO nanorods engineered for inverted polymer solar cells. (United States)

    Ambade, Swapnil B; Ambade, Rohan B; Lee, Wonjoo; Mane, Rajaram S; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Lee, Soo-Hyoung


    This work reports on inverted polymer solar cells (IPSCs) based on highly transparent (>95%), hydrophobic, seedless ZnO nanorods (NRs) as cathode buffers with extremely enhanced electrical characteristics. The transparent NR suspension with stability for more than a year is achieved by adding a small amount of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) acetic acid (MEA). The ability of the stable nanorod suspension to easily spin-coat is certainly an advance to the fabrication of films over large areas and to replace the conventional seeding method to grow one-dimensional nanostructures for use in optoelectronic devices. We observe a strong correlation between the photovoltaic performance and the transparency of ZnO NRs. IPSCs using poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C60 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixtures in the active layer and transparent (MEA-capped) ZnO NRs as cathode buffers exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.24% under simulated AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-2) illumination.

  3. Seedless synthesis of nanocomposites, optical properties, and effects of additives on their surface resonance plasmon bands (United States)

    Zaheer, Zoya; Aazam, Elham Shafik


    The work describes an easy seedless competitive chemical reduction method for the synthesis of Ag@Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles by mixing AgNO3, HAuCl4 and cysteine. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the large number of irregular, cross-linking, and aggregated Ag@Au/Ag are formed in a reaction mixture (HAuCl4 + AgNO3 + cysteine), whereas flower-like nanocomposites are obtained in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which acted as a shape-directing agent. Optical images reveal that the initially reaction proceeds through formation of purple color, which changes into dark brown color with the reaction time, indicating the formation of Ag@Au/Ag nanocomposites. The Ag+ has strong tendency to form complex with cysteine. Firstly, the reduction of Ag+ ions to Ag0 occurred by the sbnd HSsbnd group of the cysteine-Ag complex. Secondly, AuCl4- ions adsorbed on the positive surface of Ag0, which undergoes reduction by potential deposition, and leads to the formation of Ag@Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles. Inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3 and Na2SO4) have significant impact on the stability and aggregation of Ag@Au/Ag nanocomposites.

  4. Production of ready to drink red and rosé wines from new seedless grapevine crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonacci Donato


    Full Text Available Monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols (proanthocyanidins content in grapes is higher in seeds compared to berry skins. Monomeric flavan-3-ols are more astringent, however, they can combine with other monomer, with anthocyanins and with mannoproteins released by yeast and therefore lose their harsh features in wines. Proanthocyanidins extracted during fermentation and maceration processes in red wines, are important for the organoleptic characteristics of the product and for its aging. There is a difference between skins and seeds proanthocyanidins, with the latter being perceived as more harsh and astringent. One of the most important purposes of refinement and aging of red wines very rich in polyphenols is the slow loss of bitterness. Instead, for wines ready to drink seeds tannins can give bitter overtones, therefore reducing their quality since consumers generally prefer a reduced astringency and attenuated bitterness. This paper investigates the possibility of employ some new seedless grapes crossings of Vitis vinifera L., obtained in recent breeding programs carried out at the CREA-VE of Turi, for the production of improved red and rosé wines made with traditionally red winemaking.

  5. Hydrodynamically driven colloidal assembly in dip coating. (United States)

    Colosqui, Carlos E; Morris, Jeffrey F; Stone, Howard A


    We study the hydrodynamics of dip coating from a suspension and report a mechanism for colloidal assembly and pattern formation on smooth substrates. Below a critical withdrawal speed where the coating film is thinner than the particle diameter, capillary forces induced by deformation of the free surface prevent the convective transport of single particles through the meniscus beneath the film. Capillary-induced forces are balanced by hydrodynamic drag only after a minimum number of particles assemble within the meniscus. The particle assembly can thus enter the thin film where it moves at nearly the withdrawal speed and rapidly separates from the next assembly. The interplay between hydrodynamic and capillary forces produces periodic and regular structures below a critical ratio Ca(2/3)/sqrt[Bo] particles in suspension. The hydrodynamically driven assembly documented here is consistent with stripe pattern formations observed experimentally in dip coating.

  6. Three cases of desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabatabaie P


    Full Text Available D.I.P is a rare disease. The etiology is unknown. It is characterized pathologically by massive proliferation and desquamation of alveolar cells and thickening of the alveolar walls. In our studies from 1368-73 we have three patients hospitalized earlier the prognosis would be much better. Corticosteroid and other effective drugs would be helpfull in treatment of these patients.

  7. Influencia de las estrategias de riego deficitario controlado en el color de uva de mesa, cv. Crisom Seedless


    Conesa Saura, María del Rosario; Rosa Sánchez, José María de la; Corbalán Rodríguez, María Isabel; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro; Domingo Miguel, Rafael


    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo mejorar la intensidad y uniformidad del color de las bayas de Crisom Seedless. Una reducción del agua del 40% respecto a FINC (tratamiento adecuadamente regado), no dio lugar a diferencias significativas en producción ni calidad de la cosecha. Dicha reducción en el agua aplicada, indujo un adelanto en la madurez de los tratamientos deficitarios (RDC y DPR), obteniendo porcentajes de cosecha mayores que FINC en los 2 primeros cortes. Por otra parte, una ...

  8. Compost and humic substance effects on soil parameters of Vitis vinifera L cv Thompson seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fincheira-Robles


    Full Text Available The use of organic amendments is common under the concept of integrated nutrient management (INM in Vi tis vinifera (Table grape to improve plant and soil quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate compost (C and humic substances (HS mixed with mineral fertilizer (MF in an INM program of V. vinifera cv Thompson seedless. The chemical, biochemi cal and microbiological parameters were evaluated in soil on 1 - year - old V. vinifera plants growing on Alfisol soil. Five treatments and control were evaluated: (T 1 C+MF, (T 2 HS+MF, (T 3 C, (T 4 HS, (T 5 MF and (T 6 absolute control. The results indicate d that the application of C and HS, increased β glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities, reaching values of 90.2 μg p - nitrophenol g - 1 h - 1 and 9.1 μg de TFP g - 1 24h - 1 , respectively . In addition, pH was similar in all treatments while electrical conductivity increased with application of mineral and orga nic amendments, reaching 0.41dS m - 1 in T 2 (HS+MF . Furthermore, yeast concentration increased with organic amendments or mineral. Correlation analysis indicated significant and positive relationships between PO 4 - P concentration with MF (0.579 and C (0.431 and nitrogen with MF (0.868. These results support that INM, which combines mineral fertilization and organic amendments, improve positive changes in chemical soil properties and C cycling measured in terms of enzymatic activity in V. vinifera .

  9. Synthesis and optical properties of small Au nanorods using a seedless growth technique. (United States)

    Ali, Moustafa R K; Snyder, Brian; El-Sayed, Mostafa A


    Gold nanoparticles have shown potential in photothermal cancer therapy and optoelectronic technology. In both applications, a call for small size nanorods is warranted. In the present work, a one-pot seedless synthetic technique has been developed to prepare relatively small monodisperse gold nanorods with average dimensions (length × width) of 18 × 4.5 nm, 25 × 5 nm, 15 × 4.5 nm, and 10 × 2.5 nm. In this method, the pH was found to play a crucial role in the monodispersity of the nanorods when the NaBH(4) concentration of the growth solution was adjusted to control the reduction rate of the gold ions. At the optimized pH and NaBH(4) concentrations, smaller gold nanorods were produced by adjusting the CTAB concentration in the growth solution. In addition, the concentration of silver ions in the growth solution was found to be pivotal in controlling the aspect ratio of the nanorods. The extinction coefficient values for the small gold nanorods synthesized with three different aspect ratios were estimated using the absorption spectra, size distributions, and the atomic spectroscopic analysis data. The previously accepted relationships between the extinction coefficient or the longitudinal band wavelength values and the nanorods' aspect ratios found for the large nanorods do not extend to the small size domain reported in the present work. The failure of extending these relationships over larger sizes is a result of the interaction of light with the large rods giving an extinction band which results mostly from scattering processes while the extinction of the small nanorods results from absorption processes.

  10. Open field trial of genetically modified parthenocarpic tomato: seedlessness and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpic tomato lines transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene have been cultivated under open field conditions to address some aspects of the equivalence of genetically modified (GM fruit in comparison to controls (non-GM. Results Under open field cultivation conditions, two tomato lines (UC 82 transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene produced parthenocarpic fruits. DefH9-RI-iaaM fruits were either seedless or contained very few seeds. GM fruit quality, with the exception of a higher β-carotene level, did not show any difference, neither technological (colour, firmness, dry matter, °Brix, pH nor chemical (titratable acidity, organic acids, lycopene, tomatine, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity – TEAC, when compared to that of fruits from control line. Highly significant differences in quality traits exist between the tomato F1 commercial hybrid Allflesh and the three UC 82 genotypes tested, regardless of whether or not they are GM. Total yield per plant did not differ between GM and parental line UC 82. Fruit number was increased in GM lines, and GM fruit weight was decreased. Conclusion The use in the diet of fruits from a new line or variety introduces much greater changes than the consumption of GM fruits in comparison to its genetic background. Parthenocarpic fruits, produced under open field conditions, contained 10-fold less seeds than control fruits. Thus parthenocarpy caused by DefH9-RI-iaaM gene represents also a tool for mitigating GM seeds dispersal in the environment.

  11. Dip filters; Filtros de echado recursivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrales Vargas, A.; Chavez Perez, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    In exploration seismology, dip filters are used to enhance subsoil images by attenuating coherent noise and other signals. They can be applied in frequency-wavenumber (f-k), frequency-distance (f-x), time-wavenumber (t-k) or time distance (t-k) domains. Fourier domain assumes constant dips. Recursive dip filters are applied in t-x domain, as they do not have this limitation. However, we have to determine their optimal parameters by trial and error. Recursive dip filters are based on single order Butterworth filters, by adding the wavenumber. Their amplitude spectrum is a surface. We perform a bilinear transform to digitize the filter and pass from the f-k to the t-k domain. We obtain the t-x domain filter by inverse transforming through wavenumber and by using a three-coefficient approximation (leading to a tridiagonal matrix). For the sake of illustration in geophysical engineering, we apply these filters to a shallow field record, to attenuate the air wave and random noise, and to a marine seismic section to enhance a fault zone. Both examples show that these filters are useful and practical to enhance seismic data. Their use is easier and more economical than median filters, utilized nowadays in commercial software for the oil industry. [Spanish] En sismologia de exploracion, los filtros de echado se utilizan para enfatizar imagenes del subsuelo, atenuado ruido coherente y otras senales. Pueden aplicarse en los dominios de frecuencia y numero de onda (f-k), frecuencia y distancia (f-x), tiempo y numero de onda (t-k) o tiempo y distancia (t-x). En el dominio de Fourier suponemos echados constantes. Los filtros de echado recursivos se aplican en el dominio t-x, careciendo de esta limitante. Sin embargo, tenemos que recurrir al ensayo y error para determinar sus parametros optimos. Los filtros de hecho recursivos se basan en filtros de Butterworth de orden uno, anadiendo el numero de onda. Su espectro de amplitud es una superficie. Utilizamos la trasformada

  12. Comb-locked Lamb-dip spectrometer (United States)

    Gatti, Davide; Gotti, Riccardo; Gambetta, Alessio; Belmonte, Michele; Galzerano, Gianluca; Laporta, Paolo; Marangoni, Marco


    Overcoming the Doppler broadening limit is a cornerstone of precision spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the achievement of a Doppler-free regime is severely hampered by the need of high field intensities to saturate absorption transitions and of a high signal-to-noise ratio to detect tiny Lamb-dip features. Here we present a novel comb-assisted spectrometer ensuring over a broad range from 1.5 to 1.63 μm intra-cavity field enhancement up to 1.5 kW/cm2, which is suitable for saturation of transitions with extremely weak electric dipole moments. Referencing to an optical frequency comb allows the spectrometer to operate with kHz-level frequency accuracy, while an extremely tight locking of the probe laser to the enhancement cavity enables a 10-11 cm-1 absorption sensitivity to be reached over 200 s in a purely dc direct-detection-mode at the cavity output. The particularly simple and robust detection and operating scheme, together with the wide tunability available, makes the system suitable to explore thousands of lines of several molecules never observed so far in a Doppler-free regime. As a demonstration, Lamb-dip spectroscopy is performed on the P(15) line of the 01120-00000 band of acetylene, featuring a line-strength below 10-23 cm/mol and an Einstein coefficient of 5 mHz, among the weakest ever observed.

  13. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath


    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  14. Effect of heat treatment, pH, sugar concentration, and metal addition on green color retention in homogenized puree of Thompson seedless grape (United States)

    Homogenized puree of Thompson seedless (Vitis vinifera ‘Thompson Seedless’) grape was treated under different conditions, including heating time (5-30 min), temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10). Treatments with separate additions of glucose, fructose, and sucrose at concentrations of 100-600 g/L and ...

  15. Diploma in Hospital Infection Control (Dip HIC) (United States)

    Emmerson, A M; Spencer, R C; Cookson, B D; Roberts, C; Drasar, B S


    The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) has established a Diploma in Hospital Infection Control (Dip-HIC). The course for this new Diploma is run under the auspices of the Hospital Infection Society (HIS) and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) and will commence in October 1997. The aim of this course is to provide infection control staff with systematic training in the sciences relevant to hospital infection control which will allow them to provide, and to take responsibility for, a broad-based infection control service. Topics will include the epidemiology of infectious diseases, clinical microbiology, health care economics, statistics, surveillance methods and patient management. The course will be multi-disciplinary and open to UK and overseas students, both medical and non-medical.

  16. Disinfection properties of some bovine teat dips. (United States)

    King, J S; Neave, F K; Westgarth, D R


    The efficacy of 18 disinfectant teat dips was tested on teats artificially contaminated with a milk suspension of Staphylococcus aureus. A solution of Na hypochlorite with 40 g/l available chlorine was significantly more bactericidal than one containing 1 g/1 available chlorine and than most other disinfectants tested. The method was not able to distinguish differences in efficacy between solution containing 40g/1 and 10g/1 available chlorine nor between these and some of the iodophors containing 5 g/1 available iodine. The additon of 190-416 g/1 (15-33% v/v) glycerol significantly reduced the bactericidal properties of 3 iodophors (5 g/1 available iodine), but soluble lanolin at approximately 20 g/1 did not appear to lower the efficiency of NaOC1 (45 g/1 available chlorine) or of an iodophor (5 g/1 available iodine).

  17. The metacaspase gene family of Vitis vinifera L.: characterization and differential expression during ovule abortion in stenospermocarpic seedless grapes. (United States)

    Zhang, Chaohong; Gong, Peijie; Wei, Rong; Li, Shuxiu; Zhang, Xutong; Yu, Yihe; Wang, Yuejin


    In both plants and animals, programmed cell death (PCD) is an indispensable process that removes redundant cells. In seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera), abnormal PCD in ovule cells and subsequent ovule abortion play key roles in stenospermocarpy. Metacaspase, a type of cysteine-dependent protease, plays an essential role in PCD. To reveal the characteristics of the metacaspase (MC) gene family and the relationship between metacaspases and the seedless trait, we identified the 6 V. vinifera metacaspases VvMC1-VvMC6, from the grape genome, using BLASTN against the 9 known Arabidopsis metacaspases. We also obtained full-length cDNAs by RT-PCR. Each of the 6 grape metacaspases contains small (p10-like) and a large (p20-like) conserved structural domains. Phylogenetic analysis of 6 grape and 9 Arabidopsis metacaspases showed that all metacaspases could be grouped into two classes: Type I and Type II. Each phylogenetic branch shares a similar exon/intron structure. Furthermore, the putative promoters of the grape metacaspases contained cis-elements that are involved in grape endosperm development. Moreover, expression analysis of metacaspases using real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that VvMC1 and VvMC2 were able to be detected in any tissue, and VvMC3, VvMC4, VvMC5 and VvMC6 exhibited tissue-specific expression. Lastly, in cv. Thompson seedless grapes VvMC1, VvMC3, and VvMC4 were significantly up-regulated at the 35 DAF during ovule development, roughly same stage as endosperm abortion. In addition, the expression trend of VvMC2 and VvMC5 was similar between cv. Pinot Noir and cv. Thompson grape ovule development and that of VvMC6 was sustained in a relatively low level except the expression of cv. Pinot Noir significantly up-regulated in 25 DAF. Our data provided new insights into PCD by identifying the grape metacaspase gene family and provide a useful reference for further functional analysis of metacaspases in grape. © 2013.

  18. Research on drawing coal effects in the dipping and steep--dipping coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 王窈惠


    Controllable drawing roof coal mining method is applied either to rently inclined seam or to big dipping seam. This paper sums up four corresponding methods according to conditions of our country, and analyses the coal-recovering effects and proves applicated conditions and measures for improving by "drawing coal theory of the ellipsoid". Its conclusion basically consists with practice. This work is of guiding meaning for designing drawing coal technology.

  19. Transgenic plants from shoot apical meristems of Vitis vinifera L. "Thompson Seedless" via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (United States)

    Dutt, M; Li, Z T; Dhekney, S A; Gray, D J


    Shoot apical meristem explants of Vitis vinifera "Thompson Seedless" were used for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. It was determined that the meristems had to be subjected to a dark growth phase then wounded to obtain transgenic plants. Morphological and histological studies illustrated the role of wounding to expose apical meristem cells for transformation. A bifunctional egfp/nptII fusion gene was used to select kanamycin resistant plants that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP). Kanamycin at a concentration of 16 mg L(-1) in selection medium resulted in recovery of non-chimeric transgenic plants that uniformly expressed GFP, whereas 8 mg L(-1) kanamycin allowed non-transgenic and/or chimeric plants to develop. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of transgenes and their stable integration into the genome of regenerated plants. Up to 1% of shoot tips produced stable transgenic cultures within 6 weeks of treatment, resulting in a total of 18 independent lines.

  20. Seedless velocimetry at 100  kHz with picosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging. (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Mance, Jason G; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Felver, Josef J; Stauffer, Hans U; Yi, Tongxun; Danehy, Paul M; Roy, Sukesh


    Picosecond-laser electronic-excitation tagging (PLEET), a seedless picosecond-laser-based velocimetry technique, is demonstrated in non-reactive flows at a repetition rate of 100 kHz with a 1064 nm, 100 ps burst-mode laser. The fluorescence lifetime of the PLEET signal was measured in nitrogen, and the laser heating effects were analyzed. PLEET experiments with a free jet of nitrogen show the ability to measure multi-point flow velocity fluctuations at a 100 kHz detection rate or higher. Both spectral and dynamic mode decomposition analyses of velocity on a Ma=0.8 free jet show two dominant Strouhal numbers around 0.24 and 0.48, respectively, well within the shear-layer flapping frequencies of the free jets. This technique increases the laser-tagging repetition rate for velocimetry to hundreds of kilohertz. PLEET is suitable for subsonic through supersonic laminar- and turbulent-flow velocity measurements.

  1. Optimization of antireflective zinc oxide nanorod arrays on seedless substrate for bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (United States)

    Woo Choi, Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Alford, T. L.


    We report on the enhanced performance of hybrid photovoltaic devices consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene), (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod arrays grown on seedless indium tin oxide (ITO) glass in aqueous zinc chloride solution. Introduction of optimized-length ZnO nanorod arrays between hole injection and ITO layers increased photocurrent density from 8.0 to 8.8 mA/cm2 and fill factor from 42% to 47%. The absence of a seed layer significantly reduced incident light reflection on the ITO glass and resulted in an overall 10% increase in photocurrent. A photovoltaic device based on a ZnO nanostructure length of 100 nm exhibited a maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.4%, 15% higher than that of an equivalent device without ZnO nanorods.

  2. Efeitos do CPPU e do ácido giberélico nas características dos cachos da uva de mesa 'Centennial Seedless' Effects of CPPU and gibberellic acid on the clusters characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo José Paioli Pires


    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em vinhedo comercial, na região de Jundiaí-SP, com o objetivo de se estudar os efeitos do CPPU e do AG3 nas características dos cachos e dos bagos de uvas 'Centennial Seedless'. No primeiro experimento, utilizou-se de CPPU a 0; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0 e 17,5mg.L-1. No segundo ensaio, empregou-se AG3 nas doses de 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 mg.L-1. Tanto o CPPU como o AG3 aumentaram a massa e largura dos cachos; a massa, comprimento e largura dos bagos, e o diâmetro dos pedicelos. O aumento do comprimento dos cachos só foi significativo pela aplicação de AG3. Ambos os reguladores de crescimento reduziram o teor de sólidos solúveis totais do mosto. Aplicações de CPPU e AG3 a 5 mg.L-1 proporcionaram aumento da massa dos bagos em 59,0 e 78,7%, respectivamente, e formação de cachos soltos, com pedicelos mais flexíveis. Doses superiores levaram à formação de cachos muito grandes, excessivamente compactos, com pedicelos rijos e muito engrossados e, portanto, de valor comercial reduzido.Two trials were conducted in a commercial vineyard, in the region of Jundiaí-SP, with the objective of studying the effects of CPPU and GA3 on the clusters and berries characteristics of 'Centennial Seedless' table grape. In the first experiment, it was used CPPU at 0; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5; 15.0 and 17.5mg.L-1. In a second trial, GA3 was used at the doses of: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30mg.L-1. Both, CPPU and GA3 increased the clusters weight and width; the berries weight, length and width; and the pedicel diameter. The increase in cluster length was significant only for GA3 applications. Both growth regulators decreased the total soluble solids content. Applications of CPPU and GA3 at 5mg.L-1, provided increases in berries weight in 59.0 and 78.7%, respectively, and formation of untied clusters, with flexible pedicels. Higher doses led to formation of clusters too much large, excessively compact, with pedicels very

  3. Hot-Dip Galvanized Sheet Production and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hot-dip galvanized sheet is wildly used in construction, household appliances, ship, vehicle and vessel building and machinery, etc. In last ten years, with the development of automobile industry, the anti-corrosion requirements for car body are increasingly strict, by which the rapid development in technology has been promoted. The application of hot-dip galvanized sheet, technological progress in production and some Chinese large units were introduced.

  4. SAS 3 observations of Cygnus X-1 - The intensity dips (United States)

    Remillard, R. A.; Canizares, C. R.


    In general, the dips are observed to occur near superior conjunctions of the X-ray source, but one pair of 2-minute dips occurs when the X-ray source is closer to the observer than is the supergiant companion. The dips are analyzed spectrally with the aid of seven energy channels in the range 1.2-50 keV. Essentially, there is no change in the spectral index during the dips. Reductions in the count rates are observed at energies exceeding 6 keV for some of the dips, but the dip amplitude is always significantly greater in the 1.2-3 keV band. It is believed that absorption by partially ionized gas may best explain these results, since the observations of Pravdo et al. (1980) rule out absorption by unionized material. Estimates for the intervening gas density, extent, and distance from the X-ray source are presented. Attention is also given to the problems confronting the models for the injection of gas through the line of sight, believed to be inclined by approximately 30 deg from the binary pole.

  5. Rapid Seedless Synthesis of Gold Nanoplates with Microscaled Edge Length in a High Yield and Their Application in SERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Chen; Pengyu Xu; Yue Li; Junfei Xue; Song Han; Weihui Ou; Li Li; Weihai Ni


    We report a facile and reproducible approach toward rapid seedless synthesis of single crystalline gold nano-plates with edge length on the order of microns. The reaction is carried out by reducing gold ions with ascorbic acid in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Reaction temperature and molar ratio of CTAB/Au are critical for the formation of gold nanoplates in a high yield, which are, respectively, optimized to be 85 °C and 6. The highest yield that can be achieved is 60%at the optimized condition. The synthesis to achieve the microscaled gold nanoplates can be finished in less than 1 h under proper reaction conditions. Therefore, the reported synthesis approach is a time-and cost-effective one. The gold nanoplates were further employed as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates and investigated individually. Interestingly, only those adsorbed with gold nanoparticles exhibit pronounced Raman signals of probe molecules, where a maximum enhancement factor of 1.7 × 107 was obtained. The obtained Raman enhancement can be ascribed to the plasmon coupling between the gold nanoplate and the nanoparticle adsorbed onto it.

  6. Through-glass copper via using the glass reflow and seedless electroplating processes for wafer-level RF MEMS packaging (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Yong; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Seung-Ki; Park, Jae-Hyoung


    We present a novel method for the fabrication of void-free copper-filled through-glass-vias (TGVs), and their application to the wafer-level radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS) packaging scheme. By using the glass reflow process with a patterned silicon mold, a vertical TGV with smooth sidewall and fine pitch could be achieved. Bottom-up void-free filling of the TGV is successfully demonstrated through the seedless copper electroplating process. In addition, the proposed process allows wafer-level packaging with glass cap encapsulation using the anodic bonding process, since the reflowed glass interposer is only formed in the device area surrounded with silicon substrate. A simple coplanar waveguide (CPW) line was employed as the packaged device to evaluate the electrical characteristics and thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure. The fabricated packaging structure showed a low insertion loss of 0.116 dB and a high return loss of 35.537 dB at 20 GHz, which were measured through the whole electrical path, including the CPW line, TGVs and contact pads. An insertion loss lower than 0.1 dB and a return loss higher than 30 dB could be achieved at frequencies of up to 15 GHz, and the resistance of the single copper via was measured to be 36 mΩ. Furthermore, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the proposed packaging structure was also verified through thermal shock and pressure cooker test.

  7. X-ray Spectroscopy of Dips of Cir X-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We present X-ray spectral analyses of the low-mass X-ray binary Cir X-1 during X-ray dips, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data. Each dip was divided into several segments, and the spectrum of each segment was fitted with a three-component blackbody model, in which the first two components are affected by partial covering and the third one is unaffected. A Gaussian emission line is also included in the spectral model to represent the Fe Kα line at ~ 6.4 keV. The fitted temperatures of the two partially covered components are about 2keV and 1 keV, while the uncovered component has a temperature of ~0.5-0.6keV. The equivalent blackbody emission radius of the hottest component is the smallest and that of the coolest component is the largest. During the dips the fluxes of the two hot components are linearly correlated, while that of the third component does not show any significant variation. The Fe line flux remains constant, within the errors, during the short dips. However, during the long dips the line flux varies significantly and is positively correlated with the fluxes of the two hot components. These results suggest: (1) that the temperature of the X-ray emitting region decreases with radius, (2) that the Fe Kα line emitting region is close to the hot continuum emitting region, and (3) that the size of the Fe line emitting region is larger than that of the obscuring matter causing the short dips but smaller than the region of that causing the long dips.

  8. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a raw material in the production of starch, tapioca and snack foods ... The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight. The surface with .... statistical package (MS Office, 2007). .... preservation and marketing.

  9. Processing hot-dip galvanized AHSS grades: a challenging task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichler, A.; Hebesberger, T.; Tragl, E.; Traint, S.; Faderl, J.; Angeli, G.; Koesters, K. [voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Linz (Austria)


    High-strength thin sheet steel grades have gained a considerable market share. At present a very strong demand has been observed for DP (dual-phase), CP (complex phase) and TRIP grades, which are often summarized as advanced high-strength steel grades (AHSS). The potential benefits of applying AHSS grades were impressively demonstrated in the ULSAC-AVC project, in which a remarkable reduction in mass and an increase in stiffness and crash safety were achieved by using a very high share of AHSS steel grades. The present contribution concentrates on hot-dip galvanized AHSS thin sheet grades. The hot-dip galvanizeability of such grades is critically discussed after an overview is provided of the metallurgy of AHSS grades, including microstructure, mechanical properties, phase transformations and required alloy design. Based on these fundamentals, the processing of AHSS grades in the hot-dip galvanizing line is discussed and the resulting properties presented. (orig.)

  10. Fabrication of Luminescent Nanostructures by Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noy, A; Miller, A E; Klare, J E; Weeks, B L; Woods, B W; DeYoreo, J J


    We used a combination of dip-pen nanolithography and scanning optical confocal microscopy to fabricate and visualize luminescent nanoscale patterns of various materials on glass substrates. We show that this method can be used successfully to push the limits of dip-pen nanolithography down to controlled deposition of single molecules. We also demonstrate that this method is able to create and visualize protein patterns on surfaces. Finally, we show that our method can be used to fabricate polymer nanowires of controlled size using conductive polymers. We also present a kinetic model that accurately describes the deposition process.

  11. Enhanced Lamb dip for absolute laser frequency stabilization (United States)

    Siegman, A. E.; Byer, R. L.; Wang, S. C.


    Enhanced Lamb dip width is 5 MHz and total depth is 10 percent of peak power. Present configuration is useful as frequency standard in near infrared. Technique extends to other lasers, for which low pressure narrow linewidth gain tubes can be constructed.

  12. Novel dip-pen nanolithography strategies for nanopatterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chien-Ching


    Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based lithography technique offering the possibility of fabricating patterns with feature sizes ranging from micrometers to tens of nanometers, utilizing either top-down or bottom-up strategies. Although during its early development s

  13. Microstructure of hot dip coated Fe-Si steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzo, I. Infante, E-mail:; Verbeken, K., E-mail:; Houbaert, Y., E-mail:


    Hot dipping is a coating technique pre-eminently used in industry to galvanize machine parts or steel sheets for constructional applications. However, other hot dipping applications have been developed in order to have a positive effect on specific material properties. For instance, in Fe-Si electrical steels, a Si/Al rich top layer is applied and followed by diffusion annealing to increase the electrical resistivity of the material and consequently, lower the power losses. Hot dipped aluminised mild steels have been developed with increased corrosion resistance for high temperature applications by the development of a dense Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. Regardless of the type of steel coated and the intended application, after the interaction between the molten Al and the solid material, three constituents are formed: Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}, FeAl{sub 3} and an Al-rich alloy. The structural morphology, which can negatively affect the wear resistance and the thermal stability, also appears to be highly dependent on the chemical composition of the base material. To study thermo-mechanical and compositional effects on the coating behavior after hot dipping, cold rolling with different reductions was performed on different Fe-Si materials. It was demonstrated that hardness differences between the layers caused crack formation inside the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} layer during subsequent deformation. The present work reports the results obtained on materials that were hot dipped in a hypo-eutectic Al + 1 wt.% Si bath. The bath was used to coat Fe-Si steel substrates with variable silicon content with dipping times ranging from 1 to 20 s. Before dipping, the samples were heated to 700 Degree-Sign C and subsequently immersed in the liquid bath at temperatures of 710 Degree-Sign C, 720 Degree-Sign C and 740 Degree-Sign C. To further evaluate the interactions between Al, Si and Fe, a diffusion annealing treatment at 1000 Degree-Sign C was performed. The main diffusing elements during this

  14. Developing Seedless Growth of ZnO Micro/Nanowire Arrays towards ZnO/FeS2/CuI P-I-N Photodiode Application (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Wang, Minqiang; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Yue; Deng, Jianping; Ge, Hu; Wang, Xingzhi; Xiong, Qihua


    A seedless hydrothermal method is developed to grow high density and vertically aligned ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with low defect density on metal films under the saturated nutrition solution. In particular, the mechanism of seedless method is discussed here. A buffer layer can be confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which may release the elastic strain between ZnO and substrate to achieve this highly mismatched heteroepitaxial structures. Based on ZnO micro/nanowire arrays with excellent wettability surface, we prepared ZnO-FeS2-CuI p-i-n photodiode by all-solution processed method with the high rectifying ratio of 197 at ±1 V. Under AM 1.5 condition, the Jsc of 0.5 mA/cm2, on-off current ratio of 371 and fast photoresponse at zero bias voltage were obtained. This good performance comes from excellent collection ability of photogenerated electrons and holes due to the increased depletion layer width for p-i-n structure. Finally, the high responsivity around 900 nm shows the potential as near infrared photodetectors applications.

  15. Comportamento de cultivares de uva sem sementes no submédio São Francisco Behavior of grape seedless varieties in the valley of São Francisco River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de introduzir, avaliar e selecionar variedades de uva sem sementes, adaptadas às condições tropicais semi-áridas e oferecer novas alternativas aos viticultores do Vale do São Francisco, implantou-se, em 1994, uma coleção com dezenove variedades de uvas sem sementes no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, da Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina - PE. Foram avaliadas treze variedades ao longo dos anos de 1997 e 1998, correspondendo a cinco ciclos de produção. As variedades utilizadas foram Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha e Loose Perlette, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Campinas'. Foram avaliados aspectos relacionados ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e produtivo das plantas e características e composição química dos frutos. Todas as variedades apresentaram cachos com tamanho pequeno. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless destacaram-se em relação ao diâmetro de bagas, apresentando, respectivamente, 17,83 e 18,26 mm, sem a necessidade de aplicação de reguladores de crescimento. O teor de sólidos solúveis totais foi elevado na maioria das variedades, enquanto a acidez total titulável foi reduzida, resultando em relações SST/ATT satisfatórias. As variedades Vênus e Marroo Seedless foram as mais produtivas, com produtividades anuais de 24 t/ha e 20 t/ha, respectivamente.The present work aimed at evaluating and selecting seeddless grape varieties adapted to the semi-arid tropical conditions of the São Francisco River Valley, Northeastern - Brazil. The experiment was carried out in an experimental vineyard which belongs to Embrapa Semi-Árid, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil during five growing seasons in 1997 and 1998. The varieties tested were: Vênus, Arizul, Beauty Seedless, Thompson Seedless, Marroo Seedless, Canner, CG 39915, Pasiga, Saturn, Emperatriz, A1581, Paulistinha and Loose Perlette, grafted

  16. Otimização da desidratação osmótica de uva Crimson Seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    Full Text Available A uva Crimson Seedless (Vitis vinifera L. é uma das mais importantes variedades sem sementes, devido ao seu atraente cacho médio, e grandes bagas rosadas escuras. Apresenta característica sensorial excelente devido à sua textura firme e crocante, sabor que varia do doce ao neutro, e coloração uniforme. A desidratação osmótica apresenta-se como boa alternativa para reduzir a atividade de água desta uva, permitindo o seu armazenamento por períodos longos, melhorando a sua estabilidade e qualidade. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo relacionar as influências de diferentes parâmetros para um eficiente processo de desidratação osmótica deste fruto, com a finalidade de reduzir as perdas pós-colheita e oferecer novas alternativas para o produtor. Para otimizar a desidratação osmótica foi realizado um planejamento fatorial 2³, com variáveis independentes: temperatura (30 a 50 ºC, tempo (1 a 4 horas e concentração (40 a 50 ºBrix, sendo constante o branqueamento (30 segundos e perfurações (8 perfurações cm-2; as variáveis dependentes foram PU (Perda de Umidade, IS (Incorporação de Sólidos e IED (Índice de Eficiência de Desidratação. As melhores condições para a desidratação osmótica utilizando o IED como parâmetro foi a aplicação de branqueamento, solução osmótica com 42 ºBrix, tempo de imersão de 1,6 horas e temperatura de 46 ºC. Os modelos de superfície de resposta obtidos foram preditivos para PU e IS, exceto para o IED. O produto selecionado ajustou melhor a equação de Page (R² = 0,995.

  17. The Peak/Dip Picture of the Cosmic Web (United States)

    Rossi, Graziano


    The initial shear field plays a central role in the formation of large-scale structures, and in shaping the geometry, morphology, and topology of the cosmic web. We discuss a recent theoretical framework for the shear tensor, termed the `peak/dip picture', which accounts for the fact that halos/voids may form from local extrema of the density field - rather than from random spatial positions; the standard Doroshkevich's formalism is generalized, to include correlations between the density Hessian and shear field at special points in space around which halos/voids may form. We then present the `peak/dip excursion-set-based' algorithm, along with its most recent applications - merging peaks theory with the standard excursion set approach.

  18. Latex Dipping Machine PLC Control and Its Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhang


    Full Text Available Latex dipping machine is based on a latex patent products new-production condom and the development of the machine. The latex dipping agencies combined with production condom mechanism. First it realized a 3-dimensional accurate localization system using stepping motors. SIMATIC S7-200 series programmable controller, motion module EM253 and stepping motor are tied in wedlock to realize allocation of 3-dimension of X axis and Y axis and Z axis. Through the PTO pulse of Siemens S7-200 PLC controller and combined with the use of EM253 module, through the mould precise control programming soak glue and roll edge to achieve the control mold of rotation and swinging the uniform distributed latex. And the system has applied successfully in foreign-funded enterprise of Singapore.

  19. Voltage dips generated by user`s equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruest, D. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada)


    A three year project was conducted by the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) and Hydro-Quebec to measure voltage dips and short interruptions at 36 industrial sites across Canada (26 in Quebec, 3 in Nova Scotia, 2 in Ontario, and 3 in Manitoba). These disturbances are among the most harmful for power supply networks. This project was initiated in response to a request by the Union Internationale d`Electrothermie`s (UIE). The UIE is an international standards organizations which has set limits for voltage dips and short interruptions for utilities. In this study, an equivalent of 6.45 site-years of data was acquired and the results were compared against other surveys. Although the results could not be compared against other measurements because of different isokeraunic zones and network designs, they were, nevertheless, comparable. Other disturbances that were also measured included phase variation, frequency variation, and voltage swells. tabs., figs.

  20. Thermoplastic polymers surfaces for Dip-Pen Nanolithography of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriano, Raffaella [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Biella, Serena, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cesura, Federico; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    Different thermoplastic polymers were spin-coated to prepare smooth surfaces for the direct deposition of end-group modified oligonucleotides by Dip-Pen Nanolithography. A study of the diffusion process was done in order to investigate the dependence of calibration coefficient and quality of deposited features on environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity) and ink's molecular weight and functionality. The optimization of the process parameters led to the realization of high quality and density nanoarrays on plastics.

  1. Ceramic films produced by a gel-dipping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santacruz, I.; Ferrari, B.; Nieto, M.I.; Moreno, R. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Camino de Valdelatas s/n, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    A novel method for manufacturing self-supporting ceramic films is based on the use of aqueous suspensions containing low concentrations of a biopolymer (carrageenan) and the formation of the film by immersion of a graphite substrate into the ceramic suspension heated at 60 C. A film is obtained by dipping after cooling at RT; burning out graphite during sintering leaves homogeneous, dense, and self-supported films (see Figure for an SEM image). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Engineering functionality gradients by dip coating process in acceleration mode. (United States)

    Faustini, Marco; Ceratti, Davide R; Louis, Benjamin; Boudot, Mickael; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David


    In this work, unique functional devices exhibiting controlled gradients of properties are fabricated by dip-coating process in acceleration mode. Through this new approach, thin films with "on-demand" thickness graded profiles at the submillimeter scale are prepared in an easy and versatile way, compatible for large-scale production. The technique is adapted to several relevant materials, including sol-gel dense and mesoporous metal oxides, block copolymers, metal-organic framework colloids, and commercial photoresists. In the first part of the Article, an investigation on the effect of the dip coating speed variation on the thickness profiles is reported together with the critical roles played by the evaporation rate and by the viscosity on the fluid draining-induced film formation. In the second part, dip-coating in acceleration mode is used to induce controlled variation of functionalities by playing on structural, chemical, or dimensional variations in nano- and microsystems. In order to demonstrate the full potentiality and versatility of the technique, original graded functional devices are made including optical interferometry mirrors with bidirectional gradients, one-dimensional photonic crystals with a stop-band gradient, graded microfluidic channels, and wetting gradient to induce droplet motion.

  3. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ing, E.T.C. [Law Office of Edwin T.C. Ing, Washington, DC (United States)


    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  4. Seaward dipping reflectors along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence for volcanic passive margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajay, K.K.; Chaubey, A.K.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, D.G.; Sar, D.

    of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge system. Velocity structure, seismic character, 2D gravity model and geographic locations of the dipping reflectors suggest that these reflectors are volcanic in origin, which are interpreted as Seaward Dipping Reflectors (SDRs...

  5. Experimental Modeling of Dynamic Shallow Dip-Slip Faulting (United States)

    Uenishi, K.


    In our earlier study (AGU 2005, SSJ 2005, JPGU 2006), using a finite difference technique, we have conducted some numerical simulations related to the source dynamics of shallow dip-slip earthquakes, and suggested the possibility of the existence of corner waves, i.e., shear waves that carry concentrated kinematic energy and generate extremely strong particle motions on the hanging wall of a nonvertical fault. In the numerical models, a dip-slip fault is located in a two-dimensional, monolithic linear elastic half space, and the fault plane dips either vertically or 45 degrees. We have investigated the seismic wave field radiated by crack-like rupture of this straight fault. If the fault rupture, initiated at depth, arrests just below or reaches the free surface, four Rayleigh-type pulses are generated: two propagating along the free surface into the opposite directions to the far field, the other two moving back along the ruptured fault surface (interface) downwards into depth. These downward interface pulses may largely control the stopping phase of the dynamic rupture, and in the case the fault plane is inclined, on the hanging wall the interface pulse and the outward-moving Rayleigh surface pulse interact with each other and the corner wave is induced. On the footwall, the ground motion is dominated simply by the weaker Rayleigh pulse propagating along the free surface because of much smaller interaction between this Rayleigh and the interface pulse. The generation of the downward interface pulses and corner wave may play a crucial role in understanding the effects of the geometrical asymmetry on the strong motion induced by shallow dip-slip faulting, but it has not been well recognized so far, partly because those waves are not expected for a fault that is located and ruptures only at depth. However, the seismological recordings of the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu, Japan, earthquakes as well as a more recent one in Iwate-Miyagi Inland

  6. 29 CFR 1910.124 - General requirements for dipping and coating operations. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for dipping and coating operations... Dipping and Coating Operations § 1910.124 General requirements for dipping and coating operations. (a...) Chemical reaction. (c) What requirements must I follow to recirculate exhaust air into the workplace?...

  7. Acoustic interaction between the right and left piriform fossae in generating spectral dips. (United States)

    Takemoto, Hironori; Adachi, Seiji; Mokhtari, Parham; Kitamura, Tatsuya


    It is known that the right and left piriform fossae generate two deep dips on speech spectra and that acoustic interaction exists in generating the dips: if only one piriform fossa is modified, both the dips change in frequency and amplitude. In the present study, using a simple geometrical model and measured vocal tract shapes, the acoustic interaction was examined by the finite-difference time-domain method. As a result, one of the two dips was lower in frequency than the two independent dips that appeared when either of the piriform fossae was occluded, and the other dip was higher in frequency than the two dips. At the lower dip frequency, the piriform fossae resonated almost in opposite phase, while at the higher dip frequency, they resonated almost in phase. These facts indicate that the piriform fossae and the lower part of the pharynx can be modeled as a coupled two-oscillator system whose two normal vibration modes generate the two spectral dips. When the piriform fossae were identical, only the higher dip appeared. This is because the lower mode is not acoustically coupled to the main vocal tract enough to generate an absorption dip.

  8. On the use of Ethephon as abscising agent in cv. Crimson Seedless table grape production: combination of Fruit Detachment Force, Fruit Drop and metabolomics. (United States)

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Aguilera-Sáez, Luis Manuel; Gallo, Vito; Cafagna, Isabella; Mastrorilli, Piero; Latronico, Mario; Pacifico, Andrea; Matarrese, Angela Maria Stella; Ferrara, Giuseppe


    The effect of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (Ethephon, in the following ETH) as abscising agent on cv. Crimson Seedless table grape was investigated by means of Fruit Detachment Force (FDF) and Fruit Drop (FD) analyses combined with a metabolomic study carried out by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effectiveness of ETH as abscising agent was ascertained with ETH concentration ranging from 1.4 to 4.0 g/L in a two-year study. The ETH treatments caused berry drops higher than 40% and induced an increase of tartaric acid, procyanidin P2, terpenoid derivatives and peonidin-3-glucoside as well as a decrease of catechin and epicatechin. HRMS-NMR covariance analysis was carried out to correlate the fluctuations of tartaric acid NMR signals to those of MS peaks of the secondary metabolites affected by ETH treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prestack traveltimes for dip-constrained TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Golikov, Pavel


    The double-square-root (DSR) formula is an integral part of many wavefield based imaging tools. A transversely isotropic medium with a titled symmetry axis (TI) version of the DSR formula is nearly impossible to obtain analytically. As a result, we develop an approximate version of the DSR formula valid for media with the symmetry axis normal to the dip of the reflector (DTI). The accuracy of this approximate solution is enhanced using Shanks transform to a point where the errors are extremely small for practical anisotropic values. Under this assumption, we also do not need to compute the symmetry axis field as it is inherently included in the formulation.

  10. Impedance of the PEP-II DIP screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.-K. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T.


    The vacuum chamber of a storage ring normally consists of periodically spaced pumping slots. The longitudinal impedance of slots are analyzed in this paper. It is found that although the broad-band impedance is tolerable, the narrow-band impedance, as a consequence of the periodicity of the slots, may exceed the stability limit given by natural damping with no feedback system on. Based on this analysis, the PEP-II distributed-ion-pump (DIP) screen uses long grooves with hidden holes cut halfway to reduce both the broad-band and narrow-band impedances. (author)

  11. Mechanism of force mode dip-pen nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haijun, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Interfacial Water Division and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Xie, Hui; Rong, Weibin; Sun, Lining [State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Haixia; Guo, Shouwu, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huabin, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centre for Tetrahertz Research, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China)


    In this work, the underlying mechanism of the force mode dip-pen nanolithography (FMDPN) is investigated in depth by analyzing force curves, tapping mode deflection signals, and “Z-scan” voltage variations during the FMDPN. The operation parameters including the relative “trigger threshold” and “surface delay” parameters are vital to control the loading force and dwell time for ink deposition during FMDPN. A model is also developed to simulate the interactions between the atomic force microscope tip and soft substrate during FMDPN, and verified by its good performance in fitting our experimental data.

  12. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors



    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite,have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong b-axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient,indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. Ahome made apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response t...

  13. Dip-coated hydrotungstite thin films as humidity sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Kunte; Ujwala Ail; S A Shivashankar; A M Umarji


    Thin films of a hydrated phase of tungsten oxide, viz. hydrotungstite, have been prepared on glass substrates by dip-coating method using ammonium tungstate precursor solution. X-ray diffraction shows the films to have a strong -axis orientation. The resistance of the films is observed to be sensitive to the humidity content of the ambient, indicating possible applications of these films for humidity sensing. A homemade apparatus designed to measure the d.c. electrical resistance in response to exposure to controlled pulses of a sensing gas has been employed to evaluate the sensitivity of the hydrotungstite films towards humidity.

  14. A Dipping Duration Study for Optimization of Anodized-Aluminum Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Ishii


    Full Text Available Anodized-aluminum pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP uses the dipping deposition method to apply a luminophore on a porous anodized-aluminum surface. We study the dipping duration, one of the parameters of the dipping deposition related to the characterization of AA-PSP. The dipping duration was varied from 1 to 100,000 s. The properties characterized are the pressure sensitivity, temperature dependency, and signal level. The maximum pressure sensitivity of 65% is obtained at the dipping duration of 100 s, the minimum temperature dependency is obtained at the duration of 1 s, and the maximum signal level is obtained at the duration of 1,000 s, respectively. Among the characteristics, the dipping duration most influences the signal level. The change in the signal level is a factor of 8.4. By introducing a weight coefficient, an optimum dipping duration can be determined. Among all the dipping parameters, such as the dipping duration, dipping solvent, and luminophore concentration, the pressure sensitivity and signal level are most influenced by the dipping solvent.

  15. A Case Study Of Turkish Transmission System For VoltageDips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inan, E.; Alboyaci, B.; Bak, Claus Leth


    Power quality problems usually appear in the form of voltage sags, transients and harmonics. From these three broad categories of power quality problems, voltage dips account the most disturbances experienced by industrial customers. Voltage dips generally refer to instantaneous short...... analysis of voltage dip performance of the whole transmission system, is used to compare with results constructed fault statics from SIMPOW DIPS analysis program real data. SIMPOW DIPS software enables to calculate dip frequency for all busses and lines.......-duration voltage variations. The aim of this paper is to have an idea about voltage dip performance of Turkey Transmission System. Turkey's transmission system has 21 regions. For simulations, 2nd region, which includes Istanbul city's area is heavy loaded, is selected. For purposes of early warning and later...

  16. Sediment DSi and DIP fluxes under simulated redox conditions (United States)

    Nteziryayo, Love-Raoul; Danielsson, Åsa


    The Baltic Sea is one of the most eutrophic water bodies in the world. This eutrophication of the Baltic Sea has resulted in the expansion of areas of hypoxic bottom waters. Hypoxia is known to cause the release of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) from sediment. It is largely assumed that dissolved silica (DSi) reacts in an analogous way in hypoxic conditions. From sediment incubation experiments, we found that P reacts faster to oxygen changes than Si. Here we show that DSi and DIP behave differently to changing oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters, and that the adsorption and de-sorption on Fe oxihydroxides may control the release of P more efficiently than of Si. The results showed that DSi fluxes were higher under oxic conditions (2.21±0.28 mmol Si m-2d-1) than under hypoxic conditions (1.36±0.29 mmol Si m-2d-1). The opposite was observed for P fluxes (0.06 ±0.01 and 0.10±0.09 mmol P m-2d-1) under oxic respective hypoxic conditions). Our results indicate that the increase of hypoxic conditions in coastal areas may directly cause the decrease of Si fluxes from sediment and thereby contribute to the diminishing Si concentrations observed in the Baltic Sea waters.

  17. ICE-DIP closing workshop - Public session | 14 September

    CERN Multimedia


    ICE-DIP, the Intel-CERN European Doctorate Industrial Program (see here), is a European Industrial Doctorate scheme (see here) led by CERN. The focus of the project, which launched in 2013, has been the development of techniques for acquiring and processing data that are relevant for the trigger and data-acquisition systems of the LHC experiments.   The results will be publicly presented in an open session on the afternoon of 14th September. Building on CERN’s long-standing relationship with Intel through CERN openlab, ICE-DIP brings together CERN, Intel and research universities to offer training to five PhD students in advanced information and communication technologies (ICT). These young researchers have been funded by the European Commission as fellows at CERN and enrolled in doctoral programmes at the National University of Ireland Maynooth and Dublin City University. They have each completed 18 month secondments at Intel locations around the world gaining in-depth experience of the v...

  18. Formation of High Aspect Ratio Microcoil Using Dipping Method (United States)

    Noda, Daiji; Yamashita, Shuhei; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Setomoto, Masaru; Hattori, Tadashi

    Coils are used in many electronic devices as inductors in mobile units such as mobile phone, digital cameras, etc. Inductance and quality factor of coils are very important value of the performance. Therefore, the requests for coils are small size, high inductance, low power consumption, etc. However, coils are unsuitable for miniaturization because of its structure. Therefore, we have proposed and developed the microcoils of high aspect ratio with the dipping method and an X-ray lithography technique. In dipping method, centrifugal force and highly viscous photoresist solution were key points to evenly apply resist in the form of thick film on metal bar. The film thickness of resist on bar was achieved about 50 μm after single coating. Using these techniques, we succeeded in creating threaded groove structure with 10 μm lines and spaces on 1 mm brass bar. In this case, the aspect ratio was achieved five. It is very expected the high performance microcoil with high aspect ratio lines could be manufactured in spite of the miniature size.

  19. Cosmogenic Neutrinos Challenge the Cosmic-ray Proton Dip Model (United States)

    Heinze, Jonas; Boncioli, Denise; Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter


    The origin and composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain a mystery. The proton dip model describes their spectral shape in the energy range above 109 GeV by pair production and photohadronic interactions with the cosmic microwave background. The photohadronic interactions also produce cosmogenic neutrinos peaking around 109 GeV. We test whether this model is still viable in light of recent UHECR spectrum measurements from the Telescope Array experiment and upper limits on the cosmogenic neutrino flux from IceCube. While two-parameter fits have been already presented, we perform a full scan of the three main physical model parameters: source redshift evolution, injected proton maximal energy, and spectral index. We find qualitatively different conclusions compared to earlier two-parameter fits in the literature: a mild preference for a maximal energy cutoff at the sources instead of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff, hard injection spectra, and strong source evolution. The predicted cosmogenic neutrino flux exceeds the IceCube limit for any parameter combination. As a result, the proton dip model is challenged at more than 95% C.L. This is strong evidence against this model independent of mass composition measurements.

  20. Cosmogenic Neutrinos Challenge the Cosmic Ray Proton Dip Model

    CERN Document Server

    Heinze, Jonas; Bustamante, Mauricio; Winter, Walter


    We perform a three-parameter scan of the cosmic-ray proton flux to the latest (7-year) combined data of the Telescope Array experiment, which are consistent with a pure proton composition. That is, we include at the same time the source evolution, maximal energy and spectral index. We demonstrate that the full three-parameter fit leads to different qualitative conclusions compared to two-parameter scans of the parameter space frequently shown in the literature: it slightly favors a maximal energy cutoff coming from the sources over the GZK cutoff, together with hard injection spectra and a strong source evolution. We then derive the range of allowed cosmogenic neutrino fluxes corresponding to the region allowed by TA data. We find that the latest IceCube cosmogenic neutrino analysis challenges the cosmic ray proton dip model at more than the 95\\% confidence level including any considered parameter combination. This is the first independent evidence against the proton dip model after the composition results me...

  1. Characteristics of seismoelectric interface responses at dipping boundaries (United States)

    Kröger, B.; Kemna, A.


    When crossing an interface between two layers with different petrophysical properties, a seismic wave generates a time-varying charge separation which acts as a dipole radiating electromagnetic energy independently of the seismic wave. If we consider a monochromatic seismic source located above a horizontal interface between such media, the seismic wave traverses the interface and causes relative displacement of ions at the matrix-fluid interface in the pore space. The resulting electric field is due to the streaming current imbalance at the interface. This is equivalent to the case of an electrical dipole oscillating in phase with the seismic wave along such boundary. As a consequence, electromagnetic disturbances are radiated away from the dipole source and can be recorded at various receiver lines. This seismic-to-electromagnetic field conversion at petrophysical boundaries in the 1st Fresnel zone is the so-called seismoelectric interface response. Conceptual field models and theoretical modelling indicate that the interface response should be a multipole electrical source. Higher-order terms will diminish more rapidly with distance and therefore will leave the dipole term to dominate. Thus, a seismoelectric interface response emanating from a horizontal boundary in a homogeneous half-space is expected to exhibit symmetry and amplitude characteristics similar to those of a vertical electric dipole (VED) centred on the interface directly below the shot point. However, no general theoretical predictions concerning the characteristics, the shape and the morphology of the VED induced by seismic waves at dipping interfaces can be found in the literature. To gain insight into the spatio-temporal occurrence and evolution of the seismoelectric interface response for dipping interfaces we run several numerical simulations using different petrophysical parameter set-ups. For the modelling, we make use of a simplified time-domain formulation of the coupled physical problem

  2. Dip-pen nanolithography-assisted protein crystallization. (United States)

    Ielasi, Francesco S; Hirtz, Michael; Sekula-Neuner, Sylwia; Laue, Thomas; Fuchs, Harald; Willaert, Ronnie G


    We demonstrate the use of dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) to crystallize proteins on surface-localized functionalized lipid layer arrays. DOPC lipid layers, containing small amounts of biotin-DOPE lipid molecules, were printed on glass substrates and evaluated in vapor diffusion and batch crystallization screening setups, where streptavidin was used as a model protein for crystallization. Independently of the crystallization system used and the geometry of the lipid layers, nucleation of streptavidin crystals occurred specifically on the DPN-printed biotinylated structures. Protein crystallization on lipid array patches is also demonstrated in a microfluidic chip, which opens the way toward high-throughput screening to find suitable nucleation and crystal growth conditions. The results demonstrate the use of DPN in directing and inducing protein crystallization on specific surface locations.




    ÖZETSütçü ineklerde meme başının antiseptikli solusyonlara batırılması (teat dipping- TD) ile meme derisi üzerindeki bakteri sayısı önemli ölçüde azalmaktadır. Bu nedenle TD mastitis kontrol programlarının önemli basamaklarından birini oluşturmaktadır. Çevresel ve bulaşıcı mastitis etkenleri üzerinde etkili olan bu işlem tüm dünyada yaygın olarak kullanılan etkili, ucuz ve kolay bir uygulamadır. Bu derlemede meme başı dezenfeksiyonunun önemi ve özellikleri son yıllarda yürütülen çalışmaların ...

  4. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)


    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with an essential oil-based teat dip. (United States)

    Kelly, E Jane; Wilson, David J


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with mastitis in dairy animals, including goats. Often, the environmental sources of the bacteria are water-related (such as hoses and muddy pastures). Mastitis attributable to P. aeruginosa was identified in 2 goats in a small herd. Efforts were made to identify environmental sources of the pathogen. Multiple samples from the goats' environment were cultured, including water from the trough, bedding, the hose used to wash udders, and the teat dip and teat dip containers. The bacterium was isolated from the teat dip and the teat dip container. The teat dip consisted of water, liquid soap, and several drops of essential oils (including tea tree, lavender, and peppermint). This case illustrates a potential problem that may arise as a result of the use of unconventional ingredients in teat dips. The use of alternative products by goat producers is likely to increase in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Optimization of the Production Techniques of Seedless Rosa sterilis Fruit Wine%无籽刺梨果酒酿制工艺优化初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺红早; 张玉武; 刘盈盈; 孙超; 任春光


    为有效避免"果贱伤农"现象发生,促进无籽刺梨产业健康发展,开展无籽刺梨果酒酿制工艺优化研究,分别进行了全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵、无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵等3个处理,采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)对乙醇、丙三醇、乙酸、乳酸、丁二酸、柠檬酸等次生代谢产物进行了定量测定,经感官指标对3个处理的发酵产品进行了综合分析.结果表明,除乙醇产量外,无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵,丙三醇(4.75 g/L)、乙酸(0.52 g/L)、乳酸(0.18 g/L)、丁二酸(0.55 g/L)、柠檬酸(2.06 g/L)含量均高于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵,说明采用汁渣混合发酵,其产品品质在理化性质上明显优于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵.无籽刺梨汁渣混合发酵的无籽刺梨果酒经陈酿后,具有和谐的无籽刺梨果香,陈酿的橡木香,醇和的酒香,幽雅浓郁;口味醇和、甘洌、沁润、细腻、丰满、绵柔,在感官上优于全果发酵、无籽刺梨果汁发酵等处理.说明汁渣混合发酵能有效浸出无籽刺梨有效成分,从而达到最佳发酵效果,对提高产品品质具有重要意义.%In order to avoid the phenomenon of"low-priced fruits hurts the farmers"and to promote sound development of seedless Rosa steril-is industry, the technical optimization of seedless Rosa sterilis fruit wine was carried out in this study. Three treatment modes including whole fruit fermentation, juice fermentation, and mixed fermentation of juice and residue were adopted respectively. HPLC was applied for quantita-tive measurement of secondary metabolites including ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, etc. And the sensory indexes of the products by different treatment mode were analyzed. The results showed that, mixed fermentation of juice and residue had higher secondary metabolites content except ethanol yield ( glycerol:4.75 g/L, acetic acid:0.52 g/L, lactic acid:0.18 g

  7. [DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): as a tobacco-associated disease -- case report]. (United States)

    Sousa, Vitor; Carvalho, Lina


    DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia) is an interstitial lung disease with diffuse and uniform accumulation of alveolar macrophages. There is a strong association with tobacco since 90% of the patients are smokers. The interstitial lung diseases related to tobacco are diverse and include tumours, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, RBILD (Respiratory Bronchilites associated Interstitial Lung Disease), DIP and Langerhans Cell Histiocitosis. The authors present a case of DIP. A brief theorycal revision and discussion of a case is made facing the association with tobacco.

  8. The annealing effects on the micro-structure and properties of RuMoC films as seedless barrier for advanced Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jianxiong; Liu, Bo, E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Jiao, Guohua, E-mail:, E-mail:; Lu, Yuanfu; Dong, Yuming [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Qiran [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS-Université Paris Sud UMR 8622, 91405 Orsay (France)


    100 nm thick RuMoC films and 5 nm thick RuMoC films with Cu capping have been deposited on Si(111) by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC confocal targets. The samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures ranging from 450 to 650 °C in vacuum at a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −4} Pa to study the annealing effects on the microstructures and properties of RuMoC films for advanced seedless Cu metallization applications. The sheet resistances, residual oxygen contents, and microstructures of the RuMoC films have close correlation with the doping contents of Mo and C, which can be easily controlled by the deposition power ratio of MoC versus Ru targets (DPR). When DPR was 0.5, amorphous RuMoC film (marked as RuMoC II) with low sheet resistances and residual oxygen contents was obtained. The fundamental relationship between the annealing temperatures with the microstructures and properties of the RuMoC films was investigated, and a critical temperature point was revealed at about 550 °C where the components and microstructures of the RuMoC II films changed obviously. Results indicated that below 550 °C, the RuMoC II films remained amorphous due to the well-preserved C-Ru and C-Mo bonds. However, above 550 °C, the microstructures of RuMoC II films transformed from amorphous to nano-composite structure due to the breakage of Ru-C bonds, while the supersaturated solid solution MoC segregated out along the grain boundaries of Ru, thus hindering the diffusion of Cu and O atoms. This is the main mechanism of the excellent thermal stability of the RuMoC films after annealing at high temperatures. The results indicated great prospects of amorphous RuMoC films in advanced seedless Cu metallization applications.

  9. P-wave seismic imaging through dipping transversely isotropic media (United States)

    Leslie, Jennifer Meryl


    P-wave seismic anisotropy is of growing concern to the exploration industry. The transmissional effects through dipping anisotropic strata, such as shales, cause substantial depth and lateral positioning errors when imaging subsurface targets. Using anisotropic physical models the limitations of conventional isotropic migration routines were determined to be significant. In addition, these models were used to validate both anisotropic depth migration routines and an anisotropic, numerical raytracer. In order to include anisotropy in these processes, one must be able to quantify the anisotropy using two parameters, epsilon and delta. These parameters were determined from headwave velocity measurements on anisotropic strata, in the parallel-, perpendicular- and 45°-to-bedding directions. This new method was developed using refraction seismic techniques to measure the necessary velocities in the Wapiabi Formation shales, the Brazeau Group interbedded sandstones and shales, the Cardium Formation sandstones and the Palliser Formation limestones. The Wapiabi Formation and Brazeau Group rocks were determined to be anisotropic with epsilon = 0.23 +/- 0.05, delta = --0.05 +/- 0.07 and epsilon = 0.11 +/- 0.04, delta = 0.42 +/- 0.06, respectively. The sandstones and limestones of the Cardium and Palliser formations were both determined to be isotropic, in these studies. In a complementary experiment, a new procedure using vertical seismic profiling (VSP) techniques was developed to measure the anisotropic headwave velocities. Using a multi-offset source configuration on an appropriately dipping, uniform panel of anisotropic strata, the required velocities were measured directly and modelled. In this study, the geologic model was modelled using an anisotropic raytracer, developed for the experiment. The anisotropy was successfully modelled using anisotropic parameters based on the refraction seismic results. With a firm idea of the anisotropic parameters from the

  10. Germicidal activity of a chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip and a sodium chlorite teat dip during experimental challenge with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. (United States)

    Boddie, R L; Nickerson, S C; Adkinson, R W


    Three postmilking teat dips were tested for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in two separate studies using experimental challenge procedures that were recommended by the National Mastitis Council. The first study evaluated a barrier teat dip product containing chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide as the germicidal agent, and the second study evaluated a sodium chlorite product with a barrier component as well as a sodium chlorite product without a barrier component. The chlorous acid-chlorine dioxide teat dip reduced new intramammary infections (IMI) caused by Staph. aureus by 91.5% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 71.7%. The barrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae by 41.0 and 0%, respectively. The nonbarrier dip containing sodium chlorite reduced new IMI caused by Staph. aureus by 65.6% and reduced new IMI caused by Strep. agalactiae by 39.1%. Teat skin and teat end conditions were evaluated before and after the second study; no deleterious effects among dipped quarters compared with control quarters were noted for the two sodium chlorite products.

  11. Multiplexed Dip Pen Nanolithography patterning by simple desktop nanolithography platform (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Smetana, Alexander; Stiles, Paul


    Multiplexed patterning in the micro-scale has been required in order to accomplish functional bio-materials templating on the subcellular length scale. Multiplexed bio-material patterns can be used in several fields: high sensitivity DNA/protein chip development, cell adhesion/differentiation studies, and biological sensor applications. Especially, two or more materials' patterning in subcellular length scale is highly demanding to develop a multi-functional and highintegrated chip device. The multiplexing patterning of two or more materials is a challenge because of difficulty in an alignment and a precision of patterning. In this work, we demonstrate that multiplexed dip pen nanolithography® (DPN®) patterning up to four different material inks by means of using recently developed new generation nanolithography platform (NLP 2000™, NanoInk, Inc., Skokie, IL). Ink materials were prepared by adding different colored fluorescent dyes to matrix carrier materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) and lipid material (1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DOPC). Finally, dot-array patterns of four different inks were obtained in 50 × 50 μm2 area. This lithography platform is capable of patterning 12 separate materials within micrometer areas by efficient use of the available MEMS accessories. This number can be scaled up further with development of new accessories.

  12. Characterization of titanium–hydroxyapatite biocomposites processed by dip coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Baptista; D Gadelha; M Bandeira; D Arteiro; M I Delgado; A C Ferro; M Guedes


    Ti orthopaedic implants are commonly coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) to achieve increased biocompatibility and osseointegration with natural bone. In this work the dip-coating technique was used to apply HA films on Ti foil. A gel was used as the support vehicle for commercial HA particles. The experimental parameters like surface roughness of the metallic substrate and immersion time were studied. All coated substrates were heat treated and sintered under vacuum atmosphere. The produced coatings were characterized by field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, microhardness, scratch test and profilometry. Additionally, the apatite-forming ability of the produced material was tested by exposure to a simulated body fluid. Higher substrate surface roughness and longer immersion time produce thicker, denser films, with higher surface roughness. Lower film porosity is accompanied by higher hardness values. However, thicker coating promotes differential shrinkage and crack formation during sintering. Both coating thickness and coating roughness increase with coating time. HA films $\\sim$30–40 $\\mu$m thick with 45–50% HA theoretical density produced on Ti substrates with surface roughness of $R_z\\sim 1.0–1.7$ $\\mu$m, display an attractive combination of high hardness and resistance to spallation. Attained results are encouraging regarding the possibility of straightforward production of biocompatible and bioactive prosthetic coatings for orthopaedic applications using commercial HA.

  13. A novel trilayer antireflection coating using dip-coating technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Xu; Yi Yin; Haiming Ma; Hui Ye; Xu Liu


    We report a new structure for broadband antireflection coating by dip-coating technique,which has minimal cost and is compatible with large-scale manufacturing.The coatings are prepared by depositing SiO2 sol-gel film on a glass substrate,subsequently depositing SiO2 single-layer particle coating through electrostatic attraction,and depositing a final very thin Si02 sol-gel film to improve the mechanical strength of the whole coating structure.The refractive index of the structure changes gradually from the top to the substrate.The transmittance of a glass substrate has been experimentally found to be improved in the spectral range of 400-1400 nn and in the incidence angle range from 0° to at least 45°.The mechanical strength is immensely improved because of the additional thin Si02 sol-gel layer.The surface texture can be applied to the substrates of different materials and shapes as an add-on coating.

  14. Electrochemical properties of dip-coated vanadium pentaoxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Vanadium oxide (V$_2$O$_5$) thin films have been deposited on to the stainless-steel substrates by simple dip-coating technique using vanadium pentaoxide as an initial ingredient. Deposited samples were annealed at773 K for 3 h in air. X-ray diffraction analysis of the sample shows crystalline with orthorhombic crystal structure. Scanning electron microscopy study depicts the homogeneous and dense surface morphology. Optical study provesthe direct bandgap transition with energy $\\sim$2.25 eV. Electrochemical performance of the deposited electrode was studied in 1 M NaNO$_3$ electrolyte using cyclic voltammetery, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge–discharge tests. Prepared V$_2$O$_5$ electrode shows 207.50 F g$^{−1}$ specific capacitance at the scan rate 5 mV s$^{−1}$, specific energy, specific power and efficiency are 41.33 Whkg$^{−1}$, 21 kW kg$^{−1}$ and 96.72%, respectively. The internal resistance observed from impedance spectroscopy is $\\sim$8.77 ohm. Electrode exhibits excellent chemicalstability up to 1000 cycles.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Y. Yao; M. Chini; A. Aiello; Benamati


    The hydrogen permeation experiment of MANET II with hot dipping aluminized 1oat-ing was performed in temperature range of 573 to 623K, in gas phase and in liquiaPb-17Li phase. The hydrogen permeation reduction factor (PRF) evaluated in gasphase is 620 at 573K and 260 at 623K, and in liquid Pb-17Li phase is 24 45 at 573Kand 12-30 at 623K. The self-healing of coating is obvious and effective above 673K.The pressure dependence of permeation flux indicates strong surface contribution. Theway of filling hydrogen by continuous flow and/or bubble can increase permeation flux.The result of SEM-EDS shows that the microcrack is on the surface of the wetted part,but not on the not wetted part. The crack is superficial and affects only thin outsidelayer not penetrate aluminized layer. The surface elemental analysis shows that Al/Oatomic ratio changes from 2/3 of not wetted part to about 1 of wetted part. Thedamage of coating surface seems to be related to the interaction of outside layer withliquid Pb-17Li and thermal stress during heating sample.

  16. A poliploidia artificial na obtenção de melancia sem sementes Artificial polyploidy in the production of seedless watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixier M. Medina


    tetraplóides.Watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. are in general provided with numerous seeds: large in the "American" varieties and small in the "Japanese" varieties. Triploids (2n=33 of the "Japanese" varieties are already under cultivation by American farmers who import the hybrid seeds from Japan and seedless fruits are being produced in ever increasing amounts. In Brazil the Japanese diploid (2n=22 varieties are only of recent introduction; among the American varieties (2n=22, "Keckley Sweet" is one of the best known and preferred for its good taste. For the obtention of seedless watermelons it seemed advisable to start the work with such a variety because of its commercial significance. The first step was the obtention of tetraploids (2n=44; the adopted method consisted in the treatment of germinating seeds in an aqueous colchicine solution; best results were achieved using an 0.1% solution for 8 to 12 hours. The tetraploids are of more stunted growth, with larger leaves and flowers; the fruits are smaller, round and few-seeded. In attempting to cross tetraploids with diploids, successfull results were obtained when ♀ 4n flowers were pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. Triploid (2n=33 plants, obtained from hybrid seeds, were completely male sterile but set fruits when pollinated with pollen from 2n plants. The triploid plants are somewhat intermediate between di- and tetraploids as to the size of leaves and growth habit; the fruits are less elongated than in the diploids and not round as in the tetraploids. Some fruits are seedless, i.e. with aborted seeds that can be eaten together with the pulp; others show from few to many empty seeds which are flacid, but not quite fit to be eaten. Comparative studies have been made of pollen, stomata and seeds of 2n, 3n and 4n plants. Studies are in progress to solve some problems encountered in the mass production and germination of tetraploid and triploid seed; up to now they are handicaps to the commercial

  17. Preparation of ultra long α-MnO2 and Ag@MnO2 nanoparticles by seedless approach and their photocatalytic performance (United States)

    Alzahrani, Salma Ahmed; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel Ahmed; Al-Arjan, Wafa Shamsan; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Khan, Zaheer


    The reaction between aqueous MnO4-, cysteine, and Ag + ions constitutes a new seedless arrangement for the production of α-MnO2 and Ag@MnO2 bimetallic nanocomposites at room temperature. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurement reveals that presence of Ag+ ions in an aqueous solution of MnO4- and cysteine changes the entire shape of the α-MnO2 visible spectrum, and leads to a formation of broad band at ca. 425 nm. Thus-prepared nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. For the degradation of methyl orange and congo red, nanomaterials were used as the photocatalyst. The results show almost complete degradation (ca. 99%) of congo red in ca. 25 min. The α-MnO2 nanorods possess high photo degradation efficiency toward congo red in comparison to methyl orange.

  18. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator). (United States)

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Arce-Johnson, Patricio


    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera 'Dzhandzhal Kara,' respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. 'Crimson Seedless.' We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases.

  19. Effect of different covering materials used during the pre-harvest stage on the quality and storage life of 'Sultana Seedless' grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Sen


    Full Text Available Covering the grapevine rows to delay the maturity and harvest date became widely practiced in 'Sultana Seedless' vineyards. The research work was conducted to test different cover materials (polypropylene cross-stitch, life pack, mogul and transparent polyethylene in respect to their effects on grape quality and storability. Harvest was delayed for one month in covered plots. Harvested grapes were packed and transferred to storage rooms after pre-cooling. During packing, the grape clusters were sealed in PE bags with sulphur dioxide pads. The grapes were stored for 90 days in the first year and 120 days in the second year, at -0.5ºC and 90% RH. All the grape clusters were healthy and of marketable quality after 90 days of storage period. In the first year, at the end of the storage, only those grapes harvested from the rows covered with polypropylene cross-stitch showed fungal growth. The sensory quality scores revealed a lower level of preference after 120 days of storage. The effects of the covering materials tested were similar regarding grape quality and storage performance except the transparent polyethylene that damaged the grapevine leaves.

  20. 7 CFR 305.21 - Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes. 305.21 Section 305.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.21 Hot water dip treatment schedule for mangoes....

  1. The estimation of pre- and postpromotion dips with store-level scanner data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerde, Harald J. van; Leeflang, Peter S.H.; Wittink, Dick R.


    One of the mysteries of store-level scanner data modeling is the lack of a dip in sales in the week(s) following a promotion. Researchers expect to find a postpromotion dip because analyses of household scanner panel data indicate that consumers tend to accelerate their purchases in response to a pr

  2. The estimation of pre- and postpromotion dips with store-level scanner data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Heerde, HJ; Leeflang, PSH; Wittink, DR


    One of the mysteries of store-level scanner data modeling is the lack of a dip in sales in the weeks following a promotion. Researchers expect to find a postpromotion dip because analyses of household scanner panel data indicate that consumers tend to accelerate their purchases in response to a prom

  3. Intermittent dipping in a low-mass X-ray Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Galloway, Duncan K; Upjohn, James; Stuart, Matthew


    Periodic dips observed in approx. 20% of low-mass X-ray binaries are thought to arise from obscuration of the neutron star by the outer edge of the accretion disk. We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer of two dipping episodes in Aql X-1, not previously a known dipper. The X-ray spectrum during the dips exhibited an elevated neutral column density, by a factor between 1 and almost two orders of magnitude. Dips were not observed in every cycle of the 18.95-hr orbit, so that the estimated frequency for these events is 0.10 (+0.07,-0.05)/cycle. This is the first confirmed example of intermittent dipping in such a system. Assuming that the dips in Aql X-1 occur because the system inclination is intermediate between the non-dipping and dipping sources, implies a range of 72-79 deg. for the source. This result lends support for the presence of a massive (> 2 M_sun) neutron star in Aql X-1, and further implies that approx. 30 additional LMXBs may have inclinations within this range, raising the...

  4. Arsenic residues in soil at cattle dip tanks in the Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marubini R. Ramudzuli


    Full Text Available Arsenic-based compounds have been used for cattle dipping for about half a century to combat East Coast Fever in cattle in South Africa. The government introduced a compulsory dipping programme in communal areas to eradicate the disease in 1911. Concern has been raised regarding the ecological legacy of the use of arsenic-based compounds in these areas. We investigated the incidence of arsenic residue in soil at 10 dip sites in the Vhembe district of Limpopo Province, South Africa. We found high levels of arsenic contamination at a depth of 300 mm at some sites. Control samples indicated that these high arsenic levels are the result of the application of inorganic arsenic. Variation of arsenic concentrations is attributed to duration of exposure to the chemical, soil properties and distance from the dip tank. Concerns are raised regarding the structural condition of the dip tanks, encroaching villages and possible health threats to the human population in the area.

  5. Dip Spectroscopy of the Low Mass X-Ray Binary XB 1254-690 (United States)

    Smale, Alan P.; Church, M. J.; BalucinskaChurch, M.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)


    We observed the low mass X-ray binary XB 1254-690 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in 2001 May and December. During the first observation strong dipping on the 3.9-hr orbital period and a high degree of variability were observed, along with "shoulders" approx. 15% deep during extended intervals on each side of the main dips. The first observation also included pronounced flaring activity. The non-dip spectrum obtained using the PCA instrument was well-described by a two-component model consisting of a blackbody with kT = 1.30 +/- 0.10 keV plus a cut-off power law representation of Comptonized emission with power law photon index 1.10 +/- 0.46 and a cut-off energy of 5.9(sup +3.0, sub -1.4) keV. The intensity decrease in the shoulders of dipping is energy-independent, consistent with electron scattering in the outer ionized regions of the absorber. In deep dipping the depth of dipping reached 100%, in the energy band below 5 keV, indicating that all emitting regions were covered by absorber. Intensity-selected dip spectra were well-fit by a model in which the point-like blackbody is rapidly covered, while the extended Comptonized emission is progressively overlapped by the absorber, with the, covering fraction rising to 95% in the deepest portion of the dip. The intensity of this component in the dip spectra could be modeled by a combination of electron scattering and photoelectric absorption. Dipping did not occur during the 2001 December observation, but remarkably, both bursting and flaring were observed contemporaneously.

  6. Comparison of piracetam measured with HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, DIP-APCI-MS, and a newly developed and optimized DIP-ESI-MS. (United States)

    Lenzen, Claudia; Winterfeld, Gottfried A; Schmitz, Oliver J


    The direct inlet probe-electrospray ionization (DIP-ESI) presented here was based on the direct inlet probe-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DIP-APCI) developed by our group. It was coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) for the detection of more polar compounds such as degradation products from pharmaceuticals. First, the position of the ESI tip, the gas and solvent flow rates, as well as the gas temperature were optimized with the help of the statistic program Minitab® 17 and a caffeine standard. The ability to perform quantitative analyses was also tested by using different concentrations of caffeine and camphor. Calibration curves with a quadratic calibration regression of R (2) = 0.9997 and 0.9998 for caffeine and camphor, respectively, were obtained. The limit of detection of 2.5 and 1.7 ng per injection for caffeine and camphor were determined, respectively. Furthermore, a solution of piracetam was used to compare established analytical methods for this drug and its impurities such as HPLC-diode array detector (DAD) and HPLC-ESI-MS with the DIP-APCI and the developed DIP-ESI. With HPLC-DAD and 10 μg piracetam on column, no impurity could be detected. With HPLC-ESI-MS, two impurities (A and B) were identified with only 4.6 μg piracetam on column, while with DIP-ESI, an amount of 1.6 μg piracetam was sufficient. In the case of the DIP-ESI measurements, all detected impurities could be identified by MS/MS studies. Graphical Abstract Scheme of the DIP-ESI principle.

  7. Dip-dependent variations in LFE duration during ETS events (United States)

    Chestler, S.; Creager, K.; Ghosh, A.


    Using data from the Array of Arrays experiment, we create a new, more spatially complete catalog of LFEs beneath the Olympic Peninsula, WA. Using stacked waveforms produced by stacking 1-minute windows of data from each array over the slowness with the greatest power [Ghosh et al., 2012], we pick out peaks in tremor activity that are consistent over multiple arrays. These peaks are potential LFE detections. Fifteen-second windows of raw data centered on each peak are scanned through time. If the waveform repeats, the detection is used as a new LFE family. Template waveforms for each family are created by stacking all windows that correlate with the initial detection. During an ETS event, activity at a given point on the plate interface (i.e. the activity of an LFE family) typically lasts for 3.5 (downdip) to 5 days (updip). Activity generally begins with a flurry of LFEs lasting 8 hours (downdip) to 20 hours (updip) followed by many short bursts of activity separated by 5 hours or more. Updip families have more bursts (5-10) than downdip families (2-5 bursts). The later bursts often occur during times of encouraging tidal shear stress, while the initial flurries have no significant correlation with tides. While updip LFE families are more active during ETS events than downdip families, they seldom light up between ETS events, which only occur every 12-14 months. On the other hand, downdip LFE families are active much more frequently during the year; the most down-dip families exhibit activity every week or so. Because updip families are rarely active between ETS events, it is possible that little stress is released updip during inter-ETS time periods. Hence during ETS events more stress needs to be released updip than downdip, consistent with the longer-duration activity of updip LFE families.

  8. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides (United States)

    Solomon, Christine; Poole, Jason; Palmer, Keith T; Peveler, Robert; Coggon, David


    Objectives To explore the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychiatric symptoms in past users of sheep dip and other pesticides. Methods From a postal survey of men born between 1933 and 1977 and resident in three rural areas of England and Wales (response rate 31%), data were obtained on lifetime history of work with pesticides, neurological symptoms in the past month, current mental health and tendency to be troubled by non‐neurological somatic symptoms (summarised as a somatising tendency score). Risk factors for current neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed by modified Cox regression. Results Data were available for 9844 men, including 1913 who had worked with sheep dip, 832 with other insecticides but not sheep dip and 990 with other pesticides but never with sheep dip or insecticides. Neurological symptoms were consistently 20–60% more common in past users of sheep dip than in men who had never worked with pesticides, but their prevalence was also higher in men who had worked only with pesticides other than sheep dip or insecticides. They clustered strongly within individuals, but this clustering was not specific to men who had worked with sheep dip. Reporting of three or more neurological symptoms was associated with somatising tendency (prevalence ratio (PR) 15.0, 95% CI 11.4 to 19.5, for the highest vs the lowest category of somatisation) and was more common in users of sheep dip (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.6), other insecticides (PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.8) and other pesticides (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7) than in non‐users. Among users of sheep dip, prevalence was higher in men who had dipped most often, but not in those who had worked with sheep dip concentrate. Past use of pesticides was not associated with current anxiety or depression. Conclusion Neurological symptoms are more common in men who have worked with sheep dip, but the association is not specific to sheep dip or insecticides. A toxic cause for the excess cannot be ruled out, but several

  9. 有机无机复混肥对无核白葡萄产量和果实品质的影响%Effect of Organic -inorganic Compound Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Thomson Seedless Grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热吉汗·阿不都热木; 齐曼·尤努斯; 玉山·库尔班; 艾克拜尔·伊拉洪; 谭建川


    [Objective] To study effects of different proportions organic - inorganic compound fertilizer on yield and quality of Turpan Thompson seedless grape, to provide theoretical and technical basis for scientific fertilization on Thompson seedless grape in this area. [Method] The 11 -years old Thompson Seedless grape was used as test materials. Four factors and 16 treatments were set in this experiment, and yield and several quality indexes were measured to determine the best formula of organic - inorganic compound fertilizer. [ Result ] After applying the different proportions of organic - inorganic compound fertilizer, the yield of 8 - 11 mus of proceed treatment was higher than that of the field by other treatments, among which the yields by treatment 10 and 11 were significantly higher than others, and the yields by treatment 1 and 16 were relatively lower; Treatments 9-12 have remarkable improvement effects on quality of Thompson seedless grapes; among them treatments 10 and 11 were the best formulas. After using fertilizer treatments 10 and 11, the 100 - grain weight, grain length and width, Vc content, soluble sugar and sugar - acid ratio of Thompson seedless grape were significantly higher than those by other formulations, and titration acid content was significantly lower than that by other treatments, while the hardness stayed at a high level. [ Conclusion]The organic - inorganiccompound fertilizer formulations 10 and 11 could significantly increase yield and quality of Thompson seedless grape, which have more popularization value in the area.%[目的]研究不同配比的有机无机复混肥对吐鲁番无核白葡萄产量、品质的影响,为该地区无核白葡萄的科学施肥提供理论技术依据.[方法]材料为11年生的无核白葡萄,实验设4个因素,16个处理,测定产量和几项品质指标,确定效果最佳的有机无机复混肥配方.[结果]施用不同配比的有机无机复混肥时,处理8~11的单产

  10. The impact of synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate sheep dip formulations on microbial activity in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucard, Tatiana K.; McNeill, Charles [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Bardgett, Richard D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Paynter, Christopher D. [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T. [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail:


    Sheep dip formulations containing organophosphates (OPs) or synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) have been widely used in UK, and their spreading onto land has been identified as the most practical disposal method. In this study, the impact of two sheep dip formulations on the microbial activity of a soil was investigated over a 35-d incubation. Microbial utilisation of [1-{sup 14}C] glucose, uptake of {sup 14}C-activity into the microbial biomass and microbial numbers (CFUs g{sup -1} soil) were investigated. In control soils and soils amended with 0.01% sheep dip, after 7 d a larger proportion of added glucose was allocated to microbial biomass rather than respired to CO{sub 2}. No clear temporal trends were found in soils amended with 0.1% and 1% sheep dips. Both sheep dip formulations at 0.1% and 1% concentrations resulted in a significant increase in CFUs g{sup -1} soil and [1-{sup 14}C] glucose mineralisation rates, as well as a decline in microbial uptake of [1-{sup 14}C] glucose, compared to control and 0.01% SP- or OP-amended soils. This study suggests that the growth, activity, physiological status and/or structure of soil microbial community may be affected by sheep dips. - The application of sheep dip formulations can have a profound impact upon microbial activity and substrate utilisation in soil.

  11. Trapping dynamics of diindenoperylene (DIP) in self-assembled monolayers using molecular simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.


    All-atom Molecular Dynamics simulation methods employing a well-tested intermolecular potential model, MM3 (Molecular Mechanics 3), demonstrate the propensity for diindenoperylene (DIP) molecules to insert between molecules of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) during a deposition process intended to grow a thin film of this organic semiconductor molecule onto the surface of self-assembled monolayers. The tendency to insert between SAM molecules is fairly prevalent at normal growth temperatures and conditions, but is most strongly dependent on the density and the nature of the SAM. We posit the existence of an optimal density to favor surface adsorption over insertion for this system. DIP is less likely to insert in fluorinated SAMs, like FOTS (fluorooctatrichlorosilane), than its unfluorinated analog, OTS (octatrichlorosilane). It is also less likely to insert between shorter SAMs (e.g., less insertion in OTS than ODTS (octadecyltrichlorosilane)). Very short length, surface-coating molecules, like HDMS (hexamethyldisilazane), are more likely to scatter energetic incoming DIP molecules with little insertion on first impact (depending on the incident energy of the DIP molecule). Grazing angles of incidence of the depositing molecules generally favor surface adsorption, at least in the limit of low coverage, but are shown to be dependent on the nature of the SAM. The validity of these predictions is confirmed by comparison of the predicted sticking coefficients of DIP at a variety of incident energies on OTS, ODTS, and FOTS SAMs with results obtained experimentally by Desai et al. (2010) [23]. The simulation predictions of the tendency of DIP to insert can be explained, in large part, in terms of binding energies between SAM and DIP molecules. However, we note that entropic and stochastic events play a role in the deposition outcomes. Preliminary studies of multiple deposition events, emulating growth, show an unexpected diffusion of DIP molecules inserted within the

  12. An Effective Method for Extracting Total RNA from Young Embryo of Seedless Litchi%一种有效提取无核荔枝幼胚总RNA的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 郑学勤


    A total RNA extraction method for young embryo of seedless litchi was introduced.CRAB,Phenol(saturated with water),chloroform,Guanidine isothiecyanate were used as main extraction reagents.Polyphenolic compounds were removed effectively by added PVP into the extraction buffer solution.RNA was purified intensively by phenol,chloroform extraction,and ethanol deposition after deposited by LiCl.Both the results of formaldehyde denatured agarose gel electrophoresis and ultraviolet spectrophotometer analysis showed high integrity and purity of RNA.So the quality of extracted RNA could meet the demand of most molecular biology experiments that require higher quality RNA.

  13. 响应面法优化无核白葡萄酒澄清工艺的研究%Optimization of the Clarification of Seedless White Grape Wine by Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅; 雷静; 郭峰; 吴斌; 韩琛


    澄清度是衡量葡萄酒外观质量的重要指标。本实验以无核白葡萄酒作为研究对象,研究不同澄清剂(皂土、果胶酶、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮)、澄清温度、澄清时间对无核白葡萄酒澄清效果的影响,采用响应曲面Box-Behnken设计方法,建立无核白葡萄酒透光率与澄清剂添加量、澄清温度、澄清时间之间的回归模型,确定最佳澄清条件。研究结果表明,皂土澄清效果最佳,最佳的澄清条件为:皂土添加量0.41 g/L、澄清温度3.8℃、澄清时间7.85 h。在此条件下,无核白葡萄酒透光率为98.70%。本研究为当地无核白葡萄酒贮藏研究提供理论支持。%Clarity is an important index in the evaluation of wine appearance. In this experiment, seedless white grape wine was used as the re-search object, and the effects of different clarifying agents (bentonite, pectinase, and polyvinylpyrrolidone), clarifying temperature and clarify-ing time on the clarification of seedless white grape wine were explored. The regression model of wine light transmittance and the adding levels of clarifying agents, clarifying temperature, and clarifying time was set up using response surface Box-Behnken design. Furthermore, the opti-mum clarifying conditions were determined as follows:the adding level of bentonite was 0.41 g/L, clarifying temperature was at 3.8℃, and clarifying time was 7.85 min. Under these conditions, the actual light transmittance of seedless white grape wine was 98.70%. This study pro-vided theoretical support for the research on the storage of local seedless white grape wine.

  14. Theoretical Calculation for the Dip Feature in Tunnelling Experiment on Bi2212

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢刚; 韩汝珊


    We generalize a model, which was presented by Norman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 (1997) 3506], to calculate the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Os+δ (Bi2212) single-electron tunnelling conductance. In our calculation result, the dip feature appears which has been widely observed in tunnelling experiments. It is found that this dip feature in tunnelling experiments and the dip/hump feature in angle-resolved photoemission experiments have a common physics. Moreover, it is shown from our numerical calculation method that if the spectral function A(κ, ω) is known, the tunnelling conductance can be obtained.

  15. Elimination of the beam effect on channeling dips of bismuth implanted in silicon (United States)

    Wagh, A. G.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Kansara, M. J.


    The effect of the analysing He + ion beam has been eliminated from channeling measurements on Si(Bi) by extrapolating the plot of normalised yield against He + dose to zero ion dose. The magnitude of the beam effect varies with the angle of incidence, being minimum for beam incidence along the crystallographic axis. The axial channeling dips thus obtained exhibit similar minimum yields for bismuth and silicon. The bismuth dips are, however, narrower than for silicon. The planar channeling experiments, on the other hand, yield nearly identical bismuth and silicon dips. The results indicate that the bismuth atom occupies the substitutional site in silicon, but the lattice is strained in its vicinity.

  16. Ion beam interaction with a potential dip formed in front of an electron-absorbing boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailung, H; Pal, A R; Adhikary, N C; Gogoi, H K; Chutia, Joyanti [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Materials Sciences Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati-35, Assam (India)


    Evolution of a potential dip in front of an electron absorbing plate has been experimentally investigated. A potential drop of the order of T{sub e}/2 exists between the bulk plasma and the boundary of the electron space charge region where the potential minimum occurs. The dip parameters are found to obey Child's law. Necessary ion pumping is provided by the floating teflon sheet covering the back of the plate. An ion beam launched towards the plate is found to be effective to modify the dip and subsequently suppress it.

  17. Efficiency dip observed with InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Kunyu


    The dip of external quantum efficiency (EQE) is observed on In0.15Ga0.85N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cells upon the increase of incident optical power density. With indium composition increased to 25%, the EQE dip becomes much less noticeable. The composition dependence of EQE dip is ascribed to the competition between radiative recombination and photocurrent generation in the active region, which are dictated by quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) and composition fluctuation in the MQWs.

  18. Estimation of water requirements and Kc values of 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes grown in the overhead trellis system, using the Eddy covariance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Villagra


    Full Text Available Crop evapotranspiration (ETc is essential for irrigation scheduling. The amount of water consumed can be estimated by multiplying the reference evapotranspiration (ET0 by a crop coefficient (Kc; the value of Kc is usually obtained from FAO Paper nr 56. In table grapes (Vitis vinifera L., Kc are obtained from experiments in vines trained on trellis systems; however in Chile, the most used is the overhead trellis system (parronal. Therefore, the objective was to determine water requirements and Kc values of a table grape orchard cv. Thompson Seedless trained on an overhead trellis system in Calle Larga (32°52'40" S, 70°37'45" W, 795 m a.s.l., Aconcagua Valley, Chile, using the Eddy covariance method. During the 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons, the instruments required for ET0 and ETc measurement were installed on a 4 m tower above the soil (2 m above vine canopy. The ET0 was estimated according to the FAO Penman-Monteith equation and ETc by the Eddy covariance method. The Kc was obtained by ratio between ETc and ET0. The maximum ETc was 7 mm d-1 and total water consumption was 810 mm. The season maximum Kc value of 1.2 was obtained near harvest during the first season, and 20 d before veraison in the second season. The Kc increased linearly with the percentage of intercepted solar radiation (IRS by the vine canopy at noon, suggesting that an equation to convert the IRS to Kc is more useful than Kc tabulated according to phenology. The equation obtained in this experiment was Kc = 0.012 IRS - 0.1029, R² = 0.85.

  19. 花皮无籽西瓜新品种花花牛的选育%A New Triploid Seedless Watermelon Variety "Huahuaniu"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪敏; 朱佩; 马长江


    Seedless watermelon "Huahuaniu" is a main season hybrid MD05-8 ?MD03-6 that meets watermelon production and market demand. The whole growth period is 106 d and fruit development 35 d. The fruit is round with deep green skin and dark green narrow stripes. The central soluble solids content is 10.6%-11.83%. The average fruit weight is 4.5 kg. Yield on 667 m2 is about 2 510 kg, highest yield up to 3 500 kg per 667 m2. Field trials showed that the plants are easy to set fruit, slightly susceptible to anthracnose, and tolerant to virus disease and Fusarium wilt. This variety is suitable for planting in North, Northeast, Northwest China.%花花牛无籽西瓜是根据西瓜生产和市场需求,用MD03-6×MD05-8杂交选育而成的中熟花皮无籽西瓜新品种.全生育期106 d,果实发育期35 d,圆形果,果皮灰绿覆墨绿色锯齿条带,条纹清晰;瓜瓤红色,质脆汁多,无空心;品质优,中心可溶性固形物含量10.6%~11.83%.平均单果质量4.5 kg,平均667 m2产量2 510.0 kg,高产地块在3 500 kg以上.田间表现植株易坐果,轻感炭疽病,较耐病毒病、枯萎病.适宜我国华北、东北、西北等广大瓜区种植.

  20. Overexpression of a stress-responsive U-box protein gene VaPUB affects the accumulation of resistance related proteins in Vitis vinifera 'Thompson Seedless'. (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang


    Many U-box proteins have been identified and characterized as important factors against environmental stresses such as chilling, heat, salinity and pathogen attack in plant. Our previous research reported the cloning of a novel U-box protein gene VaPUB from Vitis amurensis 'Zuoshanyi' grape and suggested a function of it in related to cold stress in the model plant Arabidopsis system. In this study, the role of VaPUB in response to biotic and abiotic stress was further analyzed in the homologous grapevine system by studying the transcript regulation and the protein accumulation in VaPUB transgenic vines. The expression analysis assay shown that VaPUB was significantly up-regulated 6 h after cold treatment and as early as 2 h post inoculation with Plasmopara viticola, a pathogen causing downy mildew disease in grapevine. Over-expressing VaPUB in V. Vinifera 'Thompson Seedless' affected the microstructure of leaves. The proteome assay shown that the accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein PR10 and many proteins involved in carbon and energy metabolism, oxidation reaction and protein metabolism were significantly altered in transgenic vines. In comparison with wild type plants, the expression level of PR10 family genes was significantly decreased in VaPUB transgenic vines under P. viticola treatment or cold stress. Results from this study showed that the U-box protein gene PUB quickly responded to both biotic stress and abiotic stress and significantly influenced the accumulation of resistance related proteins in grapevine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Spin-orbit interaction induced current dip in a single quantum dot coupled to a spin (United States)

    Giavaras, G.


    Experiments on semiconductor quantum dot systems have demonstrated the coupling between electron spins in quantum dots and spins localized in the neighboring area of the dots. Here we show that in a magnetic field the electrical current flowing through a single quantum dot tunnel-coupled to a spin displays a dip at the singlet-triplet anticrossing point which appears due to the spin-orbit interaction. We specify the requirements for which the current dip is formed and examine the properties of the dip for various system parameters, such as energy detuning, spin-orbit interaction strength, and coupling to leads. We suggest a parameter range in which the dip could be probed.

  2. Plateaus, Dips, and Leaps: Where to Look for Inventions and Discoveries During Skilled Performance. (United States)

    Gray, Wayne D; Lindstedt, John K


    The framework of plateaus, dips, and leaps shines light on periods when individuals may be inventing new methods of skilled performance. We begin with a review of the role performance plateaus have played in (a) experimental psychology, (b) human-computer interaction, and (c) cognitive science. We then reanalyze two classic studies of individual performance to show plateaus and dips which resulted in performance leaps. For a third study, we show how the statistical methods of Changepoint Analysis plus a few simple heuristics may direct our focus to periods of performance change for individuals. For the researcher, dips become the marker of exploration where performance suffers as new methods are invented and tested. Leaps mark the implementation of a successful new method and an incremental jump above the path plotted by smooth and steady log-log performance increments. The methods developed during these dips and leaps are the key to surpassing one's teachers and acquiring extreme expertise.

  3. DISMISS: detection of stranded methylation in MeDIP-Seq data. (United States)

    Niazi, Umar; Geyer, Kathrin K; Vickers, Martin J; Hoffmann, Karl F; Swain, Martin T


    DNA methylation is an important regulator of gene expression and chromatin structure. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) is commonly used to identify regions of DNA methylation in eukaryotic genomes. Within MeDIP-Seq libraries, methylated cytosines can be found in both double-stranded (symmetric) and single-stranded (asymmetric) genomic contexts. While symmetric CG methylation has been relatively well-studied, asymmetric methylation in any dinucleotide context has received less attention. Importantly, no currently available software for processing MeDIP-Seq reads is able to resolve these strand-specific DNA methylation signals. Here we introduce DISMISS, a new software package that detects strand-associated DNA methylation from existing MeDIP-Seq analyses. Using MeDIP-Seq datasets derived from Apis mellifera (honeybee), an invertebrate species that contains more asymmetric- than symmetric- DNA methylation, we demonstrate that DISMISS can identify strand-specific DNA methylation signals with similar accuracy as bisulfite sequencing (BS-Seq; single nucleotide resolution methodology). Specifically, DISMISS is able to confidently predict where DNA methylation predominates (plus or minus DNA strands - asymmetric DNA methylation; plus and minus DNA stands - symmetric DNA methylation) in MeDIP-Seq datasets derived from A. mellifera samples. When compared to DNA methylation data derived from BS-Seq analysis of A. mellifera worker larva, DISMISS-mediated identification of strand-specific methylated cytosines is 80 % accurate. Furthermore, DISMISS can correctly (p <0.0001) detect the origin (sense vs antisense DNA strands) of DNA methylation at splice site junctions in A. mellifera MeDIP-Seq datasets with a precision close to BS-Seq analysis. Finally, DISMISS-mediated identification of DNA methylation signals associated with upstream, exonic, intronic and downstream genomic loci from A. mellifera MeDIP-Seq datasets outperforms MACS2 (Model

  4. The Phosphodiesterase DipA (PA5017) Is Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Dispersion (United States)

    Roy, Ankita Basu; Petrova, Olga E.


    Although little is known regarding the mechanism of biofilm dispersion, it is becoming clear that this process coincides with alteration of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) levels. Here, we demonstrate that dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in response to sudden changes in nutrient concentrations resulted in increased phosphodiesterase activity and reduction of c-di-GMP levels compared to biofilm and planktonic cells. By screening mutants inactivated in genes encoding EAL domains for nutrient-induced dispersion, we identified in addition to the previously reported ΔrbdA mutant a second mutant, the ΔdipA strain (PA5017 [dispersion-induced phosphodiesterase A]), to be dispersion deficient in response to glutamate, nitric oxide, ammonium chloride, and mercury chloride. Using biochemical and in vivo studies, we show that DipA associates with the membrane and exhibits phosphodiesterase activity but no detectable diguanylate cyclase activity. Consistent with these data, a ΔdipA mutant exhibited reduced swarming motility, increased initial attachment, and polysaccharide production but only somewhat increased biofilm formation and c-di-GMP levels. DipA harbors an N-terminal GAF (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, adenylyl cyclases, and FhlA) domain and two EAL motifs within or near the C-terminal EAL domain. Mutational analyses of the two EAL motifs of DipA suggest that both are important for the observed phosphodiesterase activity and dispersion, while the GAF domain modulated DipA function both in vivo and in vitro without being required for phosphodiesterase activity. Dispersion was found to require protein synthesis and resulted in increased dipA expression and reduction of c-di-GMP levels. We propose a role of DipA in enabling dispersion in P. aeruginosa biofilms. PMID:22493016

  5. Development of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Strip and Its Application in Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Jun; ZHU Yun; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong


    Hot dip galvanized product is widely used in architecture, household electric appliance, ship vehicle, vessel, mechano-electronic device and other fields including clothing, food, housing, and travel. The history, development, market need, and technological advancement of hot dip galvanized strip, production situation, and development tendency in China are briefly introduced. The fact that it is necessary to build new and auto galvanized strip line with the development of the iron and steel industry in China.

  6. The Microstructure and Hardness of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel During Wire Drawing (United States)

    Klinaku, Shukri; Dilo, Teuta; Syla, Naim


    The steel wire samples are hot-dip-galvanized. The zinc coating is preformed using the standard method. To recognize the behavior of the zinc coated steel wire during the submission to deformation, the wire samples are drawn on a machine designed for this aim and then investigated. In this research is represented the phase structure of the zinc coated samples. Afterwards the thickness of the layer and the hardness of the hot-dip galvanized steel depending on the drawing is represented.

  7. From X-ray dips to eclipse: Witnessing disk reformation in the recurrent nova USco

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, J -U; Dobrotka, A; Sadowski, A; Drake, J J; Barnard, R; Talavera, A; Gonzalez-Riestra, R; Page, K L; Hernanz, M; Sala, G; Starrfield, S


    The recurrent eclipsing nova USco was observed with XMM-Newton, following its 10th recorded outburst. Simultaneous X-ray, ultraviolet (UV), and optical observations were carried out with XMM-Newton on days 22.9 and 34.9 after outburst, viewing two full passages of the companion in front of the nova ejecta and the reforming accretion disk during different stages of the evolution. On day 22.9, we observed smooth eclipses in UV and optical but deep dips in the X-ray light curve. The X-ray dips disappeared by day 34.9, then yielding clean eclipses in all bands. We interpret the change from X-ray dips to eclipse as part of the formation process of an accretion disk while the nova was still active. X-ray dips can be caused by clumpy absorbing material that intersects the line of sight while moving along highly elliptical trajectories. Low-ionization material expelled from the companion could explain the absence of dips in UV and optical light. The disappearance of X-ray dips before day 34.9 implies significant prog...

  8. Conservação de uvas "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", submetidas a diferentes tipos de embalagens e dióxido de enxofre (SO2 Conservation of grapes "Crimson Seedless" and "Italia", submitted to different types of packings and sulfur dioxide (SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves


    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o efeito de diferentes tipos de embalagens e a ação do dióxido de enxofre (SO2 na conservação pós-colheita de uvas finas de mesa var. "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália". Os frutos, colhidos em propriedade agrícola situada no município de Boa Vista-RR (Lat. 2º 50' 06" N e Long. 60º 40' 28" W, apresentavam, no momento da colheita, sólidos solúveis (SS médios de 16,50 e 14,80°Brix, para as variedades "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", respectivamente. Antes da confecção dos tratamentos, os cachos foram higienizados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 100 mg.L-1, previamente acidificada, por dez minutos. Utilizaram-se, para a atmosfera modificada passiva, sacolas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, sem perfuração, com 0,010; 0,015 e 0,020mm de espessura,e acondicionadas em embalagens secundárias de papelão (4kg e de madeira (7,5kg. Para a geração do SO2, foram utilizados papéis Kraft de liberação rápida, com 3 e 8g de metabissulfito de sódio (Na2S2O5. Após a confecção dos tratamentos, os frutos foram armazenados em câmara frigorífica a 4 ± 1°C e 95 ± 3% de umidade relativa (U.R.. As avaliações foram realizadas no momento da colheita e, 7; 21; 35; 42 e 56 dias de armazenamento refrigerado, quanto à porcentagem de perda de massa fresca, taxa de desgrana e de bagas deterioradas, qualidade do engaço e teor de SS dos frutos. Após oito semanas, foi realizado teste de preferência para as duas variedades. Verificou-se, em ambas as variedades, que as uvas submetidas à ação do gerador de SO2 , contendo 3g de metabissulfito de sódio e acondicionamento em embalagens de PEBD de 0,020mm de espessura, independentemente do tipo de embalagem secundária, apresentaram a menor perda de massa fresca, menor taxa de desgrana e de bagas deterioradas, e melhor qualidade do engaço. Os resultados da análise sensorial concordaram com os resultados das análises físico-químicas. Não foram detectadas

  9. ‘奥迪亚’葡萄杂交后代胚挽救及无核性状分子鉴定%Embryo rescue and seedlessness molecular identification of hybrid off- springs of ‘Otilia' grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程和禾; 吴雅琴; 吴永杰; 李玉生; 陈龙; 周锡明; 赵艳华


    【目的】为了研究影响杂交后代胚挽救萌发率的主要因素,并对其无核性状进行早期鉴定,【方法】以无核、抗病葡萄品种‘奥迪亚’为母本,‘玫瑰香’、‘摩尔多瓦’和‘红地球’3个主栽品种为父本进行杂交,通过L9(3^3)正交试验,建立简单高效的胚挽救体系,并用分子标记对杂交苗无核性状进行鉴定。【结果】结果表明,影响胚挽救萌发率的最关键因素为接种时期,其次为培养基种类和NAA浓度;以‘奥迪亚’为母本的杂交胚其适宜接种程序为授粉后49~56d剥取胚珠,接种在B5或NN69培养基上充分发育70d,再转入1/2B5培养基上萌芽,‘奥迪亚’ב摩尔多瓦’杂交胚通过此程序萌发率达到了50.48%;经分子标记鉴定,各组合后代的无核株系均超过50%。【结论】利用胚挽救方法以‘奥迪亚’为杂交母本可高效创新葡萄无核种质。%[Objective]What was the main factor which influenced the embryo germination rate and whether the hybrid off-springs were seedless or not were studied in this test. [Method ]Three hybrid combi- nations were set up which were ‘Otilia' בMuscat Hamburg', ‘ Otilia' בMoldova' and ‘Otilia' × ‘Red Globe', and the female parent ‘Otilia' was seedless and disease-resistant. L9 (33) orthogonal test were designed to establish simple and efficient embryo rescue progress, and using molecular marker to identify whether the hybrid off-springs were seedless or not. [Result] The results were as follows: the most important factor that influenced the embryo germination rate was inoculation period, which is followed by the medium type and NAA concentration; the suitable embryo rescue progress for hybrid embryos, whose female parents was Otilia, was that the embryos were first inoculated at 49-56 DAF (days after fertiliza- tion), and after developed on the B5 or NN69 medium for 70 d

  10. Sensitive DIP-STR markers for the analysis of unbalanced mixtures from "touch" DNA samples. (United States)

    Oldoni, Fabio; Castella, Vincent; Grosjean, Frederic; Hall, Diana


    Casework samples collected for forensic DNA analysis can produce genomic mixtures in which the DNA of the alleged offender is masked by high quantities of DNA coming from the victim. DIP-STRs are novel genetic markers specifically developed to enable the target analysis of a DNA of interest in the presence of exceeding quantities of a second DNA (up to 1000-fold). The genotyping system, which is based on allele-specific amplifications of haplotypes formed by a deletion/insertion polymorphism (DIP) and a short tandem repeat (STR), combines the capacity of targeting the DNA of an individual with a strong identification power. Finally, DIP-STRs are autosomal markers therefore they can be applied to any combination of major and minor DNA. In this study we aimed to assess the ability of DIP-STRs to detect the minor contributor on challenging "touch" DNA samples simulated with representative crime-associated substrates and to compare their performance to commonly used male-specific markers (Y-STRs). As part of a comprehensive study on the relative DNA contribution of two persons handling the same object, we selected 71 unbalanced contact traces of which 14 comprised a male minor DNA contributor mixed to a female major DNA contributor. Using a set of six DIP-STRs, one to four markers were found to be informative for the minor DNA detection across traces. When compared to Y-STRs (14 traces), the DIP-STRs showed similar sensitivity in detecting the minor DNA across substrate materials with a similar occurrence of allele drop-out. Conversely, because of the sex combination of the two users of the object, 57 remaining traces could only be investigated by DIP-STRs. Of these, 30 minor DNA contributors could be detected by all informative markers while 12 traces showed events of allele drop-out. Finally, 15 traces showed no amplification of the minor DNA. These last 15 samples were mostly characterized by a combination of short handling time of the object, low DNA recovery and

  11. Fluid dipping technology of chimpanzees in Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast. (United States)

    Lapuente, Juan; Hicks, Thurston C; Linsenmair, K Eduard


    Over a 6 month period during the dry season, from the end of October 2014 to the beginning of May 2015, we studied tool use behavior of previously unstudied and non-habituated savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in the Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast (CI). We analyzed all the stick tools and leaf-sponges found that the chimpanzees used to forage for ants, termites, honey, and water. We found a particular behavior to be widespread across different chimpanzee communities in the park, namely, dipping for water from tree holes using sticks with especially long brush-tip modifications, using camera traps, we recorded adults, juveniles, and infants of three communities displaying this behavior. We compared water dipping and honey dipping tools used by Comoé chimpanzees and found significant differences in the total length, diameter, and brush length of the different types of fluid-dipping tools used. We found that water dipping tools had consistently longer and thicker brush-tips than honey dipping tools. Although this behavior was observed only during the late dry season, the chimpanzees always had alternative water sources available, like pools and rivers, in which they drank without the use of a tool. It remains unclear whether the use of a tool increases efficient access to water. This is the first time that water dipping behavior with sticks has been found as a widespread and well-established behavior across different age and sex classes and communities, suggesting the possibility of cultural transmission. It is crucial that we conserve this population of chimpanzees, not only because they may represent the second largest population in the country, but also because of their unique behavioral repertoire. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. DipTest: A litmus test for E. coli detection in water. (United States)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Dasgupta, Saumyadeb; Mitra, Sushanta K


    We have developed a new litmus paper test (DipTest) for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples by performing enzymatic reactions directly on the porous paper substrate. The paper strip consists of a long narrow piece of cellulose blotting paper coated with chemoattractant (at bottom edge), wax hydrophobic barrier (at the top edge), and custom formulated chemical reagents (at reaction zone immediately below the wax hydrophobic barrier). When the paper strip is dipped in water, E. coli in the water sample is attracted toward the paper strip due to a chemotaxic mechanism followed by the ascent along the paper strip toward the reaction zone due to a capillary wicking mechanism, and finally the capillary motion is arrested at the top edge of the paper strip by the hydrophobic barrier. The E. coli concentrated at the reaction zone of the paper strip will react with custom formulated chemical reagents to produce a pinkish-red color. Such a color change on the paper strip when dipped into water samples indicates the presence of E. coli contamination in potable water. The performance of the DipTest device has been checked with different known concentrations of E. coli contaminated water samples using different dip and wait times. The DipTest device has also been tested with different interfering bacteria and chemical contaminants. It has been observed that the different interfering contaminants do not have any impact on the DipTest, and it can become a potential solution for screening water samples for E. coli contamination at the point of source.

  13. Model-based Corrections to Observed Azimuth and Slowness Deviations from a Dipping Mohorovicic Discontinuity (United States)

    Flanagan, M. P.; Myers, S.; Simmons, N. A.


    Back azimuth and slowness anomalies observed at seismic arrays can be used to constrain local and distant structural and propagation effects in the Earth. Observations of large systematic deviations in both azimuth and slowness measured for several P phases (i.e., Pg, Pn, P, PKP) recorded at several IMS arrays show a characteristic sinusoidal pattern when plotted as a function of theoretical back azimuth. These deviations are often interpreted as the affect of the wavefield being systematically bent by refraction from a dipping velocity structure beneath the array, most likely a dipping Moho. We develop a model-based technique that simultaneously fits back azimuth and slowness observations with a ray-based prediction that incorporates a dipping layer defined by its strike and dip. Because the azimuth and slowness deviations both vary as a function of true azimuth, fitting both residuals jointly will give a more consistent calibration for the array. The technique is used to fit over 9900 observations at CMAR from a global distribution of well-located seismic events. Under the assumption that the dipping layer is the Moho with mantle velocity 8.04 km/sec and crustal velocity 6.2 km/sec, we estimate that Moho strike and dip under the CMAR array are 192.6° and 18.3°, respectively. When the trend of the Moho is removed from the back azimuth and slowness residuals, both the sinuous trend and variations with predicted slowness are mitigated. While a dipping interface model does not account for all of the discrepancy between observed and predicted back azimuth and slowness anomalies, and additional calibration whether empirical or model based should be pursued, this technique is a good first step in the calibration procedure for arrays exhibiting sinusoidal residual trends.

  14. Micropropagation of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using RAPD markers. (United States)

    Goswami, Komal; Sharma, R; Singh, P K; Singh, Govind


    A micropropagation protocol was developed for multiplication of seedless lemon (Citrus limon L. cv. Kaghzi Kalan) using nodal explants. The maximum shoot regeneration was observed on low level of BAP (0.1 mg l(-1)) or kinetin (0.5 mg l(-1)). BA was recorded to be better than kinetin in terms of number of days taken to bud break. The maximum number of shoots per explant was observed on 0.1 mg l(-1) BA and 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin. Shoot proliferation decreased with increasing concentration of BA alone, but in case of a combination of BA and NAA (0.1 mg l(-1) each), it increased with increasing concentration of BA up to 10.0 mg l(-1). None of the treatments including BA or kinetin alone or BA in combination with NAA produced significantly more shoots for commercial exploitation. In the case of a combination of BA + kinetin + IBA, the maximum (5.5 shoots per explants) proliferation was observed on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA or 0.25 mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. Regenerated shoots showed root induction on MS basal medium or on MS medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA. It is concluded that a five-fold increase (1.0 mg l(-1) BA + 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin + 0.5 mg l(-1) IBA) in axillary shoot proliferation, while seven-fold increase (0.25 mg/l mg l(-1) BA + 1.0 mg l(-1) kinetin + 1.0 mg l(-1) IBA) during the second cycle of multiplication could be obtained using the two plant growth regulator combinations. PCR amplification with 14 different random primers confirmed no somaclonal variant up to two cycles of shoot multiplication.

  15. Recognition of group B streptococci in dip-slide cultures of urine. (United States)

    Jokipii, A M; Jokipii, L


    One hundred strains of group B streptococci isolated from human infections were tested for growth on dip-slides available for the culture of urine. All grew on CLED agar, and none grew on MacConkey agar. The colonies were barely or not at all visible to the naked eye after overnight incubation (diameter, around 0.1 mm). The colony size increased eith prolonged incubation, but not if the inoculum density exceeded 10(6)/ml. Differences were found between lots of dip-slides. Poor growth on dip-slides may explain why group B streptococci have received little attention as pathogens of the urinary tract. The dip-slide screening personnel of one laboratory were informed of the experimental findings, and they started the practice of frequent subculture and prolonged incubation. The proportion of group B streptococci in significant bacteriuria increased from 0 to about 2% of positive cultures, whereas there was no conmitant increase of group B streptococci in dip-slides screened in several other laboratories serving as controls.

  16. DipM, a new factor required for peptidoglycan remodelling during cell division in Caulobacter crescentus. (United States)

    Möll, Andrea; Schlimpert, Susan; Briegel, Ariane; Jensen, Grant J; Thanbichler, Martin


    In bacteria, cytokinesis is dependent on lytic enzymes that facilitate remodelling of the cell wall during constriction. In this work, we identify a thus far uncharacterized periplasmic protein, DipM, that is required for cell division and polarity in Caulobacter crescentus. DipM is composed of four peptidoglycan binding (LysM) domains and a C-terminal lysostaphin-like (LytM) peptidase domain. It binds to isolated murein sacculi in vitro, and is recruited to the site of constriction through interaction with the cell division protein FtsN. Mutational analyses showed that the LysM domains are necessary and sufficient for localization of DipM, while its peptidase domain is essential for function. Consistent with a role in cell wall hydrolysis, DipM was found to interact with purified murein sacculi in vitro and to induce cell lysis upon overproduction. Its inactivation causes severe defects in outer membrane invagination, resulting in a significant delay between cytoplasmic compartmentalization and final separation of the daughter cells. Overall, these findings indicate that DipM is a periplasmic component of the C. crescentus divisome that facilitates remodelling of the peptidoglycan layer and, thus, coordinated constriction of the cell envelope during the division process.

  17. Migration velocity analysis using a transversely isotropic medium with tilt normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, T.


    A transversely isotropic model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TTI model. Though this model, in some cases, can not be represented physically like in the case of conflicting dips, it handles all dips with the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. It provides a process in which areas that meet this feature is handled properly. We use efficient downward continuation algorithms that utilizes the reflection features of such a model. For lateral inhomogeneity, phase shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity, because unlike the general TTI case the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. We also equip these continuation algorithms with tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity. We test this model on synthetic data of general TTI nature and show its resilience even couping with complex models like the recently released anisotropic BP model.

  18. Characterization of DIP0733, a multi-functional virulence factor of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (United States)

    Antunes, Camila Azevedo; Sanches dos Santos, Louisy; Hacker, Elena; Köhler, Stefanie; Bösl, Korbinian; Ott, Lisa; de Luna, Maria das Graças; Hirata, Raphael; Azevedo, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana-Luíza; Burkovski, Andreas


    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is typically recognized as an extracellular pathogen. However, a number of studies revealed its ability to invade epithelial cells, indicating a more complex pathogen-host interaction. The molecular mechanisms controlling and facilitating internalization of Cor. diphtheriae are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of DIP0733 as virulence factor to elucidate how it contributes to the process of pathogen-host cell interaction. Based on in vitro experiments, it was suggested recently that the DIP0733 protein might be involved in adhesion, invasion of epithelial cells and induction of apoptosis. A corresponding Cor. diphtheriae mutant strain generated in this study was attenuated in its ability to colonize and kill the host in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model system. Furthermore, the mutant showed an altered adhesion pattern and a drastically reduced ability to adhere and invade epithelial cells. Subsequent experiments showed an influence of DIP0733 on binding of Cor. diphtheriae to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin. Furthermore, based on its fibrinogen-binding activity, DIP0733 may play a role in avoiding recognition of Cor. diphtheriae by the immune system. In summary, our findings support the idea that DIP0733 is a multi-functional virulence factor of Cor. diphtheriae.

  19. Dip coating process. Annual report No. 1, October 21, 1975--September 17, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Zook, J.D.; Harrison, W.B.; Scott, M.W.; Hendrickson, G.; Wolner, H.A.; Nelson, L.D.; Schuller, T.L.; Peterson, A.A.


    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by dip-coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon. The dip-coating methods studied were directed toward a minimum-cost process with the ultimate objective of producing solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 10 percent or greater. The technique shows excellent promise for low-cost, labor-saving, scale-up potentialities and would provide an end product of sheet silicon with a rigid and strong supportive backing. An experimental dip-coating facility was designed and constructed, and, using this facility, several substrates have been successfully dip-coated with areas as large as 25 cm/sup 2/ and thicknesses of 12 to 250 There appears to be no serious limitation on the area of a substrate that could be coated. Of the various substrate materials dip-coated this reporting period, mullite appears, at this time, to best satisfy the requirement of this research program. An inexpensive process has been developed for producing mullite in the desired geometry, thus satisfying the cost objectives of the program.

  20. Wear Resistance and Wear Mechanism of a Hot Dip Aluminized Steel in Sliding Wear Test (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyong; Hao, Xiaoyang; Huang, Yao; Gu, Lingyun; Ren, Yu; Zheng, Ruipeng


    Sliding wear experiments were conducted on a hot dip aluminized steel to investigate its wear resistance and wear mechanism. The wear tests were also carried out on a hot dip galvanized steel and the base material (steel Q345) as a comparison. Results show that the wear resistance and hardness of the hot dip aluminized steel are significantly higher than that of the hot dip galvanized steel and the steel Q345 at room temperature. The better wear resistance of the hot dip aluminized steel attributes mainly to the formation of a transition layer containing abundant Fe-Al intermetallic compounds and the transformation of wear-resisting oxides during the friction process. The main phase in the transition layer is Fe2Al5. The thickness of the transition layer is about 90-120 μm. When the wear load increases from 3 N to 19 N, the wear type of the aluminized layer transform from adhesive wear (3 N) into abrasive wear (7 N) and finally into slight wear mixed with oxidation (higher than 11 N).

  1. Hot-Dip Aluminizing of Low Carbon Steel Using Al-7Si-2Cu Alloy Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Huilgol


    Full Text Available Hot-dip aluminizing of low carbon steel was done in molten Al-7Si-2Cu bath at 690°C for dipping time ranging from 300 to 2400 seconds. Characterization of the intermetallics layer was done by using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Four intermetallic phases, τ5-Al7Fe2Si, θ-FeAl3, η-Fe2Al5, and τ1-Al2Fe3Si3, were identified in the reaction layer. τ5- Al7Fe2Si phase was observed adjacent to aluminum-silicon topcoat, θ-FeAl3 between τ5 and η-Fe2Al5, η-Fe2Al5 adjacent to base material, and τ1-Al2Fe3Si3 precipitates within Fe2Al5 layer. The average thickness of Fe2Al5 layer increased linearly with square root of dipping time, while for the rest of the layers such relationship was not observed. The tongue-like morphology of Fe2Al5 layer was more pronounced at higher dipping time. Overall intermetallic layer thickness was following parabolic relationship with dipping time.

  2. Prediction of Velocity-Dip-Position at the Central Section of Open Channels using Entropy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehasis Kundu


    Full Text Available An analytical model to predict the velocity-dip-position at the central section of open channels is presented in this study. Unlike the previous studies where empirical or semi-empirical models were suggested, in this study the model is derived by using entropy theory. Using the principle of maximum entropy, the model for dip-position is derived by maximizing the Shannon entropy function after assuming dimensionless dip-position at the central section as a random variable. No estimation of empirical parameter is required for calculating dip-position from the proposed model. The model is able to predict the location of maximum velocity at the central section of an open channel with any aspect ratio. The developed model of velocity-dip-position is tested with experimental data from twenty-two researchers reported in literature for a wide range of aspect ratio. The model is also compared with other existing empirical models. The present model shows good agreement with the observed data and provides least prediction error compared to other models.

  3. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins


    Full Text Available Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5–2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  4. Influence of dipping cycles on physical, optical, and electrical properties of Cu 2 NiSnS 4 : Direct solution dip coating for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Siol, Sebastian; Klein, Talysa R.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.


    Direct solution coating technique has emerged as a promising economically viable process for earth abundant chalcogenide absorber materials for photovoltaic applications. Here, direct ethanol based dip coating of earth abundant Cu2NiSnS4 (CNTS) films on soda lime glass (SLG), molybdenum coated glass (Mo), and fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass (FTO) substrates is investigated. The structural and morphological properties of pre-annealed and sulfurized CNTS films coated on SLG, FTO, and Mo substrates are reported. The influence of dipping cycles on composition and optoelectronic properties of pre-annealed and sulfurized CNTS films deposited on SLG substrate is presented. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis reveal how changes in thickness and elemental composition affect morphology and optoelectronic properties. The obtained absorption coefficient, optical bandgap, resistivity and mobility of pre - annealed and sulfurized films are found to be 104 cm-1, 1.5 eV, 0.48 Ocm, 3.4 cm2/Vs and 104 cm-1, 1.29 eV, 0.14 Ocm, 11.0 cm2/Vs, respectively. These properties are well suited for photovoltaic applications and lead to the conclusion that the direct ethanol based dip coating can be an alternative economically viable process for the fabrication of earth abundant CNTS absorber layers for thin film solar cells.

  5. The adhesion of epoxy cataphoretic coating on phosphatized hot-dip galvanized steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajat Jelena B.


    Full Text Available The influence of hot-dip galvanized steel surface pretreatment on the adhesion of epoxy cataphoretic coating was investigated. Phosphate coatings were deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel and the influence of fluoride ions in the phosphating plating bath, as well as the deposition temperature of the plating bath, were investigated. The dry and wet adhesion of epoxy coating were measured by a standard pull-off method. The surface roughness of phosphatized galvanized steel was determined, as well as the wettability of the metal surface by emulsion of the epoxy resin in water. The adhesion of epoxy coatings on phosphatized hot-dip galvanized steel was investigated in 3wt.%NaCI.

  6. Drinking with a hairy tongue: viscous entrainment by dipping hairy surfaces (United States)

    Nasto, Alice; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Alvarado, José; Bush, John; Hosoi, Anette


    Nectar-drinking bats have tongues covered with hair-like papillae, enhancing their ability to take up viscous nectar by dipping. Using a combination of model experiments and theory reminiscent of Landau-Levich-Derjaguin dip coating, we rationalize this mechanism of viscous entrainment in a hairy texture. For the model experiments, hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with PDMS elastomer. Modeling the liquid trapped within the texture using a Darcy-Brinkman like approach, we derive the drainage flow solution. The amount of fluid that is entrained is dependent on the viscosity of the fluid, the density of the hairs, and the dipping speed. We find that there is an optimal hair density to maximize fluid uptake.

  7. Study of formation boundary and dip attribute extraction based on edge detection technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanbo; SUN Jianguoand SONG Chao


    In the seismic profile interpretation process,as the seismic data are big and the small geological fea-tures are difficult to identify,improvement of the efficiency is needed.In this study,structure tensor method in computer image edge detection processing is applied into the 2D seismic profile.Coherent attribute is used to extract formation edge.At the same time,extracting the eigenvalues and eigenvectors to calculate the seismic geometric properties which include dip and apparent dip,automatic identification is achieved.Testing the Gaussian kernel function with synthetic models and comparing the coherent attribute and dip attribute extraction results before and after,the conclusion that Gaussian filter can remove the random noise is obtained.

  8. Invisibility Dips of Near-Field Energy Transport in a Spoof Plasmonic Metadimer

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Baile


    Invisibility dips, minima in scattering spectrum associated with asymmetric Fano-like line-shapes, have been predicted with transformation optics in studying strong coupling between two plasmonic nanoparticles. This feature of strongly coupled plasmonic nanoparticles holds promise for sensor cloaking. It requires an extremely narrow gap between the two nanoparticles, though, preventing its experimental observation at optical frequencies. Here, the concept of spoof surface plasmons is utilized to facilitate the strong coupling between two spoof-localized-surface-plasmon (SLSP) resonators. Instead of observing in far field, the near-field energy transport is probed through the two SLSP resonators. By virtue of enhanced coupling between the two resonators stacked vertically, a spectral transmission dip with asymmetric Fano-like line-shape, similar to the far-field invisibility dips predicted by transformation optics, is observed. The underlying mode interference mechanism is further demonstrated by directly imag...

  9. Detecting Power Voltage Dips using Tracking Filters - A Comparison against Kalman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIU, I.-R.


    Full Text Available Due of its significant economical impact, Power-Quality (PQ analysis is an important domain today. Severe voltage distortions affect the consumers and disturb their activity. They may be caused by short circuits (in this case the voltage drops significantly or by varying loads (with a smaller drop. These two types are the PQ currently issues. Monitoring these phenomena (called dips or sags require powerful techniques. Digital Signal Processing (DSP algorithms are currently employed to fulfill this task. Discrete Wavelet Transforms, (and variants, Kalman filters, and S-Transform are currently proposed by researchers to detect voltage dips. This paper introduces and examines a new tool to detect voltage dips: the so-called tracking filters. Discovered and tested during the cold war, they can estimate a parameter of interest one-step-ahead based on the previously observed values. Two filters are implemented. Their performance is assessed by comparison against the Kalman filter?s results.

  10. Decreased orthostatic adrenergic reactivity in non-dipping postural tachycardia syndrome. (United States)

    Figueroa, Juan J; Bott-Kitslaar, Darlene M; Mercado, Joaquin A; Basford, Jeffrey R; Sandroni, Paola; Shen, Win-Kuang; Sletten, David M; Gehrking, Tonette L; Gehrking, Jade A; Low, Phillip A; Singer, Wolfgang


    Whether non-dipping - the loss of the physiologic nocturnal drop in blood pressure - among patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is secondary to autonomic neuropathy, a hyperadrenergic state, or other factors remains to be determined. In 51 patients with POTS (44 females), we retrospectively analyzed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure recordings, laboratory indices of autonomic function, orthostatic norepinephrine response, 24-hour natriuresis and peak exercise oxygen consumption. Non-dipping (orthostatic heart rate increment (43±16bpm vs. 35±10bpm, P=0.007) and significantly greater orthostatic plasma norepinephrine increase (293±136.6pg/ml vs. 209±91.1pg/ml, P=0.028). Our data indicate that in patients with POTS, a non-dipping blood pressure profile is associated with a reduced orthostatic sympathetic reactivity not accounted for by autonomic neuropathy.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.J.Shan; C.S.Liu; S.H.Wang; G.C.Qi


    The corrosion behavior of hot dip galvanized steel pretreated with bis-[triethoxy-silylpropyl]tetrasulfide (BTESPT) modified with alumina particles was studied.The corrosion resistance of the passiving films was evaluated by Tafel polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.The films formed on the galvanized steel substrate were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.The surface morphology of the treated hot dip galva-nized steel samples was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The results show that the pretreatments on the basis of silane films modified with nanoalumina particles have reduced both anodic and cathodic current densities,and increased total impedance in the measured frequency,consequently,improving cor-rosion protection for hot dip galvanized steel during immersion in NaCl solutions compared to chromate films and silane films.

  12. Observation of intermolecular double-quantum coherence signal dips in nuclear magnetic resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Gui-Ping; Cai Cong-Bo; Cai Shu-Hui; Chen Zhong


    The correlated spectroscopy revamped by asymmetric Z-gradient echo detection (CRAZED) sequence is modified to investigate intermolecular double-quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance signal dips in highly polarized spin systems.It is found that the occurrence of intermolecular double-quantum coherence signal dips is related to sample geometry,field inhomogeneity and dipolar correlation distance.If the field inhomogeneity is refocused,the signal dip occurs at a fixed position whenever the dipolar correlation distance approaches the sample dimension.However,the position is shifted when the field inhomogeneity exists.Experiments and simulations are performed to validate our theoretic analysis.These signal features may offer a unique way to investigate porous structures and may find applications in biomedicine and material science.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhisheng; Liu Cuirong; Wang Jiuhai; Shan Ping; Hu Shengsun; Lian Jinrui


    The microstructure and elements distribution of the deep cryogenic treatment electrodes and non-cryogenic treatment electrodes for spot welding hot dip galvanized steel are observed by a scanning electrical microscope. The grain sizes, the resistivity and the hardness of the electrodes before and after deep cryogenic treatment are measured by X-ray diffraction, the DC double arms bridge and the Brinell hardness testing unit respectively. The spot welding process performance of hot dip galvanized steel plate is tested and the relationship between microstructure and physical properties of deep cryogenic treatment electrodes is analyzed. The experimental results show that deep cryogenic treatment makes Cr, Zr in deep cryogenic treatment electrodes emanate dispersedly and makes the grain of deep cryogenic treatment electrodes smaller than non-cryogenic treatment ones so that the electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity of deep cryogenic treatment electrodes are improved very much, which make spot welding process performance of the hot dip galvanized steel be improved.

  14. Dip coating process. Quarterly report No. 3, March 19, 1976--June 18, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaps, J.D.; Maciolek, R.B.; Scott, M.W.; Wolner, H.A.; Nelson, L.D.


    The objective of this research program is to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell quality sheet silicon by dip-coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon. Of the various substrate materials dip-coated this reporting period, mullite appears, at this time, to best satisfy the requirements of this research program. Dip-coating experiments continue to demonstrate that layer thickness and grain size are dependent on and can be controlled by pulling rate and melt temperature. Crystalline grains as large as 1 mm wide and 2 cm or more long can consistently be grown in layers 35 to 50 meters thick. (WDM)

  15. 75 FR 20897 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Final Free and Reserve Percentages for 2009-10... (United States)


    ... helped the industry address its marketing problems by keeping supplies in balance with domestic and... / Thursday, April 22, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Percentages for 2009-10 Crop Natural (Sun-Dried) Seedless Raisins AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service,...

  16. 76 FR 27921 - Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute... (United States)


    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 989 Raisins Produced From Grapes Grown in California; Increase in Desirable Carryout Used To Compute Trade Demand AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... demand for Natural (sun-dried) Seedless (NS) raisins covered under the Federal marketing order for...

  17. Effect of an automated dipping and backflushing system on somatic cell counts. (United States)

    Olde Riekerink, R G M; Ohnstad, I; van Santen, B; Barkema, H W


    Postmilking teat disinfection is an effective management practice to prevent transmission of contagious mastitis pathogens from cow to cow. With farms increasing in size and an increase in the number of rotary milking parlors, the need for automation of postmilking teat disinfection is mounting. Automated teat dipping and backflushing (ADB) systems have existed for some years, but their effect on udder health was never examined in a field study on commercial dairy farms. The objectives of this study were, therefore, to evaluate the effect of introducing an ADB system in a herd on (1) bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), (2) individual cow SCC, and (3) the proportion of newly elevated SCC. Dairy herd improvement data were collected over a 30-mo period on 25 sets of 3 farms. Each set of 3 farms contained a farm that installed an ADB system, one that disinfected teats using dipping after milking, and one that sprayed teats after milking. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Bulk milk SCC on farms that sprayed or dipped before installing an ADB system were 16,000 and 30,000 cells/mL lower in the period 6 to 18 mo after installation, respectively, than on farms that continued spraying or dipping the teats after milking. In the same period after installing an ADB system, proportions of cows with elevated SCC were 4.3 and 1.2% lower, respectively, compared with spraying and with dipping. Similarly, proportions of cows that had newly elevated SCC were 1.5% lower and 0.3% higher, respectively, compared with farms that sprayed or dipped. Installing an ADB system had a beneficial effect on bulk milk SCC, individual cow SCC, and the proportion of newly elevated SCC. The effect was most prominent in the period 6 to 18 mo after installation of an ADB system.

  18. Efeito do ácido giberélico, do bioestimulante crop set e do anelamento na produção e na qualidade da uva 'Thompson Seedless' no Vale do São Francisco Effect of gibberellic acid, girdling and the biostimulant crop set on yield and quality of bunches in grapes cv. Thompson Seedless in the São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricía Coelho de Souza Leão


    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do ácido giberélico, do bioestimulante Crop Set e do anelamento sobre o aumento do tamanho de bagas e a produtividade da uva 'Thompson Seedless' no Vale do São Francisco. O experimento foi conduzido durante dois ciclos de produção (2001 e 2002, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, pertencente à Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina-PE. Utilizou-se do delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam à aplicação de ácido giberélico em cinco fases de desenvolvimento da videira, nas doses de 10 + 15 + 15 +50 + 50 mg.L-1, do bioestimulante Crop Set em duas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e do anelamento no caule, isolados e combinados entre si. Os tratamentos combinados de anelamento + ácido giberélico e anelamento + ácido giberélico + Crop Set destacaram-se como aqueles que promoveram os maiores peso e tamanho de cachos e de bagas, com diferenças significativas em relação à testemunha. Entretanto, o anelamento não cicatrizou completamente, causando a morte de plantas, recomendando-se cautela na sua realização. Apesar de não se observar efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a produtividade, pode-se notar um aumento de 63% para o tratamento anelamento + ácido giberélico em relação ao ciclo de produção de 2001.The present research was aimed to evaluate the effects of the gibberellic acid, the biostimulant Crop-Set and girdling applied during bloom and post-bloom stage to improve yield and berry size of the grape cv. Thompson Seedless in the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast of Brazil. The trial was carried out throughout two growing seasons (2001 and 2002 in the Bebedouro Experimental Station, Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina, PE. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates, each replicate consisting of a four-tree plot. The treatments were: gibberellic acid aplied during five

  19. Ácido giberélico no raleio de cachos de uva da cv. superior seedless, enxertada sobre o porta-enxerto 'SO4', cultivada na região do Vale do Submédio São Francisco Giberelic acid in grape cluster thinning, cv. superior seedless, grafted on the rootstock "SO4", cultivated at São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Maurício Viana Gonzaga


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de concentrações de ácido giberélico no raleio e melhoria da qualidade de cachos de uva da cv. Superior Seedless, foi realizado este experimento em pomar comercial na Fazenda Copa Fruit S.A., município de Petrolina-PE. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos (GA3: 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0 mg.L-1, quatro repetições e duas plantas por parcela, e os dados foram interpretados por meio de análise de variância e regressão. As aplicações dos tratamentos foram realizadas em três fases, a primeira antes da antese e a segunda e terceira com aproximadamente25% e 80% de flores abertas, respectivamente, utilizando-se de um volume de calda de 2.000 litros/ha. Os cachos foram colhidos com 60 dias após a poda, e as características avaliadas foram: comprimento médio de cacho, engaço e "ombros"; densidade de bagas; massa da matéria fresca do cacho e bagas; e diâmetro e comprimento de bagas. os melhores resultados para o raleio foram obtidos com a concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, que proporcionou uma densidade de 5,39 bagas/cm de cacho, contra 8,24 bagas/cm de cacho obtido pela testemunha. Em relação à melhoria da qualidade de cachos e bagas, aplicações de GA3 acima de 2,0 mg.L-1, apesar de mostrarem eficiência no aumento do comprimento de cachos, tiveram efeitos negativos na massa da matéria fresca de cachos e bagas, inviabilizando os cachos comercialmente.With the objective to evaluate the effect of concentrations of gibberellic acid in thinning and in the quality improvement in grape clusters cv. Superior Seedless it was carried out an experiment in a commercial orchard in Copa Fruit S.A. farm, in Petrolina-PE. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with seven treatments (GA3: 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg.L-1, four replications and two plants/plot, and the data were interpreted by analysis of variance and regression. The

  20. Blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with dip-shaped quantum wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Tai-Ping; Wang Hai-Long; Yang Xiao-Dong; LiShu-Ti; Zhang Kang; Liu Chao; Xiao Guo-Wei; Zhou Yu-Gang; ZhengShu-Wen; Yin Yi-An; Wu Le-Juan


    InGaN based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with dip-shaped quantum wells and conventional rectangular quantum wells are numerically investigated by using the APSYS simulation software.It is found that the structure with dipshaped quantum wells shows improved light output power,lower current leakage and less efficiency droop.Based on numerical simulation and analysis,these improvements on the electrical and the optical characteristics are attributed mainly to the alleviation of the electrostatic field in dip-shaped InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs).

  1. Analysis of Mechanical Stresses Due to Voltage Dips in Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Santos-Martin, David; Jensen, Henrik Myhre


    drivetrain components. An electro-mechanical model is built to simulate the grid disturbances that easily excite the asynchronous generator poorly damped stator flux oscillations, which cause high transients of the generator electromagnetic torque. This article focuses in estimating the resulting significant...... stresses transients that may have a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of drivetrain system due to voltage dips. A rainflow cycle counting method for the stress history during the voltage dip event, analyses mean and amplitudes of the counted cycles, their occurrence moment and time of duration....

  2. Mitigation of Voltage Dip and Voltage Flickering by Multilevel D-STATCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Ballal


    Full Text Available The basic power quality problems in the distribution network are voltage sag (dip, voltage flickering, and the service interruptions. STATCOM is a Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS technology device which can independently control the flow of reactive power. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of a STATCOM for voltage dip and voltage flickering mitigation. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink to validate the performance of the STATCOM. A comparison between the six-pulse inverter and the five-level diode-clamped inverter is carried out for the performance of 66/11 KV distribution system.

  3. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – DIP – Discover Inland Portugal


    Estevães, Pedro; Simões, Philip


    A DIP – Discover Inland Portugal consiste na criação de uma agência de viagens e turismo de outgoing, que promove e comercializa produtos turísticos diversificados, inovadores e singulares para a região da Beira Interior Centro, através de uma plataforma online. A necessidade e oportunidade existente na região por canais de distribuição agregadores, torna o projecto DIP numa forte aposta e investimento para o turismo praticado na região Interior Centro. A utilização da tecnologia do comérc...

  4. The effect of post-milking teat dipping on teat canal infections. (United States)

    Du Preez, J H


    Teat canal infection (TCI) or colonization, subclinical mastitis (SCM) cases and other forms of intramammary infections (IMI) may persist despite regular post-milking teat disinfection. Spontaneous healing of TCI can occur and this points to the dynamic state of the reactions of TCI etc. Disinfecting teat dipping does not necessarily prevent new TCI and IMI. Teat dipping may, however, be applied with good effect in the prevention of new udder and teat canal infections. Several factors predispose to TCI e.g. poor management, hygiene and animal husbandry.

  5. Performance of Doubly-Fed Wind Power Generators During Voltage Dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio, N.; Chen, Zhe; Beltran, H.

    ) can regulate easily the reactive power generated in steady state. However, difficulties appear when reactive power has to be generated during voltage dips. Simulations have been carried out in order to check whether DFIG wind turbines can fulfill the reactive power requirements. Protection system......The growing of wind generation in Spain has forced its Transmission System Operator (TSO) to release new requirements that establish the amount of reactive power that a wind turbine has to supply to the grid during a voltage dip. Wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG...... acting as STATCOM helps to improve the voltage profile sufficiently to permit rotor-side converter reconnection....

  6. 2-D deformation of two welded half-spaces due to a blind dip-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Rani; Neeru Bala


    The solution of two-dimensional problem of an interface breaking long inclined dip-slip fault in two welded half-spaces is well known.The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault.The solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle.Graphs showing the variation of the displacement field with the distance from the fault, for different values of fault depth and dip angle are presented.Contour maps showing the stress field around a long dip-slip fault are also obtained.

  7. Effects of Bag-controlled Slow Release Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Crimson Seedless%袋控缓释肥对克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙占育; 郭春会; 刘小菊


    采用4个不同施肥处理,通过田间试验,研究了袋控缓释肥时克瑞森葡萄产量和品质的影响.结果表明:袋控缓释肥可提高克瑞森葡萄的产量和品质,产量达到37 257.4,比不施肥提高了51.2%,可溶性固形物含量达22.23%,高于其他处理;袋控缓释肥处理提高了叶片N、P、K含量、叶绿素含量及光合速率.袋控缓释肥简单易行,省工节肥,减少污染,有效解决了葡萄施肥中养分的平衡供应问题,是一种理想的施肥方式.%Field trial was conducted to study the effect of the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer on the yield and quality of Crimson seedless by the four treatments. The results showed that bag-controlled slow release fertilizer could improve the yield and quality of Crimson seedless. The yield was 37 257. 4 kg ? Hm~2 by applying the paper-bag-controlled slow release fertilizer, increased by 51. 2% compared with CK. Sugar content reached to 22. 23%, which was better than other treatments. The contents of N, P, K and chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate of the leaves were relatively increased by the bag-controlled slow release fertilizer. It is an ideal way of fertilization that could simply save labor and fertilizer and reduce pollution, which could effective solve the supply of nutrient balance of grape of fertilization.

  8. Acúmulo e exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes Accumulation and exportation of macronutrients in seedless watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson C. Grangeiro


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar o acúmulo e a exportação de macronutrientes em melancia sem sementes, híbrido Nova, conduziu-se um experimento em Itápolis (SP, de outubro a dezembro de 2001, em um ARGISSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Distrófico. As amostragens de plantas foram realizadas aos 15; 30; 45; 60 e 70 dias após transplantio (DAT, sendo quantificados o acúmulo de massa seca e de macronutrientes na folha, caule + ramos e frutos. O acúmulo de peso seco foi lento até 30 DAT, intensificando-se a partir deste, alcançando no final do ciclo o total de 545,1 g planta-1, onde as folhas participaram com 30%, caule + ramos com 31% e os frutos com 39%. Até 30 DAT, o acúmulo de nutrientes também foi pequeno, sendo que com a frutificação, houve um forte incremento na quantidade de nutrientes acumulados, com maior demanda no período de 45 a 60 DAT. A ordem decrescente dos macronutrientes acumulados pela cultura foi: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. Os frutos exportaram 20,3 kg ha-1 de N; 4,0 kg ha-1 de P; 26,6 kg ha-1 de K; 1,4 kg ha-1 de Ca; 1,6 kg ha-1 de Mg e 1,4 kg ha-1 de S.The accumulation and exportation of nutrients of the seedless watermelon hybrid Nova was determined under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in Typic Paleudult soil, in the Itápolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil. Sampling of the plants was done at 15; 30; 45; 60 and 70 days after transplanting date (DAT and the accumulation of dry mass and macronutrients was quantified in leaves, stem + branches and fruits. The dry mass accumulation was slow until 30 DAT, intensifying with the beginning of the fruit development. At the end of the cycle, the average contribution of leaves, stems + branches and fruits, was respectively of 30; 31 and 39%. The accumulation of nutrients followed the curve of dry mass accumulation. The larger demand for macronutrients occurred from 45 to 60 DAT. The order of nutrients accumulation for the culture was: K>N>Ca>P>Mg>S. The fruits exported 20.3 kg

  9. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes concentrações do ácido giberélico (AG3, do thidiazuron (TDZ e do forchlorfenuron (CPPU no aumento do tamanho dos cachos e das bagas e no teor de sólidos solúveis totais de uva sem semente, cv. BRS Clara. As plantas foram conduzidas no sistema de latada, sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572, no espaçamento 2,5 x 2,0m e com irrigação por microaspersão. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Estação Experimental de Viticultura Tropical, da Embrapa Uva e Vinho, em Jales-SP. Os reguladores de crescimento foram aplicados via pulverização localizada no cacho, utilizando-se de concentrações de 0 a 4mg.L-1 de CPPU; 0 a 10mg.L-1 de TDZ, e de 0 a 90mg.L-1 de AG3, isolados ou em conjunto. De modo geral, a aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento promove a melhoria da qualidade dos cachos da cv. BRS Clara; o uso do TDZ e do CPPU em conjunto com o AG3 produz um efeito sinérgico, proporcionando melhor resposta do que o uso isolado do AG3; os tratamentos com 60mg.L-1 de AG3; 20mg.L-1 de AG3 + 4mg.L-1 de CPPU, e 10mg.L-1 de AG3 + 5mg.L-1 de TDZ proporcionam os melhores resultados para o aumento do diâmetro das bagas; a aplicação de AG3 antes da floração da cv. BRS Clara provoca abortamento excessivo, reduzindo a qualidade comercial dos cachos; a utilização de concentrações elevadas dos reguladores reduz o teor de sólidos solúveis totais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of gibberellic acid (AG3, thidiazuron (TDZ and forchlorfenuron (CPPU on the size of bunches and berries and on the total soluble solids content, when applied in different concentrations on the seedless grapes, cv. BRS Clara. The grapevines were grafted on the rootstock IAC 572, trained in the pergola system and, spaced 2.5 x 2.0m and irrigated by micro sprinklers. The experiments were carried out at the Embrapa Grape and Wine Experimental

  10. Migration using a transversely isotropic medium with symmetry normal to the reflector dip

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    A transversely isotropic (TI) model in which the tilt is constrained to be normal to the dip (DTI model) allows for simplifications in the imaging and velocity model building efforts as compared to a general TI (TTI) model. Although this model cannot be represented physically in all situations, for example, in the case of conflicting dips, it handles arbitrary reflector orientations under the assumption of symmetry axis normal to the dip. Using this assumption, we obtain efficient downward continuation algorithms compared to the general TTI ones, by utilizing the reflection features of such a model. Phase-shift migration can be easily extended to approximately handle lateral inhomogeneity using, for example, the split-step approach. This is possible because, unlike the general TTI case, the DTI model reduces to VTI for zero dip. These features enable a process in which we can extract velocity information by including tools that expose inaccuracies in the velocity model in the downward continuation process. We test this model on synthetic data corresponding to a general TTI medium and show its resilience. 2011 Tariq Alkhalifah and Paul Sava.

  11. Dip-Coating Process Engineering and Performance Optimization for Three-State Electrochromic Devices (United States)

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Dejiang; Fei, Lixun; Huang, Yue; Wu, Fang; Sun, Yiling; Shi, Jiayuan; Xiang, Yong


    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were modified onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) via dip-coating technique with different nanoparticle sizes, lifting speeds, precursor concentrations, and dipping numbers. Electrodeposition-based electrochromic device with reversible three-state optical transformation (transparent, mirror, and black) was fabricated subsequently by sandwiching a suitable amount of gel electrolyte between modified FTO electrode and flat FTO electrode. Correlation between dip-coating process engineering, morphological features of TiO2 thin films, i.e., thickness and roughness, as well as performance of electrochromic devices, i.e., optical contrast, switching time, and cycling stability, were investigated. The modified device exhibits high optical contrast of 57%, the short coloration/bleaching switching time of 6 and 20 s, and excellent cycling stability after 1500 cycles of only 27% decrement rate by adjusting dip-coating processes engineering. The results in this study will provide valuable guidance for rational design of the electrochromic device with satisfactory performance.

  12. Simulation of Voltage Dip Event in Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines: Fatigue Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Santos-Martin, David; Jensen, Henrik Myhre


    transients affecting the fatigue life of drivetrain system due to voltage dips. A rainflow cycle counting method was developed to evaluate the fatigue life of the mechanical system. The methodology analyses the stress history and estimates the mean and amplitudes of the counted cycles, and time of duration...

  13. Nanostructure Study of TiO2 Films Prepared by Dip Coating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The microstructure properties of the sol-gel derived TiO2 films were studied by the atomic force microscopy (AFM).The films were prepared by dip coating process. The optical properties of the films were explained on the basis ofthe microstructure of the films.

  14. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey; David B. South


    Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

  15. Dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) applications study. Volume I. Summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prickett, W. Z.


    The Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft (NIMS) is designed for communications, surveillance, navigation and meteorelogical missions. This study assesses th attributes of the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) for this spacecraft. These attributes include cost, system and mission compatibility, and survivability. (LCL)

  16. Comparison of control strategies for DFIG under symmetrical grid voltage dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wenjie; Xu, Dehong; Chen, Min;


    This paper presents a series of current control strategies for the DFIG under symmetrical grid voltage dips. The controllable range, the damping time constant of the stator natural flux and the torque fluctuations of six control strategies are analyzed and compared. The control strategies which...

  17. G20 Finance Ministers Meeting Vows to Fight Against A Double-dip Recession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    21 Century Business Herald


    @@ When the finance ministers and central bank governors of the Group of 20 began their first meeting on June 4 in Busan,South Korea,they expressed their concern about the recovery of the global economy and promised action taken to prevent the global economy from falling into the pit of a double-dip recession.

  18. Electrical resistivity dip in Sb x V y Mo z O t phases (United States)

    Groń, T.; Filipek, E.; Mazur, S.; Duda, H.; Pacyna, A. W.; Mydlarz, T.; Bärner, K.


    Electrical resistivity dips have been discovered in the temperature range 100-500 K both in the SbVO4.96 matrix and the Sb x V y Mo z O t phases for 10 mol% solubility of MoO3 in SbVO5. As the Sb content increases and simultaneously the V content decreases, the value of the resistivity at the dip, ρ d, decreases and shifts the dip to higher temperatures. The magnetic measurements showed a spontaneous magnetization and parasitic magnetism of the solid solutions under study. Characteristic for parasitic magnetism is a small value of the magnetic moment, here 0.014 μ B/f.u. at 4.2 K and at a magnetic field of 14 T as well as a small value of the mass susceptibility, here 10-5 cm3/g. The value of the Néel temperature, T N ≤ 8 K, and the Curie-Weiss temperature, θ CW ≤ -208 K, indicate a collinear antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. We suggest that neither the magnetism nor the Mo-content can be correlated with the resistivity anomalies. Therefore, these effects may rather be interpreted in terms of a small-polaron gas in the resistivity dip area. Alternatively, they could mark a lattice/electronic entropy-driven incomplete metal-insulator transition.

  19. Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Henrik Øder; Jensen, Tonny; Kofoed, Klaus F


    treated for 12 weeks with either MD (20 mg enalapril in the morning and placebo at bedtime) or BD (placebo in the morning and 20 mg enalapril at bedtime), followed by 12 weeks of switched treatment regimen. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was altered dipping of nocturnal BP...

  20. Effects of Copper and Titanium Elements on the Coating's Properties of Hot-Dipping-Aluminum Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Wei-ping; MA Yun-long; HU Lin; KE Wei


    The steel plates for testing obtained a clean and fresh surface after degreasing by alkali and acidity and to be protested from reoxidation by being dipped into liquid wax. The results after hot dipping experiments in lab. showed that a complete aluminized coat with a good property could be obtained under a condition of hot-dipping temperature at about 730 ℃, hot -dipping time at about 2 minutes. It was found that the transition layer was mainly composed of Fe2 Al5 intermetallic compound by SEM (Scanning Electronic Microscope) observation. Effects of elements copper and titanium in aluminum coating on adherence quality, corrosion resistance performance and thickness of the transition layer were investigated, the following results were drawn: The adherence quality is strongly enhancedby copper element and gives the best performance at the 2% mass percent content of copper, while it is almost indifferent with titanium content. The corrosion resistance property is enhanced by titanium and is deteriorated by copper, when the mass percent content of titaniumis 0.3% , the coating exhibits the best anti-corrosion performance. At present condition, both copper and titanium make transition layer thinner.

  1. Relation between microstructure and adhesion of hot dip galvanized zinc coatings on dual phase steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, G. M.; Vystavel, T.; De Hosson, J. Th M.; Sloof, W. G.; van der Pers, N.M.

    The microstructure of hot dip galvanized zinc coatings on dual phase steel was investigated by electron microscopy and the coating adhesion characterized by tensile testing. The zinc coating consists of a zinc layer and columnar zeta-FeZn13 particles on top of a thin inhibition layer adjacent to the

  2. [The clinical effectiveness of a post milking teat disinfection method with a foaming iodophor teat dip]. (United States)

    Falkenberg, U; Tenhagen, B A; Heuwieser, W; Kalbe, P; Klünder, G; Baumgärtner, B


    The effect of postmilking teat dipping with a foaming iodophor agent on incidence of intramammary infections (IMI), incidence of clinical mastitis, somatic cell count and the characteristics of udder tissue and teat was investigated in a positively controlled field study. Two groups of animals were compared. Teats were dipped with a foaming iodophor in the treatment group (TG, 122 animals) while teats in the control group (CG, 121 animals) were dipped with a conventional iodophor teat dip with the same iodine content. A bacteriological examination of quarter milk samples divided the study period in two parts. The incidence of new IMI did not differ between the groups (1st part of trial: TG vs. CG: 6.84% vs. 9.16%, 2nd part of trial: 7.78% vs. 7.82%). There were no differences between the treatment groups regarding incidence of clinical mastitis. We detected 0.64 clinical cases per 100 days in the treatment group vs. 0.50 in the control group. The development of SCC was comparable in both groups. Teat skin and teat duct conditions showed variation during the study period. Clinical efficacy of postmilking teat disinfection with a foaming iodophor was comparable to the treatment with a conventional iodophor product.

  3. Blood pressure variability and pedigree analysis of nocturnal SBP dipping in Kumbas from rural Chhattisgarh, India. (United States)

    Sultana, Razia; Pati, Atanu Kumar


    Family is the smallest unit of people to share most of the lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors. They are likely to have similarity in many physiological and behavioural aspects. Therefore, we designed a protocol to test the effect of large rural Indian families living together (Kumbas), on blood pressure variability. We also investigated the hypothesis that 'nocturnal dipping' in systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not heritable. Members of two families (1 and 2) consisting of 3-4 generations willingly participated in the study. Both families (natives of Chhattisgarh) belong to reasonably peaceful rural area and are financially stable. Farming is the main occupation of the members of both families. Few members of the families had jobs or small business. The null hypothesis regarding heritability of nocturnal dipping trait was accepted based on data emanating from either of the studied families. Hourly-averaged values depicted less variation in males and females of family 1 from midnight to early morning at around 06:00, as compared to that in males and females of family 2. The 24 h averages of BP in family 2 were significantly higher as compared to that in family 1. Further, in family 2 the peaks of SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred significantly earlier as compared to that in family 1. The peak spread of SBP, DBP, heart rate (HR), MAP and pulse pressure (PP) among the members of family 1 was narrower than that for the members of family 2. Arbitrary cut-off values for classification of dipping, small sample size, and age dependency of nocturnal dipping might have marred outcome of the pedigree analysis of nocturnal dipping trait in this study. We have a hunch that the family shares typical temporal ups and downs in 24 h BP and HR. The above hypothesis needs confirmation based on studies with large data set involving subjective and objective assessment of the effects of psychosocial factors on BP and HR variability.

  4. Up-dip directivity in near-source during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock (United States)

    Tinti, Elisa; Scognamiglio, Laura; Cirella, Antonella; Cocco, Massimo


    In this study we have investigated the directivity associated with the initial up-dip rupture propagation during the 2009 April 6 (Mw 6.1) L'Aquila normal-faulting earthquake. The objective is the understanding of how the peculiar initial behaviour of rupture history during the main shock has affected the near-source recorded ground motions in the L'Aquila town and surrounding areas. We have modelled the observed ground velocities at the closest near-source recording sites by computing synthetic seismograms using a discrete wavenumbers and finite difference approach in the low frequency bandwidth (0.02-0.4 Hz) to avoid site effects contaminations. We use both the rupture model retrieved by inverting ground motion waveforms and continuous high sampling-rate GPS time-series as well as uniform-slip constant-rupture speed models. Our results demonstrate that the initial up-dip rupture propagation, characterizing the first 3 s of the rupture history during the L'Aquila main shock and releasing only ˜25 per cent of total seismic moment, controls the observed ground motions in the near-source. This initial stage of the rupture is characterized by the generation of ground velocity pulses, which we interpret as a forward directivity effect. Our modelling results confirm a heterogeneous distribution of rupture velocity during the initial up-dip rupture propagation, since uniform rupture speed models overestimate up-dip directivity effects in the footwall of the causative fault. The up-dip directivity observed in the near field during the 2009 L'Aquila main shock is that expected for a normal faulting earthquake, but it differs from that inferred from far-field observations that conversely provide evidence of along-strike directivity. This calls for a careful analysis as well as for the realistic inclusion of rupture directivity to predict ground motions in the near source.

  5. Control of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters by dipping in hops beta acids solutions. (United States)

    Shen, Cangliang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Sofos, John N


    Hops beta acids (HBA) are parts of hops flowers used in beer brewing and have shown antilisterial activity in bacteriological broth. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has approved HBA for use to control Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meat products. This study evaluated the effects of HBA as dipping solutions to control L. monocytogenes during storage of frankfurters. Frankfurters (two replicates and three samples each) were inoculated (1.9 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm2) with L. monocytogenes (10-strain mixture), dipped (2 min, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) in HBA solutions (0.03, 0.06, and 0.10%) or distilled water, and then vacuum packaged and stored at 4 or 10 degrees C for up to 90 and 48 days, respectively. Samples were periodically analyzed for microbial survival and growth on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and PALCAM agar. Dipping in HBA solutions caused immediate L. monocytogenes reductions (P < 0.05) of 1.3 to 1.6 log CFU/cm2, whereas distilled water reduced counts by 1.0 log CFU/cm2. Pathogen growth was completely suppressed (P < 0.05) for 30 to 50 (4 degrees C) or 20 to 28 (10 degrees C) days on frankfurters dipped in HBA solutions, with antilisterial effects increasing with higher concentrations (0.03 to 0.10%). Fitting the data with the Baranyi model confirmed that the lag-phase duration of the pathogen was extended, and the growth rate was decreased on samples dipped in HBA solutions. Therefore, HBA may be considered for use to improve the microbial safety of ready-to-eat meat products, provided that future studies show no adverse effects on sensory qualities and that their use is economically feasible.

  6. Effect of hot dip galvanized coating on the corrosion resistance of the external surface of reinforcement steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Oezlem; Topuz, Polat [Gedik University Vocational School, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Studies have been carried out to investigate the performance of hot dip galvanized coating on reinforcement corrosion. The coated and uncoated concrete specimens were subjected to accelerated corrosion to determine the time to corrosion initiation. The accelerated corrosion test results clearly showed that the specimens with hot dip galvanized coatings performed very well against reinforcement corrosion and were better than uncoated specimens.

  7. An X-ray study of the dipping low mass X-ray binary XB 1323-619

    CERN Document Server

    Balucinska-Church, M; Oosterbroek, T; Segreto, A; Morley, R E; Parmar, A N


    During a BeppoSAX observation of the low-mass X-ray binary dip source XB 1323-619 a total of 10 type I X-ray bursts and parts of 12 intensity dips were observed. During non-bursting, non-dipping intervals, the 1-150 keV BeppoSAX spectrum can be modelled by a cutoff power-law with a photon index of 1.48 +/- 0.01, a cutoff energy of 44.1 +5.1/-4.4 keV together with a blackbody with kT of 1.77 +/- 0.25 keV contributing ~15% of the 2-10 keV flux. Absorption equivalent to 3.88 +/- 0.16x10^22 H atom cm^(-2) is required. The dips repeat with a period of 2.938 +/- 0.020 hr and span 40% of the orbital cycle. During dips the maximum reduction in 2-10 keV intensity is ~65%. The spectral changes during dips are complex and cannot be modelled by a simple absorber because of the clear presence of part of the non-dip spectrum which is not absorbed. Spectral evolution in dipping can be well modelled by progressive covering of the cutoff power-law component which must be extended, plus rapid absorption of the point-source bla...

  8. Improved open-sun drying method for local swamp rice in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work ..... determine profitability of rice businesses. ..... Government of Republic of Uganda, The ... Organization and the Japanese ... Analysis of incentives.

  9. Comparative evaluation of ensiled cassava peel meal and sun-dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedimo Laptop

    Animal Production Research Advances, 6(4): 291 - 295, 2010. ISSN: 0794 - 4721 ©Tapas Institute of Scientific Research and Development, 2010. 291 ..... Cah, Colombia, 1 - 7 August,. 1976. Ottawa ...

  10. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye


    Green bean ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly ( P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  11. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak


    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  12. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye


    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  13. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria



    Introduction In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Methods Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nige...

  14. Utilization of sun-dried on-farm generated poultry litter as a feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 10, 2010 ... maize in diets of growing-finishing pigs on weight basis to assess its implication ... and white blood cells (WBC) while the hemoglobin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine and glutamate ... The total bacterial count was consider-.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Pritzel dos Santos


    Full Text Available Corrosion attack of Hot Dip Zn coatings on steels is comparatively studied. For this, the electrochemical behavior of the coatings hot dip galvanized (GI, galvanneal (GA and galvalume (Zn55Al are analyzed in chloride solutions by cyclic voltammetry and by Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique, with and without the incidence of white light. Coatings were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry. The results show that the incidence of white UV-VIS light has a minor influence on the corrosive process, although the coatings contain intermetallic phases with semiconductor nature. The tests show that among the three coatings, GA has the slowest dissolution rate, when in contact with the steel for high exposed areas of steel.

  16. Synthesis and Electrochemical Behavior of Ceria Based Bi-Layer Films by Dip Coating Technique. (United States)

    Chinnu, M Karl; Anand, K Vijai; Kumar, R Mohan; Alagesan, T; Jayavel, R


    Ceria based bi-layer films of CeO2-CdS and CeO2-TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel based hydrothermal route combined with dip-coating. The synthesized samples were subjected to various characterizations such as X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence studies. The prepared materials were dissolved in naffion solution and disposed as a thin film on glassy carbon electrode by dip coating technique. Electrochemical Li+ intercalation/deintercalation was performed by cyclic voltammetry and these results indicate that the CeO2/LiClO4 system is electrochemically reversible. The total intercalation/deintercalation of the CeO2 film, CeO2-CdS and CeO2-TiO2 bi-layer films was determined by cyclic voltammetry, which showed increased charge storage capacity.

  17. Filmes de titânio-silício preparados por "spin" e "dip-coating"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassar Eduardo J.


    Full Text Available The conditions for the preparation of luminescent materials, consisting of Eu3+ ions entrapped in a titanium matrix, in the forma of a thin film, using the sol-gel process, are described. The films were obtained from sols prepared with TEOS and TEOT, in the presence of acetylacetone as the hidrolysis-retarding agent, using the dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The influence of these techniques on the films based on titanium and silicon are presented. The Eu3+ was used as a luminescent probe. The films have been characterized by luminescence, reflection and transmittance. The thickness of the films could be related to the preparation procedure. Transparent thin films have been prepared by dip-coating technique.

  18. Effect of Cr, Mo and W on the Microstructure of Al Hot Dipped Carbon Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trung, Trinh Van [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kim, Min Jung; Park, Soon Yong; Vadav, Poonam; Abro, Muhammad Ali; Lee, Dong Bok [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    A low carbon steel, Fe-2.25%Cr steel (ASTM T22), and Fe-2.25%Cr-1.6%W steel (ASTM T23) were aluminized by hot dipping into molten Al baths. After hot-dipping, a thin Al-rich topcoat and a thick alloy layer formed on the surface. The topcoat consisted primarily of a thin Al layer that contained a small amount of Fe, whereas the alloy layer consisted of Al-Fe intermetallics such as Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2} and AlFe. Cr, Mo, and W in T22 and T23 steels reduced the thickness of the topcoat and the alloy layer, and flattened the reaction front of the aluminized layer, when compared to the low carbon steel.

  19. Evolution of twist-shear and dip-shear in Faring active region NOAA 10930

    CERN Document Server

    Gosain, Sanjay


    We study the evolution of magnetic shear angle in a flare productive active region NOAA 10930. The magnetic shear angle is defined as the deviation in the orientation of the observed magnetic field vector with respect to the potential field vector. The shear angle is measured in horizontal as well as vertical plane. The former is computed by taking the difference between the azimuth angles of the observed and potential field and is called the twist-shear, while the latter is computed by taking the difference between the inclination angles of the observed and potential field and is called the dip-shear. The evolution of the two shear angles is then tracked over a small region located over the sheared penumbra of the delta sunspot in NOAA 10930. We find that, while the twist-shear shows an increasing trend after the flare the dip-shear shows a significant drop after the flare.

  20. 3-D Finite Element Analysis of Induction Logging in a Dipping Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Electromagnetic induction by a magnetic dipole located above a dipping interface is of relevance to the petroleum well-logging industry. The problem is fully three-dimensional (3-D) when formulated as above, but reduces to an analytically tractable one-dimensional (1-D) problem when cast as a small tilted coil above a horizontal interface. The two problems are related by a simple coordinate rotation. An examination of the induced eddy currents and the electric charge accumulation at the interface help to explain the inductive and polarization effects commonly observed in induction logs from dipping geological formations. The equivalence between the 1-D and 3-D formulations of the problem enables the validation of a previously published finite element solver for 3-D controlled-source electromagnetic induction.

  1. Employment Assimilation of Immigrants in The Netherlands: Dip and Catchup by Source Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Zorlu


    Full Text Available Using two Dutch labour force surveys, we compare employment assimilation of immigrants by source country, after ranking countries by presumed social-cultural distance to The Netherlands. We test this ranking of human capital transferability on the ranking by initial performance dip at entry as an immigrant and speed of assimilation as measured by the slope on years-since-migration. We also test the predicted association between entry gap and speed of assimilation (faster assimilation if the initial dip is larger. Both hypotheses are largely supported. Most immigrant groups never reach parity with native Dutch, neither in (un-employment probability nor in job quality, and certainly not within 25 years after arrival.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Surgical gloves were manufactured using the RVNRL process. A fractional factorial design at two levels showed that five parameters of the coagulant dipping process which were studied independent. Coagulant concentration and dwell time in the radiovulcanized latex presented major main effects while the temperature of the former before dipping into the radiovulcanized latex and the flow time of the radiovulcanized latex on the former surface presented opposite main effects. The withdrawal rate of the former from the radiovulcanized latex did not change glove thickness. The mathematical correlation between the estimates of thickness and the significant main effects of coded variables was = 0.212 + 0.025x1 + 0.019x2. This optimized equation allowed reproduction of a surgical glove thickness in the range of 0.157 to 0.291mm, which is considered acceptable by international standard specification.

  3. Hot-Dip Aluminizing of Low Carbon Steel Using Al-7Si-2Cu Alloy Baths


    Prashanth Huilgol; Suma Bhat; K. Udaya Bhat


    Hot-dip aluminizing of low carbon steel was done in molten Al-7Si-2Cu bath at 690°C for dipping time ranging from 300 to 2400 seconds. Characterization of the intermetallics layer was done by using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Four intermetallic phases, τ5-Al7Fe2Si, θ-FeAl3, η-Fe2Al5, and τ1-Al2Fe3Si3, were identified in the reaction layer. τ5- Al7Fe2Si phase was observed adjacent to aluminum-silicon topcoat, θ-FeAl3 between τ5 and η-Fe2Al5, η-Fe2Al5 adjac...

  4. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling with MeDIP-seq using archived dried blood spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas H; Starnawska, Anna; Nyegaard, Mette


    . The enrichment profile, sequence quality and distribution of reads across genetic regions were comparable between samples archived 16 years, 4 years and a freshly prepared control sample. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we show that high-quality MeDIP-seq data is achievable from neonatal screening filter cards stored....... RESULTS: Here we demonstrate, as a proof of principle, that genome-wide interrogation of the methylome based on methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing (MeDIP-seq) is feasible using a single 3.2 mm DBS punch (60 ng DNA) from filter cards archived for up to 16 years...... at room temperature, thereby providing information on annotated as well as on non-RefSeq genes and repetitive elements. Moreover, the quantity of DNA from one DBS punch proved sufficient allowing for multiple epigenome studies using one single DBS....

  5. Electron micrography and x-ray study of dip-lacquered LiF (220)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmari, J.; Rasigni, M.; Rasigni, G.;


    It has been proposed to use the 220 reflection of LiF with a multilayer deposited upon the top for simultaneous spectroscopy near Fe-k and O-k and below the C-k absorption edge (284 eV) in x-ray astronomy. We demonstrate that a substantial reduction of surface roughness is obtained by dip...... lacquering state-of-the-art polished LiF(220) surfaces. Using a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs of surface replicas and x-ray reflection, we have measured ∼ 10-Å rms roughness of Au-coated dip-lacquered LiF(220) crystals, as opposed to ∼ 60 Å measured on the bare LiF(220) crystal surface....

  6. 薄膜提拉装置研制%Development of dip-coating apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正华; 吕刚; 唐一文


    A dip-coating apparatus including three separate parts (hydraulic pressure transfer part, lifting part,and control part) was developed.To solve the problem of vibration and ensure the lifting speed stability, hydraulic pressure transfer system was chosen to transfer and control the power.Insulating technique was adopted to separate vibration source and lifting part by using flexible linkage.The dip-coating apparatus was proved to have many advantages such as ultra-low vibration and low-speed moving stability and uniformity.The SEM images showed that both the surface and thickness of the films prepared by dip-coating were homogeneous.This high performance dip-coating apparatus could be widely used in the field of thin film preparation for teaching and research.%设计并开发了一种薄膜提拉装置.该装置由液压装置、提拉装置、控制装置3个独立分体装置组成.为了实现薄膜制备过程中无振动、匀速提拉运行的"理想"成膜条件,选用液压传动系统以液体静压力进行动力传递和控制,并采用了与振动源保持柔性连接的隔离技术.该装置具有振动极小、低速稳定、匀速运行等优点,制得的薄膜表面平整、厚度均匀.为薄膜制备领域的教学科研和应用技术研究,提供了一种高品质的薄膜制备设备.

  7. Nash Implementation in an Allocation Problem with Single-Dipped Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Doghmi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the Nash implementation in an allocation problem with single-dipped preferences. We show that, with at least three agents, Maskin monotonicity is necessary and sufficient for implementation. We examine the implementability of various social choice correspondences (SCCs in this environment, and prove that some well-known SCCs are Maskin monotonic ( but they do not satisfy no-veto power and hence Nash implementable.

  8. Applications of dip angle and coherence attributes to recognition of volcanic edifice in Songliao Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the basis of the shape and inner structure of volcanic edifice, the dip angle and coherence were selected to recognize the buried volcanic edifices in Songliao Basin. Five volcanic edifices were recognized in both two methods in the first volcanic cycle of Yingcheng Formation and the prediction perfectly corresponds to the drilling results in well XS8 area. The results are satisfying when the prediction method were employed in the exploration and development of Qingshen gas field.

  9. Homogeneous PCBM layers fabricated by horizontal-dip coating for efficient bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. (United States)

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Bae, In-Gon; Jeon, Hong Goo; Park, Byoungchoo


    We herein report a homogeneous [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer, produced by a solution process of horizontal-dipping (H-dipping) to improve the photovoltaic (PV) effects of bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on a bi-stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electron donor layer and a PCBM electron acceptor layer (P3HT/PCBM). It was shown that a homogeneous and uniform coating of PCBM layers in the P3HT/PCBM bilayer OPVs resulted in reliable and reproducible device performance. We recorded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.89%, which is higher than that (2.00%) of bilayer OPVs with a spin-coated PCBM layer. Moreover, introducing surfactant additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE) into the homogeneous P3HT/PCBM PV layers resulted in the bilayer OPVs showing a PCE value of 3.95%, which is comparable to those of conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) OPVs (3.57-4.13%) fabricated by conventional spin-coating. This improved device performance may be attributed to the selective collection of charge carriers at the interfaces among the active layers and electrodes due to the PTE additives as well as the homogeneous formation of the functional PCBM layer on the P3HT layer. Furthermore, H-dip-coated PCBM layers were deposited onto aligned P3HT layers by a rubbing technique, and the rubbed bilayer OPV exhibited improved in-plane anisotropic PV effects with PCE anisotropy as high as 1.81, which is also higher than that (1.54) of conventional rubbed BHJ OPVs. Our results suggest that the use of the H-dip-coating process in the fabrication of PCBM layers with the PTE interface-engineering additive could be of considerable interest to those seeking to improve PCBM-based opto-electrical organic thin-film devices.

  10. Mesures magnétiques du dipôle BHN 45 pour le projet AD

    CERN Document Server

    Cornuet, D; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division


    La machine AC (Antiproton Collector) transformée en machine de décélérationd'antiprotons est appelée AD (Antiproton Decelerator). Pour vérifierle comportement de la machine à basse énergie et pendant la décélération, des mesures magnétiques ont été entreprises sur l'un des dipôles, le BHN 45.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J.-U.; Talavera, A.; Gonzalez-Riestra, R. [XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre, ESA, P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Schaefer, B. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dobrotka, A. [Department of Physics, Institute of Materials Science, Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Jana Bottu 25, 91724 Trnava (Slovakia); Sadowski, A. [N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warszawa (Poland); Drake, J. J.; Barnard, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Page, K. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hernanz, M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, C5 parell 2on, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Sala, G. [Departament Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB (UPC-IEEC), Comte d' Urgell 187, 08036 Barcelona (Spain); Starrfield, S., E-mail: [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)


    The tenth recorded outburst of the recurrent eclipsing nova U Sco was observed simultaneously in X-ray, UV, and optical by XMM-Newton on days 22.9 and 34.9 after the outburst. Two full passages of the companion in front of the nova ejecta were observed, as was the reformation of the accretion disk. On day 22.9, we observed smooth eclipses in UV and optical but deep dips in the X-ray light curve that disappeared by day 34.9, yielding clean eclipses in all bands. X-ray dips can be caused by clumpy absorbing material that intersects the line of sight while moving along highly elliptical trajectories. Cold material from the companion could explain the absence of dips in UV and optical light. The disappearance of X-ray dips before day 34.9 implies significant progress in the formation of the disk. The X-ray spectra contain photospheric continuum emission plus strong emission lines, but no clear absorption lines. Both continuum and emission lines in the X-ray spectra indicate a temperature increase from day 22.9 to day 34.9. We find clear evidence in the spectra and light curves for Thompson scattering of the photospheric emission from the white dwarf. Photospheric absorption lines can be smeared out during scattering in a plasma of fast electrons. We also find spectral signatures of resonant line scattering that lead to the observation of the strong emission lines. Their dominance could be a general phenomenon in high-inclination systems such as Cal 87.

  12. Fluid Sensor Based on Transmission Dip Caused by Mini Stop-Band in Photonic Crystal Slab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Lei; HUANG Yi-Dong; MAO Xiao-Yu; LI Fei; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De


    We propose a fluid sensor based on transmission dip caused by mini stop-band in photonic crystal slabs. Simulation results show that this novel type of sensors has large detective range (more than 1.5) and relative high sensitivity (4.3×10-5 in certain conditions). The central frequency and bandwidth of the mini stop-bands depend on the structure parameters of PC waveguides, which makes it possible to optimize the detective range and detective sensitivity.

  13. Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets (United States)

    Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C.


    Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry1,2,3. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago1. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear. First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test. All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

  14. Seasonal Variation of Inorganic Nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) Concentration in Swedish River


    Ahmed, Rafiq


    Rivers have been playing most important role as fresh water source and medium of nutrient transportation from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem. Inorganic form of nutrients (DSi, DIN and DIP) are plant available mostly control the productivity of aquatic ecosystem. Transfer of these nutrients in higher concentrations cause harmful eutrophication in receiving water body. Study of dissolved inorganic nutrients concentrations in 12 Swedish rivers of different basin characteristics demonstrated bo...

  15. Effect of post - milking teat dipping on hygienic quality of cow's milk



    The study aimed to investigate the effects of teat disinfection (dipping treatment) after milking on hygienic quality of row milk. The research was conducted on the farm with 30 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Animals were kept in a tied housing system. Milking is done by a bucket milking units using vacuum line. The research was carried out during the period of 2 months from 26.11.2012 till 25.01.2013. Results showed that milk immediately after leaving the u...

  16. Structural characterization of electric-field assisted dip-coating of gold nanoparticles on silicon (United States)

    Dushaq, Ghada H.; Alkhatib, Amro; Rasras, Mahmoud S.; Nayfeh, Ammar M.


    We report the effect of applying an electric field on the surface coverage of 40nm gold colloidal nanoparticles on silicon wafer using dip-coating and electrochemical cell set up. By applying electric field during the dip-coating of silicon wafer in a solution of gold nano particles (GNP) the surface coverage increased by 10% when the electric field varied from 5V/cm to 25V/cm at fixed deposition time of 90s. Ultra High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) images shows that the particle agglomeration becomes more noticeable at higher electric field and as the deposition time increases from 90 s to 20 min a thin film of gold is achieved. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of chemical bonding, electrostatic force and electrophoretic mobility of Au nano particles during the electric field enhanced deposition on the Si surface. Applied voltage, time of dipping, concentration of the aqueous solution, and particles zeta potential are all can be controlled to enhance the uniformity and particles profile on the silicon surface.

  17. Seaward dipping reflectors along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence for volcanic passive margin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Ajay; A K Chaubey; K S Krishna; D Gopala Rao; D Sar


    Multi-channel seismic reflection profiles across the southwest continental margin of India (SWCMI) show presence of westerly dipping seismic reflectors beneath sedimentary strata along the western flank of the Laccadive Ridge –northernmost part of the Chagos –Laccadive Ridge system. Velocity structure, seismic character, 2D gravity model and geographic locations of the dipping reflectors suggest that these reflectors are volcanic in origin, which are interpreted as Seaward Dipping Reflectors (SDRs). The SDRs; 15 to 27 km wide overlain by ∼1 km thick sediment; are observed at three locations and characterized by stack of laterally continuous, divergent and off-lapping reflectors. Occurrence of SDRs along western flank of the Laccadive Ridge adjacent to oceanic crust of the Arabian Basin and 2D crustal model deduced from free-air gravity anomaly suggest that they are genetically related to incipient volcanism during separation of Madagascar from India. We suggest that (i)SWCMI is a volcanic passive margin developed during India –Madagascar breakup in the Late Cretaceous, and (ii)continent –ocean transition lies at western margin of the Laccadive Ridge, west of feather edge of the SDRs. Occurrence of SDRs on western flank of the Laccadive Ridge and inferred zone of transition from continent to ocean further suggest continental nature of crust of the Laccadive Ridge.

  18. Field Emission Lamps Prepared with Dip-Coated and Nickel Electroless Plated Carbon Nanotube Cathodes. (United States)

    Pu, N W; Youh, M J; Chung, K J; Liu, Y M; Ger, M D


    Fabrication and efficiency enhancement of tubal field emission lamps (FELs) using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as the cathode field emitters were studied. The cathode filaments were prepared by eletrolessly plating a nickel (Ni) film on the cathode made of a 304 stainless steel wire dip-coated with MWNTs. The 304 wire was dip-coated with MWNTs and nano-sized Pd catalyst in a solution, and then eletrolessly plated with Ni to form an MWNT-embedded composite film. The MWNTs embedded in Ni not only had better adhesion but also exhibited a higher FE threshold voltage, which is beneficial to our FEL system and can increase the luminous efficiency of the anode phosphor. Our results show that the FE cathode prepared by dipping three times in a solution containing 400 ppm Pd nano-catalysts and 0.2 wt.% MWNTs and then eletrolessly plating a Ni film at a deposition temperature of 60 °C, pH value of 5, and deposition time of 7 min has the best FE uniformity and efficiency. Its emission current can stay as low as 2.5 mA at a high applied voltage of 7 kV, which conforms to the high-voltage-and-low-current requirement of the P22 phosphor and can therefore maximize the luminous efficiency of our FEL. We found that the MWNT cathodes prepared by this approach are suitable for making high-efficiency FELs.

  19. Environmental impact assessment for steeply dipping coal beds: North Knobs site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The US Department of Energy is funding an underground coal gasification (UCG) project in steeply dipping coal beds (SDB), at North Knobs, about 8 miles west of Rawlins, Carbon County, Wyoming. The project is being conducted to determine the technical, economic and environmental viability of such a technology. The development of SDB is an interesting target for UCG since such beds contain coals not normally mineable economically by ordinary techniques. Although the underground gasification of SDB has not been attempted in the US, Soviet experience and theoretical work indicate that the gasification of SDB in place offers all the advantages of underground gasification of horizontal coal seams plus some unique characteristics. The steep angle of dip helps to channel the produced gases up dip to offtake holes and permits the ash and rubble to fall away from the reaction zone helping to mitigate the blocking of the reaction zone in swelling coals. The intersection of SDB with the surface makes the seam accessible for drilling and other preparation. The tests at the North Knobs site will consist of three tests, lasting 20, 80 and 80 days, respectively. A total of 9590 tons of coal is expected to be gasified, with surface facilities utilizing 15 acres of the total section of land. The environmental effects of the experiment are expected to be very small. The key environmental impact is potential groundwater contamination by reaction products from coal gasification. There is good evidence that the surrounding coal effectively blocks the migration of these contaminants.

  20. Voltage dip generator for testing wind turbines connected to electrical networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veganzones, C.; Martinez, S.; Platero, C.A.; Blazquez, F.; Ramirez, D.; Arribas, J.R.; Merino, J.; Gordillo, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, J.A.; Herrero, N. [Department of Civil Engineering, Hydraulics and Energy, ETSICCP, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, s/n. 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    This paper describes a new voltage dip generator that allows the shape of the time profile of the voltage generated to be configured. The use of this device as a tool to test the fault ride-through capability of wind turbines connected to the electricity grid can provide some remarkable benefits: First, this system offers the possibility of adapting the main features of the time-voltage profile generated (dip depth, dip duration, the ramp slope during the recovery process after clearing fault, etc.) to the specific requirements set forth by the grid operation codes, in accordance with different network electrical systems standards. Second, another remarkable ability of this system is to provide sinusoidal voltage and current wave forms during the overall testing process without the presence of harmonic components. This is made possible by the absence of electronic converters. Finally, the paper includes results and a discussion on the experimental data obtained with the use of a reduced size laboratory prototype that was constructed to validate the operating features of this new device. (author)

  1. Geometry Transition in the Cocos Plate, from Flat-Steep to Constant Dip: Smooth or Abrupt? (United States)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Clayton, R. W.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Valdés-González, C. M.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Córdoba-Montiel, F.


    Subduction of the Cocos Plate beneath North America has a variable and complex behavior along the Middle-American Trench. Initially, its geometry was delineated from regional seismicity. In the last 10 years, seismic experiments have illuminated some details in the geometry. They have reported, from NW to SE an abrupt dip transition, from 50 to 26°, as the result of a tear that splits Cocos North from Cocos South; then there is a smooth transition to a horizontal geometry under central Mexico. Further southeast, under the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the Cocos plate shows a constant ~26° subduction dip. This last transition has been assumed to be smooth from the sparse seismicity in the region. A first glimpse of the slab geometry under Oaxaca, shows the slab continues to be flat at least until 97.5°W longitude, where the slab suddenly changes to a ~55° dip to the northeast. This occurs at a distance of ~75 km from the Pico de Orizaba volcano, which is a similar distance as the active Popocatepetl volcano from the place where the slab dives into the mantle along the Meso-American Subduction Experiment line, in central Mexico. East of this region, receiver function images show an abrupt change in the geometry and length of the slab.

  2. Impact of the Converter Control Strategies on the Drive Train of Wind Turbine during Voltage Dips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Miao


    Full Text Available The impact of converter control strategies on the drive train of wind turbines during voltage dips is investigated in this paper using a full electromechanical model. Aerodynamics and tower vibration are taken into consideration by means of a simulation program, named FAST. Detailed gearbox and electrical subsystems are represented in MATLAB. The dynamic response of electromagnetic torque and its impact on the mechanical variables are the concern in this paper and the response of electrical variables is less discussed. From the mechanical aspects, the effect of rising power recovery speed and unsymmetrical voltage dips are analyzed on the basis of the dynamic response of the high-speed shaft (HSS. A comparison of the impact on the drive train is made for two converter control strategies during small voltage dips. Through the analysis of torque, speed and tower vibration, the results indicate that both power recovery speed and the sudden torque sag have a significant impact on drive trains, and the effects depend on the different control strategies. Moreover, resonance might be excited on the drive train by an unbalanced voltage.

  3. Structural characterization of electric-field assisted dip-coating of gold nanoparticles on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dushaq, Ghada H.; Alkhatib, Amro; Rasras, Mahmoud S.; Nayfeh, Ammar M. [Institute Center for microsystem engineering (iMicro), Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box. 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)


    We report the effect of applying an electric field on the surface coverage of 40nm gold colloidal nanoparticles on silicon wafer using dip-coating and electrochemical cell set up. By applying electric field during the dip-coating of silicon wafer in a solution of gold nano particles (GNP) the surface coverage increased by 10% when the electric field varied from 5V/cm to 25V/cm at fixed deposition time of 90s. Ultra High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) images shows that the particle agglomeration becomes more noticeable at higher electric field and as the deposition time increases from 90 s to 20 min a thin film of gold is achieved. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of chemical bonding, electrostatic force and electrophoretic mobility of Au nano particles during the electric field enhanced deposition on the Si surface. Applied voltage, time of dipping, concentration of the aqueous solution, and particles zeta potential are all can be controlled to enhance the uniformity and particles profile on the silicon surface.

  4. Structural characterization of electric-field assisted dip-coating of gold nanoparticles on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada H. Dushaq


    Full Text Available We report the effect of applying an electric field on the surface coverage of 40nm gold colloidal nanoparticles on silicon wafer using dip-coating and electrochemical cell set up. By applying electric field during the dip-coating of silicon wafer in a solution of gold nano particles (GNP the surface coverage increased by 10% when the electric field varied from 5V/cm to 25V/cm at fixed deposition time of 90s. Ultra High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM images shows that the particle agglomeration becomes more noticeable at higher electric field and as the deposition time increases from 90 s to 20 min a thin film of gold is achieved. Moreover, the results are discussed in terms of chemical bonding, electrostatic force and electrophoretic mobility of Au nano particles during the electric field enhanced deposition on the Si surface. Applied voltage, time of dipping, concentration of the aqueous solution, and particles zeta potential are all can be controlled to enhance the uniformity and particles profile on the silicon surface.

  5. Highly sensitive fiber-optic accelerometer by grating inscription in specific core dip fiber. (United States)

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Guo, Tuan; Bao, Weijia; Shao, Zhihua; Peng, Gang-Ding; Qiao, Xueguang


    A highly sensitive fiber-optic accelerometer based on detecting the power output of resonances from the core dip is demonstrated. The sensing probe comprises a compact structure, hereby a short section of specific core (with a significant core dip) fiber stub containing a straight fiber Bragg grating is spliced to another single-mode fiber via a core self-alignment process. The femtosecond laser side-illumination technique was utilized to ensure that the grating inscription region is precisely positioned and compact in size. Two well-defined core resonances were achieved in reflection: one originates from the core dip and the other originates from fiber core. The key point is that only one of these two reflective resonances exhibits a high sensitivity to fiber bend (and vibration), whereas the other is immune to it. For low frequency (core mode reflection. Moreover, the sensor simultaneously provides an inherent power reference to eliminate unwanted power fluctuations from the light source and transmission lines, thus providing a means of evaluating weak seismic wave at low frequency.

  6. Associations between nocturnal blood pressure dipping and the metabolic syndrome in high- vs. low-acculturated Mexican American women. (United States)

    Shivpuri, Smriti; Allison, Matthew A; Macera, Caroline A; Lindsay, Suzanne; Gallo, Linda C


    Less nocturnal blood pressure (BP) dipping has been associated with greater odds for the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a constellation of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little work has examined this association in Hispanics, who have elevated rates of MetS, or investigated differences in this relationship by level of acculturation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BP dipping and MetS in Hispanic women and to determine if this association is moderated by acculturation status. Two hundred eighty-six Mexican American women underwent assessment of MetS components (BP, waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) and completed a 36-hour ambulatory BP monitoring protocol, during which systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP readings were obtained. Nocturnal BP dipping was calculated as the percentage difference between average daytime and nighttime BP. Acculturation was defined by the language (Spanish, English) in which participants preferred to complete study instruments. Although no significant main effects for BP dipping or acculturation emerged for MetS, the SBP dipping by acculturation interaction was significantly related to MetS (P low-acculturated women. The strength of the association between BP dipping and CVD risk (as measured by MetS) appears to vary by acculturation in Hispanic women. Future studies should explore mechanisms behind the BP dipping and CVD risk association and relevant modifying factors.

  7. Synthesis of LSM films deposited by dip-coating on YSZ substrate; Sintese de filmes de LSM depositados por dip-coating em substratos de YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, Leandro da; Souza, Mariana M.V.M., E-mail: mmattos@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Ribeiro, Nielson F.P. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Quimica. Nucleo de Catalise


    The dip-coating process was used to deposit films of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.}3MnO{sub 3} (LSM) used as cathode in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this study we evaluated the relationship between the deposition parameters such as speed of withdrawal and number of deposited layers of LSM film on a substrate of 8% YSZ commercial, and structural properties, such as thickness and formation of cracks. The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). With parameters set the film had good adhesion to the substrate with a thickness around 10 {mu}m, showing possible adherence problems when more than one layer is deposited on the substrate. (author)

  8. 无核荔枝半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitor Gene of Seedless Litchi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴地; 刘娜; 李明芳; 郑学勤


    [ Objective] This study aimed to clone the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of seedless litchi and analyze the sequence. [ Method] According to the EST sequence of cysteine proteinase inhibitor in constructed SSH subtractive library of seedless litchi abortion, nucleotide sequence of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene was obtained by using RACE technology and analyzed by using bioinformatics software. [ Result] A cysteine protease inhibitor gene was obtained with the sequence of 635 bp containing a 321 bp open reading frame. It was predicted that the encoded protein contained 106 amino acids with conserved domain of cysteine proteinase inhibitor and had relatively high homology with the cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene of several species. [ Conclusion] This study had laid the foundation for further exploring the physiological functions of this cysteine proteinase inhibitor gene in plants.%[目的]对无核荔枝的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因进行克隆,并对其序列下进行分析.[方法]根据构建的无核荔枝胚败育SSH消减文库的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂EST序列,通过RACE技术获得半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因的核苷酸序列并应用生物信息学软件进行分析.[结果]获得一个635 bp的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制基因序列,预测该序列含有321 bp的开放阅读框,推导其编码的蛋白质含106个氨基酸,具有半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂保守区,与多个物种的半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂基因具有较高的同源性.[结论]为进一步研究半胱氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂在植物中的生理功能奠定了基础.

  9. Caracterização fenológica e requerimentos térmicos de variedades de uvas sem sementes no Vale do São Francisco Phenological evaluation and thermal requirements of five seedless grapes in the San Francisco River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Coelho de Souza Leão


    Full Text Available O comportamento fenológico e requerimentos térmicos de variedades de uvas sem sementes foram estudados nas condições do Vale do São Francisco durante os anos de 2001-2002, em seis diferentes datas de poda (12/2000, 04/2001, 06/2001, 10/2001, 01-02/2002 e 04/2002. O experimento foi realizado no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro, em Petrolina-PE. As variedades utilizadas foram Superior Seedless (Festival, Thompson Seedless, Catalunha, Perlette e Marroo Seedless, enxertadas sobre porta-enxerto IAC 572 ('Jales'. Avaliou-se a duração em dias dos estádios fenológicos, gemas dormentes (data de poda a gemas inchadas (1, gemas inchadas a início de brotação (2, início de brotação a 5-6 folhas separadas (3, 5-6 folhas separadas a início de floração (4, início de floração à plena-floração (5, plena-floração a "chumbinho" (6, "chumbinho" à "ervilha" (7, "ervilha" a ½ baga (8, ½ baga a início de maturação (9 e início de maturação à maturação plena (10. Os requerimentos térmicos foram obtidos em termos de graus-dia (GD necessários para atingir cada fase fenológica a partir da poda. O ciclo fenológico médio variou de 89 dias e 1.315 GD na variedade Superior Seedless a 105 dias e 1.514 GD na variedade Perlette, destacando-se as variedades Superior Seedless e Marroo Seedless como precoces e as demais com ciclo intermediário. Os períodos compreendidos entre o início e final da maturação, ½ baga a início de maturação e 5 a 6 folhas separadas a início de floração apresentaram a maior duração entre todos os subperíodos em todas as variedades.The phenological behaviour and heat summation requirements of seedless grapes were studied in the San Francisco River Valley during the seasons 2001-2002, for six pruning dates (12/2000, 04/2001, 06/2001, 10/2001, 01 and 02/2002 and 04/2002. The varieties evaluated were Superior Seedless (Festival, Thompson Seedless, Catalunha, Perlette and Marroo Seedless, grafted on IAC

  10. Field tests of wind turbines submitted to real voltage dips under the new Spanish grid code requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, E. [Renewable Energy Research Institute, Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Control Engineering, EPSA, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, (Spain); Fuentes, J. A.; Molina-Garcia, A.; Ruz, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, 30202 Cartagena, (Spain); Jimenez, F. [Engineering Department, Gamesa Eolica S.A., Poligono Agustinos, calle A, E-31013 Pamplona, (Spain)


    This paper adds the new Spanish grid code to the previously published works about the comparison of international regulations for connection of wind turbines to the network. All the electrical magnitudes - currents and active and reactive power - regulated in the Spanish grid code are studied when the wind turbines are submitted to real voltage dips. Because grid codes and, specifically, the Spanish grid code do not fix the reactive power definition to be applied, four definitions commonly used have also been studied. Taking advantage of the voltage dips field tests carried out to the Gamesa G80 wind turbines, the results obtained for two representative voltage dip tests are presented: a three-phase and a phase-to-phase voltage dip. (Author).

  11. Neural-net based calculation of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis [of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M. (Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Sobajic, D.J.; Yohhan Pao (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE inc., Cleveland, OH (United States))


    In heavily stressed power systems, post-fault transient voltage dips can lead to undesired tripping of industrial drives and large induction motors. The lowest transient voltage dips occur when fault clearing times are less than critical ones. In this paper, we propose a new iterative analytical methodology to obtain more accurate estimates of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis. We also propose and demonstrate the possibility of storing the results of these computations in the associative memory (AM) system, which exhibits remarkable generalization capabilities. Feature-based models stored in the AM can be utilized for fast and accurate prediction of the location, duration and the amount of the worst voltage dips, thereby avoiding the need and cost for lengthy time-domain simulations. Numerical results obtained using the example of the New England power system are presented to illustrate our approach. (Author)

  12. Residues of stirofos (rabon) in eggs of laying hens treated for northern fowl mite control by dipping. (United States)

    Ivey, M C; Devaney, J A; Ivie, G W; Beerwinkle, K R


    Laying hens were treated with a wettable powder formulation of stirofos [Rabon, 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethylphosphate] by dipping in a .5 or 1.0% actual ingredient (AI) water suspension of a 50% wettable powder (WP) stirfos formulation. Stirofos residues were detected in eggs within 1 day after treatment and reached maximum levels 3 days after dipping (.021 and .035 ppm in the low- and high-dose birds, respectively). After that time, levels of residues in eggs declined rapidly and no sample contained detectable quantities (less than .004 ppm) of stirofos after 21 days. Dipping may be a practical control method for the northern fowl mite on chickens, because stirofos dips effectively control this mite on laying hens for at least 6 weeks and because resulting residues in eggs are well below established tolerances.

  13. The Effect of La on the Microstructure and Corrosion-resistance of Hot-dipped Aluminizing Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENJiu-ba; ZHANGWei; LIXiao-yuan; LIQuan-an


    The effect of the content of rare-earth La on the microstructure and corrosion-resistance of hot-dipped aluminum was investigated in this paper. The results show that, under the same technology conditions, the thickness of hot-dipped aluminizing layer by adding the appropriate content of rare-earth La is about 2-3 times as much as that without rare-earth La, and the microstructure of hot-dipped aluminizing layer has also greatly changed ,and a great deal of phase Fe3A1 waspreci pitated along the boundary of a phase. The corrosion resistance of the hot-dipped layer with rare-earth is greatly increased.

  14. The Effect of La on the Microstructure and Corrosion-resistance of Hot-dipped Aluminizing Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jiu-ba; ZHANG Wei; LI Xiao-yuan; LI Quan-an


    The effect of the content of rare-earth La on the microstructure and corrosion-resistance of hot-dipped aluminum was investigated in this paper. The results show that, under the same technology conditions, the thickness of hot-dipped aluminizing layer by adding the appropriate content of rare-earth La is about 2~3 times as much as that without rare-earth La, and the microstructure of hot-dipped aluminizing layer has also greatly changed ,and a great deal of phase Fe3Al was precipitated along the boundary of α phase. The corrosion resistance of the hot-dipped layer with rare-earth is greatly increased.

  15. The impact of slab dip variations, gaps and rollback on mantle wedge flow: insights from fluids experiments (United States)

    MacDougall, Julia G.; Kincaid, Chris; Szwaja, Sara; Fischer, Karen M.


    Observed seismic anisotropy and geochemical anomalies indicate the presence of 3-D flow around and above subducting slabs. To investigate how slab geometry and velocity affect mantle flow, we conducted a set of experiments using a subduction apparatus in a fluid-filled tank. Our models comprise two independently adjustable, continuous belts to represent discrete sections of subducting slabs that kinematically drive flow in the surrounding glucose syrup that represents the upper mantle. We analyse how slab dip (ranging from 30° to 80°), slab dip difference between slab segments (ranging from 20° to 50°), rates of subduction (4-8 cm yr-1) and slab/trench rollback (0-3 cm yr-1) affect mantle flow. Whiskers were used to approximate mineral alignment induced by the flow, as well as to predict directions of seismic anisotropy. We find that dip variations between slab segments generate 3-D flow in the mantle wedge, where the path lines of trenchward moving mantle material above the slab are deflected towards the slab segment with the shallower dip. The degree of path line deflection increases as the difference in slab dip between the segments increases, and, for a fixed dip difference, as slab dip decreases. In cases of slab rollback and large slab dip differences, we observe intrusion of subslab material through the gap and into the wedge. Flow through the gap remains largely horizontal before eventual downward entrainment. Whisker alignment in the wedge flow is largely trench-normal, except near the lateral edges of the slab where toroidal flow dominates. In addition, whisker azimuths located above the slab gap deviate most strongly from trench-normal orientations when slab rollback does not occur. Such flow field complexities are likely sufficient to affect deep melt production and shallow melt delivery. However, none of the experiments produced flow fields that explain the trench-parallel shear wave splitting fast directions observed over broad arc and backarc

  16. Assessing the efficiency and significance of Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation (MeDIP assays in using in vitro methylated genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jinsong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation contributes to the regulation of gene expression during development and cellular differentiation. The recently developed Methylated DNA ImmunoPrecipitation (MeDIP assay allows a comprehensive analysis of this epigenetic mark at the genomic level in normal and disease-derived cells. However, estimating the efficiency of the MeDIP technique is difficult without previous knowledge of the methylation status of a given cell population. Attempts to circumvent this problem have involved the use of in vitro methylated DNA in parallel to the investigated samples. Taking advantage of this stratagem, we sought to improve the sensitivity of the approach and to assess potential biases resulting from DNA amplification and hybridization procedures using MeDIP samples. Findings We performed MeDIP assays using in vitro methylated DNA, with or without previous DNA amplification, and hybridization to a human promoter array. We observed that CpG content at gene promoters indeed correlates strongly with the MeDIP signal obtained using in vitro methylated DNA, even when lowering significantly the amount of starting material. In analyzing MeDIP products that were subjected to whole genome amplification (WGA, we also revealed a strong bias against CpG-rich promoters during this amplification procedure, which may potentially affect the significance of the resulting data. Conclusion We illustrate the use of in vitro methylated DNA to assess the efficiency and accuracy of MeDIP procedures. We report that efficient and reproducible genome-wide data can be obtained via MeDIP experiments using relatively low amount of starting genomic DNA; and emphasize for the precaution that must be taken in data analysis when an additional DNA amplification step is required.

  17. [Analysis of the structure and expression of the DIP1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco gene]. (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Potanova, M V; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I


    DIP1 gene transcription was analyzed with the use of RT-PCR in three Drosophila melanogaster strains with the flamenco- phenotype (flam(SS), flam(MS), and flam(Ore)) and in one flamenco+ strain at the stages of embryos (0-24 h), third-instar larvae, and adult flies. The mutant strains flam(SS) and flam(Ore) lack an active copy of transposon gypsy. Theflam(MS) strain was obtained by introducing an active copy of gypsy in flies of theflam(SS) strain and is characterized by a high rate of gypsy transpositions. The experiments showed that at least five forms of DIP1 gene transcripts are produced. The form of cDNA corresponding to CDS DIP1-d was discovered only in embryos. It was found that DIP1 gene transcription depends on the age of flies: at the larval stage the level of transcription is significantly reduced. However, no reduction of gene transcription is observed in theflam(Ore) strain. These results suggest that the flamenco- phenotype may be associated with an alteration of DIP1 gene transcription, as in differentflamenco- strains the DIP1 gene expression is changed differently.

  18. A Double-Porosity Model for Pumping Test in a Fractured Formation of a Large Dip Angle (United States)

    Ho, Shin-Wei; Chen, chia-shyun


    A Cenozoic sandstone fractured formation is found to have a dip angle, θ, as large as 47 degree. Assuming the dip angle creates a uniform regional flow in the fractured formation, the flow field due to pumping is no longer radially symmetric with respect to the pumping. Instead, a capture zone will appear in the neighborhood of the pumping well. A double porosity model is developed for the problem of interest, where the matrix flow is taken into account by the distributed parameter approach. Neglecting fracture storage, there are three hydrogeological parameters in the model; namely, fracture transmissivity Tf, matrix hydraulic conductivity Km, and matrix storage coefficient Sm. A Laplace-domain solution is determined, and its large time asymptotic solution analytically inverted, which indicates that the drawdown variation of large times exhibits a straight line in a semilog plot. When the dip angle is known, the slope of this straight line can be used to determine Tf, and the intercept of the logarithmic time axis can be used to estimate Sm. The remaining Km can be uniquely determined by the curve-matching method for drawdown of small and intermediate times without difficulty. The larger the dip angle, the closer the stagnation point to the pumping well, and the smaller the capture zone. An overestimate of Tf by a factor of cosθ results if the dip angle effect is neglected. However, neglecting the dip angle has less effect on the estimates of Km and Sm.

  19. Dipping fossil fabrics of continental mantle lithosphere as tectonic heritage of oceanic paleosubductions (United States)

    Babuska, Vladislav; Plomerova, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Ludek; Munzarova, Helena


    Subduction and orogenesis require a strong mantle layer (Burov, Tectonophys. 2010) and our findings confirm the leading role of the mantle lithosphere. We have examined seismic anisotropy of Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic provinces of Europe by means of shear-wave splitting and P-wave travel-time deviations of teleseismic waves observed at dense arrays of seismic stations (e.g., Vecsey et al., Tectonophys. 2007). Lateral variations of seismic-velocity anisotropy delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere, each of them having its own consistent fabric. The domains, modeled in 3D by olivine aggregates with dipping lineation a, or foliation (a,c), represent microplates or their fragments that preserved their pre-assembly fossil fabrics. Evaluating seismic anisotropy in 3D, as well as mapping boundaries of the domains helps to decipher processes of the lithosphere formation. Systematically dipping mantle fabrics and other seismological findings seem to support a model of continental lithosphere built from systems of paleosubductions of plates of ancient oceanic lithosphere (Babuska and Plomerova, AGU Geoph. Monograph 1989), or from stacking of the plates (Helmstaedt and Schulze, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 1989). Seismic anisotropy in the oceanic mantle lithosphere, explained mainly by the olivine A- or D-type fabric (Karato et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2008), was discovered a half century ago (Hess, Nature 1964). Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate the oceanic olivine fabric might be preserved in the subducting lithosphere to a depth of at least 200-300 km. We thus interpret the dipping anisotropic fabrics in domains of the European mantle lithosphere as systems of "frozen" paleosubductions (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006) and the lithosphere base as a boundary between the fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to present-day flow in the asthenosphere (Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010).

  20. Fossilized Dipping Fabrics in Continental Mantle Lithosphere as Possible Remnants of Stacked Oceanic Paleosubductions (United States)

    Babuska, V.; Plomerova, J.; Vecsey, L.; Munzarova, H.


    We have examined seismic anisotropy within the mantle lithosphere of Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic provinces of Europe by means of shear-wave splitting and P-wave travel-time deviations of teleseismic waves observed at dense arrays of seismic stations (e.g., Vecsey et al., Tectonophys. 2007). Lateral variations of seismic-wave anisotropy delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere, each of them having a consistent fabric. The domains, modeled in 3D by olivine aggregates with dipping lineation a, or foliation (a,c), represent microplates or their fragments that preserved their pre-assembly fossil fabrics in the mantle lithosphere. Evaluating seismic anisotropy in 3D, as well as mapping boundaries of the domains helps to decipher processes of the lithosphere formation. Systematically dipping mantle fabrics and other seismological findings seem to support a model of continental lithosphere built from systems of paleosubductions of plates of ancient oceanic lithosphere (Babuska and Plomerova, AGU Geoph. Monograph 1989), or by stacking of the plates (Helmstaedt and Schulze, Geol. Soc. Spec. Publ. 1989). Seismic anisotropy in the oceanic mantle lithosphere, explained mainly by the olivine A- or D-type fabric (Karato et al., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2008), was discovered a half century ago (Hess, Nature 1964). Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate the oceanic olivine fabric might be preserved in the subducting lithosphere to a depth of at least 200-300 km. We thus interpret the dipping anisotropic fabrics in domains of the European mantle lithosphere as systems of "frozen" paleosubductions (Babuska and Plomerova, PEPI 2006), and the lithosphere base as a boundary between a fossil anisotropy in the lithospheric mantle and an underlying seismic anisotropy related to present-day flow in the asthenosphere (Plomerova and Babuska, Lithos 2010).

  1. Dipping tobacco and its health risks among young adults - A short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Glad Mohesh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dipping tobacco (DT also known as “moist snuff” is used by the smokeless tobacco users in the form of small pinches of shredded tobacco pieces kept between the lips and gums. Thirty five percent adults in India use tobacco in any form, wherein 9% smoke tobacco, 21% use smokeless tobacco and the remaining 5% use both. Tobacco accelerates the endothelial dysfunction in large arteries, arterioles and small arteries increasing the sclerotic process and thereby causing arterial stiffness. Nitric oxide (NO, the endothelium produced vasodilator regulates the smooth muscle tone which is damaged by this tobacco. The sclerotic damage in arteries can be ruled out using Pulse wave analysis (PWA, a non-invasive diagnostic tool. Method: Dipping tobacco users who scored more than 5 in Fagerstroms nicotine addiction questionnaire were included into the study group (n=30 and they were compared against non tobacco users who served as control subjects. Anthropometric details like age, height and weight were collected. Resting blood pressure using a digital sphygmomanometer (OMRON HEM 501 and finger pulse wave using Digital polyrite (RMS was recorded. Recorded data was stored in the computer and later analysed for statistical significance using Graphpad prism ver.5.0. Results: Results showed a significantly decreased large arterial stiffness in the dipping tobacco users than in the controls (5.16+1.3, 6.82+2.0, p<0.001. A slight change on pulse wave velocity was seen which is suspected to be the preliminary change affecting the arteries due to nicotine use. Conclusion: Nicotine’s action to bring about arterial wall stiffness as reported earlier was contradicted in this study. Limitations in the sample size and inclusion of heavily addicted subjects would probably throw greater light on this issue.

  2. The Li And Be Dips Revisited: The Role Of Gyroscopic Pumping. (United States)

    Garaud, Pascale; Bodenheimer, P.


    The existence of a dip in the observed abundances of Li and Be in young stars in the mass range 1.3 to 1.5 solar masses strongly suggests the presence of an additional mixing mechanism to transport these elements from the outer convection zone down to the region where they are destroyed. However, no simple model to date has been able to reproduce simultaneously the respective amplitudes of the Li and the Be dips, as well as their shapes. We study here the effect of an important new mechanism for rotational mixing called "gyroscopic pumping", first noted for its importance in the dynamics of the solar interior, and find that it does indeed provide an elegant answer to this long-standing problem. Gyroscopic pumping is a simple and very generic consequence of angular momentum conservation in differentially rotating convective regions. The perpetual azimuthal force driving the differential rotation also drives a large-scale meridional circulation through angular momentum conservation. We show here how, specifically for the mass range of the Li-dip stars, the flows thus pumped form a slow, large-scale "conveyor belt" between the inner convective core and the outer convection zone. Li- and Be-rich material flowing down from the outer regions is slowly replaced by Li- and Be-poor material flowing up from the inner regions. Meanwhile, turbulent mixing in the thin overshoot layer also replenishes the outer convection zone with Li- and Be-rich material. Overall, the balance between advection by gyroscopic pumping and turbulent mixing by overshooting motions is found to provide a rather good agreement with observations of Li and Be, within a single and very simple framework. This work was funded by an NSF CAREER award of the presenting author.

  3. Growth and characterization of magnetite-maghemite thin films by the dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velásquez, A. A., E-mail:; Arnedo, A. [Universidad EAFIT, Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado (Colombia)


    We present the process of growth and characterization of magnetite-maghemite thin films obtained by the dip coating method. The thin films were deposited on glass substrates, using a ferrofluid of nanostructured magnetite-maghemite particles as precursor solution. During the growth of the films the following parameters were controlled: number of dips of the substrates, dip velocity of the substrates and drying times. The films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Elelectron Microscopy, four-point method for resistance measurement, Room Temperature Mössbauer Spectroscopy and Hall effect. Mössbauer measurements showed the presence of a sextet attributed to maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and two doublets attributed to superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), indicating a distribution of oxidation states of the iron as well as a particle size distribution of the magnetic phases in the films. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the films cover quasi uniformly the substrates, existing in them some pores with sub-micron size. Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements showed a uniform structure in the films, with spherical particles with size around 10 nm. Voltage versus current measurements showed an ohmic response of the films for currents between 0 and 100 nA. On the other hand, Hall effect measurements showed a nonlinear response of the Hall voltage with the magnetic flux density applied perpendicular to the plane of the films, however the response is fairly linear for magnetic flux densities between 0.15 and 0.35 T approximately. The results suggest that the films are promising for application as magnetic flux density sensors.

  4. Comparing the apical microleakage of lateral condensation and chloroform dip techniques with a new obturation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Saatchi


    Full Text Available Background: The final objective of root canal therapy is to create a hermetic seal along the length of the root canal system. For this purpose, many methods and materials have been introduced. The purpose of this study was to compare the apical microleakage in a new obturation technique (true-tug-back with two other obturation techniques (lateral condensation and chloroform dip technique. Methods: In this in vitro study 102 single canal teeth were selected. The crowns were removed, and the canals were prepared using step-back technique. The master apical file was K-file #40. The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups of 32 teeth. First group were obturated with lateral condensation technique and second group with chloroform dip technique and the third group with true-tug-back technique. Six teeth were used as control group. The teeth were placed in incubator at 100% humidity and 37°c for three days. The roots of the teeth were coated with two layers of nail varnish except for the apical 2 millimeter. Teeth were placed in Methylene blue 2% for one week. The teeth were sectioned vertically and the depth of maximum dye penetration for each tooth was recorded by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Dunkan test. Results: The mean liner dye penetration differences between lateral condensation group (6.88 ± 4.06 mm and chloroform dip technique group (7.16 ± 3.37 mm were not statistically significant (P = 0.719. The differences between true-tug-back group (3.15 ± 0.52 mm and two other groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the true-tug-back technique can improve apical seal. Further studies are needed for this purpose.

  5. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.


    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of ZnO/Al Thin Films Prepared by Dip-Coating Process


    Juhņeviča, I; Mašonkina, M; Mežinskis, G; Gabrene, A


    In this work sol–gel dip-coating technique was used to synthesize ZnO and ZnO/Al films. The influence of annealing regime and dopant concentration on the structural properties of ZnO and aluminum doped ZnO (ZnO/Al) films was investigated. The surface morphology and crystallinity of ZnO films were determined using atomic force microscopy and Xray diffraction, respectively. The experimental results show that ZnO and ZnO/Al films prepared using “shock” conditions have smo...

  7. Development of radiation sterilized dip slides for enumerating lactic acid bacteria and total count in foodstuffs (United States)

    Eisenberg, E.; Padova, R.; Kirsch, E.; Weissman, Sh.; Hirshfeld, T.; Shenfeld, A.

    APT agar (APT) used for enumeration of lactic acid bacteria and Plate Count agar (PCA) applied for total count were sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation dose of 10-15 kGy. Radiosterilized PCA and APT modified by adding catalase prior to irradiation, or APT with increased content of yeast extract performed, as well as, the heat sterilized commercial media. Growth performance was evaluated on several strains of microorganisms, as well as, by enumeration of bacteria in food products. Radiosterilization of culture media in final packaging, can be applied to produce dip slide kits containing PCA or APT.

  8. Effect of chemical composition of steel on the structure of hot – dip galvanized coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny


    Full Text Available This article describes the effect of the content of conventional steel impurity elements on the thickness and composition of the zinc layer. This article is focused primarily on low-temperature, batch hot-dip galvanizing; however, the continuous coating process is also mentioned. The main discussion covers galvanizing from pure zinc melt, and only touches on galvanizing from melts with the usual amounts of aluminium (0,2 wt. %. Silicon, phosphorus, aluminium and sulfur may have an especially negative effect on the mechanical properties of the coating and its final appearance. The content of ballast carbon and manganese has a rather limited effect on composition and coating thickness.

  9. L'elaboració del complex d'Èdip en nens adoptats: dols i vincles


    Ballús Barnils, Elisabeth


    La nostra investigació empírica s'emmarca, a nivell teòric, dins la teoria relacional pròpia de la psicoanàlisi.Objectius: l'objectiu principal d'aquesta tesi és conèixer com els nens adoptats elaboren el complex d'Èdip, tenint en compte que a tots ells els acompanyen dues variables indissociables d'aquesta condició d'ésser un nen adoptat:- Ser un nen abandonat pels pares biològics. - Tenir una doble parentalitat: pares biològics i pares adoptius. Amb aquesta recerca volem aprofundir -mitja...

  10. Combined-dynamic mode"dip-pen" nanolithography and physically nanopatterning along single DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; WANG Ying; WU Haiping; ZHANG Yi; ZHANG Zhixiang; ZHOU Xingfei; LI Minqian; HU Jun


    Atomic force micriscope (AFM)-based dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is an emerging approach for constructing nanostructures on material surfaces such as gold, silicon and silicon oxide. Although DPN is a powerful technique, it has not shown its ability of direct-writing and patterning of nanostructures on surfaces of soft materials, for example biomacromolecules. Direct depositing on soft surfaces becomes possible with the introduction of a combined-dynamic mode DPN rather than mostly used contact mode DPN or tapping mode DPN. In this report, the combined dynamic mode DPN is used for direct depositing protein ink on DNA molecules at the nanometer scale.

  11. An Experimental Insight into the ZnO Thin Films Properties Prepared by Dip Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benhaliliba


    Full Text Available The physical properties of the pure and metal doped ZnO films are investigated using a low cost dip coating technique. The films have grown slowly onto a glass substrate at room temperature. Based on X-ray pattern parameters are extracted such as grain size, lattice parameters. Optical measurements within the UV-Vis band give us the transmittance of films ( 80 % and optical band gap. Using the Hall Effect measurement (HMS in room temperature, we determine the bulk density of charge carriers, mobility and their electrical resistivity.

  12. Descente du dernier dipôle supraconducteur 16 avril 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service


    Depuis le 14 novembre 2008, il y a eu 54 aimants remontés et redescendus dans le secteur 3-4, 1 aimant dans le secteur 1-2 et 1 aimant dans le secteur 6-7. Pour la descente du dernier dipôle supraconducteur du 16 avril 2009, Pascal Brunero, surveillant des travaux dans le groupe EN/HE en charge du transport et de la manutention, a répondu à un interview pour le bulletin.

  13. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan


    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  14. Peak-dip crossover of the differential conductance in mesoscopic systems with quantum impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldea, A; Tolea, M; Dinu, I V [National Institute of Materials Physics, POBox MG7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)], E-mail:


    We investigate the differential conductance dI/dV for the interacting T-shape model, using an approach based on the Keldysh formalism and the Lacroix solution for the equation of motion. A peak-dip crossover has been noticed by changing the hybridization between the two dots. For the same model, the combined interaction and interference processes give rise to the Fano-Kondo effect with an interesting crossing point of the isoterms below the Kondo temperature A tentative explanation of these effects is given in terms of the many-body spectral properties of the system.

  15. Laser agitates probability flow in atoms to form alternating current and its peak-dip phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Huai-Yang


    By using trajectory-based approaches to quantum transition, it is found that laser can agitate the probability flow in atoms to form alternating current with the frequency of the laser. The detailed physical process of quantum transition is investigated, during which the alternating current in atomic probability flow becomes a key role connecting the external electromagnetic wave with the evolution of the quantum states in atoms. Computer was employed to simulate the physical process. The atomic alternating current may have the peak-dip phenomenon.

  16. Preparation of tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers from waste hot dipping zinc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艺锋; 唐谟堂; 杨声海; 张保平; 杨建广


    Large and uniform tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (T-ZnO) were prepared from waste hot dipping zinc by vapor oxidation and examined by means of X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES analysis and scanning electron microscope.The products are pure hexagonal wurtzite crystals with tetrapod shape and edge size of center body 5 - 6μm and needle length of 100 - 130 μm. The size and shape of ZnO particles are fully controlled by the growth conditions and TZnO can be obtained only at 850 - 1 000 ℃ and total gas flow rate ranging from 40 to 250 L @ h-1 in which the size of the T-ZnO particles varies slightly with temperature. The process of the formation of T-ZnO is that T-ZnO may nucleate at the initial stage with a complete tetrapod shape and develop to the large size, but not the process of preferential growth of octahedral nuclei and subsequent growth of the needles. The experiment presents a new method to prepare T-ZnO economically by using the waste hot dipping zinc.

  17. Asymptotic Analysis of the Paradox in Log-Stretch Dip Moveout

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She


    There exists a paradox in dip moveout (DMO) in seismic data processing. The paradox is why Notfors and Godfrey's approximate time log-stretched DMO can produce better impulse responses than the full log DMO, and why Hale's f-k DMO is correct although it was based on two inaccurate assumptions for the midpoint repositioning and the DMO time relationship? Based on the asymptotic analysis of the DMO algorithms, we find that any form of correctly formulated DMO must handle both space and time coordinates properly in order to deal with all dips accurately. The surprising improvement of Notfors and Godfrey's log DMO on Bale and Jakubowicz's full log DMO was due to the equivalent midpoint repositioning by transforming the time-related phase shift to the space-related phase shift. The explanation of why Hale's f-k DMO is correct although it was based on two inaccurate assumptions is that the two approximations exactly cancel each other in the f-k domain to give the correct final result.

  18. Part I. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of the Hot Dip (Zn - Coating Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołczyński W.


    Full Text Available A hot dip (Zn – coating formation is carried out in the industry conditions. Two types of the steel substrate are applied to the experiment. Two morphologically different coatings are obtained, accordingly. A hot dip (Zn – coating formation is also carried out in the laboratory conditions for making some additional explanations of the revealed phenomena. The thickening of the - phase sub-layer is observed in details to determine time of the transition from stable into meta-stable solidification. The Fe-Zn phase diagrams for stable and meta-stable equilibrium are calculated, respectively. The phase diagram for dissolution is also determined. The criterion of the higher temperature of the solid/liquid (s/l interface is successfully applied to the Fe-Zn system to justify the competition between stable and meta-stable solidification. The mass balance verification is performed for the (Zn - coating in order to define the nominal Zn–solute concentration required by dissolution and next by solidification. The Zn – solute concentration in the dissolution, super-saturation and saturation zones are determined thermodynamically. The growth kinetics is described for all the sub-layers in the (Zn – coating.

  19. Boron Abundances Across the "Li-Be Dip" in the Hyades

    CERN Document Server

    Boesgaard, Ann Merchant; King, Jeremy R; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Somers, Garrett


    Dramatic deficiencies of Li in the mid-F dwarf stars of the Hyades cluster were discovered by Boesgaard & Tripicco. Boesgaard & King discovered corresponding, but smaller, deficiencies in Be in the same narrow temperature region in the Hyades. With the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope we investigate B abundances in the Hyades F stars to look for a potential B dip using the B I resonance line at 2496.8 A. The light elements, Li, Be, and B, are destroyed inside stars at increasingly hotter temperatures: 2.5, 3.5, and 5x10^6 K respectively. Consequently, these elements survive to increasingly greater depths in a star and their surface abundances indicate the depth and thoroughness of mixing in the star. We have (re)determined Li abundances/upper limits for 79 Hyades dwarfs, Be for 43 stars, and B in five stars. We find evidence for a small drop in the B abundance across the Li-Be dip. The B abundances for the four stars in the temperature range 6100-6730 K fit the B-Be c...

  20. Bioceramic dip-coating on Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS implant materials. (United States)

    Aksakal, Bunyamin; Hanyaloglu, C


    The focus of the present study is based on more economical and rapid bioceramic coating on the most common implant substrates such as Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS used often in orthopedics. For ceramic dip coating of implant substrates, Hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, P2O5, Na2CO3 and KH2PO4 are used to provide the gel. Ceramic films on sandblasted substrates have been deposited by using a newly manufactured dip-coating apparatus. Sample characterization is evaluated by SEM and XRD analysis. A smooth and homogeneous coating films have been obtained and average of 20 MPa bonding strength has been achieved for both Ti-6Al-4V and 316L SS alloys after sintering at 750 degrees C under flowing argon. The level of importance of the process parameters on coating was determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The current process appears to be cheap, easy, and flexible to shape variations and high production rates for orthopedic applications.

  1. Electrochemical characterization of YSZ thick films deposited by dip-coating process (United States)

    Mauvy, F.; Lenormand, P.; Lalanne, C.; Ansart, F.; Bassat, J. M.; Grenier, J. C.; Groupement de Recherches Cnrs "Pacte", Gdr 2985

    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, 8% Y 2O 3) thick films were coated on dense alumina substrates by a dip-coating process. The suspension was obtained by addition of a polymeric matrix in a stable suspension of commercial YSZ (Tosoh) powders dispersed in an azeotropic mixture MEK-EtOH. The suspension composition was improved by the addition of YSZ Tosoh particles encapsulated by zirconium alkoxide sol containing yttrium nitrate which are the precursors of the 8-YSZ oxide. This optimal formulation allowed preparing, via a dip-coating process, thick films which were, after thermal treatment, homogeneous, dense and crack-free. A specific method was performed to measure the electrical conductivity, i.e. to determine the ionic conductivity of the film: it uses the four-point probe technique combined with ac impedance spectroscopy. The good agreement between the classical two-electrode measurements performed on YSZ pellets and the four-electrode ones performed on YSZ films allows concluding that this method is relevant for characterizing the transport properties of thick films.

  2. Arsenic status and distribution in soils at disused cattle dip in South Africa. (United States)

    Okonkwo, Jonathan Okechukwu


    The status and the distribution of arsenic in soils from a disused cattle dip were determined. Elevated total arsenic levels (1,033-1,369 mg/L) were detected in the soils. Significant difference (p < 0.05) between the values for the soils obtained from the contaminated sites and control site (0.15 mg/L) was observed. The level of total arsenic decreased with increase in depth. The peak total arsenic (1,369 mg/L) was obtained at 0 cm depth, indicating the abundance of arsenic at the surface despite the fact that the dip has been out of use for a long time. The total arsenic recorded for different depths were significantly higher than the trigger value of 40 mg/kg. The distribution of arsenic in the different phases showed that arsenic was mostly bound to the residual fractions (52%) and Fe and Al hydroxides (21%). The distribution of arsenic in the order phases was in the following order: exchangeable (14%), carbonates (10%) and soluble (3%).

  3. Beta Dips in the Gaia Era: Simulation Predictions of the Galactic Velocity Anisotropy Parameter (β) (United States)

    Loebman, Sarah; Valluri, Monica; Hattori, Kohei; Debattista, Victor P.; Bell, Eric F.; Stinson, Greg; Christensen, Charlotte; Brooks, Alyson; Quinn, Thomas R.; Governato, Fabio


    Milky Way (MW) science has entered a new era with the advent of Gaia. Combined with spectroscopic survey data, we have newfound access to full 6D phase space information for halo stars. Such data provides an invaluable opportunity to assess kinematic trends as a function of radius and confront simulations with these observations to draw insight about our merger history. I will discuss predictions for the velocity anisotropy parameter, β, drawn from three suites of state-of-the-art cosmological N-body and N-body+SPH MW-like simulations. On average, all three suites predict a monotonically increasing value of β that is radially biased, and beyond 10 kpc, β > 0.5. I will also discuss β as a function of time for individual simulated galaxies. I will highlight when "dips" in β form, the severity (the rarity of β < 0), origin (in situ versus accreted halo), and persistence of these dips. Thereby, I present a cohesive set of predictions of β from simulations for comparison to forthcoming observations.

  4. Dipping and jetting with tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil formulations control lice (Bovicola ovis) on sheep. (United States)

    James, P J; Callander, J T


    The in vivo pediculicidal effectiveness of 1% and 2% formulations of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil (TTO) against sheep chewing lice (Bovicola ovis) was tested in two pen studies. Immersion dipping of sheep shorn two weeks before treatment in both 1% and 2% formulations reduced lice to non detectable levels. No lice were found on any of the treated sheep despite careful inspection of at least 40 fleece partings per animal at 2, 6, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. In the untreated sheep louse numbers increased from a mean (± SE) of 2.4 (± 0.7) per 10 cm fleece part at 2 weeks to 12.3 (± 4.2) per part at 20 weeks. Treatment of sheep with 6 months wool by jetting (high pressure spraying into the fleece) reduced louse numbers by 94% in comparison to controls at two weeks after treatment with both 1% and 2% TTO formulations. At 6 and 12 weeks after treatment reductions were 94% and 91% respectively with the 1% formulation and 78% and 84% respectively with the 2% formulation. TTO treatment also appeared to reduce wool damage in infested sheep. Laboratory studies indicated that tea tree oil 'stripped' from solution with a progressive reduction in concentration as well as volume as more wool was dipped, indicating that reinforcement of active ingredient would be required to maintain effectiveness when large numbers of sheep are treated. The results of these studies suggest significant potential for the development of ovine lousicides incorporating TTO.

  5. Electrochemical characterization of YSZ thick films deposited by dip-coating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauvy, F.; Lalanne, C.; Bassat, J.M.; Grenier, J.C. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux ICMCB - CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 1, 87, av. du Dr. A. Schweitzer, 33 608 Pessac-Cedex (France); Lenormand, P.; Ansart, F. [Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche et d' Ingenierie et d' Ingenierie des Materiaux, CIRIMAT, Universite Paul Sabatier, Bat. 2R1, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)


    Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ, 8% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thick films were coated on dense alumina substrates by a dip-coating process. The suspension was obtained by addition of a polymeric matrix in a stable suspension of commercial YSZ (Tosoh) powders dispersed in an azeotropic mixture MEK-EtOH. The suspension composition was improved by the addition of YSZ Tosoh particles encapsulated by zirconium alkoxide sol containing yttrium nitrate which are the precursors of the 8-YSZ oxide. This optimal formulation allowed preparing, via a dip-coating process, thick films which were, after thermal treatment, homogeneous, dense and crack-free. A specific method was performed to measure the electrical conductivity, i.e. to determine the ionic conductivity of the film: it uses the four-point probe technique combined with ac impedance spectroscopy. The good agreement between the classical two-electrode measurements performed on YSZ pellets and the four-electrode ones performed on YSZ films allows concluding that this method is relevant for characterizing the transport properties of thick films. (author)

  6. Object-oriented Bayesian networks for evaluating DIP-STR profiling results from unbalanced DNA mixtures. (United States)

    Cereda, G; Biedermann, A; Hall, D; Taroni, F


    The genetic characterization of unbalanced mixed stains remains an important area where improvement is imperative. In fact, with current methods for DNA analysis (Polymerase Chain Reaction with the SGM Plus multiplex kit), it is generally not possible to obtain a conventional autosomal DNA profile of the minor contributor if the ratio between the two contributors in a mixture is smaller than 1:10. This is a consequence of the fact that the major contributor's profile 'masks' that of the minor contributor. Besides known remedies to this problem, such as Y-STR analysis, a new compound genetic marker that consists of a Deletion/Insertion Polymorphism (DIP), linked to a Short Tandem Repeat (STR) polymorphism, has recently been developed and proposed elsewhere in literature. The present paper reports on the derivation of an approach for the probabilistic evaluation of DIP-STR profiling results obtained from unbalanced DNA mixtures. The procedure is based on object-oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs) and uses the likelihood ratio as an expression of the probative value. OOBNs are retained in this paper because they allow one to provide a clear description of the genotypic configuration observed for the mixed stain as well as for the various potential contributors (e.g., victim and suspect). These models also allow one to depict the assumed relevance relationships and perform the necessary probabilistic computations.

  7. Ecological load decrease by the new order of the flat dipping coal layers opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakishev, B.R. [K.I. Satpaev Kazak National Technical Univ., Astana (Kazakhstan); Moldabaev, S.K. [Ekibastuz Engineering Technical Inst., Ekibastuz (Kazakhstan); Rakisheva, Z.B. [Al-Farabi Kazak National Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan)


    An innovative method to open the flat dipping coal layer of ore horizons was presented. This paper discussed the accelerated commissioning of mined areas and reduced environmental impact. The distinctive features of the method were also presented. At the first ore horizon, two separate mixed (external-internal) trenches were consistently driven one by another. An internal part of the first mixed trench in the form of descent was temporarily placed on a working pit wall. The track line was straightened until the coincidence of its line with an axis of an external trench part met and then resulted in a stationary position. Specifically, the paper discussed the development of a mathematical model for the stripping of ores and the optimal distribution on external and internal dumps. It was concluded that realization of the innovative way of the flat dipping coal layers opening with ore optimal distribution increased the warehousing volumes in internal dumps by 25-35 per cent and proportionally decreased the ecological load on the environment. 3 figs.

  8. Nanoscale surface analysis on second generation advanced high strength steel after hot dip galvanizing. (United States)

    Arndt, M; Duchoslav, J; Preis, K; Samek, L; Stifter, D


    Second generation advanced high strength steel is one promising material of choice for modern automotive structural parts because of its outstanding maximal elongation and tensile strength. Nonetheless there is still a lack of corrosion protection for this material due to the fact that cost efficient hot dip galvanizing cannot be applied. The reason for the insufficient coatability with zinc is found in the segregation of manganese to the surface during annealing and the formation of manganese oxides prior coating. This work analyses the structure and chemical composition of the surface oxides on so called nano-TWIP (twinning induced plasticity) steel on the nanoscopic scale after hot dip galvanizing in a simulator with employed analytical methods comprising scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (SAES), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and focused ion beam (FIB) for cross section preparation. By the combination of these methods, it was possible to obtain detailed chemical images serving a better understanding which processes exactly occur on the surface of this novel kind of steel and how to promote in the future for this material system galvanic protection.

  9. Morphology control in thin films of PS:PLA homopolymer blends by dip-coating deposition (United States)

    Vital, Alexane; Vayer, Marylène; Tillocher, Thomas; Dussart, Rémi; Boufnichel, Mohamed; Sinturel, Christophe


    In this work, smooth polymer films of PS, PLA and their blends, with thicknesses ranging from 20 nm up to 400 nm and very few defects on the surface were obtained by dip-coating. In contrast to the process of spin-coating which is conventionally used to prepare thin films of polymer blends, we showed that depending on the deposition parameters (withdrawal speed and geometry of the reservoir), various morphologies such as layered films and laterally phase-separated domains could be formed for a given blend/solvent pair, offering much more opportunities compared to the spin-coating process. This diversity of morphologies was explained by considering the superposition of different phenomena such as phase separation process, dewetting and vitrification in which parameters such as the drying time, the compatibility of the polymer/solvent pairs and the affinity of the polymer towards the interfaces were suspected to play a significant role. For that purpose, the process of dip-coating was examined within the capillary and the draining regimes (for low and high withdrawal speed respectively) in order to get a full description of the thickness variation and evaporation rate as a function of the deposition parameters.

  10. Silica-Copper Oxide Composite Thin Films as Solar Selective Coatings Prepared by Dipping Sol Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Barrera-Calva


    Full Text Available Silica-copper oxide (silica-CuO composite thin films were prepared by a dipping sol-gel route using ethanolic solutions comprised TEOS and a copper-propionate complex. Sols with different TEOS/Cu-propionate (Si/Cu molar ratios were prepared and applied on stainless steel substrates using dipping process. During the annealing process, copper-propionate complexes developed into particulate polycrystalline CuO dispersed in a partially crystallized silica matrix, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. The gel thermal analysis revealed that the prepared material might be stable up to 400°C. The silica-CuO/stainless steel system was characterized as a selective absorber surface and its solar selectivity parameters, absorptance (α, and emittance (ε were evaluated from UV-NIR reflectance data. The solar parameters of such a system were mostly affected by the thickness and phase composition of the SiO2-CuO film. Interestingly, the best solar parameters (α = 0.92 and ε = 0.2 were associated to the thinnest films, which comprised a CuO-Cu2O mixture immersed in the silica matrix, as indicated by XPS.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, María [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, PO BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602–2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others


    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  12. CSI 2264: Characterizing Young Stars in NGC 2264 With Short-Duration Periodic Flux Dips in Their Light Curves (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; McGinnis, Pauline; Rebull, Luisa; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Turner, Neal J.; Carpenter, John; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Barrado, David; Vrba, Frederick J.; Covey, Kevin; Padgett, Debbie; Herbst, William; Gillen, Edward; Lyra, Wladimir; Guimaraes, Marcelo Medeiros; Bouy, Herve; Favata, Fabio


    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow, periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared (IR) excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian corotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHM generally less than one day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected on successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard \\disk-locking" models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSO in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel- ow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  13. CSI 2264: Characterizing Young Stars in NGC 2264 with Short-Duration, Periodic Flux Dips in their Light Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, John; McGinnis, Pauline; Rebull, Luisa; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Turner, Neal J; Carpenter, John; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean; Terebey, Susan; Morales-Calderón, María; Alencar, Silvia H P; Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura; Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria; Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore; Song, Inseok; Gutermuth, Rob; Barrado, David; Vrba, Frederick J; Covey, Kevin; Padgett, Debbie; Herbst, William; Gillen, Edward; Lyra, Wladimir; Guimaraes, Marcelo Medeiros; Bouy, Herve; Favata, Fabio


    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical {\\em CoRoT} light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow, periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared (IR) excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHM generally less than one day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected on successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard "disk-locking" models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In so...

  14. Evaluation of spatial variability of soil arsenic adjacent to a disused cattle-dip site, using model-based geostatistics. (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel K; Bishop, Thomas F A; Singh, Balwant


    This study investigated the spatial variability of total and phosphate-extractable arsenic (As) concentrations in soil adjacent to a cattle-dip site, employing a linear mixed model-based geostatistical approach. The soil samples in the study area (n = 102 in 8.1 m(2)) were taken at the nodes of a 0.30 × 0.35 m grid. The results showed that total As concentration (0-0.2 m depth) and phosphate-extractable As concentration (at depths of 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4, and 0.4-0.6 m) in soil adjacent to the dip varied greatly. Both total and phosphate-extractable soil As concentrations significantly (p = 0.004-0.048) increased toward the cattle-dip. Using the linear mixed model, we suggest that 5 samples are sufficient to assess a dip site for soil (As) contamination (95% confidence interval of ±475.9 mg kg(-1)), but 15 samples (95% confidence interval of ±212.3 mg kg(-1)) is desirable baseline when the ultimate goal is to evaluate the effects of phytoremediation. Such guidelines on sampling requirements are crucial for the assessment of As contamination levels at other cattle-dip sites, and to determine the effect of phytoremediation on soil As.

  15. An XMM-Newton view of the dipping low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1710-281

    CERN Document Server

    Younes, G; Sabra, B


    (abridged) We analyzed the archived XMM-Newton observation of the poorly studied low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1710-281 performed in 2004 that covered one orbital period of the system (3.8 hr). The source shows dips as well as eclipses, hence it is viewed close to edge-on. We modeled the spectral changes between persistent and dips in the framework of the partial covering model and the ionized absorber approach. The persistent spectrum can be fit by a power law with a photon index of 1.94(+-0.02) affected by absorption from cool material with a hydrogen column density of 0.401(+-0.007)*10^22 cm^-2. The spectral changes from persistent to deep-dipping intervals are consistent with the partial covering of the power-law emission, with the covering fraction increasing from 26% during shallow dipping to 78% during deep dipping. We do not detect any absorption lines from highly ionized species such as FeXXV. The upper-limits we derive on their equivalent width (EW) are not constraining. Despite not detecting any signa...

  16. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors. (United States)

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng


    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes.

  17. Pre-stack time migration based on stationary-phase stacking in the dip-angle domain (United States)

    Xu, Jincheng; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Zhengwei; Liu, Wei


    The Kirchhoff-type migration approach often suffers from migration noise, aliasing artifacts due to operator error, or weak noise from a truncated aperture or pre-stacked data. These noises can be attenuated by using stationary-phase migration, which only stacks the reflection energy within the Fresnel zone rather than along the whole migration aperture, and therefore obtains a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the migration results. This paper proposes a new implementation for the pre-stack time migration (PSTM) approach, which is based on stationary-phase stacking in the dip-angle domain. This implementation generates a pair of migrated dip-angle gathers in the image domain using PSTM. We can obtain the dip-angle field corresponding to the contribution of the Fresnel zones from the migrated dip-angle gathers, which allows us to remove noise outside the Fresnel zones and significantly improves the SNR of the image gathers. The proposed stationary-phase PSTM could effectively handle the problem of low SNR in migrated images, especially in the presence of steeply dipping structures. We test the method by applying stationary-phase PSTM to an overthrust model example and a three-dimensional field data set, and both examples demonstrate that the resulting images are of good quality with the method.

  18. Anelamento e reguladores de crescimento: efeitos sobre as medidas biométricas e qualidade de cachos da videira 'Superior Seedless' Girdling and growth regulators: effects on the biometric measurements and quality of bunches of vine 'Superior Sedless'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se obter maior tamanho de baga, peso médio de cacho e produtividade, os cachos da variedade Superior Seedless foram pulverizados com ácido giberélico (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bioestimulante Crop Set® nas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e com ou sem anelamento no caule. Esses tratamentos foram aplicados de forma isolada ou combinados entre si. O trabalho foi conduzido durante o período 2001-2002 (dois ciclos de produção, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina-PE. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e três repetições, sendo duas plantas por parcela. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos nos dois ciclos de produção. Entretanto, quando o ácido giberélico foi associado ao Crop Set® 0,1% e anelamento, observou-se uma tendência de aumento no peso de cachos, bem como no peso e tamanho de bagas na safra de 2001. Os cachos tratados com ácido giberélico apresentaram engaços mais grossos e pesados, embora não se observem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Algumas plantas submetidas ao anelamento apresentaram problemas de cicatrização, o que provocou a morte das mesmas, recomendando-se evitar a realização desta prática nas condições em que se realizou este trabalho.Aiming to increase the berry size, weight of bunches and yield, the bunches of the cv. Superior Seedless was powdered with gibberelic acid (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bio-stimulant Crop Set® in the dosis of 0.1 and 0.2%. In adition was used the treatment known as girdling. Those treatments were applied in an isolated way or combined to each other. The work was carried out during 2001-2002 (two harvest seasons, in the Experimental Station of Bebedouro, Semi-arid Embrapa in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design were in randomized blocks with 12 treatments and three replications. The differences among the treatments were not statistical significant in the two

  19. Field performance of "marsh seedless" grapefruit on trifoliate orange inoculated with viroids in Brazil Desempenho do pomeleiro "marsh seedles" enxertado em trifoliata inoculado com viróides no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sanches Stuchi


    Full Text Available Some viroids reduce citrus tree growth and may be used for tree size control aiming the establishment of orchards with close tree spacing that may provide higher productivity than conventional ones. To study the effects of citrus viroids inoculation on vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of 'Marsh Seedless' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. grafted on trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], an experiment was set up in January 1991, in Bebedouro, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments with two plants per plot: viroid isolates Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd + Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and Hop stunt viroid (HSVd - CVd-II, a non cachexia variant + Citrus III viroid (CVd-III and controls: two healthy buds (control, and no grafting (absolute control. Inoculation was done in the field, six months after planting by bud grafting. Both isolates reduced tree growth (trunk diameter, plant height, canopy diameter and volume. Trees not inoculated yielded better (average of eleven harvests than inoculated ones but the productivity was the same after 150 months. Fruit quality was affected by viroids inoculation but not in a restrictive way. The use of such severe dwarfing isolates for high density plantings of grapefruit on trifoliate orange rootstock is not recommended.Alguns viróides reduzem o crescimento dos citros e podem ser usados para o controle do tamanho das plantas objetivando a instalação de pomares adensados que podem ter maior produtividade que os pomares com espaçamentos convencionais. Para estudar o efeito da inoculação de viróides no desenvolvimento vegetativo, produção e qualidade dos frutos de pomeleiro 'Marsh Seedless' (Citrus paradisi Macf. enxertado em trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.], foi instalado um experimento em Janeiro de 1991, em Bebedouro, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O delineamento

  20. 克瑞森无核葡萄简化栽培配套技术集成与应用研究%Integration and Application of Crimson Seedless Grapes Simplified Cultivation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭绍杰; 李铭; 陈新德; 杨卫忠; 兰小军; 李鹏程; 苏学德


    [Objective]The aim was to simplify the operational measures and raise the level of mechanization in grape orchard management. [Method] Full adoption of orchard mechanization technology; aspects of culture in the tree, choose a compact easy to buried winter trunk type, the shoot was the level of leaves in the bondage of the main vine on both sides of the pinnate horizontal screen, and shoots load 4.50 x 10 ind/hm about; simplified tree cultivation and shoot management practices, long put of the pre-shoots and axillary shoot, axillary shoot thinning of the late crown density; change the traditional clean tillage system, the implementation of the orchard grass, straw mulching, and other measures. [Result] With this technique, the second annual output of Crimson seedless grape planting is 0.75 x 10 4 kg/m2, the third years is 1. 80 x 10 4 kg/hm2 or more, which achieved water saving36% , fertilizer saving41%. [Conclusion] Applying the model can optimize the production and management methods, reduce labor intensity, improve labor productivity, and enhance the level of the grape industry, perfect the quality of Crimson seedless grape.%[目的]提高葡萄园管理的机械化水平,简化操作措施.[方法]全面采用果园机械化生产技术;在树型培养方面,选择便于埋土越冬的紧凑龙干型,新梢在主蔓两侧羽状水平绑缚呈水平叶幕,新梢负载量4.50万个/hm2左右;简化树型培养和枝梢管理措施,前期对新梢和副梢长放,后期疏除造成树冠郁闭的副梢;改变传统的清耕制,实行果园生草、覆草等措施.[结果]采用该技术,克瑞森无核葡萄定植第2年产量达0.75万kg/hm2,3年以后1.80万kg/hm2以上,实现了节水36%、节肥41%.[结论]应用该模式能够优化生产管理方式,降低工人劳动强度,提高劳动生产率,提升葡萄产业化水平,改善克瑞森无核葡萄品质.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sulistiyanto


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the influence of soaking time into extract solution ofSauerkraut on physic and microbial performances of acidified fish meal. Sauerkraut extract (LPS'ssollution was made by fermentation of wastes vegetable market for 6 days. The LPS-extract was used toacidify " ikan rucah" by the method of dipping for 0, 4 and 8 hours. Changes in pH, the total number ofbacteria, fungi and proteolytic bacteria, moisture content, odor, colour and texture were parametersobserved. Results of experiment showed that total bacteria, fungi and proteolytic bacteria of acidifiedfish meal significantly influenced by soaking time (p <0.05. No significantly effect was shown to thephysically performance. LPS-extract in the soaking effectively reduced content of total bacteria, fungiand proteolytic's bacteria in fish meal.

  2. Narrow dip around zero magnetic field in magnetization hysteresis loops of thin YBCO superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delimova, L [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Liniichuk, I [A F Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Laehderanta, E [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Safonchik, M [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland); Traito, K B [Wihuri Physical Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku (Finland)


    A narrow dip is observed around zero magnetic field in magnetization curves M(B) of superconducting YBCO films with about 10 nm thickness. This anomaly occurs in the same field range with an anomaly of ac surface impedance Z(B) found recently in thin YBCO films. Because the thickness of our films is considerably less than the London penetration depth, two-dimensional limit of the critical state model is applied. In the framework of this model the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density j{sub c}(B) is found. The obtained j{sub c}(B) function agrees well with that found in the ac surface impedance investigation.

  3. Fine structures in Fe3Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Zhang Yonglan; X Holly


    The fine structure in the Fe–Al alloy layer of a new hot dip aluminized steel (HDA) was examined by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD), electron diffraction technique, etc. The test results indicated that the Fe–Al alloy layer of the new aluminized steel mainly composed of Fe3Al, FeAl and -Fe (Al) solid solution. There was no brittle phase containing higher aluminum content, such as FeAl3 (59.18% Al) and Fe2Al7 (62.93% Al). The tiny cracks and embrittlement, formerly caused by these brittle phases in the conventional aluminum-coated steel, were effectively eliminated. There was no microscopic defect (such as tiny cracks, pores or loose layer) in the coating. This is favourable to resist high temperature oxidation and corrosion of the aluminized steel.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of SnO2 thin films prepared by dip-coating method (United States)

    Carvalho, D. H. Q.; Schiavon, M. A.; Raposo, M. T.; de Paiva, R.; Alves, J. L. A.; Paniago, Roberto. M.; Speziali, N. L.; Ferlauto, A. S.; Ardisson, J. D.

    The optical, electrical and structural properties of SnOare responsible for a large number of technological 2 applications such as gas sensors, optical-electonic devices, varistors and displays. In this paper, we report the preparation of SnO thin films deposited on glass, quartz and silicon substrates by the technique of sol-gel dip-2coating. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ellipsometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. We combine the experimental results with ab initio all-electrons calculations, using the density functional theory within the framework of the full-potential linear augmented plane waves method, in order to extract hyperfine parameters. The results show that the synthesis method is able to produce good quality films and that the theory can be helpful to determine quantities difficult to be measured experimentally.

  5. Comparative sessile drop and dip pen nanolithography investigation for various hydrophilic ink/surface systems. (United States)

    Yadav, Pradeep K; Lemoine, Patrick


    We present a dip pen nanolithography study of various hydrophilic ink/surface systems with application in the field of biosensors and novel nano-materials. The inking process was investigated by studying a number of inks, such as Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Bovine serum albumin (BSA), Streptavidin, 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) and a 20 nm nanosphere (NS) polystyrene solution onto a range of substrates, namely glass, silicon, gold and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (taC). In the majority of cases, this resulted in patterns with sub-100 nm line widths and dot diameters. Importantly, contact angle measurements in the microl range showed a decrease of contact angle with drop volume, interpreted as a line tension effect. The significance of this to the nanoscale wetting behaviour is discussed. The effect of dwell time and writing speed indicates that the inking process is not solely defined by surface diffusion but also influenced by the ink dissolution rate from the tip.

  6. Dissolution-Induced Nanowire Synthesis on Hot-Dip Galvanized Surface in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaretti Kaleva


    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate a rapid treatment method for producing a needle-like nanowire structure on a hot-dip galvanized sheet at a temperature of 50 °C. The processing method involved only supercritical carbon dioxide and water to induce a reaction on the zinc surface, which resulted in growth of zinc hydroxycarbonate nanowires into flower-like shapes. This artificial patina nanostructure predicts high surface area and offers interesting opportunities for its use in industrial high-end applications. The nanowires can significantly improve paint adhesion and promote electrochemical stability for organic coatings, or be converted to ZnO nanostructures by calcining to be used in various semiconductor applications.

  7. Micro-roughness improvement of slumped glass foils for x-ray telescopes via dip coating (United States)

    Salmaso, B.; Bianco, A.; Citterio, O.; Pareschi, G.; Pariani, G.; Preserpio, L.; Spiga, D.; Mandelli, D.; Negri, M.


    The large effective area requirement for future X-ray telescopes demands the production of thousands of segments made of a light material, shaped and integrated into the final optics. At INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera we developed a direct hot slumping technique assisted by pressure, to replicate the shape of a mould onto the optical surface of a glass mirror segment. To date, the best results were achieved with a mould in Zerodur K20 and glass foils made of aluminumborosilicate glass type AF32 by Schott. Nevertheless, several factors in the fabrication process trigger deviations from the desired surface micro-roughness. A dip-coating technique is investigated to improve the surface smoothness and consequently the imaging properties of the mirror. In this paper we describe the coating technique, the different implemented processes and the results obtained.

  8. Effects of lanthanum addition on corrosion resistance of hot-dipped galvalume coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dong; CHEN Jianshe; HAN Qing; LIU Kuiren


    Effects of La addition on corrosion resistance of hot-dipped galvalume coating steel wire were investigated. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Si-La alloy coatings containing 0, 0.02wt.%, 0.05wt.%, 0.1wt.% and 0.2wt.% La were evaluated by various tests such as copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray testing (CASS), immersion test in 3.5% NaCl solution, electrochemical tests including weak polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, scanning electron microscope (SEM) test and X-ray diffraction (XRD) test. It was found that the corrosion resistance of galvalume coating could be improved by adding proper amounts of La. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the improvement of corrosion resistance by La addition was discussed.

  9. Phase Angle Calculation Dynamics of Type 4 Wind Turbines in RMS Simulations during Severe Voltage Dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;


    the simulation convergence without adding complexity to the generic models, a first order filtering approach is proposed as a phase angle calculation algorithm in the grid synchronization of the rms type 4 wind turbine models. The proposed approach provides robustness for the simulation of large scale power......In order to conduct power system simulations with high shares of wind energy, standard wind turbine models, which are aimed to be generic rms models for a wide range of wind turbine types, have been developed. As a common practice of rms simulations, the power electronic interface of wind turbines...... is assumed to be ideally synchronized, i.e. grid synchronization (e.g. PLL) is not included in simplified wind turbine models. As will be shown in this paper, this practice causes simulation convergence problems during severe voltage dips and when the loss of synchronism occurs. In order to provide...

  10. The peculiar dipping events in the disk-bearing young-stellar object EPIC 204278916

    CERN Document Server

    Scaringi, S; Barenfeld, S A; Groot, P J; Isella, A; Kenworthy, M A; Knigge, C; Maccarone, T J; Ricci, L; Ansdell, M


    EPIC 204278916 has been serendipitously discovered from its K2 light curve which displays irregular dimmings of up to 65% for ~25 consecutive days out of 78.8 days of observations. For the remaining duration of the observations, the variability is highly periodic and attributed to stellar rotation. The star is a young, low-mass (M-type) pre-main-sequence star with clear evidence of a resolved tilted disk from ALMA observations. We examine the K2 light curve in detail and hypothesise that the irregular dimmings are caused by either a warped inner-disk edge or transiting cometary-like objects in either circular or eccentric orbits. The explanations discussed here are particularly relevant for other recently discovered young objects with similar absorption dips.

  11. Influence of Air-Knife Wiping on Coating Thickness in Hot-Dip Galvanizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; CUI Qi-peng; SHAO Fu-qun; WANG Jun-sheng; ZHAO Hong-yang


    In hot-dip galvanizing process, air jet wiping control is so crucial to decide the coating thickness and uni- formity of the zinc layer on the steel strip. The mathematical models developed predict the zinc coating thickness as a function of pressure and shear stress. The required pressure and shear stress profile on the strip surface were calcu- lated using regression analysis, and carried out using numerical simulation as FLUENT, a finite element analysis software. The influences of the outlet pressure, the nozzle to strip distance, the slot opening, the edge baffle plate, as well as the tilting angle of air knife were discussed. Combining with these results and regression analysis on the practical data, four first-order polynomial multi-parameter models were established for different targeted coating thicknesses with better regression coefficients. The validated model was used to carry out sensitivity analysis to de- termine the favorable controlling regime for the air jet wiping process.

  12. Versatile technique to functionalize optical microfibers via a modified sol-gel dip-coating method. (United States)

    Xu, Z Y; Li, Y H; Wang, L J


    We present a convenient and versatile technique to functionalize microfibers by depositing sol-gel jackets via a modified dip-coating method. This was elucidated by gain-functionalizing microfibers with erbium-ytterbium codoped silica sol-gel jackets. For a 4.5-cm-long coated microfiber, an internal gain of 1.8 dB and a net gain of 0.8 dB for a 1550 nm signal were observed, when combing together the gain of the doped jackets and low loss of microfibers. With benefits of convenience and versatility, this technique can be used for functionalizing microfibers with jackets showing gains in other spectral ranges, high nonlinearity, high sensitivity, and many other functions.

  13. Room temperature synthesis of water repellent silica coatings by the dip coat technique (United States)

    Bhagat, Sharad D.; Kim, Yong-Ha; Ahn, Young-Soo


    The present paper describes the room temperature synthesis of dip coated water repellent silica coatings onto stainless steel substrates using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane as a surface modifying agent. The hydrophobic property of the silica coating was enhanced by increasing its surface roughness, which was achieved by a proper control over the MeOH/TMOS molar ratio ( S) during the synthesis. The contact angle of a water droplet (10 μl) increased from 72° to 145° with an increase in the S value from 9.1 to 36.4. The silica coating showed a minimum sliding angle of 15° for a water droplet of 10 μl. The water repellent silica coatings are thermally stable up to a temperature of 340 °C. The results have been discussed by taking into consideration the contact angle measurements, surface morphology and sol-gel parameters.

  14. Coating of LaCoO3 thin film with sol-gel dip coating method. (United States)

    Okuyucu, Hasan; Dahl, Paul Inge; Einarsrud, Mari Ann


    LaCoO3 thin film was coated on Al2O3 single crystal by sol-gel route. Appropriate composition of precursors, chelating agents and the solvent put together into a flask and magnetically stirred on a magnetic stirrer. After having the red transparent solution, it was stirred for 12 hours before coating. Ultrasonically cleaned substrate is dipped into the solution and taken immediately into vertical furnace which is preheated at 550 degrees C. A dense amorphous film is coated on the substrate. Fired amorphous films are annealed at temperature between 900 degrees C and 1000 degrees C for 20 minutes in the air. Then coated film was characterized by means of XRD, AFM, and SEM. Conductivity of the film was measured to be -0.1819 for 881 degrees C for the log sigma value by assuming the thickness as

  15. Dip coated nickel zinc oxide thin films: Structural, optical and magnetic investigations (United States)

    Kayani, Zohra Nazir; Kiran, Faiza; Riaz, Saira; Zia, Rehana; Naseem, Shahzad


    Dip-coating technique was used to deposit NiZnO thin films on glass substrates at varying withdrawal speed in the range of 150-350 mm/s and annealed at 500 °C for 4 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the deposited NiZnO thin films have a pure wurtzite structure without any significant change in the structure caused by substituting Zn ion with Ni ion. Crystallite size increased from 248 to 497 nm with increase in withdrawal speed. Vibrating Sample magnetometer (VSM) results indicated that NiZnO thin films exhibit ferromagnetic properties. Increase in saturation magnetization with increase in withdrawal speed is observed. Evaluated optical band gap of the films reduced from 3.18 eV to 2.50 eV with the increase in withdrawal speed of the substrate.

  16. Development of Simple Dip-Stick-Type Uniaxial Stress Actuator for Alternating-Current Susceptibility Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MYDEEN Kamal; YU Yong; JIN Chang-Qing


    A simple dip-stick type uniaxial stress actuator for ac-susceptibility measurement is designed. Target pressure can be achieved by smooth and continues work carried out using a combination of light weight micrometer and spring.The magnitude of the pressure is directly calculated from the force constant of the spring and the surface area of the sample. Benchmark on the quality of the data under uniaxial pressure is confirmed by the Piezo resistance measurements on [100] oriented n-type Si. The system is examined and calibrated with the standard paramagnetic Gd2O3. Further, the device performance, generation of constant uniaxial pressure against temperature variations,is assured by investigating the ac-magnetic susceptibility measurements on highly anisotropic La1.25 Sr1.75Mn2 O7bilayer single crystal.

  17. Voltage dip caused by the sequential energization of wind turbine transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T.


    THIS paper presents the results from electromagnetic transient (emt) simulations using PSCAD, where the model of Nysted Offshore Wind Farm (NOWF) was created to simulate the voltage dips due to wind turbine transformer energization. Four different sequences energizing different numbers of wind...... turbine. The step up transformer (2,5 MVA, 33/0.69 kV) in every turbine is connected via a switch-disconnector and fuse on the MV-side. The grid codes are defined by the Transmission System Operator of each country, and some of them are not updated to regulate correctly the operation of large wind power...... plants. According to the British Engineering Recommendations P28, the voltage fluctuation at the point of connection with the grid may be required to be as low as 3% during the energization of a motor; and since the energization of a transformer is similar to the direct-on-line starting of induction...

  18. 2-D Deformation analysis of a half-space due to a long dip-slip fault at finite depth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil K Tomar; Naresh K Dhiman


    Closed form analytical expressions of stresses and displacements at any field point due to a very long dip-slip fault of finite width buried in a homogeneous, isotropic elastic half-space, are presented. Airy stress function is used to derive the expressions of stresses and displacements which depend on the dip angle and depth of the upper edge of the fault. The effect of dip angle and depth of the upper edge of the fault on stresses and displacements is studied numerically and the results obtained are presented graphically. Contour maps for stresses and displacements are also presented. The results of Rani and Singh (1992b) and Freund and Barnett (1976) have been reproduced.

  19. Anti-Swing and Position Control of Double Inverted Pendulum (DIP on Cart Using Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kharola


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates a comparison study for control of highly non-linear Double Inverted Pendulum (DIP on cart. A Matlab-Simulink model of DIP has been built using Newton's second law. The Neuro-fuzzy controllers stabilizes pendulums at vertical position while cart moves in horizontal direction. This study proposes two soft-computing techniques namely Fuzzy logic reasoning and Neural networks (NN's for control of DIP systems. The results shows that Fuzzy controllers provides better results as compared to NN's controllers in terms of settling time (sec, maximum overshoot (degree and steady state error. The regression (R and mean square error (MSE values obtained after training of Neural network were satisfactory. The simulation results proves the validity of proposed techniques.

  20. New tools for digital medical image processing implemented in DIP software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Erica A.C.; Santana, Ivan E. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Viera, Jose W. [Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)


    The anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry, also called phantoms, are mostly built from stacks of images CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) obtained from scans of patients or volunteers. The construction of voxel phantoms requires computational processing for transforming image formats, dimensional image compression (2D) to form three-dimensional arrays (3D), quantization, resampling, enhancement, restoration and image segmentation, among others. Hardly the computational dosimetry researcher finds all these skills into a single software and often it results in a decreased development of their research or inadequate use of alternative tools. The need to integrate the various tasks of the original digital image processing to obtain an image that can be used in a computational model of exposure led to the development of software DIP (Digital Image Processing). This software reads, writes and edits binary files containing the 3D matrix corresponding to a stack of cross-sectional images of a given geometry that can be a human body or other volume of interest. It can also read any type of computer image and do conversions. When the task involves only one output image, it is saved in the JPEG standard Windows. When it involves a stack of images, the binary output file is called SGI (Interactive Graphic Simulations, a symbol already used in other publications of the Research Group in Numerical Dosimetry). The following paper presents the third version of the DIP software and emphasizes the new tools it implemented. Currently it has the menus Basics, Views, Spatial Domain, Frequency Domain, Segmentations and Study. Each menu contains items and subitems with features that generally require an image as input and produce an image or an attribute in the output. (author)

  1. Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip in single molecular magnet junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Pengbin, E-mail: [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu [Institute of Solid State Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Nie, Yi-Hang [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies & Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the MoE, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Many factors containing bias, spin–orbit coupling, magnetic fields applied, and so on can strongly influence the Kondo effect, and one of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting (KPS). It is natural that KPS should also appear when another spin degree of freedom is involved. In this work we study the KPS effects of single molecular magnets (SMM) coupled with two metallic leads in low-temperature regime. It is found that the Kondo transport properties are strongly influenced by the exchange coupling and anisotropy of the magnetic core. By employing Green's function method in Hubbard operator representation, we give an analytical expression for local retarded Green's function of SMM and discussed its low-temperature transport properties. We find that the anisotropy term behaves as a magnetic field and the splitting behavior of exchange coupling is quite similar to the spin–orbit coupling. These splitting behaviors are explained by introducing inter-level or intra-level transitions, which account for the seven-peak splitting structure. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at Fermi level under proper parameters. These Kondo peak splitting behaviors in SMM deepen our understanding to Kondo physics and should be observed in the future experiments. - Highlights: • We study Kondo peak splitting in single molecular magnets. • We study Kondo effect by Hubbard operator Green's function method. • We find Kondo peak splitting structures and a Kondo dip at Fermi level. • The exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy induce fine splitting structure. • The splitting structures are explained by inter-level or intra-level transitions.

  2. The effect of coloring liquid dipping time on the fracture load and color of zirconia ceramics (United States)


    PURPOSE The aims of the study were to evaluate the fracture load of zirconia core material after dipping in coloring liquid at different time intervals and to compare the color of dipped blocks with that of prefabricated shaded blocks. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3-unit bridge frameworks were designed digitally. Sixty frameworks were fabricated using uncolored zirconia blocks by CAD/CAM and divided into 4 groups randomly (n = 15). Group 2 (G2) was subjected to coloring liquids for 2 minutes, Group 4 (G4) for 4 minutes, and Group 6 (G6) for 6 minutes. CFS group was not subjected to any coloring procedure. After coloring, color differences between the test groups and a prefabricated shaded zirconia group (CPZ, n = 15) were evaluated by using a spectrophotometer. Fracture test was conducted immediately after shade evaluation with a Testometric test device at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/sec. Statistical analysis for evaluating color and fracture load was performed by using one way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test (P ≤ .05). Weibull analysis was conducted for distribution of fracture load. RESULTS There was no difference in terms of fracture load and color between CFS (1176.681 N) and G2 (985.638 N) group and between CPZ (81.340) and G2 (81.140) group, respectively. Fracture load values of G4 (779.340 N) and G6 (935.491 N) groups were statistically significantly lower than that of CFS group (P ≤ .005). The color values of G4 (79.340) and G6 (79.673) groups were statistically different than that of CPZ group (P ≤ .005). CONCLUSION Prolonged immersion of zirconia in coloring liquid not only negatively affected the fracture load of the zirconia being tested in the current study but also deteriorated the desired shade of the restoration. PMID:28243394

  3. The morphology of coating/substrate interface in hot-dip-aluminized steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awan, Gul Hameed [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan); Hasan, Faiz ul [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54890 (Pakistan)], E-mail:


    In hot-dip-aluminized (HAD) steels, the morphology and the profile of the interface between the aluminum coating and the substrate steel, are affected both by the composition of the molten aluminum as well as by the composition, and even the microstructure, of the substrate steel. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The reaction between the steel and the molten aluminum leads to the formation of Fe-Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. The thickness of the inter-metallic compound layer as well as the morphology of the interface between the steel and the interlayer varies with the silicon content of the molten aluminum. In hot-dip-aluminizing with pure aluminum, the interlayer is 'thick' and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. With a gradually increasing addition of silicon into the aluminum melt, the thickness of the interlayer decreases while the interface between the interlayer and the substrate gradually becomes 'smoother'. With an increase in the carbon content of the substrate steel the growth of the interlayer into the steel is impeded by the pearlite phase, whereas the ferrite phase appears to dissolve more readily. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that the interlayer formed in samples aluminized in pure aluminum, essentially consisted of orthorhombic Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}. It was further observed that the finger-like grains of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} phase exhibited a preferred lattice orientation. With a gradual addition of silicon into the aluminum melt, a cubic phase based on Fe{sub 3}Al also started to form in the interlayer and replaced most of the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillier, Andrew [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    The dense prominence material is believed to be supported against gravity through the magnetic tension of dipped coronal magnetic field. For quiescent prominences, which exhibit many gravity-driven flows, hydrodynamic forces are likely to play an important role in the determination of both the large- and small-scale magnetic field distributions. In this study, we present the first steps toward creating a three-dimensional magneto-hydrostatic prominence model where the prominence is formed in the dips of a coronal flux tube. Here 2.5D equilibria are created by adding mass to an initially force-free magnetic field, then performing a secondary magnetohydrodynamic relaxation. Two inverse polarity magnetic field configurations are studied in detail, a simple o-point configuration with a ratio of the horizontal field (B{sub x} ) to the axial field (B{sub y} ) of 1:2 and a more complex model that also has an x-point with a ratio of 1:11. The models show that support against gravity is either by total pressure or tension, with only tension support resembling observed quiescent prominences. The o-point of the coronal flux tube was pulled down by the prominence material, leading to compression of the magnetic field at the base of the prominence. Therefore, tension support comes from the small curvature of the compressed magnetic field at the bottom and the larger curvature of the stretched magnetic field at the top of the prominence. It was found that this method does not guarantee convergence to a prominence-like equilibrium in the case where an x-point exists below the prominence flux tube. The results imply that a plasma {beta} of {approx}0.1 is necessary to support prominences through magnetic tension.

  5. Equatorial E region electric fields at the dip equator: 1. Variabilities in eastern Brazil and Peru (United States)

    Moro, J.; Denardini, C. M.; Resende, L. C. A.; Chen, S. S.; Schuch, N. J.


    The equatorial electrojet (EEJ) is an intense eastward ionospheric electric current centered at about 105 km of altitude along the dip equator, set up by the global neutral wind dynamo that generates the eastward zonal (Ey) and the daytime vertical (Ez) electric fields. The temporal variation of the EEJ is believed to be well understood. However, the longitudinal variability of the Ey and Ez between 100 and 110 km is still quite scarce. Due to their importance overall phenomenology of the equatorial ionosphere, we investigate the variabilities of the Ey and Ez inferred from measurements of the Doppler frequency of Type II echoes provided by coherent backscatter radars installed in locations close to the magnetic equator in the eastern Brazil (2.33°S, 44.20°W) and Peru (11.95°S, 76.87°W). This study is based on long-term (609 days for both systems) radar soundings collected from 2001 to 2010. The variabilities of the electric fields are studied in terms of the position of the soundings with respect to the dip equator and the magnetic declination angle. Among the results, Ey and Ez show longitudinal dependence, being higher in Peru than east Brazil. Under quiet geomagnetic activity, the mean diurnal variations of Ey ranged from 0.21 to 0.35 mV/m between 8 and 18 h (LT) in Brazil and from 0.23 mV/m to 0.45 mV/m in Peru, while the mean diurnal variations of the Ez ranges from 7.09 to 8.80 mV/m in Brazil and from 9.00 to 11.18 mV/m in Peru.

  6. A rapid and robust method of identifying transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings following floral dip transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray John C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium is the method of choice for Arabidopsis transformation. The presence of a marker, usually antibiotic- or herbicide-resistance, allows identification of transformed seedlings from untransformed seedlings. Seedling selection is a lengthy process which does not always lead to easily identifiable transformants. Selection for kanamycin-, phosphinothricin- and hygromycin B-resistance commonly takes 7–10 d and high seedling density and fungal contamination may result in failure to recover transformants. Results A method for identifying transformed seedlings in as little as 3.25 d has been developed. Arabidopsis T1 seeds obtained after floral dip transformation are plated on 1% agar containing MS medium and kanamycin, phosphinothricin or hygromycin B, as appropriate. After a 2-d stratification period, seeds are subjected to a regime of 4–6 h light, 48 h dark and 24 h light (3.25 d. Kanamycin-resistant and phosphinothricin-resistant seedlings are easily distinguished from non-resistant seedlings by green expanded cotyledons whereas non-resistant seedlings have pale unexpanded cotyledons. Seedlings grown on hygromycin B differ from those grown on kanamycin and phosphinothricin as both resistant and non-resistant seedlings are green. However, hygromycin B-resistant seedlings are easily identified as they have long hypocotyls (0.8–1.0 cm whereas non-resistant seedlings have short hypocotyls (0.2–0.4 cm. Conclusion The method presented here is an improvement on current selection methods as it allows quicker identification of transformed seedlings: transformed seedlings are easily discernable from non-transformants in as little as 3.25 d in comparison to the 7–10 d required for selection using current protocols.

  7. Clarification effects of different clarifier on Papaya and seedless orange juice%不同澄清剂对番木瓜柑桔果汁澄清效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋侬辉; 钟云; 林秉斌


    以番木瓜和无核椪柑为主要原料.对番木瓜柑桔复合澄清果汁生产工艺进行了研究,采用正交试验法获得混合果汁的最优配方:番木瓜原汁20%、柑橘原汁20%、蔗糖8%、柠檬酸0.08%.试验表明,采用0.03%的果胶酶能明显提高果汁的出汁率和澄清度,采用1.0 g/L壳聚糖和2.0 g/L的明胶也有较好的澄清效果,3种澄清方法中以果胶酶的澄清效果最好.%A new tape of compound and clarified juice using papaya and seedless orange as the main material was made in this paper, the optimum process technics and the best reeipe of the beverage was screened out by an orthogonal test, and the best recipe was: papaya juice 20%, orange juice 20%, sugar 8%, citric aeid 0.08%. A content of 0.03% pectase improved the transmittance, natural layered rate and juice yield of compound juice, and the other clarifier such as 1.0 g/L ehitosan and 2.0 g/L glutin also have a good clarification effect ,but clarification with peetase is the best among them.

  8. 蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及整枝留果方式试验%Experiment of Plant Density and Fruit Pruning and Rentention Mothds of Mitong Small Seedless Watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The aim of present work was to study plant density and fruit pruning and rentention mothds of Mitong seedless watermelon, the design of two factors were randomly divided into 4 groups, repeated 3 times, residential area of 15 m2 with a total of A and B factors. The results showed that optimum group of A2B4 with 400 plant/667 m2, the yield were to 5 818.47 kg by the mothds of 5 climbing and fruits pruning. We may conclude that plant density is the main factors effecting the fruit yield, the best combination of plant density and fruit pruning to stay is an important regulator of the factors to ob-tain high yield.%对蜜童无籽小西瓜种植密度及留瓜方式进行试验,采用复因素随机区组试验设计,重复3次,小区面积15 m2,设A、B共2个因素(各4个处理).结果表明:最优的处理为A284,即定植密度为400株/667 m2,采用5蔓留5果的整枝方式,产量达到5 818.47 kg.试验中密度是影响产量的主导因素,密度和整枝留果的最佳组合是获取高产重要调节因素.

  9. Dip-angle influence on areal DNAPL recovery by co-solvent flooding with and without pre-flooding. (United States)

    Boyd, Glen R; Li, Minghua; Husserl, Johana; Ocampo-Gómez, Ana M


    A two-dimensional (2D) laboratory model was used to study effects of gravity on areal recovery of a representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant by an alcohol pre-flood and co-solvent flood in dipping aquifers. Recent studies have demonstrated that injection of alcohol and co-solvent solutions can be used to reduce in-situ the density of DNAPL globules and displace the contaminant from the source zone. However, contact with aqueous alcohol reduces interfacial tension and causes DNAPL swelling, thus facilitating risk of uncontrolled downward DNAPL migration. The 2D laboratory model was operated with constant background gradient flow and a DNAPL spill was simulated using tetrachloroethene (PCE). The spill was dispersed to a trapped, immobile PCE saturation by a water flood. Areal PCE recovery was studied using a double-triangle well pattern to simulate a remediation scheme consisting of an alcohol pre-flood using aqueous isobutanol ( approximately 10% vol.) followed by a co-solvent flood using a solution of ethylene glycol (65%) and 1-propanol (35%). Experiments were conducted with the 2D model oriented in the horizontal plane and compared to experiments at the 15 degrees and 30 degrees dip-angle orientations. Injection was applied either in the downward or upward direction of flow. Experimental results were compared to theoretical predictions for flood front stability and used to evaluate effects of gravity on areal PCE recovery. Sensitivity experiments were performed to evaluate effects of the alcohol pre-flood on PCE areal recovery. For experiments conducted with the alcohol pre-flood and the 2D model oriented in the horizontal plane, results indicate that 89-93% of source zone PCE was recovered. With injection oriented downward, results indicate that areal PCE recovery was 70-77% for a 15 degrees dip angle and 57-59% for a 30 degrees dip angle. With injection oriented upward, results indicate that areal PCE recovery was 57-60% at the 30

  10. Analysis and control of hydraulic support stability in fully-mechanized longwall face to the dip with great mining height

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Xin-zhu; WANG Jia-chen


    The working condition of the hydraulic support in working face can be dividedinto three kinds of situations in the following: roof fall and collapse with cavity, advancingsupport and supporting. Took single support with four-pole in Iongwall face to the dip asresearch object, control method was studied to avoid support instability in three situationsmentioned above. Based on these researches, the major factors of influencing on supportstability and its controlling measures were put forward. According to specific conditions ofworking face 1215(3), which is fully-mechanized and Iongwall face to the dip with greatmining height in Zhangji Coal Mine, Huainan Mining Group, the effective measures wastaken to control supports stability.

  11. Canine renal cortical necrosis and haemorrhage following ingestion of an Amitraz-formulated insecticide dip : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Oglesby


    Full Text Available Amitraz is a formamidine compound used in veterinary medicine as a topical dip to control ticks and mites on dogs and livestock. A 10-year-old female Scottish terrier was presented following the accidental oral administration of a dip containing amitraz. This case report describes the clinical signs, treatment and pathology of this dog. Clinical signs of toxicity from amitraz result from stimulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors. Amitraz is seldom fatal because the effects can be reversed by alpha2-adrenergic antagonists. The dog recovered from the amitraz toxicity but died 5 days later from acute renal failure.

  12. Fabrication of transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral films by a facile solution surface dip coating method (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Yu, Ting; Pui, Tzesian; Chen, Peng; Zheng, Lianxi; Liao, Kin


    We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly.We present a simple solution surface dip coating method for fabricating transparent and conductive carbon nanotube/polyvinyl butyral (CNT/PVB) composite films. This fabrication process is simple to scale production and requires only ethanol and water as solvents, which is green and environment friendly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10302d

  13. A Factor of Four Increase in Attenuation Length of Dipped Lightguides for Liquid Argon TPCs Through Improved Coating

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Z; Bugel, L; Conrad, J M; Sachdev, K; Toups, M; Wongjirad, T


    This paper describes new techniques for producing lightguides for detection of scintillation light in liquid argon time projection chambers. These can be used in future neutrino experiments such as SBND and DUNE. These new results build on a dipped-coating technique that was previously reported and is reviewed here. The improvements to the approach indicate a factor of four improvement in attenuation length of the lightguides compared to past studies. The measured attenuation lengths, which are >2 m, are consistent with the bulk attenuation length of the material. Schematics for a mechanical dipping system are provided in this paper. This system is shown to result in coatings with < 10% variations

  14. Variations in the dip properties of the low-mass X-ray binary XB 1254-69 observed with XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo, M Diaz; Boirin, L; Motch, C; Talavera, A; Balman, S


    We have analysed data from five XMM-Newton observations of XB 1254-69, one of them simultaneous with INTEGRAL, to investigate the mechanism responsible for the highly variable dips durations and depths seen from this low-mass X-ray binary. Deep dips were present during two observations, shallow dips during one and no dips were detected during the remaining two observations. At high (1-4 s) time resolution ``shallow dips'' are seen to include a few, very rapid, deep dips whilst the ``deep'' dips consist of many similar very rapid, deep, fluctuations. The folded V-band Optical Monitor light curves obtained when the source was undergoing deep, shallow and no detectable dipping exhibit sinusoid-like variations with different amplitudes and phases. We fit EPIC spectra obtained from "persistent" or dip-free intervals with a model consisting of disc-blackbody and thermal comptonisation components together with Gaussian emission features at 1 and 6.6 keV modified by absorption due to cold and photo-ionised material. ...

  15. Cortical depth dependence of the BOLD initial dip and poststimulus undershoot in human visual cortex at 7 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siero, JCW; Hendrikse, J; Hoogduin, Hans; Petridou, N; Luijten, Peter; Donahue, Manus J.


    PurposeOwing to variability in vascular dynamics across cerebral cortex, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) spatial and temporal characteristics should vary as a function of cortical-depth. Here, the positive response, initial dip (ID), and post-stimulus undershoot (PSU) of the BOLD response i

  16. Timing Analysis of the Light Curve of the Dipping-Bursting X-ray Binary X1916-053

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Y; Bloser, P F


    We present the timing analysis results for our observations of the x-ray dip source X1916-053 conducted with RXTE between February and October of 1996. Our goal was to finally measure the binary period - as either the x-ray dip period or ~1% longer optical modulation period, thereby establishing if the binary has a precessing disk (SU UMa model) or a third star (triple model). Combined with historical data (1979-96), the x-ray dip period is measured to be 3000.6508 $\\pm$ 0.0009 sec with a 2$\\sigma$ upper limit $|\\dot P| \\leq 2.06 \\times 10^{-11}$. From our quasi-simultaneous optical observations (May 14-23, 1996) and historical data (1987-96), we measure the optical modulation period to be 3027.5510 $\\pm$ 0.0052 sec with a 2$\\sigma$ upper limit $|\\dot P| \\leq 2.28 \\times 10^{-10}$. The two periods are therefore each stable (over all recorded data) and require a $3.9087 \\pm 0.0008$d beat period. This beat period, and several of its harmonics is also observed as variations in the dip shape. Phase modulation of ...

  17. Dip-Pen Nanolithography on (Bio)Reactive Monolayer and Block-Copolymer Platforms: Deposition of Lines of Single Macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, Ramon B.; Shovsky, A.; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.


    The application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip-mediated molecular transfer (dip-pen nanolithography or DPN) to fabricate nanopatterned (bio)reactive platforms based on dendrimers on reactive self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and polymer thin films is discussed. The transfer of high-molar-mass

  18. Corynebacterium diphtheriae invasion-associated protein (DIP1281 is involved in cell surface organization, adhesion and internalization in epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheinlaender Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, is well-investigated in respect to toxin production, while little is known about C. diphtheriae factors crucial for colonization of the host. In this study, we investigated the function of surface-associated protein DIP1281, previously annotated as hypothetical invasion-associated protein. Results Microscopic inspection of DIP1281 mutant strains revealed an increased size of the single cells in combination with an altered less club-like shape and formation of chains of cells rather than the typical V-like division forms or palisades of growing C. diphtheriae cells. Cell viability was not impaired. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy, SDS-PAGE and 2-D PAGE of surface proteins revealed clear differences of wild-type and mutant protein patterns, which were verified by atomic force microscopy. DIP1281 mutant cells were not only altered in shape and surface structure but completely lack the ability to adhere to host cells and consequently invade these. Conclusions Our data indicate that DIP1281 is predominantly involved in the organization of the outer surface protein layer rather than in the separation of the peptidoglycan cell wall of dividing bacteria. The adhesion- and invasion-negative phenotype of corresponding mutant strains is an effect of rearrangements of the outer surface.

  19. 9 CFR 72.16 - Designated dipping stations to be approved by the Administrator, APHIS on recommendations of... (United States)


    ....16 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated dipping stations to...

  20. 9 CFR 72.10 - Inspected or dipped and certified cattle subject to restrictions of State of destination. (United States)


    ... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.10 Inspected or... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspected or dipped and certified cattle subject to restrictions of State of destination. 72.10 Section 72.10 Animals and Animal...

  1. X-ray behaviour of Circinus X-1 - I: X-ray Dips as a diagnostic of periodic behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, W I


    We examine the periodic nature of detailed structure (particularly dips) in the RXTE/ASM lightcurve of Circinus X-1. The significant phase wandering of the X-ray maxima suggests their identification with the response on a viscous timescale of the accretion disk to perturbation. We find that the X-ray dips provide a more accurate system clock than the maxima, and thus use these as indicators of the times of periastron passage. We fit a quadratic ephemeris to these dips, and find its predictive power for the X-ray lightcurve to be superior to ephemerides based on the radio flares and the full archival X-ray lightcurve. Under the hypothesis that the dips are tracers of the mass transfer rate from the donor, we use their occurrence rate as a function of orbital phase to explore the (as yet unconstrained) nature of the donor. The high $\\dot{P}$ term in the ephemeris provides another piece of evidence that Cir X-1 is in a state of dynamical evolution, and thus is a very young post-supernova system. We further sugge...

  2. Dip application of phosphates and marinade mix on shelf life of vacuum-packaged chicken breast fillets. (United States)

    Buses, Hannah; Thompson, Leslie


    The effects of the dip application of a marinade on the shelf life of refrigerated raw vacuum-packaged broiler breast fillets simulating a retail product were evaluated over a 28-day period (at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days) through enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and total coliforms. Treatment effectively extended shelf life by ca. 14 days (with shelf lives of 28 and 14 days for dipped and control samples, respectively). Coliform growth was inhibited by the treatment, as indicated by counts of 1.6 and 7.4 log CFU/g for dipped and control fillets, respectively, on day 28. Initial coliform counts were similar for both types of fillets on day 0, averaging 2.0 log CFU/g. The data obtained in this study suggest that the dip application of a phosphate-spice marinade prior to the vacuum packaging of raw poultry may be an effective means of extending the shelf life and possibly improving the safety of raw poultry while providing value-added convenience and flavor.

  3. Polyimide Dielectric Layer on Filaments for Organic Field Effect Transistors: Choice of Solvent, Solution Composition and Dip-Coating Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambausek Lina


    Full Text Available In today’s research, smart textiles is an established topic in both electronics and the textile fields. The concept of producing microelectronics directly on a textile substrate is not a mere idea anymore and several research institutes are working on its realisation. Microelectronics like organic field effect transistor (OFET can be manufactured with a layered architecture. The production techniques used for this purpose can also be applied on textile substrates. Besides gate, active and contact layers, the isolating or dielectric layer is of high importance in the OFET architecture. Therefore, generating a high quality dielectric layer that is of low roughness and insulating at the same time is one of the fundamental requirements in building microelectronics on textile surfaces. To evaluate its potential, we have studied polyimide as a dielectric layer, dip-coated onto copper-coated polyester filaments. Accordingly, the copper-coated polyester filament was dip-coated from a polyimide solution with two different solvents, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and dimethylformaldehyde. A variety of dip-coating speeds, solution concentrations and solvent-solute combinations have been tested. Their effect on the quality of the layer was analysed through microscopy, leak current measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Polyimide dip-coating with polyimide resin dissolved in NMP at a concentration of 15w% in combination with a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min led to the best results in electrical insulation and roughness. By optimising the dielectric layer’s properties, the way is paved for applying the subsequent semi-conductive layer. In further research, we will be working with the organic semiconductor material TIPS-Pentacene

  4. Time Resolved X-Ray Spectral Analysis of Class II YSOs in NGC 2264 During Optical Dips and Bursts (United States)

    Guarcello, Mario Giuseppe; Flaccomio, Ettore; Micela, Giuseppina; Argiroffi, Costanza; Venuti, Laura


    Pre-Main Sequence stars are variable sources. The main mechanisms responsible for their variability are variable extinction, unsteady accretion, and rotational modulation of both hot and dark photospheric spots and X-ray active regions. In stars with disks this variability is thus related to the morphology of the inner circumstellar region (motivations of the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC2264, a set of simultaneous observations of NGC2264 with 15 different telescopes.We analyze the X-ray spectral properties of stars with disks extracted during optical bursts and dips in order to unveil the nature of these phenomena. Stars are analyzed in two different samples. In stars with variable extinction a simultaneous increase of optical extinction and X-ray absorption is searched during the optical dips; in stars with accretion bursts we search for soft X-ray emission and increasing X-ray absorption during the bursts. In 9/33 stars with variable extinction we observe simultaneous increase of X-ray absorption and optical extinction. In seven dips it is possible to calculate the NH/AV ratio in order to infer the composition of the obscuring material. In 5/27 stars with optical accretion bursts, we observe soft X-ray emission during the bursts that we associate to the emission of accreting gas. It is not surprising that these properties are not observed in all the stars with dips and bursts since favorable geometric configurations are required. The observed variable absorption during the dips is mainly due to dust-free material in accretion streams. In stars with accretion bursts we observe in average a larger soft X-ray spectral component not observed in non accreting stars. This indicates that this soft X-ray emission arises from the accretion shocks.

  5. Structural characterization of supported nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, J.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Heredia, E.A., E-mail: [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.D.; Canepa, H.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kellermann, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Craievich, A.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating technique were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The structures of several thin films subjected to (i) isochronous annealing at 350, 450 and 550 deg. C, and (ii) isothermal annealing at 450 deg. C during different time periods, were characterized. The studied thin films are composed of ZnO nanocrystals as revealed by analysing several GIXD patterns, from which their average sizes were determined. Thin film thickness and roughness were determined from quantitative analyses of AFM images and XR patterns. The analysis of XR patterns also yielded the average density of the studied films. Our GISAXS study indicates that the studied ZnO thin films contain nanopores with an ellipsoidal shape, and flattened along the direction normal to the substrate surface. The thin film annealed at the highest temperature, T = 550 deg. C, exhibits higher density and lower thickness and nanoporosity volume fraction, than those annealed at 350 and 450 deg. C. These results indicate that thermal annealing at the highest temperature (550 deg. C) induces a noticeable compaction effect on the structure of the studied thin films.

  6. VHF radar observations of the dip equatorial E-region during sunset in the Brazilian sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Denardini


    Full Text Available Using the RESCO 50 MHz backscatter radar (2.33° S, 44.2° W, DIP: –0.5, at São Luís, Brazil, we obtained Range Time Intensity (RTI maps covering the equatorial electrojet heights during daytime and evening. These maps revealed a scattering region at an altitude of about 108 km during the sunset period. The type of 3-m irregularity region we present here has not been reported before in the literature, to our knowledge. It was mainly observed around the Southern Hemisphere summer-solstice period, under quiet magnetic activity condition. The occurrence of this echo region coincides in local time with the maximum intensity of an evening pre-reversal eastward electric field of the ionospheric F-region. A tentative explanation is proposed here in terms of the theory of the divergence of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ current in the evening ionosphere presented by Haerendel and Eccles (1992, to explain the partial contribution of the divergence to the development of the pre-reversal electric field. The theory predicts an enhanced zonal electric field and hence a vertical electric field below 300 km as a consequence of the EEJ divergence in the evening. The experimental results of the enhanced echoes from the higher heights of the EEJ region seem to provide evidence that the divergence of the EEJ current can indeed be the driver of the observed scattering region.

  7. Effects of smokeless dipping tobacco (Naswar) consumption on antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in its users. (United States)

    Sajid, Faiza; Bano, Samina


    Dipping tobacco, traditionally referred to as moist snuff, is a type of finely ground, moistened smokeless tobacco product. Naswar is stuffed in the floor of the mouth under the lower lip, or inside the cheek, for extended periods of time. Tobacco use causes dyslipidemia and also induces oxidative stress, leading to alteration in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in turn play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conducted on smokeless tobacco products reveal contradictory findings regarding its effects on lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes. As use of Naswar is quite common in Pakistan, the current study aimed to evaluate levels of the antioxidant enzymes viz glutathione per oxidase (GPx) and super oxide dismutase (SOD), alongside lipid profile parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in Naswar users.90 Healthy males aged 16-43 years, who consumed Naswar daily, were selected for the study, alongside 68 age-matched non-tobacco users as controls. Both GPx and SOD levels as well as serum HDL-C were significantly reduced (Pantioxidant enzymes thereby placing its consumers at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Investigation on hot-dip aluminised and subsequent HIP'ped steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasbrenner, H.; Konys, J. E-mail:


    Tritium permeation can be reduced significantly by a suitable coating on the structural material. Since alumina has the capability of tritium permeation reduction the development of such coatings on ferritic martensitic steels by hot-dip aluminising of F82H-mod. steel sheets was already performed successfully. An improvement of these coatings were achieved by subsequent HIP'ping at 1040 deg. C for 0.5 h at 250, 500 and 750 bar and subsequently tempered at 750 deg. C for 1 h at 1 bar. All samples were investigated by means of metallographical examination, EDX line scan analysis and Vickers micro hardness measurements. The high pressure produced two observed changes: firstly, with increasing pressure the thickness of the FeAl phase increases and the thickness of the {alpha}-Fe(Al) phase decreases, and secondly the formation of pores could be suppressed successfully. The Vickers micro hardness of the base material F82H-mod. is not influenced by the heat-treatment under pressure and is about 215 HV.

  9. Inferring the correlation between lightning events and voltage dips in distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucci, C.A. [University of Bologna (Italy)], E-mail:


    To appropriately infer the correlation between lightning events and flashover/voltage dips on real distribution networks, data coming from lightning location systems are certainly needed, but need to be complemented on the one hand by data coming from distributed measurement systems able to record both protection manoeuvres and lightning-originated transients, and on the other hand by accurate calculation results. Additionally, the analysis needs to be performed on a statistical basis. The paper illustrates the main concepts used in developing a procedure aimed at inferring the above mentioned correlation, which is based on the integrated use of experimental data obtained from the Italian lightning location system CESI-SIRF, a monitoring system of relay operation, a distributed monitoring system of lightning-induced transients and of calculations performed using the LIOV-EMTP code. The application of the procedure to the portion of a real distribution network located in Italy in a high level keraunic area is presented by making use of some CESI-SIRF-detected events. (author)

  10. A liquid contact line receding on a soft gel surface : dip-coating geometry investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Royon, Laurent; Daerr, Adrian; Receveur, Mathieu; Limat, Laurent


    We studied the dynamics of a liquid contact line receding on a hydrophobic soft gel (SBS-paraffin). In order to realize a well-defined geometry with an accurate control of velocity, a dip-coating setup was implemented. Provided that the elastic modulus is small enough, a significant deformation takes place near the contact line, which in turn drastically influences the wetting behaviour. Depending on the translation velocity of the substrate, the contact line exhibits different regimes of motions. Continuous motions are observed at high and low velocities, meanwhile two types of stick-slip motion, periodic and erratic, appear at intermediate velocities. We suggest that the observed transitions could be explained in terms of the competition between different frequencies, i.e., the frequency of the strain field variation induced by the contact line motion and the crossover frequency of the gel related to the material relaxation. Our results provide systematic views on how the wetting of liquid is modified by th...

  11. Synergic combination of the sol–gel method with dip coating for plasmonic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Figus


    Full Text Available Biosensing technologies based on plasmonic nanostructures have recently attracted significant attention due to their small dimensions, low-cost and high sensitivity but are often limited in terms of affinity, selectivity and stability. Consequently, several methods have been employed to functionalize plasmonic surfaces used for detection in order to increase their stability. Herein, a plasmonic surface was modified through a controlled, silica platform, which enables the improvement of the plasmonic-based sensor functionality. The key processing parameters that allow for the fine-tuning of the silica layer thickness on the plasmonic structure were studied. Control of the silica coating thickness was achieved through a combined approach involving sol–gel and dip-coating techniques. The silica films were characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and dispersive spectroscopy. The effect of the use of silica layers on the optical properties of the plasmonic structures was evaluated. The obtained results show that the silica coating enables surface protection of the plasmonic structures, preserving their stability for an extended time and inducing a suitable reduction of the regeneration time of the chip.

  12. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)


    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  13. Complex Boronized Layer on the Hot-dip Aluminized Steels and Its Surface Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOXin-min; LIDian-kai; WANGLan; CHENKang-min


    Plain carbon steels were dipped in molten aluminum bath at 720℃±5℃ and diffused for 1.2.5 and 6 hours respectively and then horonized at 950℃ for 6 hours. The oxidation, hot-corrosion and abrasion resistance behavior were examined. The experimental results showed the compounds of the aluminized layer, from the surface to the matrix, were composed of Fe2Al5(η-phase/.Fe3Al(β1-phase)and α phase. The microstructure of aluminized plus complex boronized were similar to that simplex boronized. The XRD analysis results indicated that there existed Fe.B. Fe2AlB2 and Fe2Al5 in this kind of layer, The simplex aluminized layers still remained bright gray appearance when oxidized at 950℃, but complex horonized layer was not able to resist oxidization at the temperature. Both the layers of complex botanized and aluminized had the same anti-oxidizatian level in the circulative oxidization tesfs, and also good anti-corrosion abilily in molten salt medium. Under dry abrasive conditions, wear resistance of complex botanized layer was superior to the aluminized layer.

  14. Rapid Fabrication of Cell-Laden Alginate Hydrogel 3D Structures by Micro Dip-Coating (United States)

    Ghanizadeh Tabriz, Atabak; Mills, Christopher G.; Mullins, John J.; Davies, Jamie A.; Shu, Wenmiao


    Development of a simple, straightforward 3D fabrication method to culture cells in 3D, without relying on any complex fabrication methods, remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe a new technique that allows fabrication of scalable 3D cell-laden hydrogel structures easily, without complex machinery: the technique can be done using only apparatus already available in a typical cell biology laboratory. The fabrication method involves micro dip-coating of cell-laden hydrogels covering the surface of a metal bar, into the cross-linking reagents calcium chloride or barium chloride to form hollow tubular structures. This method can be used to form single layers with thickness ranging from 126 to 220 µm or multilayered tubular structures. This fabrication method uses alginate hydrogel as the primary biomaterial and a secondary biomaterial can be added depending on the desired application. We demonstrate the feasibility of this method, with survival rate over 75% immediately after fabrication and normal responsiveness of cells within these tubular structures using mouse dermal embryonic fibroblast cells and human embryonic kidney 293 cells containing a tetracycline-responsive, red fluorescent protein (tHEK cells). PMID:28286747

  15. Fabrication of titania inverse opals by multi-cycle dip-infiltration for optical sensing (United States)

    Chiang, Chun-Chen; Tuyen, Le Dac; Ren, Ching-Rung; Chau, Lai-Kwan; Wu, Cheng Yi; Huang, Ping-Ji; Hsu, Chia Chen


    We have demonstrated a low-cost method to fabricate TiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals with high refractive index skeleton. The TiO2 inverse opal films were fabricated from a polystyrene opal template by multi-cycle dip-infiltration-coating method. The properties of the TiO2 inverse opal films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Bragg reflection spectroscopy. The reflection spectroscopic measurements of the TiO2 inverse opal films were compared with theories of photonic band calculations and Bragg law. The agreement between experiment and theory indicates that we can precisely predict the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid sample in the TiO2 inverse opal films from the measurement results. The red-shift of the peak wavelength in the Bragg reflection spectra for both alcohol mixtures and aqueous sucrose solutions of increasing refractive index was observed and respective refractive index sensitivities of 296 and 286 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) were achieved. As the fabrication of the TiO2 inverse opal films and reflection spectroscopic measurement are fairly easy, the TiO2 inverse opal films have potential applications in optical sensing.

  16. One step 'dip' and 'use' Ag nanostructured thin films for ultrahigh sensitive SERS Detection. (United States)

    Rajkumar, Kanakaraj; Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Mangalaraj, Devanesan; Rajendra Kumar, Ramasamy Thangavelu


    A simple one step galvanic displacement method which involves dipping of the silicon substrate in the AgNO3/HF solution and using it for SERS application without any further process is demonstrated. The size and shape of the Ag nanoparticles changes as the deposition time is increased. Initially the shape of the particles was nearly spherical and as it grows, becomes oblong and then coalesce to form a discontinuous film with vertically grown hierarchical Ag nanostructures. The sizes of the deposited particles were in the ranges from 30nm to a discontinuous film. It also demonstrated a highly sensitive chemical detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G dye, down to 10(-16)M concentration. Prepared samples were able to detect lower concentrations of Melamine. Discontinuous thin films with hierarchical Ag nanostructures were obtained for 5min Ag deposition. The formation of Hot spots between the discontinuous islands and also along the hierarchical structures is responsible for the high SERS enhancement. This simple one step, fast, non-lithographic and cost effective method can be applied for various label free detection of analytes of importance.

  17. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants. (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui


    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  18. Morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marouf, Sara; Beniaiche, Abdelkrim; Guessas, Hocine, E-mail: [Laboratoire des Systemes Photoniques et Optiques Non Lineaires, Institut d' Optique et Mecanique de Precision, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria); Azizi, Amor [Laboratoire de Chimie, Ingenierie Moleculaire et Nanostructures, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria)


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by dip coating technique. The effects of sol aging time on the deposition of ZnO films was studied by using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical transmission techniques. The morphology of the films strongly depends on preparation route and deposition technique. It is noteworthy that films deposited from the freshly prepared solution feature indistinct characteristics; had relatively poor crystalline quality and low optical transmittance in the visible region. The increase in sol aging time resulted in a gradual improvement in crystallinity (in terms of peak sharpness and peak intensity) of the hexagonal phase for all diffraction peaks. Effect of sol aging on optical transparency is quite obvious through increased transmission with prolonged sol aging time. Interestingly, 72-168 h sol aging time was found to be optimal to achieve smooth surface morphology, good crystallinity and high optical transmittance which were attributed to an ideal stability of solution. These findings present a better-defined and more versatile procedure for production of clean ZnO sols of readily adjustable nanocrystalline size. (author)

  19. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis using MeDIP-chip. (United States)

    Cortijo, Sandra; Wardenaar, René; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Johannes, Frank; Colot, Vincent


    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark that is essential for preserving genome integrity and normal development in plants and mammals. Although this modification may serve a variety of purposes, it is best known for its role in stable transcriptional silencing of transposable elements and epigenetic regulation of some genes. In addition, it is increasingly recognized that alterations in DNA methylation patterns can sometimes be inherited across multiple generations and thus are a source of heritable phenotypic variation that is independent of any DNA sequence changes. With the advent of genomics, it is now possible to analyze DNA methylation genome-wide with high precision, which is a prerequisite for understanding fully the various functions and phenotypic impact of this modification. Indeed, several so-called epigenomic mapping methods have been developed for the analysis of DNA methylation. Among these, immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA followed by hybridization to genome tiling arrays (MeDIP-chip) arguably offers a reasonable compromise between cost, ease of implementation, and sensitivity to date. Here we describe the application of this method, from DNA extraction to data analysis, to the study of DNA methylation genome-wide in Arabidopsis.

  20. Dip Pen Nanolithography: a maturing technology for high-throughput flexible nanopatterning (United States)

    Haaheim, J. R.; Tevaarwerk, E. R.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.


    Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for much of current nanoscience research. Further, depositing a wide range of materials as nanoscale features onto diverse surfaces is a challenging requirement for nanoscale processing systems. As a high resolution scanning probe-based direct-write technology, Dip Pen Nanolithography® (DPN®) satisfies and exceeds these fundamental requirements. Herein we specifically describe the massive scalability of DPN with two dimensional probe arrays (the 2D nano PrintArray). In collaboration with researchers at Northwestern University, we have demonstrated massively parallel nanoscale deposition with this 2D array of 55,000 pens on a centimeter square probe chip. (To date, this is the highest cantilever density ever reported.) This enables direct-writing flexible patterns with a variety of molecules, simultaneously generating 55,000 duplicates at the resolution of single-pen DPN. To date, there is no other way to accomplish this kind of patterning at this unprecedented resolution. These advances in high-throughput, flexible nanopatterning point to several compelling applications. The 2D nano PrintArray can cover a square centimeter with nanoscale features and pattern 10 7 μm2 per hour. These features can be solid state nanostructures, metals, or using established templating techniques, these advances enable screening for biological interactions at the level of a few molecules, or even single molecules; this in turn can enable engineering the cell-substrate interface at sub-cellular resolution.

  1. Analysis of the ductility dip cracking in the nickel-base alloy 617mod (United States)

    Eilers, A.; Nellesen, J.; Zielke, R.; Tillmann, W.


    While testing steam leading power plant components made of the nickel-base alloy A617mod at elevated temperatures (700 °C), ductility dip cracking (DDC) was observed in welding seams and their surroundings. In order to clarify the mechanism of crack formation, investigations were carried out on welded specimens made of A617mod. Interrupted tensile tests were performed on tensile specimens taken from the area of the welding seam. To simulate the conditions, the tensile tests were conducted at a temperature of 700 °C and with a low strain rate. Local strain fields at grain boundaries and inside single grains were determined at different deformation states by means of two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC). Besides the strain fields, local hardnesses (nanoindentation), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed. Besides information concerning the grain orientation, the EBSD measurement provides information on the coincidence site lattice (CSL) at grain boundaries as well as the Schmid factor of single grains. All results of the analysis methods mentioned above were correlated and compared to each other and related to the crack formation. Among other things, correlations between strain fields and Schmid factors were determined. The investigations show that the following influences affect the crack formation: orientation of the grain boundaries to the direction of the loading, the orientation of the grains to each other (CSL), and grain boundary sliding.

  2. Rupture Process During the 2015 Illapel, Chile Earthquake: Zigzag-Along-Dip Rupture Episodes (United States)

    Okuwaki, Ryo; Yagi, Yuji; Aránguiz, Rafael; González, Juan; González, Gabriel


    We constructed a seismic source model for the 2015 M W 8.3 Illapel, Chile earthquake, which was carried out with the kinematic waveform inversion method adopting a novel inversion formulation that takes into account the uncertainty in the Green's function, together with the hybrid backprojection method enabling us to track the spatiotemporal distribution of high-frequency (0.3-2.0 Hz) sources at high resolution by using globally observed teleseismic P-waveforms. A maximum slip amounted to 10.4 m in the shallow part of the seismic source region centered 72 km northwest of the epicenter and generated a following tsunami inundated along the coast. In a gross sense, the rupture front propagated almost unilaterally to northward from the hypocenter at event at the down-dip edge of the seismic source region. High-frequency sources tends to be distributed at deeper parts of the slip area, a pattern also documented in other subduction zone megathrust earthquakes that may reflect the heterogeneous distribution of fracture energy or stress drop along the fault. The weak excitation of high-frequency radiation at the termination of rupture may represent the gradual deceleration of rupture velocity at the transition zone of frictional property or stress state between the megathrust rupture zone and the swarm area.

  3. Study on the cluster of floating dross before nucleating during hot-dipping process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Yunhe; ZHANG; Changqiao; QIN; Jingyu; LIU; Chengbu


    During hot-dipping in molten Zn-55Al, the forming of "floating" dross is closely related with the interaction between the Al and the Fe atoms. Utilizing the thita-thita X-ray diffraction and the Percus-Yevick hard sphere model, this paper investigates the structure of molten Al3Fe that is an approximant of partial melt in practical Zn-55Al alloy melt. It is found that in the melt there exist clusters that resemble the structure of intermetallic compound Al3Fe. The strong interaction between Al and Fe atoms is also indicated by the deficiency of the coordination number from 12 and the shrinkage of averaged atomic diameter. Based on such information, it is speculated that in the molten Zn-55Al, with the accumulation of Fe, Al3Fe-like clusters form with priority, then grow into dross. On the other hand, after deflating of the effective hard sphere diameter of pure Al atom and enlarging that of the pure Fe atom, the modified model can achieve reasonable fit to the experimental structure factor. Hard sphere modeling also gave a good estimation of the mass density 3.65 g/cm3 of liquid Al3Fe alloy at 1550℃. Compared with the density of 3.7 g/cm3 of Zn-55Al, the reason for dross floating is satisfactorily understood.

  4. Growth and corrosion behavior of molybdate passivation film on hot dip galvanized steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢锦堂; 孔纲; 陈锦虹; 许乔瑜; 眭润舟


    Hot dip galvanized steel sheets were passivated by molybdate aqueous solution containing 10 g/LNa2 MoO4 @ 2H2O, and the growth behavior and corrosion resistance of the passivation film were investigated. Inthe initial stage of passivation, the mass gain of film increases with passivation time proportionally. The film growsup more quickly and is apt to cracking at grain boundaries of zinc, then the cracks spread gradually on the whole sur-face of the film, and eventually the film will flake off with the increasing of film thickness. XPS results indicate thatMo compounds are present in Mo(Ⅵ) state on the surface of the film, and Mo(Ⅵ) and Mo(Ⅳ ) states inside thefilm. NSS test shows that, the corrosion resistance of the passivation film decreases as the cracks occur, but inAASS test, the thicker the film is, the better the corrosion resistance is, the cracks of film have little effect on thecorrosion resistance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Maimury


    Full Text Available The quality of product is reflected from the performance of its process. The most frequent issue that occurs in local company today -- is -- most company only focuses on the output regardless the process. It causes the difficulty that occurs in local company to compete with other company in global environment. One of the local companies that has their business shifting up significantly, with the great number of export target and actual export, is PT Dharma Medipro, which has many processes on the production of sphygmomanometer. One of the processes that critical to quality is latex dipping process, where the yield of this process that must be considered is the thickness of the bag component. In order to improve the process, we should first establish the measurement of process performance using capability process technique, which is one of the tools came from statistical process control method. The result indicates that the process is unstable with the value of capability indices Cp = 4,69 ; Cpk = -0,77 ; Cpu = -0,77 ; Cpl = 10,15 ; and Cpm = 0,28, moreover the number of part per million (PPM that out of the spesification limit reach 912.500 units.

  6. Stepwise inertial control of a wind turbine generator to minimize a second frequency dip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejian Yang


    Full Text Available Wind turbine generators (WTGs in power systems with high wind penetration levels are encouraged or forced to participate in frequency control. A stepwise inertial control (SIC scheme instantly increases WTG output to arrest the frequency drop for a preset period upon detecting a disturbance. After arresting the frequency drop, the output is rapidly reduced to recover the rotor speed. The reduction could cause a power deficit to the power system, which in turn results in a second frequency dip (SFD. This paper proposes an SIC scheme that can improve the frequency nadir (FN and maximum rate of change of frequency (ROCOF while minimizing an SFD. To achieve this, a reference function is separately defined prior to and after the FN. To improve the FN and maximum ROCOF, the output is instantly increased by adding a constant, which is proportional to the rotor speed, and maintaining it until the FN is reached. To minimize an SFD, the output is slowly reduced with the rotor speed. This reduction ensures a slow output reduction rate. The performance of the proposed scheme is investigated using an EMTP-RV simulator under different wind speeds and wind power penetration levels. Results clearly demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the FN and maximum ROCOF while ensuring a quick frequency recovery.

  7. Mechanisms for Generation of Near-Fault Ground Motion Pulses for Dip-Slip Faulting (United States)

    Poiata, Natalia; Miyake, Hiroe; Koketsu, Kazuki


    We analyzed the seismological aspects of the near-fault ground motion pulses and studied the main characteristics of the rupture configuration that contribute to the pulse generation for dip-slip faulting events by performing forward simulations in broadband and low-frequency ranges for different rupture scenarios of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy (M w 6.3) earthquake. The rupture scenarios were based on the broadband source model determined by Poiata et al. (Geophys J Int 191:224-242, 2012). Our analyses demonstrated that ground motion pulses affect spectral characteristics of the observed ground motions at longer periods, generating significantly larger seismic demands on the structures than ordinary records. The results of the rupture scenario simulations revealed the rupture directivity effect, the radial rupture propagation toward the site, and the focusing effect as the main mechanisms of the near-fault ground motion pulse generation. The predominance of one of these mechanisms depends on the location of the site relative to the causative fault plane. The analysis also provides the main candidate mechanisms for the worst-case rupture scenarios of pulse generation for the city of L'Aquila and, more generally, the hanging-wall sites located above the area of large slip (strong motion generation area).

  8. Mössbauer and XRD study of hot dip galvanized alloy (United States)

    Kuzmann, E.; Speakman, R.; El-Sharif, M.; Stichleutner, S.; Homonnay, Z.; Klencsár, Z.; Sziráki, L.; Chisholm, C. U.; Lak, Gy. B.


    Mössbauer spectroscopy has been used to investigate the nature of the Zinc-Iron alloys present within the Hot Dip Galvanized (HDG) layers of steel with a silicon content of 0.35 %. The investigation also studied the impact of the powder coating pretreatment on the nature of the alloy layers. The acid etching process within the pretreatment process in particular would be expected to have a significant impact on the HDG layer. This study utilized 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy to examine identically processed samples prior to and post pre treatment. XRD and 57Fe CEMS measurements were performed on hot galvanized S355J2 + N samples, forming sandwiched structure. Both XRD and CEMS reveal the presence of dominant steel phase in accordance with its estimated occurrence on the surface of the sandwiched samples. Minor Γ-Fe3Zn10, ζ-FeZn15 and solid solution Fe-Zn as well as minor Fe-Si phases could also be identified.

  9. Nanomechanical properties of dip coated indium tin oxide films on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Nilormi [Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ghosh, Priyanka; Sarkar, Saswati; Moitra, Debabrata; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar [Sol–Gel Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Jana, Sunirmal, E-mail: [Sol–Gel Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar, E-mail: [Advanced Mechanical and Materials Characterization Division, CSIR — Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196 Raja SC Mullick Road, P.O. Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)


    Nanomechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films dip coated from precursor sols of varying equivalent oxide weight percentage (wt.%) onto commercial soda lime silica (SLS) glass substrate were evaluated by nanoindentation technique at an ultralow load of 50 μN. It was found that the increase in wt.% beyond 6 in the precursor sols, had an adverse effect on nanohardness and Young's modulus of the films. Moreover, relatively thicker triple layered film (about 240 nm) had inferior nanomechanical properties as compared to the single layered film. Interestingly, the ITO foam coating on SLS glass substrate had nanomechanical properties nearly as good as those of the single layered films. These observations are explained in terms of the relative differences in crystallinity, stiffness and elastic deformation ability of the films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel indium tin oxide thin films and foam coating • Crystallinity and nanomechanical property inversely relate to sol oxide content. • Foam coating behaves like the thin films.

  10. Dip coated nanocrystalline CdZnS thin films for solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongre, J. K., E-mail:; Chaturvedi, Mahim; Patil, Yuvraj; Sharma, Sandhya; Jain, U. K. [Government Autonomous Post Graduate College Chhindwara, 480001 (India)


    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) and zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) thin films have been grown via simple and low cost dip coating technique. The prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopic (AFM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer techniques to reveal their structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD shows that both samples grown have zinc blende structure. The grain size is calculated as 6.2 and 8 nm using Scherrer’s formula. The band gap value of CdS and CdZnS film is estimated to be 2.58 and 2.69 eV respectively by UV-vis spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) investigations are carried out using cell configuration as n-CdZnS/(1M NaOH + 1M Na2S + 1M S)/C. The photovoltaic output characteristic is used to calculate fill-factor (FF) and solar conversion efficiency (η)

  11. Complex Boronized Layer on the Hot-dip Aluminized Steels and Its Surface Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xin-min; LI Dian-kai; WANG Lan; CHEN Kang-min


    Plain carbon steels were dipped in molten aluminum bath at 720℃±5℃ and diffused for 1, 2.5 and 6 hours respectively and then boronized at 950℃ for 6 hours. The oxidation, hot-corrosion and abrasion resistance behavior were examined. The experimental results showed the compounds of the aluminized layer, from the surface to the matrix, were composed of Fe2Al5 ( η -phase )、 Fe3Al ( β 1-phase ) and α phase. The microstructure of aluminized plus complex boronized were similar to that simplex boronized. The XRD analysis results indicated that there existed Fe2B、 Fe2AlB2 and Fe2Al5 in this kind of layer. The simplex aluminized layers still remained bright gray appearance when oxidized at 950℃, but complex boronized layer was not able to resist oxidization at the temperature. Both the layers of complex boronized and aluminized had the same anti-oxidization level in the circulative oxidization tests, and also good anti-corrosion ability in molten salt medium. Under dry abrasive conditions, wear resistance of complex boronized layer was superior to the aluminized layer.

  12. High temperature corrosion of hot-dip aluminized steel in Ar/1%SO2 gas (United States)

    Abro, Muhammad Ali; Lee, Dong Bok


    Carbon steels were hot-dip aluminized in Al or Al-1at%Si baths, and corroded in Ar/1%SO2 gas at 700-800 °C for up to 50 h. The aluminized layers consisted of not only an outer Al(Fe) topcoat that had interdispersed needle-like Al3Fe particles but also an inner Al-Fe alloy layer that consisted of an outer Al3Fe layer and an inner Al5Fe2 layer. The Si addition in the bath made the Al(Fe) topcoat thin and nonuniform, smoothened the tongue-like interface between the Al-Fe alloy layer and the substrate, and increased the microhardness of the aluminized layer. The aluminized steels exhibited good corrosion resistance by forming thin α-Al2O3 scales, along with a minor amount of iron oxides on the surface. The interdiffusion that occurred during heating made the aluminized layer thick and diffuse, resulting in the formation of Al5Fe2, AlFe and AlFe3 layers. It also smoothened the tongue-like interface, and decreased the microhardness of the aluminized layer. The non-aluminized steel formed thick, nonadherent, nonprotective (Fe3O4, FeS)-mixed scales.

  13. Fabrication and properties of zinc oxide thin film prepared by sol-gel dip coating method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayani Zohra Nazir


    Full Text Available ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by dip coating technique using a solution of zinc acetate, ethanol and distilled water. Optical constants, such as refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. were determined from transmittance spectrum in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR regions using envelope methods. The films were found to exhibit high transmittance, low absorbance and low reflectance in the visible regions. Absorption coefficient α and the thickness of the film t were calculated from interference of transmittance spectra. The direct optical band gap of the films was in the range of 3.98 to 3.54 eV and the thickness of the films was evaluated in the range of 173 to 323 nm, while the refractive index slightly varied in the range of 1.515 to 1.622 with an increase in withdrawal speed from 100 to 250 mm/s. The crystallographic structure of the films was analyzed with X-ray diffractometer. The films were amorphous in nature.

  14. Synergic combination of the sol-gel method with dip coating for plasmonic devices. (United States)

    Figus, Cristiana; Patrini, Maddalena; Floris, Francesco; Fornasari, Lucia; Pellacani, Paola; Marchesini, Gerardo; Valsesia, Andrea; Artizzu, Flavia; Marongiu, Daniela; Saba, Michele; Marabelli, Franco; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Quochi, Francesco


    Biosensing technologies based on plasmonic nanostructures have recently attracted significant attention due to their small dimensions, low-cost and high sensitivity but are often limited in terms of affinity, selectivity and stability. Consequently, several methods have been employed to functionalize plasmonic surfaces used for detection in order to increase their stability. Herein, a plasmonic surface was modified through a controlled, silica platform, which enables the improvement of the plasmonic-based sensor functionality. The key processing parameters that allow for the fine-tuning of the silica layer thickness on the plasmonic structure were studied. Control of the silica coating thickness was achieved through a combined approach involving sol-gel and dip-coating techniques. The silica films were characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and dispersive spectroscopy. The effect of the use of silica layers on the optical properties of the plasmonic structures was evaluated. The obtained results show that the silica coating enables surface protection of the plasmonic structures, preserving their stability for an extended time and inducing a suitable reduction of the regeneration time of the chip.

  15. Borehole images while drilling : real-time dip picking in the foothills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexter, D. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Brezsnyak, F. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Roth, J. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The Alberta Foothills drilling environment is a structurally complex thrust belt with slow costly drilling and frequent plan changes after logging. The cross sections are not always accurate due to poor resolution. Therefore, the placement of the wellbore is crucial to success. This presentation showed borehole images from drilling in the Foothills. Topics that were addressed included the Foothills drilling environment; target selection; current well placement methods; and current well performance. Borehole images included resistivity images and density images. The presentation addressed why real-time images should be run. These reasons include the ability to pick dips in real-time; structural information in real time allows for better well placement; it is easier to find and stay in producing areas; reduced non-productive time and probability of sidetracks; and elimination of pipe conveys logs. Applications in the Alberta Foothills such as the commercial run for GVR4 were also offered. Among the operational issues and lessons learned, it was determined that the reservoir thickness to measurement point distance ratio is too great to avoid exiting the sweet spot and that the survey calculation error cause image offset. It was concluded that GVR is a drillers tool for well placement. figs.

  16. Biochips for cell biology by combined dip-pen nanolithography and DNA-directed protein immobilization. (United States)

    Arrabito, Giuseppe; Reisewitz, Stephanie; Dehmelt, Leif; Bastiaens, Philippe I; Pignataro, Bruno; Schroeder, Hendrik; Niemeyer, Christof M


    A general methodology for patterning of multiple protein ligands with lateral dimensions below those of single cells is described. It employs dip pen nanolithography (DPN) patterning of DNA oligonucleotides which are then used as capture strands for DNA-directed immobilization (DDI) of oligonucleotide-tagged proteins. This study reports the development and optimization of PEG-based liquid ink, used as carrier for the immobilization of alkylamino-labeled DNA oligomers on chemically activated glass surfaces. The resulting DNA arrays have typical spot sizes of 4-5 μm with a pitch of 12 μm micrometer. It is demonstrated that the arrays can be further functionalized with covalent DNA-streptavidin (DNA-STV) conjugates bearing ligands recognized by cells. To this end, biotinylated epidermal growth factor (EGF) is coupled to the DNA-STV conjugates, the resulting constructs are hybridized with the DNA arrays and the resulting surfaces used for the culturing of MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells. Owing to the lateral diffusion of transmembrane proteins in the cell's plasma membrane, specific recruitment and concentration of EGF receptor can be induced specifically at the sites where the ligands are bound on the solid substrate. This is a clear demonstration that this method is suitable for precise functional manipulations of subcellular areas within living cells.

  17. 40 CFR 428.100 - Applicability; description of the latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory. (United States)


    ... latex-dipped, latex-extruded, and latex-molded rubber subcategory. 428.100 Section 428.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Latex-Dipped, Latex-Extruded, and Latex-Molded Rubber Subcategory §...

  18. Qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes em função de fontes e doses de potássio Quality of seedless watermelon fruits as a function of sources and doses of potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecílio Filho


    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em propriedade rural próxima à cidade de Borborema - SP, no período de fevereiro a abril de 2002, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade de frutos de melancia sem sementes (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai, híbrido Shadow, em função de fontes e doses de potássio. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados completos, em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, com três repetições, sendo utilizadas as fontes: cloreto, nitrato e sulfato de potássio e as doses: 50; 100; 200 e 300 kg ha-1 de K2O. Foram avaliados: sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT, relação SST/ATT e espessura da casca. O teor de sólidos solúveis aumentou à medida que se aumentou a dose de potássio, enquanto a relação SST/ATT reduziu. A acidez titulável não foi influenciada pelos fatores estudados. A maior espessura da casca foi obtida ao se utilizar a dose de 202 kg ha-1 de K2O na forma de KNO3, seguida pela dose de 300 kg ha-1 de K2O, na forma de KCl.The experiment was carried out in the Borborema region, State of São Paulo, in the period of February the April to 2002, with the objective to evaluate the quality of seedless watermelon fruits (Citrullus lanatus (Thumb. Matsum. & Nakai as a function of sources and doses of potassium. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, with three replications, in 3 x 4 factorial scheme, being evaluated sources: potassium chloride, nitrate and sulphate and doses 50, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O. Total soluble solids (TSS, total titrable acidity (TTA, ratio TSS/TTA and rind thickness were evaluated. Soluble solids increased and ratio TSS/TTA decreased with increment of K dose. Sources and doses of potassium did not affect total titrable acidity. The biggest rind thickness was achieved with 202 and 300 kg ha-1 K2O of KNO3 and KCl, respectively.

  19. 叶面肥组配喷施对克瑞森无核葡萄产量和品质的影响%Effect of different combination of foliar fertilizers on the yield and quality of Crimson seedless grape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车俊峰; 郭春会; 苏婷; 孙锋; 张乐; 骆强伟; 王跃进


    以氨基酸、腐殖酸、平衡营养肥、钙液肥为基础,根据当地土壤特性和葡萄需肥规律,设计在不同时期喷布不同组配叶面肥,研究其对克瑞森无核葡萄产量和品质的影响.结果表明,喷施组配叶面肥均可明显提高叶片的叶绿素含量(SPAD值),促进果穗发育,促使果实膨大,提高穗重和百粒重,增加葡萄产量(增幅为12.03%~27.58%),同时提高浆果硬度、可溶性固形物含量、还原型Vc含量和糖酸比,明显降低可滴定酸,其中按处理2喷施,浆果外观品质和糖/酸较适宜,而按处理5喷施,增产率最高.%Based on amino acid, humic acid, balanced nutrition, calcium-based liquid fertilizer, the effect of different groups of foliar fertilizers sprayed in different periods on the yield and qulity of Crimson seedless grape was studied.The result showed that sprayed with different combination of foliar fertilizers, the chlorophyll content (SPAD value) was significantly increased, the cluster growth and fruit enlargement were promoted, the yield was increased (the growth rate was 12.03% ~27.58% ), and the weight per panicle, 100-fruit weight, the berry hardness, soluble solids proportion,Vc content and sugar-acid rate were all increased, at the same time, the titrable acidity (TA) was significantly reduced.The appearance quality and sugar-acid rate of treatment 2 (amino acid + balanced nutrition, amino acid + calciumbased liquid fertilizer) were good, and the growth rate of treatment 5 (10 days prior to flowering: amino acid + humic acid + balanced nutrition, young fruit enlargement period and the second period of berry enlargement: amino acid +humic acid + calcium-based liquid fertilizer + balanced nutrition, 20 days before the fruit harvested: amino acid +humic acid + calcium-based liquid fertilizer) was the highest.

  20. 杀菌方式对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响%Effects of Sterilization Methods on Aromatic Components of Orange Juice from Seedless ‘Xuegan’ Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉; 黄明发; 吴厚玖; 王华; 沈海亮; 何朝飞


    采用固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法分析橙汁香气成分,内标法半定量,研究了巴氏杀菌和微波杀菌对无核雪柑汁香气成分的影响。结果表明:无核雪柑鲜榨汁、巴氏杀菌汁、微波杀菌汁分别检测出56种、57种和53种香气成分,含量分别为1304.70、991.51mg/kg和887.67mg/kg,巴氏杀菌后橙汁香气成分总含量高于微波杀菌汁,但微波杀菌后叶醇、十二碳醛、γ-芹子烯等含量均高于巴氏杀菌处理,且未检出异味物质β-松油醇,2种杀菌处理后烃类、酯类物质总含量均下降,酮类物质上升。%Solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(SPME-GC-MS) and internal standard method for semi-quantification were used to study the effects of pasteurization and microwave sterilization on aromatic components of seedless ‘Xuegan’ sweet orange juice.The results showed 56,57 and 53 aromatic compounds were respectively identified from native sweet orange juice,pasteurized sweet orange juice and microwave sterilized sweet orange juice,with respective contents of 1.30,0.99 mg/g and 0.89 mg/g.Although pasteurized sweet orange juice was richer in total aromatic compounds than microwave sterilized sweet orange,microwave sterilized sweet orange contained more cis-3-hexenol,dodecanal and γ-selinene than pasteurized sweet orange juice but no β-terpineol,responsible for off-odor.Pasteurization and microwave sterilization resulted in a decrease in the total content of esters and hydrocarbons and an increase in ketones.

  1. 千岛无核柿发展存在的问题与对策%Development Status-quo, Existing Problems and Countermeasures of Thousand-isle Seedless Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 蒋念亮; 王晓玉; 徐高福


    千岛无核柿是浙江省淳安县特有柿树优良品种,论述千岛无核柿在原产地的生产现状和外地引种情况以及栽培技术研究现状。由于零星分布、分散经营,难以形成规模化生产;管理粗放,技术推广不到位,难以实施可持续经营;贮藏保鲜、产品加工滞后,销售市场组织化程度低,难以实现产业化。提出加强宣传与技术培训;加大良种生产和种源保护力度;优化栽培技术,实施标准化生产;优化政策和布局,扩大产业规模;加快产品加工和开发,积极开拓销售市场等发展对策。%Thousand-isle Seedless Persimmon is a special and fine persimmon variety in Chunan county Zhejiang province. This paper introduces the production status in origin, its out-of-town cultivating situation and planting technology research status. Scale-production is difficult to come into being due to scattered distribution and mainly dispersedly operation. Sustainable management is difficult to be putted into practice due to extensive operation and inadequate popularized technology. Industrialization is difficult to come true due to lagging storage, preservation, products manufacturing and low level organizational market. Furthermore, this paper puts forward development countermeasures such as strengthening propaganda and technology training, striving to produce fine breed and protect breed origin, implementing standardization production through optimizing cultivating technology, expanding industry scale through optimizing policy and layout, actively opening up markets through speeding up products process and development.

  2. A Study of Dip-Coatable, High-Capacitance Ion Gel Dielectrics for 3D EWOD Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Clement


    Full Text Available We present a dip-coatable, high-capacitance ion gel dielectric for scalable fabrication of three-dimensional (3D electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD devices such as an n × n liquid prism array. Due to the formation of a nanometer-thick electric double layer (EDL capacitor, an ion gel dielectric offers two to three orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm2 than that of conventional dielectrics such as SiO2. However, the previous spin-coating method used for gel layer deposition poses several issues for 3D EWOD device fabrication, particularly when assembling multiple modules. Not only does the spin-coating process require multiple repetitions per module, but the ion gel layer also comes in risks of damage or contamination due to handling errors caused during assembly. In addition, it was observed that the chemical formulation previously used for the spin-coating method causes the surface defects on the dip-coated gel layers and thus leads to poor EWOD performance. In this paper, we alternatively propose a dip-coating method with modified gel solutions to obtain defect-free, functional ion gel layers without the issues arising from the spin-coating method for 3D device fabrication. A dip-coating approach offers a single-step coating solution with the benefits of simplicity, scalability, and high throughput for deposition of high-capacitance gel layers on non-planar EWOD devices. An ion gel solution was prepared by combining the [EMIM][TFSI] ionic liquid and the [P(VDF-HFP] copolymer at various wt % ratios in acetone solvent. Experimental studies were conducted to fully understand the effects of chemical composition ratios in the gel solution and how varying thicknesses of ion gel and Teflon layers affects EWOD performance. The effectiveness and potentiality of dip-coatable gel layers for 3D EWOD devices have been demonstrated through fabricating 5 × 1 arrayed liquid prisms using a single-step dip-coating method. Each prism module has

  3. MEMS-enabled Dip Pen Nanolithography for directed nanoscale deposition and high-throughput nanofabrication (United States)

    Haaheim, J. R.; Nafday, O. A.; Levesque, T.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.


    Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for nanoscience research, development, and commercial implementation. Dip Pen Nanolithography(R) (DPN) is an inherently additive SPM-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. This technique is fundamentally enabled by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials via actuated cantilevers, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Multiplexed deposition of nanoscale materials is a challenging problem, but we have implemented InkWells(TM) to enable selective delivery of ink materials to different tips in multiple probe arrays, while preventing cross-contamination. Active Pens(TM) can take advantage of this, directly place a variety of materials in nanoscale proximity, and do so in a "clean" fashion since the cantilevers can be manipulated in Z. Further, massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning with DPN is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray(TM), making DPN a highthroughput, flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. By fabricating 55,000 tip-cantilevers across a 1 cm2 chip, we leverage the inherent versatility of DPN and demonstrate large area surface coverage, routinely achieving throughputs of 3×107 μm2 per hour. Further, we have engineered the device to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with the NSCRIPTOR's scanner, stage, and sophisticated lithography routines. In this talk we discuss the methods of operating this commercially available device, and subsequent results showing sub-100 nm feature sizes and excellent uniformity (standard deviation portfolio including: 1) rapidly and flexibly generating nanostructures; 2) chemically directed assembly and 3) directly writing biological materials.

  4. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath (United States)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia


    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  5. Pilot Scale Production of Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex and its Dipping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama


    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty kg natural rubber latex (NRL before and after concentration were added with 3 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber normal butyl acrylate, then the mixture were irradiated at 25 kGy by gamma rays of 60Co in pilot scale. The irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL were then being to use for producing rubber products such as condom, surgical gloves, and spygmomanometer in factory scale. The quality of INRL and rubber products such as : total solid content (TSC, dry rubber content (DRC, KOH, VFA and MST number, tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, extractable protein content, and response against Type I allergy etc. were evaluated. The economic aspect for producing INRL by means of Gamma Irradiator (GI and Electron Beam Machine (EBM such as payback period (PP, net present value (NPV and internal rate return (IRR were calculated. The results showed that the latex properties of INRL such as DRC, TSC, KOH, VFA, and MST number are not only found to the requirement of the ISO 2004 standard but also the latex has low protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. The physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of rubber dipping products such as condom, gloves, and sphygmomanometer are not only found to the requirement of ISO 4074, ISO 10282, and ANSI/AAMI SP-1994 standards, but also the allergic response tested clinical latex-sensitive protein allergen by ELISA test on gloves, and by SPT test on condom are found to be negative. It indicates that production of INRL or PVNRL or RVNRL by EBM 250 keV/10 mA, was more cheap than by using gamma γ irradiator 200 kCi, or sulfur vulcanization. The value of PBP (payback period was 2,1 years, NPV (net present value was 4,250 US $, PI (profitability index 1,06 and IRR (internal rate of returns was 25,0%.

  6. Directed assembly of nanomaterials for miniaturized sensors by dip-pen nanolithography using precursor inks (United States)

    Su, Ming

    The advent of nanomaterials with enhanced properties and the means to pattern them in a controlled fashion have paved the way to construct miniaturized sensors for improved detection. However it remains a challenge for the traditional methods to create such sensors and sensor arrays. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) can form nanostructures on a substrate by controlling the transfer of molecule inks. However, previous DPN can not pattern solid materials on insulating surfaces, which are necessary to form functional electronic devices. In the dissertation, the concept of reactive precursor inks for DPN is developed for the generation of solid functional nanostructures of the following materials: organic molecule, sol-gel material, and conducting polymer. First, the covalent bonding is unnecessary for DPN as shown in the colored ink DPN; therefore the numbers of molecules that can be patterned is extended beyond thiol or thiolated molecules. Subsequently, a reactive precursor strategy (sol) is developed to pattern inorganic or organic/inorganic composite nanostructures on silicon based substrates. The method works by hydrolysis of metal precursors in the water meniscus and allows the preparation of solid structures with controlled geometry beyond the individual molecule level. Then the SnO 2 nanostructures patterned between the gaps of electrodes are tested as gas sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments are demonstrated on miniaturized sensors that show fast response and recovery to certain gases. Furthermore, an eight-unit sensor array is fabricated on a chip using SnO2 sols that are doped with different metals. The multiplexed device can recognize different gases by comparing the response patterns with the reference patterns of known gases generated on the same array. At last, the idea of precursor ink for DPN is extended to construct conducting polymer based devices. By using an acid promoted polymerization approach, conducting polymers are patterned on silicon dioxide

  7. Synthesis and characterization of supported sugar catalyst by dip coating method (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Siambun, N. J.; Safie, N. N.


    Sugar catalyst is a novel solid acid catalyst with reactivity comparable to that of sulphuric acid in biodiesel production. However, the fine powder form of sugar catalyst with the non-porous structure might cause large pressure drop in a packed bed reactor due to low bed porosity, affecting the reaction conversion especially in gas phase reaction. Furthermore, higher pressure drop requires higher electrical energy to drive the fluid through. Increasing the particle size is anticipated to be able to overcome the pressure drop matter. Hence, a deposition of sugar catalyst on larger particle materials was studied. Three types of materials were used for this investigation namely aluminum, silica and clay. The deposition was done via dip-coating method. The materials were characterized for their total acidity, thermal stability, functional groups, surface area, and element composition. The total acidity for SCDCAl, SCDCSi, and SCDCCl were 0.9 mmol/g, 0.2 mmol/g, and 0.4 mmol/g, respectively. The ratio of char deposited on SCDCAl, SCDCSi and SCDCCl were 0.9 g of support/g of carbon, 0.040 g of support/g of carbon, and 0.014 g of support/g of carbon respectively. FTIR and EDX analyses were carried out to determine the presence of active sites of the catalysis by identifying the functional groups such as -COOH, -OH, -SO3H. The results showed that -SO3H was detected on the surface of synthesized catalysts, except for SCDCC1.The pore size of SCDCAl, SCDCSi and SCDCCl were classified as macropores because the average diameter were greater than 50nm.. The catalysts were stable up to 400°C. The results showed that the dipcoating method could deposit sugar catalyst on aluminum, silica, and clay at low total acidity concentration.

  8. Natural rubber latex blended polystyrene emulsion for dipping products: preparation and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovuttikulrangsie, S.


    Full Text Available Deproteinized natural rubber latex (DPNR was prepared using KAO protease enzyme to digest proteins from natural rubber low ammonia concentrated latex (NR-LA. Polystyrene latex (PS was synthesized by emulsion polymerization technique for blending with natural rubber. The maximum fraction of PS blended NR-LA or DPNR used to obtain a homogenous film was 20% w/w. The 300% modulus of PS blended NR film was increased before and after aging at 100ºC for 22 hrs. The tensile strength and elongation at break were increased at NR/PS = 95/5 w/w and tended to decrease as PS blended fraction increased. DPNR films had a lower friction coefficient than NR-LA films. PS blended NR-LA or DPNR would decrease the friction coefficient of films. The rubber-surfaced friction is reduced. The extractable protein of NR-LA film was higher than 200 μg/g whereas that of DPNR film was lower than 50 μg/g. PS blended NR-LA and DPNR could reduce the extractable protein to less than 60 μg/g and 30μg/g, respectively. The physical properties of PS blended NR-LA met ASTM D3577 and ASTM D3578 standards for dipping products of surgical gloves and examination gloves at the maximum fraction of PS 15% w/w and 20% w/w, respectively, whereas PS blended DPNR only met ASTM D3577 standard at the maximum fraction of PS < 5% w/w.

  9. Corrosion behaviour of hot dip zinc and zinc-aluminium coatings on steel in seawater

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Li


    A comparative investigation of hot dip Zn–25Al alloy, Zn–55Al–Si and Zn coatings on steel was performed with attention to their corrosion performance in seawater. The results of 2-year exposure testing of these at Zhoushan test site are reported here. In tidal and immersion environments, Zn–25Al alloy coating is several times more durable than zinc coating of double thickness. At long exposure times, corrosion rate for the Zn–25Al alloy coating remains indistinguishable from that for the Zn–55Al–Si coating of similar thickness in tidal zone, and is two to three times lower than the latter in immersion zone. The decrease in tensile strength suggested that galvanized and Zn–55Al–Si coated steel suffer intense pitting corrosion in immersion zone. The electrochemical tests showed that all these coatings provide cathodic protection to the substrate metal; the galvanic potentials are equal to – 1,050, – 1,025 and – 880 mV (SCE) for zinc, Zn–25Al alloy and Zn–55Al–Si coating, respectively, which are adequate to keep the steel inside the immunity region. It is believed that the superior performance of the Zn–25Al alloy coating is due to its optimal combination of the uniform corrosion resistance and pitting corrosion resistance. The inferior corrosion performance by comparison of the Zn coating mainly results from its larger dissolution rate, while the failure of the Zn–55Al–Si coating is probably related to its higher susceptibility to pitting corrosion in seawater.

  10. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath (United States)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia


    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  11. Bacillus sp.CDB3 isolated from cattle dip-sites possesses two ars gene clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somanath Bhat; Xi Luo; Zhiqiang Xu; Lixia Liu; Ren Zhang


    Contamination of soil and water by arsenic is a global problem.In Australia, the dipping of cattle in arsenic-containing solution to control cattle ticks in last centenary has left many sites heavily contaminated with arsenic and other toxicants.We had previously isolated five soil bacterial strains (CDB1-5) highly resistant to arsenic.To understand the resistance mechanism, molecular studies have been carried out.Two chromosome-encoded arsenic resistance (ars) gene clusters have been cloned from CDB3 (Bacillus sp.).They both function in Escherichia coli and cluster 1 exerts a much higher resistance to the toxic metalloid.Cluster 2 is smaller possessing four open reading frames (ORFs) arsRorf2BC, similar to that identified in Bacillus subtilis Skin element.Among the eight ORFs in cluster 1 five are analogs of common ars genes found in other bacteria, however, organized in a unique order arsRBCDA instead of arsRDABC.Three other putative genes are located directly downstream and designated as arsTIP based on the homologies of their theoretical translation sequences respectively to thioredoxin reductases, iron-sulphur cluster proteins and protein phosphatases.The latter two are novel of any known ars operons.The arsD gene from Bacillus species was cloned for the first time and the predict protein differs from the well studied E.coli ArsD by lacking two pairs of C-terrninal cysteine residues.Its functional involvement in arsenic resistance has been confirmed by a deletion experiment.There exists also an inverted repeat in the intergenic region between arsC and arsD implying some unknown transcription regulation.

  12. Perceived Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping Among Hispanics: The Influence of Social Support and Race. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi


    Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p < .001). Those with higher perceived discrimination scores reported more depressive symptoms (r = 0.25, p < .001). Those with higher Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores were less likely to show nocturnal ABP nondipping in multivariate models (odds ratio = 0.40, confidence interval = 0.17-0.98, p = .045). Among those with low perceived racism, black Hispanic participants were more likely to have nocturnal ABP nondipping (82.6%) compared with white Hispanics (53.9%; p = .02). Among those with high perceived racism, no associations between race and the prevalence of ABP nondipping was found (black Hispanic = 61.5% versus white Hispanic = 51.4%, p = .39; p interaction = .89). Perceived racism is relatively common among US Hispanics and is associated with ABP. Nondipping of ABP, a potential cardiovascular risk factor, was more common in black Hispanic participants with low perceived racism. This finding may reflect different coping mechanisms between black versus white Hispanics and related blood pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.

  13. Water repellent porous silica films by sol-gel dip coating method. (United States)

    Rao, A Venkateswara; Gurav, Annaso B; Latthe, Sanjay S; Vhatkar, Rajiv S; Imai, Hiroaki; Kappenstein, Charles; Wagh, P B; Gupta, Satish C


    The wetting of solid surfaces by water droplets is ubiquitous in our daily lives as well as in industrial processes. In the present research work, water repellent porous silica films are prepared on glass substrate at room temperature by sol-gel process. The coating sol was prepared by keeping the molar ratio of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), methanol (MeOH), water (H(2)O) constant at 1:12.90:4.74, respectively, with 2M NH(4)OH throughout the experiments and the molar ratio (M) of MTES/Ph-TMS was varied from 0 to 0.22. A simple dip coating technique is adopted to coat silica films on the glass substrates. The static water contact angle as high as 164° and water sliding angle as low as 4° was obtained for silica film prepared from M=0.22. The surface morphological studies of the prepared silica film showed the porous structure with pore sizes typically ranging from 200nm to 1.3μm. The superhydrophobic silica films prepared from M=0.22 retained their superhydrophobicity up to a temperature of 285°C and above this temperature the films became superhydrophilic. The porous and water repellent silica films are prepared by proper alteration of the Ph-TMS in the coating solution. The prepared silica films were characterized by surface profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, humidity tests, chemical aging tests, static and dynamic water contact angle measurements.

  14. Outbursts formation on low carbon and trip steel grades during hot-dip galvanisation (United States)

    Petit, E. J.; Lamm, L.; Gilles, M.


    Low carbon and TRIP grade steels have been hot dip galvanised in order to study outbursts formation. Microstructure and texture of intermetallic phases have been observed after selective electrochemical etching by scanning electron microscopy. Potential versus time (chronopotentiometric) characteristics were recorded in order to monitor surface modifications. This combination of techniques enable to quantify and observe intermetallic phase one by one. The overall thickness of coating on both substrates are similar. However, microstructures of Fe-Zn intermetallic phases are very different on both grades. In particular, the V phase is dense on standard steel but develops a highly branched filament structure on TRIP steel. The transformation of V phase to d and G1 are limited on TRIP steel. Differences of texture provide clues for understanding mechanisms of formation of outbursts. They can account for the differences of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Silicon from the substrate influences the reactivity of TRIP steels due to capping and local reactions. La formation des outbursts a été étudiée sur un acier bas carbone et sur un acier TRIP galvanisés. Les épaisseurs des revêtements sont similaires. Néanmoins, les observations microscopiques et les érosions électrochimiques montrent que la répartition des phases intermétalliques et leurs microstructures diffèrent sensiblement en fonction de la nature du substrat. Ces différences expliquent les propriétés mécaniques et anticorrosions. L’encapsulation de la surface par les oxydes de silicium freine la transformation de la phase dzêta en delta et gamma sur l’acier TRIP.

  15. Investigation of Ag-TiO2 nanostructures photocatalytic properties prepared by modified dip coating method (United States)

    AlArfaj, Esam


    In this article, titanium dioxide and silver nanostructures were deposited on glass substrates using modified sol-gel methods and dip-coating technique. The films were characterised chemically and physically using different techniques (TLC, UV-Vis and XRD) and tested for environmental applications regarding degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 nanostructures is tested with different small concentrations of phenol in water and reaction mechanisms discussed. Considerable enhancement is observed in the photodegradation activity of Ag-modified (3 wt.%) TiO2 compared to unmodified TiO2 nanostructures for phenol concentrations within the pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) model for reaction kinetics. The pseudo-first-order global degradation rate constant increased from <0.005 min-1 for TiO2 to 0.013 min-1 for 3 mol% Ag-modified TiO2. The enhancement is attributed to the incorporation of Ag which promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species and increases the carrier recombination life-time. In addition, Ag has been observed to extend the absorption to the visible region by its surface plasmon resonances and to suppress the anatase-rutile phase transformation. Moreover, TiO2 grain size prepared was found to be 10 nm which maximises the active surface area. For phenol initial concentrations as low as 0.0002 M, saturation trend in the degradation process occurred at 0.00014 M and the reaction rate can be fitted with half-order LH kinetics.

  16. Microstructural Changes of Al Hot-Dipped P91 Steel during High-Temperature Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Abro


    Full Text Available The 9Cr-1Mo steel (ASTM P91 was hot-dip aluminized, and its microstructural changes during oxidation were studied. Before oxidation, the coating consisted of (Al-rich topcoat containing a small amount of Al5Fe2 and Al13Fe4/(Al13Fe4-rich, Al13Fe4-containing alloy layer/(Al5Fe2 alloy layer containing a small amount of Al9Cr4 precipitates, from the surface. During oxidation at 700–900 °C for 20–100 h, Al diffused inward and the substrate elements migrated outward to broaden and soften the coating, and also to transform (high Al-Fe intermetallics to (low Al-Fe intermetallics. The phases in the coating progressively transformed during oxidation as follows; (Al-rich topcoat/(Al5Fe2–rich, Al13Fe4-containing alloy layer/(Al5Fe2 alloy layer→(α-Al2O3 scale/(Al13Fe4–rich, Al5Fe2-containing layer/(Al5Fe2 layer/(AlFe interlayer→(α-Al2O3 scale/(AlFe–rich, Al5Fe2-containing layer/(AlFe layer/(AlFe3 layer→((α-Al2O3, Fe2O3-mixed scale/(AlFe3 layer/(Fe(Al layer from the surface. As the oxidation progressed, the scale changed from α-Al2O3 to the (α-Al2O3, Fe2O3-mixture, which provided the necessary oxidation resistance.

  17. Development of Bioactive Ceramic Coating on Titanium Alloy substrate for Biomedical Application Using Dip Coating Method (United States)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.; Noranai, Z.


    Bioactive apatite, such as hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Its bioactivity provides direct bonding to the bone tissue. Because of its similarity in chemical composition to the inorganic matrix of bone, HA is widely used as implant materials for bone. Unfortunately, because of its poor mechanical properties,. this bioactive material is not suitable for load bearing applications. In this study, by the assistance of dip-coating technique, HA coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by employing hydrothermal derived HA powder. The produced coatings then were oven-dried at 130°C for 1 hour and calcined at various temperature over the range of 200-800°C for 1 hour. XRD measurement showed that HA was the only phase present in the coatings. However coatings calcined at 800°C comprised a mixture of HA and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). FTIR measurement showed the existence of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carbonate bands. PO4 - band became sharper and narrower with the increased of calcination temperature. FESEM observation showed that the coating is polycrystalline with individual particles of nano to submicron size and has an average particle size of 35 nm. The thickness of the coating are direcly propotional with the viscosity of coating slurry. It was shown that the more viscous coating slurry would produce a thicker ceramic coating. Mechanical properties of the coating were measured in term of adhesion strength using a Micro Materials Nano Test microscratch testing machine. The result revealed that the coating had a good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate.

  18. Solid-state ZnS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell fabricated by the Dip-SILAR technique (United States)

    Mehrabian, M.; Mirabbaszadeh, K.; Afarideh, H.


    Solid-state quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) were fabricated with zinc sulfide quantum dots (ZnS QDs), which served as the light absorber and the recombination blocking layer simultaneously. ZnS QDs were prepared successfully by a novel successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique based on dip-coating (Dip-SILAR). The dependences of the photovoltaic parameters on the number of SILAR cycles (n) were investigated. The cell with n = 6 (particle average size ˜9 nm) showed an energy conversion efficiency of 2.72% under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). Here we investigate also the cohesion between ZnS QDs and ZnO film to obtain a well-covering QD layer.

  19. A physically inspired model of Dip d792 and d1519 of the Kepler light curve seen at KIC8462852

    CERN Document Server

    Heindl, Eduard


    The star KIC 8462852 shows a very unusual and hard to comprehend light curve. The dip d7922 absorbs 16% of the starlight. The light curve is unusually smooth but the very steep edges make it hard to find a simple natural explanation by covering due to comets or other well-known planetary objects. We describe a mathematical approximation to the light curve, which is motivated by a physically meaningful event of a large stellar beam which generates an orbiting cloud. The data might fit to the science fiction idea of star lifting, a mining technology that could extract star matter. We extend the model to d1519 and d1568 using multiple beams and get an encouraging result that fits essential parts of the dips but misses other parts of the measured flux. We recommend further exploration of this concept with refined models.

  20. UV–UV hole burning and IR dip spectroscopy of homophenylalanine by laser desorption supersonic jet technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Woon Yong; Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Çarçabal, Pierre [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, CNRS, Université Paris Sud XI, Bâtiment 210, 91405 Orsay (France); Oba, Hikari [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Fujii, Masaaki, E-mail: [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Homophenylalanine was measured by laser desorption supersonic jet spectroscopy. • Ten conformers were found by UV–UV hole burning spectroscopy. • The observed conformers were assigned by the combination of UV and IR spectra. • Franck–Condon simulations were employed to assign the flexible molecule. - Abstract: Conformer selected electronic and vibrational spectra of homophenylalanine, phenylalanine analogue molecule, were measured by UV–UV hole burning and IR dip spectroscopy combined with laser desorption technique. 10 conformers were found by UV–UV hole burning spectroscopy and their structures were assigned by IR dip and UV absorption spectra with aid of quantum chemical calculations in both S{sub 0} and S{sub 1}. This study shows that the combination of simulated IR and UV spectra is powerful to assign flexible molecules.

  1. Performance and Application of Hot Dip Aluminized Steel%热浸镀铝钢的性能及用途

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华飞; 俞敦义; 等


    为了便于研究人员和用户了解、掌握热浸镀铝钢的性能及其用途,进一步推动我国在这方面的大力发展,作者综述了热浸镀铝钢镀层的机械性能、耐腐蚀性能、抗高温氧化性能和其他性能及其在各工程领域上的应用情况,列出了部分性能指标。%The mechanical performance,corrosion resistance and high temperature oxidation resistance of hot dip aluminized steel were summarized.The hot- dip aluminized steel could extensively be used in various engineering fields.

  2. Three-dimensional numerical modelling of static and transient Coulomb stress changes on intra-continental dip-slip faults


    Meike Bagge


    Earthquakes on intra-continental faults pose substantial seismic hazard to populated areas. The interaction of faults is an important mechanism of earthquake triggering and can be investigated by the calculation of Coulomb stress changes. Using three-dimensional finite-element models, co- and postseismic stress changes and the effect of viscoelastic relaxation on dip-slip faults are investigated. The models include elastic and viscoelastic layers, gravity, ongoing regional deformation as well...

  3. An initial response of magnetic fields at geosynchronous orbit to Pi 2 onset as observed from the dip-equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saka

    Full Text Available Fluxgate magnetometer data recorded at the dip-equator (Huancayo, Peru; 1.44°N, 355.9° in geomagnetic coordinates; 12.1°S, 75.2°W in geographic coordinates; L = 1.00 with higher accuracy of timing (0.1 s and amplitude resolution (0.01 nT were utilized to survey an onset of Pi 2 pulsations in the midnight sector (2100–0100 LT during PROMIS (Polar Region and Outer Magnetosphere International Study periods (1 March–20 June, 1986. It is found that changing field line magnitude and vector as observed by magnetometer on board the synchronous satellites in the midnight sector often takes place simultaneously with the onset of Pi 2 pulsations at the dip-equator. The field disturbances that follow thereafter tend to last for some time both at the geosynchronous altitudes and the dip-equator. In this report, we examine the initial response of the field lines in space, and attempt to classify how the field line vector changed in the meridional plane.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics · Magnetospheric configuration and dynamics · MHD waves and instabilities · Plasmasphere

  4. Experimental analysis and theoretical predictions of the limit strains of a hot-dip galvanized interstitial-free steel sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina dos Santos Freitas


    Full Text Available In this work, the formability of a hot-dip galvanized interstitial-free (IF steel sheet was evaluated by means of uniaxial tensile and Forming Limit Curve (FLC tests. The FLC was defined using the flat-bottomed Marciniak's punch technique, where the strain analysis was made using a digital image correlation software. A plastic localization model was also proposed wherein the governing equations are solved with the help of the Newton's method. The investigated hot-dip galvanized IF steel sheet presented a very good formability level in the deep-drawing range consistent with the measured Lankford values. The predicted limit strains were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data of the hot-dip galvanized IF steel sheet owing to the definition of the localization model geometrical imperfection as a function of the experimental surface roughness evolution and, in particular, to the yield surface flattening near to the plane-strain stress state authorized by the adopted yield criterion.

  5. Probing the Accretion Scheme of the Dipping X-ray Binary 4U 1915-05 with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhongli; Sakurai, Soki; Sasano, Makoto; Ono, Kou


    The dipping low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1915-05 was observed by Suzaku on 2007 November 8 for a net exposure of 39 ksec. It was detected by the XIS with a 0.8-10 keV signal rate of 9.84+\\-0.01 cts/s per camera, and HXD-PIN with a 12-45 keV signal rate of 0.29+/-0.01 cts/s. After removing the periodic dips and an X-ray burst, the 0.8 - 45 keV continuum was successfully described by an optically thick disk emission with an inner-disk temperature ~ 0.7 keV and a neutron-star blackbody emission with a temperature ~ 1.3 keV, on condition that the blackbody component, or possibly the disk emission too, is significantly Comptonized. This successful modeling is consistent with 4U 1915-05 being in a high-soft state in this observation, and implies that its broadband spectrum can be interpreted in the same scheme as for many non-dipping Low-mass X-ray binaries in the soft state. Its bolometric luminosity (~ 0.02 times the Eddington limit) is relatively low for the soft state, but within a tolerance, if considering the dis...

  6. Fabrication of ZrO2/Mo-Si/Ni Functionally Graded Material by Dip-Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A slurry dip-coating technique was developed for fabrication of ZrO2/Mo-Si/Ni functionally graded material (FGM)on the stainless steel substrate. The rheological behavior of ZrO2-Ni-ethanol slurry was characterized by viscositytest. The amount of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) additives, which served as the dispersant and binder in ZrO2-Ni-ethanolslurry, was optimized. The results showed that the characters of mixed slurries with added 9 vol. pct (relativelyto total powders) MoSi2 powders prepared by mechanical alloying changed little. The stainless steel substrate wascoated several times by dipping in the slurries, and followed by drying in air every dipping. After debinding in Arin graphite die, the coated FGM plate was finally hot pressed at 1300℃ for 1 h under the pressure of 5 MPa in Arin the same die. Microstructural observations of the sintered FGM specimens revealed that the graded layers wereformed on the stainless steel substrate, in which no cracks were observed.

  7. Personality disorders in substance abusers: Validation of the DIP-Q through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Morten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders are common in substance abusers. Self-report questionnaires that can aid in the assessment of personality disorders are commonly used in assessment, but are rarely validated. Methods The Danish DIP-Q as a measure of co-morbid personality disorders in substance abusers was validated through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis. A 4 components structure was constructed based on 238 protocols, representing antagonism, neuroticism, introversion and conscientiousness. The structure was compared with (a a 4-factor solution from the DIP-Q in a sample of Swedish drug and alcohol abusers (N = 133, and (b a consensus 4-components solution based on a meta-analysis of published correlation matrices of dimensional personality disorder scales. Results It was found that the 4-factor model of personality was congruent across the Danish and Swedish samples, and showed good congruence with the consensus model. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted on a subset of the Danish sample with staff ratings of pathology. Three factors that correlated highly between the two variable sets were found. These variables were highly similar to the three first factors from the principal components analysis, antagonism, neuroticism and introversion. Conclusion The findings support the validity of the DIP-Q as a measure of DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers.

  8. Development of an Economical Method to Reduce the Extractable Latex Protein Levels in Finished Dipped Rubber Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambegoda Liyanage Harini Amalka Perera


    Full Text Available Natural rubber latex (NRL allergy is caused by the extractable latex proteins in dipped rubber products. It is a major concern for the consumers who are sensitive to the allergenic extractable proteins (EP in products such as NRL gloves. Objective of this research was to develop an economical method to reduce the EP in finished dipped NRL products. In order to reduce the EP levels, two natural proteases, bromelain from pineapple and papain from papaya, were extracted and partially purified using (NH42SO4. According to the newly developed method, different glove samples were treated with a 5% solution of each partially purified enzyme, for 2 hours at 60°C. Residual amounts of in treated samples were quantified using the modified Lowry assay (ASTM D5712-10. Bromelain displayed a 54 (±11% reduction of the EP from the dipped rubber products, whereas it was 58 (±8% with papain. These results clearly indicate that the selected natural proteases, bromelain, and papain contribute significantly towards the reduction of the total EP in finished NRL products. Application of bromelain enzyme for the aforementioned purpose has not been reported up to date, whereas papain has been used to treat raw NRL towards reducing the EP.

  9. The effects of the overriding plate thermal state on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system

    CERN Document Server

    Roda, Manuel; Spalla, Maria Iole; 10.1016/j.crte.2011.01.005


    To evaluate the effects of variations in the thermal state of the overriding plate on the slab dip in an ocean-continent subduction system, a 2-D finite element thermo-mechanical model was implemented. The lithosphere base was located at the depth of the 1600 K isotherm. Numerical simulations were performed while taking into account four different initial thicknesses for the oceanic lithosphere (60, 80, 95 and 110 km) and five different thicknesses of the overriding plate, as compared in terms of the continental-oceanic plate thickness ratio (100, 120, 140, 160 and 200% of the oceanic lithosphere thickness). The results of numerical modeling indicate that a high variability of the subducting plate geometry occurs for an oceanic lithosphere thickness ranging from 60 to 80 km, while the variability decreases where the oceanic plates are thicker (95 and 110 km). Furthermore, the slab dip strongly depends on the thermal state of the overriding plate, and, in particular, the slab dip decreases with the increase in...

  10. The Effect of Coriolis Force on the Formation of Dip on the Free Surface of Water Draining from a Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    For the case of RWT (refueling water tank) connecting to the ECC (emergency core cooling) line, it can be surmised that there is a possibility of ECC pump failure due to air ingression into the ECC supply line even before the RWT is drained away. Therefore, it is important to check if the operational limit of the RWT water level is set at a value higher than the critical height that causes a dip formation on the free surface of a draining liquid. In the previous work, such complex unsteady flow fields both in a simple water tank and in the RWT at the Korean standard nuclear power plant have been simulated using the CFX5.10 code which is well-known as one of the well-validated commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes. However, for the simplicity of those calculations the Coriolis force has not been taken into account. Thus, in the present paper, the effect of Coriolis force-induced vortex flow on the dip formation of dip has been investigated for the simple water tank to confirm validity of the previous work. To do this the unsteady flow fields accompanied by vortex in the simple water tank has been simulated using the CFX5.10 code.

  11. Unified Rotation Curve of the Galaxy -- Decomposition into de Vaucouleurs Bulge, Disk, Dark Halo, and the 9-kpc Rotation Dip --

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Y; Omodaka, T


    We present a unified rotation curve of the Galaxy re-constructed from the existing data by re-calculating the distances and velocities for a set of galactic constants R_0=8 kpc and V_0=200 km/s. We decompose it into a bulge with de Vaucouleurs-law profile of half-mass scale radius 0.5 kpc and mass 1.8 x 10^{10}M_{sun}, an exponential disk of scale radius 3.5 kpc of 6.5 x 10^{10}M_{sun}, and an isothermal dark halo of terminal velocity 200 km/s. The r^{1/4}-law fit was obtained for the first time for the Milky Way's rotation curve. After fitting by these fundamental structures, two local minima, or the dips, of rotation velocity are prominent at radii 3 and 9 kpc. The 3-kpc dip is consistent with the observed bar. It is alternatively explained by a massive ring with the density maximum at radius 4 kpc. The 9-kpc dip is clearly exhibited as the most peculiar feature in the galactic rotation curve. We explain it by a massive ring of amplitude as large as 0.3 to 0.4 times the disk density with the density peak at...

  12. Protocol: Streamlined sub-protocols for floral-dip transformation and selection of transformants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Generating and identifying transformants is essential for many studies of gene function. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a revolutionary protocol termed floral dip is now the most widely used transformation method. Although robust, it involves a number of relatively time-consuming and laborious steps, including manipulating an Agrobacterium tumefaciens culture and aseptic procedures for the selection of plant lines harboring antibiotic-selection markers. Furthermore, where multiple transgenes are to be introduced, achieving this by sequential transformations over multiple generations adds significantly to the time required. To circumvent these bottlenecks, we have developed three streamlined sub-protocols. First, we find that A. thaliana can be transformed by dipping directly into an A. tumefaciens culture supplemented with surfactant, eliminating the need for media exchange to a buffered solution. Next, we illustrate that A. thaliana lines possessing a double-transformation event can be readily generated by simply by floral-dipping into a mixture of two A. tumefaciens cultures harboring distinct transformation vectors. Finally, we report an alternative method of transformant selection on chromatography sand that does not require surface sterilization of seeds. These sub-protocols, which can be used separately or in combination, save time and money, and reduce the possibility of contamination.

  13. The impact of 2 dipping systems on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in 4 communally grazed areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Rikhotso


    Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.

  14. [Characteristics of the structural organization of the DIP1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco gene]. (United States)

    Nefedova, L N; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I


    Molecular cloning of the DIP1 gene located in the 20A4-5 region has been performed from the following strains with the flamenco phenotype: flamSS (SS) and flamMS (MS) characterized by a high transposition rate of retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4), flampy + (P) carrying the insertion of a construction based on the P element into the region of the flamenco gene, and flamenco+. The results of restriction analysis and sequencing cloned DNA fragments has shown that strains flamSS, flamMS, flampy +(P), and flamenco+ considerably differ from one another in the structure of DIP1. Strains flamss and flamMS have no Dral restriction site at position 1765 in the coding region of the gene, specifically, in the domain determining the signal of the nuclear localization of the DIP1 protein. This mutation has been found to consist in a nucleotide substitution in the recognition site of DraI restriction endonuclease, which is transformed from TTTAAA into TTTAAG and, hence, is not recognized by the enzyme. This substitution changes codon AAA into AAG and is translationally insignificant, because both triplets encode the same amino acid, lysine. The Dral gene of strainsflamSS andflamMS has been found to contain a 182-bp insertion denoted IdSS (insertion in DIP1 strain SS); it is located in the second intron of the gene. The IdSS sequence is part of the open reading frame encoding the putative transposase of the mobile genetic element HB1 belonging to the Tcl/mariner family. This insertion is presumed to disturb the conformations of DNA and the chromosome, in particular, by forming loops, which alters the expression of DIPI and, probably, neighboring genes. In strains flamenco+ and flampy + (P), the IdSS insertion within the HB1 sequence is deleted. The deletion encompasses five C-terminal amino acid residues of the conserved domain and the entire C-terminal region of the putative HB1 transposase. The obtained data suggest that DIP1 is involved in the control of gypsy transpositions either

  15. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.


    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  16. Removal of cyanogens from cassava roots. Studies on domestic sun-drying and solid-substrate fermentation in rural Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.A.


    Cassava is an important staple crop, but its potential toxicity has led to some health problems in Africa. The potential toxicity comes from endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin, which may degrade by linamarase to cyanohydrins and subsequently to hydrocyanic acid (HCN). A study into a

  17. Linking Precursor Alterations to Nanoscale Structure and Optical Transparency in Polymer Assisted Fast-Rate Dip-Coating of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films


    Glynn, Colm; Creedon, Donal; Geaney, Hugh; Armstrong,Eileen; Collins, Timothy; Morris, Michael A.; Dwyer, Colm O’


    Solution processed metal oxide thin films are important for modern optoelectronic devices ranging from thin film transistors to photovoltaics and for functional optical coatings. Solution processed techniques such as dip-coating, allow thin films to be rapidly deposited over a large range of surfaces including curved, flexible or plastic substrates without extensive processing of comparative vapour or physical deposition methods. To increase the effectiveness and versatility of dip-coated thi...

  18. Gently dipping normal faults identified with Space Shuttle radar topography data in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and some implications for fault mechanics (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.


    Space-shuttle radar topography data from central Sulawesi, Indonesia, reveal two corrugated, domal landforms, covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, that are bounded to the north by an abrupt transition to typical hilly to mountainous topography. These domal landforms are readily interpreted as metamorphic core complexes, an interpretation consistent with a single previous field study, and the abrupt northward transition in topographic style is interpreted as marking the trace of two extensional detachment faults that are active or were recently active. Fault dip, as determined by the slope of exhumed fault footwalls, ranges from 4?? to 18??. Application of critical-taper theory to fault dip and hanging-wall surface slope, and to similar data from several other active or recently active core complexes, suggests a theoretical limit of three degrees for detachment-fault dip. This result appears to conflict with the dearth of seismological evidence for slip on faults dipping less than ~. 30??. The convex-upward form of the gently dipping fault footwalls, however, allows for greater fault dip at depths of earthquake initiation and dominant energy release. Thus, there may be no conflict between seismological and mapping studies for this class of faults. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Dip-in Indicators for Visual Differentiation of Fuel Mixtures Based on Wettability of Fluoroalkylchlorosilane-Coated Inverse Opal Films. (United States)

    Sedighi, Abootaleb; Qiu, Shuang; Wong, Michael C K; Li, Paul C H


    We have developed the dip-in indicator based on the inverse opal film (IOF) for visual differentiation of organic liquid mixtures, such as oil/gasoline or ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures. The IOF consists of a three-dimensional porous structure with a highly ordered periodic arrangement of nanopores. The specularly reflected light at the interface of the nanopores and silica walls contributes to the structural color of the IOF film. This color disappears when the nanopores are infiltrated by a liquid with a similar refractive index to silica. The disappearance of the structural color provides a means to differentiate various liquid fuel mixtures based on their wettability of the nanopores in the IOF-based indicators. For differentiation of various liquid mixtures, we tune the wettability threshold of the indicator in such a way that it is wetted (color disappears) by one liquid but is not wetted by the other (color remains). Although colorimetric differentiation of liquids based on IOF wettability has been reported, differentiation of highly similar liquid mixtures require complicated readout approaches. It is known that the IOF wettability is controlled by multiple surface properties (e.g., oleophobicity) and structural properties (e.g., neck angle and film thickness) of the nanostructure. Therefore, we aim to exploit the combined tuning of these properties for differentiation of fuel mixtures with close compositions. In this study, we have demonstrated that, for the first time, the IOF-based dip-in indicator is able to detect a slight difference in the fuel mixture composition (i.e., 0.4% of oil content). Moreover, the color/no-color differentiation platform is simple, powerful, and easy-to-read. This platform makes the dip-in indicator a promising tool for authentication and determination of fuel composition at the point-of-purchase or point-of-use.

  20. Comparative study of NMP-preloaded and dip-loaded membranes for guided bone regeneration of rabbit cranial defects. (United States)

    Karfeld-Sulzer, Lindsay S; Ghayor, Chafik; Siegenthaler, Barbara; Gjoksi, Bebeka; Pohjonen, Timo H; Weber, Franz E


    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) has been utilized for several decades for the healing of cranio-maxillofacial bone defects and, particularly in the dental field, by creating space with a barrier membrane to exclude soft tissue and encourage bone growth in the membrane-protected volume. Although the first membranes were non-resorbable, a new generation of GBR membranes aims to biodegrade and provide bioactivity for better overall results. The Inion GTR™ poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) membrane is not only resorbable but also bioactive, since it includes N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), which has been shown to promote bone regeneration. In this study, the effects of loading different amounts of NMP onto the membrane through chemical vapour deposition or dipping have been explored. In vitro release demonstrated that lower levels of NMP led to lower NMP concentrations and slower release, based on total NMP loaded in the membrane. The dipped membrane released almost all of the NMP within 15 min, leading to a high NMP concentration. For the in vivo studies in rabbits, 6 mm calvarial defects were created and left untreated or covered with an ePTFE membrane or PLGA membranes dipped in, or preloaded with, NMP. Evaluation of the bony regeneration revealed that the barrier membranes improved bony healing and that a decrease in NMP content improved the performance. Overall, we have demonstrated the potential of these PLGA membranes with a more favourable NMP release profile and the significance of exploring the effect of NMP on these PLGA membranes with regard to bone ingrowth. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. PbI2-Based Dipping-Controlled Material Conversion for Compact Layer Free Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Zheng, Enqiang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Song, Jiaxing; Yan, Lulin; Tian, Wenjing; Miyasaka, Tsutomu


    A two-step sequential deposition method has been extensively employed to prepare the CH3NH3PbI3 active layer from the PbI2 precursor in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The variation of the photovoltaic performance of PSCs made by this method was always attributed to different dipping times that induce complete/incomplete conversion of PbI2 into CH3NH3PbI3. To solve this issue, we employed a solvent vapor annealing (SVA) method to prepare PbI2 crystallites with large grain size for preparation of high quality perovskite. With this method, the increased PbI2 dipping time in CH3NH3I solution was found to reduce the photovoltaic performance of resulting PSCs without a significant change in PbI2/CH3NH3PbI3 contents in the perovskite films. We attribute this abnormal reduction of the photovoltaic performance to intercalation/deintercalation of the PbI2 core with a CH3NH3PbI3 shell, which causes the doping effect on both the PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 crystal lattices and the formation of a CH3NH3PbI3 capping layer on the surface, as revealed by UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscope measurements. Based on our findings, a multistep dipping-drying process was employed as an alternative method to improve the crystalline quality. The method achieved power conversion efficiency up to 11.4% for the compact layer free PSC sharing a simple device structure of ITO/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD/Ag.

  2. Large and negative Goos-Hanchen shift near the Brewster dip on reflection from weakly absorbing media (United States)

    Lai, H. M.; Chan, S. W.


    Applying Artmann's formula to a light beam in the TM state of wave polarization, we show analytically the existence of a large and negative Goos-Hanchen shift near the angle of the Brewster dip on reflection from a weakly absorbing semi-infinite medium. The shift is opposite that in the case of total internal reflection, and it can be an order of magnitude larger than a wavelength if the absorption of the reflecting medium is sufficiently weak. Examples are given, and the detectibility of the shift is discussed.

  3. Orientation Dependence of Cracking in Hot-Dip Zn-Al-Mg Alloy Coatings on a Sheet Steel (United States)

    Park, Y. B.; Kim, I. G.; Kim, S. G.; Kim, W. T.; Kim, T. C.; Oh, M. S.; Kim, J. S.


    The present study was aimed at investigating a basic cause of cracking in hot-dip Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings on an extra deep drawing quality sheet steel. The electron backscattering diffraction technique was employed to examine the crystallographic planes of the cracks generated before and after bending deformation of the coated steel sheets. It was clarified that the occurrence of cracking in the Zn-Al-Mg alloy coatings absolutely depends on the orientation of the primary Zn and eutectic Zn alloy phases. Finally, a cracking mechanism was proposed on the basis of the anisotropy of thermal expansion and the Young's modulus in the phases constituting the coatings.

  4. Large and negative Goos-Hänchen shift near the Brewster dip on reflection from weakly absorbing media. (United States)

    Lai, H M; Chan, S W


    Applying Artmann's formula to a light beam in the TM state of wave polarization, we show analytically the existence of a large and negative Goos-Hänchen shift near the angle of the Brewster dip on reflection from a weakly absorbing semi-infinite medium. The shift is opposite that in the case of total internal reflection, and it can be an order of magnitude larger than a wavelength if the absorption of the reflecting medium is sufficiently weak. Examples are given, and the detectibility of the shift is discussed.

  5. Anàlisi dels costos representatius d'obres hidràuliques: dipòsits i canonades.


    Gilabert Culvi, Maria


    La següent tesina té com a principal objectiu trobar una metodologia per estimar amb el menor error possible el cost que tindrà una obra de canonada i el cost d’un dipòsit a partir d’algunes de les seves característiques físiques i estructurals en etapes de planejament. Normalment, el que s’estava fent fins ara era estimar uns ratis com el quocient entre el cost de l’obra dividit per una mesura generalment lineal (longitud de canonada, metres lineals de carretera) o bé per un volum ( com en e...

  6. Life Improvement of Pot Hardware in Continuous Hot Dipping Processes Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingbo Liu


    The process of continuous galvanizing of rolled sheet steel includes immersion into a bath of molten zinc/aluminum alloy. The steel strip is dipped in the molten bath through a series of driving motors and rollers which control the speed and tension of the strip, with the ability to modify both the amount of coating applied to the steel as well as the thickness and width of the sheet being galvanized. There are three rolls used to guide the steel strip through the molten metal bath. The rolls that operate in the molten Zn/Al are subject to a severely corrosive environment and require frequent changing. The performance of this equipment, the metallic hardware submerged in the molten Zn/Al bath, is the focus of this research. The primary objective of this research is to extend the performance life of the metallic hardware components of molten Zn/Al pot hardware by an order of magnitude. Typical galvanizing operations experience downtimes on the order of every two weeks to change the metallic hardware submerged in the molten metal bath. This is an expensive process for industry which takes upwards of 3 days for a complete turn around to resume normal operation. Each roll bridle consists of a sink, stabilizer, and corrector roll with accompanying bearing components. The cost of the bridle rig with all components is as much as $25,000 dollars just for materials. These inefficiencies are of concern to the steel coating companies and serve as a potential market for many materials suppliers. This research effort served as a bridge between the market potential and industry need to provide an objective analytical and mechanistic approach to the problem of wear and corrosion of molten metal bath hardware in a continuous sheet galvanizing line. The approach of the investigators was to provide a means of testing and analysis that was both expeditious and cost effective. The consortium of researchers from West Virginia University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed

  7. Underground pressure appearance laws analysis for fully mechanized top coal slice caving on high-dipping thick coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-li; CAO Guang-ming; LI Fu-sheng


    Taking Adaohai Coal Mine as the example, underground pressure appearance laws of fully mechanized top coal slice caving on high-dipping and thick coal seams. Through site visit, theoretical analysis and discrete element calculation, the research shows that, as the mining deepens, underground stress of lower sublevels is more obvious and higher than that of upper sublevels and is higher in the air return roadway than that in the air intake roadway in the area that is near to the top coal.Because the top coal is thick and gangue is caved above the support, underground pressure to the working face is relatively gentle. Immediate roof will mainly fall down along the floor. Main roof and the rock bed above the main roof will move to the mined out area along the fault in the early stage and then fall down with the mined out area later. In addition, roof pressure mainly periodically appears in two directions along the trend and the dip.

  8. D Geological Outcrop Characterization: Automatic Detection of 3d Planes (azimuth and Dip) Using LiDAR Point Clouds (United States)

    Anders, K.; Hämmerle, M.; Miernik, G.; Drews, T.; Escalona, A.; Townsend, C.; Höfle, B.


    Terrestrial laser scanning constitutes a powerful method in spatial information data acquisition and allows for geological outcrops to be captured with high resolution and accuracy. A crucial aspect for numerous geologic applications is the extraction of rock surface orientations from the data. This paper focuses on the detection of planes in rock surface data by applying a segmentation algorithm directly to a 3D point cloud. Its performance is assessed considering (1) reduced spatial resolution of data and (2) smoothing in the course of data pre-processing. The methodology is tested on simulations of progressively reduced spatial resolution defined by varying point cloud density. Smoothing of the point cloud data is implemented by modifying the neighborhood criteria during normals estima-tion. The considerable alteration of resulting planes emphasizes the influence of smoothing on the plane detection prior to the actual segmentation. Therefore, the parameter needs to be set in accordance with individual purposes and respective scales of studies. Fur-thermore, it is concluded that the quality of segmentation results does not decline even when the data volume is significantly reduced down to 10%. The azimuth and dip values of individual segments are determined for planes fit to the points belonging to one segment. Based on these results, azimuth and dip as well as strike character of the surface planes in the outcrop are assessed. Thereby, this paper contributes to a fully automatic and straightforward workflow for a comprehensive geometric description of outcrops in 3D.

  9. Geometric effects resulting from the asym-metry of dipping fault: Hanging wall/foot-wall effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; XIE Li-li; HU Jin-jun


    Root-mean-square distance Drms with characteristic of weighted-average is introduced in this article firstly. Drms can be used to capture the general proximity of a site to a dipping fault plane comparing with the rupture distance Drup and the seismogenic distance Dseis. Then, using Drup Dseis and Drms, the hanging wall/footwall effects on the peak ground acceleration (PGA) during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake are evaluated by regression analysis. The logarithm residual shows that the PGA on hanging wall is much greater than that on footwall at the same Drup or Dseis when the Drup or Dseis is used as site-to-source distance measure. In contrast, there is no significant difference between the PGA on hanging wall and that on footwall at the same Drms when Drms is used. This result confirms that the hanging wall/footwall effect is mainly a geometric effect caused by the asymmetry of dipping fault. Therefore, the hanging wall/footwall effect on the near-fault ground motions can be ignored in the future attenuation analysis if the root-mean-square distance Drms is used as the site-to-source distance measure.

  10. Dip Coating of Nano Hydroxyapatite on Titanium Alloy with Plasma Assisted γ-Alumina Buffer Layer: A Novel Coating Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Khalid; M.Mujahid; A.Nusair Khan; R.S.Rawat


    This paper reported a novel coating approach to deposit a thin,crack free and nano-structured hydroxyapatite (HA) film on Ti6Al4V alloy with Al2O3 buffer layer for biomedical implants.The Al2O3 buffer layer was deposited by plasma spraying while the HA top layer was applied by dip coating technique.The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman reflections of alumina buffer layer showed α-to γ-Al2O3 phase transformation;and the fractographic analysis of the sample revealed the formation of columnar grains in well melted splats.The bonding strength between Al2O3 coating and Ti6Al4V substrate was estimated to be about 40 MPa.The presence of dip coated HA layer was confirmed using XRD,scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis.The SEM images exhibited that HA top layer enveloped homogenously the troughs and crests of the underneath rough (Ra =2.91 μm) Al2O3 surface.It is believed that the novel coating approach adopted might render the implant suitable for rapid cement-less fixation as well as biocompatible for longer periods.

  11. MeDIP Real-Time qPCR has the Potential for Noninvasive Prenatal Screening of Fetal Trisomy 21. (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohammad; Salehi, Mansoor; Kheirollahi, Majid


    This study aimed to verify the reliability of the 7 tissue differentially methylated regions used in the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) real- time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) based approach of fetal DNA in maternal blood to diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21. Forty pregnant women with high risk pregnancy who were referred after first or second trimester screening tests, were selected randomly. For each sample whole DNA extraction (mother and fetus), fragmentation of DNA, immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA and real- time qPCR using 7 primer pairs was performed. D-value for each sample was calculated using the following formula D = -4.908+ 0.254 XEP1+ 0.409 XEP4+ 0.793 XEP5+ 0.324 XEP6+ 0.505 XEP7+ 0.508 XEP9+ 0.691 XEP12. In all normal cases, D value was negative, while it was positive in all trisomy cases. Therefore, all normal and trisomy 21 cases were classified correctly which correspond to 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity for this method. The MeDIP real-time qPCR method has provided the opportunity for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 21 to be potentially employed into the routine practice of diagnostic laboratories.

  12. pathDIP: an annotated resource for known and predicted human gene-pathway associations and pathway enrichment analysis (United States)

    Rahmati, Sara; Abovsky, Mark; Pastrello, Chiara; Jurisica, Igor


    Molecular pathway data are essential in current computational and systems biology research. While there are many primary and integrated pathway databases, several challenges remain, including low proteome coverage (57%), low overlap across different databases, unavailability of direct information about underlying physical connectivity of pathway members, and high fraction of protein-coding genes without any pathway annotations, i.e. ‘pathway orphans’. In order to address all these challenges, we developed pathDIP, which integrates data from 20 source pathway databases, ‘core pathways’, with physical protein–protein interactions to predict biologically relevant protein–pathway associations, referred to as ‘extended pathways’. Cross-validation determined 71% recovery rate of our predictions. Data integration and predictions increase coverage of pathway annotations for protein-coding genes to 86%, and provide novel annotations for 5732 pathway orphans. PathDIP ( annotates 17 070 protein-coding genes with 4678 pathways, and provides multiple query, analysis and output options. PMID:27899558

  13. A comparative study of dip coating and spray pyrolysis methods for synthesizing ITO nanolayers by using Ag colloidal sol (United States)

    Rajabi, Negar; Heshmatpour, Felora; Malekfar, Rasoul; Bahari-Poor, Hamid-Reza; Abyar, Selda


    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating and thermal pyrolysis methods. Sn (IV) is often used in the spray method as a precursor salt, but in this research we have employed a new procedure that uses Sn (II) and In(NO3)3 for preparation of transparent conductive thin films. Then, colloidal Ag was deposited on the ITO layers in order to compare the two synthesis methods, and the structural and electrical properties of the resultant films were investigated by FESEM, XRD, and four-terminal resistometry. The obtained films are polycrystalline with a preferred orientation of (200). The XRD patterns of the films indicate that in both films, the Sn phase is crystallized separately from In2O3. The presence of a Sn peak and the overall low intensity of XRD peaks suggest relative crystallization of ITO structure. For this reason, Ag films were deposited by dip coating method using a colloidal sol. By analyzing the XRD patterns of Ag-ITO films after eliminating the Sn peak, the increased intensity of the peaks confirmed the relatively good crystallization of the ITO films. The results show that the films with a sheet resistance as low as 2 × 10-2 Ω·cm, which is beneficial for solar cells, were achieved.

  14. Pulse Profiles, Accretion Column Dips and a Flare in GX 1+4 During a Faint State

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, A B; Greenhill, J; Storey, M C; Wilson, C A


    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) spacecraft observed the X-ray pulsar GX 1+4 for a period of 34 hours on July 19/20 1996. The source faded from an intensity of ~20 mCrab to a minimum of <~0.7 mCrab and then partially recovered towards the end of the observation. This extended minimum lasted ~40,000 seconds. Phase folded light curves at a barycentric rotation period of 124.36568 +/- 0.00020 seconds show that near the center of the extended minimum the source stopped pulsing in the traditional sense but retained a weak dip feature at the rotation period. Away from the extended minimum the dips are progressively narrower at higher energies and may be interpreted as obscurations or eclipses of the hot spot by the accretion column. The pulse profile changed from leading-edge bright before the extended minimum to trailing-edge bright after it. Data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) show that a torque reversal occurred <10 days after our observation. Our data indicate that the observ...

  15. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle (United States)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.


    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  16. Pulse Profiles, Accretion Column Dips and a Flare in GX 1+4 During a Faint State (United States)

    Giles, A. B.; Galloway, D. K.; Greenhill, J. G.; Storey, M. C.; Wilson, C. A.


    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) spacecraft observed the X-ray GX 1+4 for it period of 34 hours on July 19/20 1996. The source faded front an intensity of approximately 20 mcrab to a minimum of <= 0.7 mcrab and then partially recovered towards the end of the observation. This extended minimum lasted approximately 40,000 seconds. Phase folded light curves at a barycentric rotation period of 124.36568 +/- 0.00020 seconds show that near the center of the extended minimum the source stopped pulsing in the traditional sense but retained a weak dip feature at the rotation period. Away from the extended minimum the dips are progressively narrower at higher energies and may be interpreted as obscurations or eclipses of the hot spot by the accretion column. The pulse profile changed from leading-edge bright before the extended minimum to trailing-edge bright after it. Data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) show that a torque reversal occurred < 10 days after our observation. Our data indicate that the observed rotation departs from a constant period with a P/P value of approximately -1.5% per year at a 4.5sigma significance. We infer that we may have serendipitously obtained data, with high sensitivity and temporal resolution about the time of an accretion disk spin reversal. We also observed a rapid flare which had some precursor activity close to the center of the extended minimum.

  17. Non-dipping blood pressure variations in adult Kazakhs are derived from decreased daytime physical activity and increased nighttime sympathetic activity. (United States)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Yukio; Izumi, Yoichi; Kasamaki, Yuji; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Mitsubayashi, Hiromi; Ohta, Masakatsu; Ichimaru, Yuhei


    Many of the elderly Kazakhs have been found to exhibit non-dipping blood pressure variations (BPV). Such variations are seen in both normotensive and hypertensive Kazakhs. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether middle-aged Kazakhs also include large numbers of non-dippers, (2) to compare the characteristics of non-dipping and dipping, and (3) to clarify the mechanisms responsible for non-dipping type BPV by examining the autonomic nervous activity and physical activity. We performed ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The subjects were divided into two groups (dipping and non-dipping type). We monitored the subjects' physical activity with accelerometry and assessed their autonomic nerve activity by performing a frequency domain analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV). The power spectral density (PSD) of the HRV was calculated using fast Fourier transformation. We analyzed the systolic blood pressure (SBP) variations with the maximum entropy method (MEM). The dippers and non-dippers accounted for 48% and 52% of the subjects, respectively. MEM analysis revealed that the SBP variations of the non-dippers exhibited a 24 hour periodicity with a very weak PSD as well as an ultradian periodicity. The non-dippers exhibited higher low-frequency/high-frequency (LF/HF) ratio and lower HF/(LF + HF) ratios than the dippers, particularly during the nighttime. In addition, the non-dippers performed less physical activity than the dippers. These differences in cardiac autonomic function and physical activity might contribute to the generation of a weak circadian rhythm in SBP, and thus, ultimately lead to the non-dipping SBP variations observed in non-dipper Kazakhs.

  18. DipA, a pore-forming protein in the outer membrane of Lyme disease spirochetes exhibits specificity for the permeation of dicarboxylates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Thein

    Full Text Available Lyme disease Borreliae are highly dependent on the uptake of nutrients provided by their hosts. Our study describes the identification of a 36 kDa protein that functions as putative dicarboxylate-specific porin in the outer membrane of Lyme disease Borrelia. The protein was purified by hydroxyapatite chromatography from Borrelia burgdorferi B31 and designated as DipA, for dicarboxylate-specific porin A. DipA was partially sequenced, and corresponding genes were identified in the genomes of B. burgdorferi B31, Borrelia garinii PBi and Borrelia afzelii PKo. DipA exhibits high homology to the Oms38 porins of relapsing fever Borreliae. B. burgdorferi DipA was characterized using the black lipid bilayer assay. The protein has a single-channel conductance of 50 pS in 1 M KCl, is slightly selective for anions with a permeability ratio for cations over anions of 0.57 in KCl and is not voltage-dependent. The channel could be partly blocked by different di- and tricarboxylic anions. Particular high stability constants up to about 28,000 l/mol (in 0.1 M KCl were obtained among the 11 tested anions for oxaloacetate, 2-oxoglutarate and citrate. The results imply that DipA forms a porin specific for dicarboxylates which may play an important role for the uptake of specific nutrients in different Borrelia species.

  19. Using Discrete Element Method to Simulate Influence of Vertical Joints and Upward Groundwater on The Stability of Dip Slope: A Case Study on Formosa Freeway (United States)

    Lu, An; Hsieh, Pei-Chen; Wu, Liang-Chun; Lin, Ming-Lang


    Earthquake and rainfall weakening potential sliding surface are common causes of dip slope failure. But in recent years, certain dip slopes failure, for example dip slope sliding without rain on the roadside of Formosa Freeway in northern Taiwan, are caused by uplift groundwater in vertical joints eventually weakening the potential sliding surface. The mechanism of sliding failure should be analyzed in more detail. Furthermore, prestress dissipating in anchors causing dip slope failure is also considered in this study. In this study, conceptual model is simplified from the case of Formosa Freeway in northern Taiwan and the main control factors including angle of slope, stratum, attitude of joints. In addition, drilling data, such as hydraulic conductivity, strength, friction angle and cohesion, are utilized to discuss mechanism and dominant factors of dip slope failure caused by uplift groundwater in vertical joints. UDEC(Universal Distinct Element Code) which is particularly well suited to problems involving jointed media and has been used extensively in stability analysis of jointed rock slopes is utilized in this study. The influence of external factors such as groundwater pressure on block sliding and deformation can also be simulated in UDEC. When the results from numerical simulation fit the condition of slope failure on the roadside of Formosa Freeway, the influence of prestress dissipating in anchors on slope stability is considered subsequently. Finally, simulation results by UDEC are compared with previous research results by FLAC, and discuss the difference between each other.

  20. Effect of Al Hot-Dipping on High-Temperature Corrosion of Carbon Steel in N2/0.1% H2S Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Abro


    Full Text Available High-temperature corrosion of carbon steel in N2/0.1% H2S mixed gas at 600–800 °C for 50–100 h was studied after hot-dipping in the aluminum molten bath. Hot-dipping resulted in the formation of the Al topcoat and the Al-Fe alloy layer firmly adhered on the substrate. The Al-Fe alloy layer consisted primarily of a wide, tongue-like Al5Fe2 layer and narrow Al3Fe layer. When corroded at 800 °C for 100 h, the Al topcoat partially oxidized to the protective but non-adherent α-Al2O3 layer, and the interdiffusion converted the Al-Fe alloy layer to an (Al13Fe4, AlFe3-mixed layer. The interdiffusion also lowered the microhardness of the hot-dipped steel. The α-Al2O3 layer formed on the hot-dipped steel protected the carbon steel against corrosion. Without the Al hot-dipping, the carbon steel failed by forming a thick, fragile, and non-protective FeS scale.

  1. 几种降低坐席低谷效应的方法%Several Methods to Reduce Seat-Dip Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    首先对厅堂中低频段声波的反常衰减(称为坐席低谷效应)特点作了总结,概括了近几十年来坐席低谷效应方面的研究成果,特别指出低谷效应在时域的特性.文中介绍了低谷效应怎样影响了观众的听感,根据一些作者实测和数值模拟的结果,重点说明了降低坐席低谷效应的方法,包括在坐席间设置吸声器、在坐席下设置空腔及使坐席起坡等.%In this paper, the properties of the anomalous attenuation of low-frequency sound, namely the seat-dip phenomenon in auditoria, as well as the achievements in the researches on seat-dip effect in recent decades, are summed up, and the property of seat-dip effect in time domain is specially pointed out. Moreover, the influence of the seat-dip effect on the subjective perception of the audience is described. According to the results of some authors' measurements and numerical simulation, several methods to reduce the sear-dip effect are finally introduced, such as setting seats on empty pit, mounting floor absorbers and raking seats, etc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Yong Choi


    Full Text Available The present paper describes a developed analyzing system of roll surface during the process of continuous hot dip zinc coated steel sheet production line, in particular, adhering problem by transferred inclusions from roll to steel sheet surface during annealing process so called the pickup. The simulated test machine for coated roll surface in processing line has been designed and performed. The system makes it possible to analyze roll surface condition according to pickup phenomena from various roll coatings concerning operating conditions of hearth rolls in annealing furnace. The algorithm of fast pickup detection on surface is developed on the base of processing of several optical images of surface. The parameters for quality estimation of surface with pickups were developed. The optical system for images registration and image processing electronics may be used in real time and embed in processing line.

  3. Thickness measurement of Sn-Ag hot dip coatings on Large Hadron Collider Superconducting strands by coulometry

    CERN Document Server

    Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Oberli, L R; Scheuerlein, C; Taborelli, M; 10.1149/1.1715094


    Amperostatic coulometry is applied for the thickness measurement of Sn-Ag hot dip coatings, which comprise an extended Sn-Cu interdiffusion layer. Complementary measurements, notably weight loss, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (DSIMS) have been performed in order to obtain a better interpretation of the coulometry results. Based on the experimental results presented in this article the three potential changes that are observed during coulometry measurements are ascribed to (1) the entire dissolution of pure Sn, (2) the formation of a CuCl salt layer and (3) the surface passivation. The measurement of the pure Sn mass is well reproducible despite of strong coating thickness variations that are detected by XRF. Several experimental problems, in particular a coating undercutting, hamper the determination of the Sn mass in the intermetallic Sn-Cu layer.

  4. Refraction tomography mapping of near-surface dipping layers using landstreamer data at East Canyon Dam, Utah (United States)

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Markiewicz, R.D.; Xia, J.


    We apply the P-wave refraction-tomography method to seismic data collected with a landstreamer. Refraction-tomography inversion solutions were determined using regularization parameters that provided the most realistic near-surface solutions that best matched the dipping layer structure of nearby outcrops. A reasonably well matched solution was obtained using an unusual set of optimal regularization parameters. In comparison, the use of conventional regularization parameters did not provide as realistic results. Thus, we consider that even if there is only qualitative a-priori information about a site (i.e., visual) - in the case of the East Canyon Dam, Utah - it might be possible to minimize the refraction nonuniqueness by estimating the most appropriate regularization parameters.

  5. Fully mechanised experimental face in a seam with a dip of over 80 degrees at Sotan Colliery, HUNOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.


    As is well known, mining is being carried out in the Central Asturian coalfield in seams which are mostly vertical, thin and of irregular hypsometry. 58% of the reserves are at a dip of more than 60 degrees and 35% are between 30 and 60 degrees. Average seam thickness is 0.93 m. Faults and geological disturbances are common. In the 1970s drum shearers were tested and installed underground, principally the Russian TEMP and KT models, which allowed 25% of the winning faces to be mechanised. The remainder was won with pneumatic picks. Mechanisation of the winning operations with the machines commercially available was not sufficient however, as production potential had reched its maximum.

  6. Mechanical properties of chemically bonded sand core materials dipped in sol-gel coating impregnated with filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat


    -displacement curve from which the mechanical properties of the materials are deduced. The fracture surfaces were examined using a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope. From the results, the strengths of the core materials were slightly reduced by the coating in tensile and flexural modes, while...... the strengths were increased under compression. The mode of fracture of the chemically bonded sand core materials was observed to be intergranular through the binder. The stiffness of the chemically bonded sand core materials was determined. For better understanding of the mechanical properties......A novel sol-gel coating impregnated with filter dust was applied on chemically bonded sand core materials by dipping. After curing, the strengths of the core materials were measured under uniaxial loading using a new strength testing machine (STM). The STM presents the loading history as a force...

  7. Evaluation of bulk and surfaces absorption edge energy of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Aparecido Floriano


    Full Text Available The absorption edge and the bandgap transition of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are evaluated from optical absorption data and temperature dependent photoconductivity spectra. Structural properties of these films help the interpretation of bandgap transition nature, since the obtained nanosized dimensions of crystallites are determinant on dominant growth direction and, thus, absorption energy. Electronic properties of the bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces are also presented, calculated by means of density functional theory applied to periodic calculations at B3LYP hybrid functional level. Experimentally obtained absorption edge is compared to the calculated energy band diagrams of bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces. The overall calculated electronic properties in conjunction with structural and electro-optical experimental data suggest that the nature of the bandgap transition is related to a combined effect of bulk and (101 surface, which presents direct bandgap transition.

  8. Thickness measurement of Sn-Ag hot dip coatings on Large Hadron Collider Superconducting strands by coulometry

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Arnau-Izquierdo, G; Oberli, L R; Taborelli, M; 10.1149/1.1715094


    Amperostatic coulometry was applied for the thickness measurement of Sn-Ag hot dip coatings, which comprise an extended Sn-Cu interdiffusion layer. Complementary measurements, notably weight loss, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy were performed in order to obtain a better interpretation of the coulometry results. Based on the experimental results presented in this article, the three potential changes observed during coulometry measurements are ascribed to (i) the entire dissolution of pure Sn, (ii) the formation of a CuCl salt layer, and (iii) the surface passivation. The measurement of the pure Sn mass is well reproducible despite strong coating thickness variations detected by XRF. Several experimental problems, in particular, a coating undercutting, hamper the determination of the Sn mass in the intermetallic Sn-Cu layer. (19 refs).

  9. 'Dip-sticks' calibration handles self-attenuation and coincidence effects in large-volume gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolterbeek, H T


    Routine gamma-spectrometric analyses of samples with low-level activities (e.g. food, water, environmental and industrial samples) are often performed in large samples, placed close to the detector. In these geometries, detection sensitivity is improved but large errors are introduced due to self-attenuation and coincidence summing. Current approaches to these problems comprise computational methods and spiked standard materials. However, the first are often regarded as too complex for practical routine use, the latter never fully match real samples. In the present study, we introduce a dip-sticks calibration as a fast and easy practical solution to this quantification problem in a routine analytical setting. In the proposed set-up, calibrations are performed within the sample itself, thus making it a broadly accessible matching-reference approach, which is principally usable for all sample matrices.

  10. Micropatterning of hydrogels on locally hydrophilized regions on PDMS by stepwise solution dipping and in situ gelation. (United States)

    Sugaya, Sari; Kakegawa, Shunta; Fukushima, Shizuka; Yamada, Masumi; Seki, Minoru


    This study presents a simple but highly versatile method of fabricating picoliter-volume hydrogel patterns on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates. Hydrophilic regions were prepared on hydrophobic PDMS plates by trapping and melting functional polymer particles and performing subsequent reactions with partially oxidized dextran. Small aliquots of a gelation solution were selectively trapped on the hydrophilic areas by a simple dipping process that was utilized to make thin hydrogel patterns by the in situ gelation of a sol solution. Using this process, we successfully formed calcium alginate, collagen I, and chitosan hydrogels with a thickness of several micrometers and shapes that followed the hydrophilized regions. In addition, alginate and collagen gel patterns were used to capture cells with different adhesion properties selectively on or off the hydrogel structures. The presented strategy could be applicable to the preparation of a variety of hydrogels for the development of functional biosensors, bioreactors, and cell cultivation platforms.

  11. Berberine as an Environmental-Friendly Inhibitor for Hot-Dip Coated Steels in Diluted Hydrochloric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Ju; Yulin Ju; Yan Li


    The inhibition effect of an excellent environmental-friendly corrosion inhibitor--berberine on hot-dip coated steels in the diluted HCI has been investigated by using quantum chemistry analysis, mass-loss tests, elec- trochemical measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Calculation results show that berberine has a nearly planar structure with a number of active centers. The value of Mulliken charge, and the distribution of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lower unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) imply that berberine has a good ability of electron exchange with metal surface. The test results indicate that inhibition efficiency (IE%) increases with the inhibitor concentration and the highest IE can reach 99%. Adsorption of berberine on the coating surface follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a single molecular layer by chemisorption.

  12. Growth and corrosion resistance of molybdate modified zinc phosphate conversion coatings on hot-dip galvanized steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The modified zinc phosphate conversion coatings(ZPC) were formed on hot-dip galvanized(HDG) steel when 1.0 g/L sodium molybdate were added in a traditional zinc phosphate solution. The growth performance and corrosion resistance of the modified ZPC were investigated by SEM, open circuit potential(OCP), mass gain, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) measurements and compared with those of the traditional ZPC. The results show that if sodium molybdate is added in a traditional zinc phosphate solution, the nucleation of zinc phosphate crystals is increased obviously; zinc phosphate crystals are changed from bulky acicular to fine flake and a more compact ZPC is obtained. Moreover, the mass gain and coverage of the modified ZPC are also boosted. The corrosion resistance of ZPI is increased with an increase in coverage, and thus the corrosion protection ability of the modified ZPC for HDG steel is more outstanding than that of the traditional ZPC.

  13. DNA immunoprecipitation semiconductor sequencing (DIP-SC-seq) as a rapid method to generate genome wide epigenetic signatures. (United States)

    Thomson, John P; Fawkes, Angie; Ottaviano, Raffaele; Hunter, Jennifer M; Shukla, Ruchi; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Clark, Richard; Coutts, Audrey; Murphy, Lee; Meehan, Richard R


    Modification of DNA resulting in 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has been shown to influence the local chromatin environment and affect transcription. Although recent advances in next generation sequencing technology allow researchers to map epigenetic modifications across the genome, such experiments are often time-consuming and cost prohibitive. Here we present a rapid and cost effective method of generating genome wide DNA modification maps utilising commercially available semiconductor based technology (DNA immunoprecipitation semiconductor sequencing; "DIP-SC-seq") on the Ion Proton sequencer. Focussing on the 5hmC mark we demonstrate, by directly comparing with alternative sequencing strategies, that this platform can successfully generate genome wide 5hmC patterns from as little as 500 ng of genomic DNA in less than 4 days. Such a method can therefore facilitate the rapid generation of multiple genome wide epigenetic datasets.

  14. Stability of High Slope Interbedded Strata with Low Dip Angle Constituted by Soft and Hard Rock Mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓荣贵; 周德培; 张倬元


    Slopes consisting of interbedded strata of soft and hard rock mass, such as purplish red mudstone and grey-brown arkosic sandstone of Jurassic age, are very common in Sichuan basin of China. The mudstone is soft while the sandstone is hard and contains many opening or closing joints with a high dip angle. Some are nearly parallel and the others are nearly decussated with the trend of the slopes. Many natural slopes are in deformation or sliding because of those reasons. The stability of cutting slopes and supporting method to be taken for their stability in civil engineering are important. In this paper, the stability and deformation of the slopes are studied. The methods of analysis and support design principle are analyzed also. Finally, the method put forward is applied to study Fengdian high cutting slope in Sichuan section of the express way from Chengdu to Shanghai. The results indicate that the method is effective.

  15. Integrated application of gravity and seismic methods for determining the dip angle of a fault plane: Case of Mahjouba fault (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa) (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Hajji, O.; Jallouli, C.


    A procedure for a dip angle determination of a fault plane from gravity field data is presented to constrain a seismic profile interpretation. This procedure is applied on Mahjouba normal fault at the western border of Kalaa Khesba graben (Central Tunisian Atlas Province, North Africa). Seismic and detailed gravity data, in this region, were analyzed to provide more constraints on the geometry of the fault dip angle. The Mahjouba fault is mapped as three major parallel lineaments extended for 2 km with a NW-SE to N-S trend. The dip of the Mahjouba fault is estimated from the gravity modeling data to be 45°E. This study reveals that integrating gravity and seismic data provides accurate mapping of faults geometry and such result provides useful information and constraints on the exploration of natural resources.

  16. ZFN-mediated gene targeting of the Arabidopsis protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene through Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip transformation. (United States)

    de Pater, Sylvia; Pinas, Johan E; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J


    Previously, we showed that ZFN-mediated induction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the intended recombination site enhanced the frequency of gene targeting (GT) at an artificial target locus using Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip transformation. Here, we designed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) for induction of DSBs in the natural protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) gene, which can be conveniently utilized for GT experiments. Wild-type Arabidopsis plants and plants expressing the ZFNs were transformed via floral dip transformation with a repair T-DNA with an incomplete PPO gene, missing the 5' coding region but containing two mutations rendering the enzyme insensitive to the herbicide butafenacil as well as an extra KpnI site for molecular analysis of GT events. Selection on butafenacil yielded 2 GT events for the wild type with a frequency of 0.8 × 10⁻³ per transformation event and 8 GT events for the ZFNs expressing plant line with a frequency of 3.1 × 10⁻³ per transformation event. Molecular analysis using PCR and Southern blot analysis showed that 9 of the GT events were so-called true GT events, repaired via homologous recombination (HR) at the 5' and the 3' end of the gene. One plant line contained a PPO gene repaired only at the 5' end via HR. Most plant lines contained extra randomly integrated T-DNA copies. Two plant lines did not contain extra T-DNAs, and the repaired PPO genes in these lines were transmitted to the next generation in a Mendelian fashion.

  17. ZFN-induced mutagenesis and gene-targeting in Arabidopsis through Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip transformation. (United States)

    de Pater, Sylvia; Neuteboom, Leon W; Pinas, Johan E; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J


    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are artificial restriction enzymes, custom designed for induction of double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a specific locus. These DSBs may result in site-specific mutagenesis or homologous recombination at the repair site, depending on the DNA repair pathway that is used. These promising techniques for genome engineering were evaluated in Arabidopsis plants using Agrobacterium-mediated floral dip transformation. A T-DNA containing the target site for a ZFN pair, that was shown to be active in yeast, was integrated in the Arabidopsis genome. Subsequently, the corresponding pair of ZFN genes was stably integrated in the Arabidopsis genome and ZFN activity was determined by PCR and sequence analysis of the target site. Footprints were obtained in up to 2% of the PCR products, consisting of deletions ranging between 1 and 200 bp and insertions ranging between 1 and 14 bp. We did not observe any toxicity from expression of the ZFNs. In order to obtain ZFN-induced gene-targeting (GT), Arabidopsis plants containing the target site and expressing the ZFN pair were transformed with a T-DNA GT construct. Three GT plants were obtained from approximately 3000 transformants. Two of these represent heritable true GT events, as determined by PCR, Southern blot analysis and sequencing of the resulting recombined locus. The third plant showed an ectopic GT event. No GT plants were obtained in a comparable number of transformants that did not contain the ZFNs. Our results demonstrate that ZFNs enhance site-specific mutagenesis and gene-targeting of Agrobacterium T-DNA constructs delivered through floral dip transformation.

  18. BdlA, DipA and Induced Dispersion Contribute to Acute Virulence and Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (United States)

    Li, Yi; Petrova, Olga E.; Su, Shengchang; Lau, Gee W.; Panmanee, Warunya; Na, Renuka; Hassett, Daniel J.; Davies, David G.; Sauer, Karin


    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of causing both acute and chronic infections. Differences in virulence are attributable to the mode of growth: bacteria growing planktonically cause acute infections, while bacteria growing in matrix-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms are associated with chronic, persistent infections. While the contribution of the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth to virulence is now widely accepted, little is known about the role of dispersion in virulence, the active process by which biofilm bacteria switch back to the planktonic mode of growth. Here, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa dispersed cells display a virulence phenotype distinct from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. While the highest activity of cytotoxic and degradative enzymes capable of breaking down polymeric matrix components was detected in supernatants of planktonic cells, the enzymatic activity of dispersed cell supernatants was similar to that of biofilm supernatants. Supernatants of non-dispersing ΔbdlA biofilms were characterized by a lack of many of the degradative activities. Expression of genes contributing to the virulence of P. aeruginosa was nearly 30-fold reduced in biofilm cells relative to planktonic cells. Gene expression analysis indicated dispersed cells, while dispersing from a biofilm and returning to the single cell lifestyle, to be distinct from both biofilm and planktonic cells, with virulence transcript levels being reduced up to 150-fold compared to planktonic cells. In contrast, virulence gene transcript levels were significantly increased in non-dispersing ΔbdlA and ΔdipA biofilms compared to wild-type planktonic cells. Despite this, bdlA and dipA inactivation, resulting in an inability to disperse in vitro, correlated with reduced pathogenicity and competitiveness in cross-phylum acute virulence models. In contrast, bdlA inactivation rendered P. aeruginosa more persistent upon chronic colonization of the murine lung

  19. Effect of Mg content on microstructure and corrosion behavior of hot dipped Zn–Al–Mg coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Caizhen; Lv, Haibing [Research Centre of Laser Fusion, CAEP, P.O.Box 919-988-5, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Zhu, Tianping [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, PB 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Zheng, Wanguo [Research Centre of Laser Fusion, CAEP, P.O.Box 919-988-5, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Yuan, Xiaodong, E-mail: [Research Centre of Laser Fusion, CAEP, P.O.Box 919-988-5, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Gao, Wei, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, PB 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)


    In this article, Zn–Al–Mg coatings were prepared by hot dipping method. The surface morphology, cross–section microstructure, microhardness, composition, corrosion behaviour of ZAM coatings were investigated by using X–ray diffraction (XRD), Optical microscope, Environmental scanning electron microscopy equipped with EDS (FESEM–EDS), Microhardness tester and Electrochemical analysis respectively. Corrosion test was also performed in a standard salt fog spray chamber. Microstructure studies indicates that Zn grain size was refined and eutectic areas at Zn grain boundary areas increased with increasing Mg content. ZA5M1.5 and ZA5M2 coatings have two distinct layers. Mg tends to exist in the outer layer while Al is in the inner layer. The inner layer is composed of Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}Zn{sub 0.4} intermetallic, which may to contribute to the microhardness. The outer layer is Zn grains surrounded by Zn–Mg etutectics, which may improve the corrosion resistance. The microhardness is more than 700 HV{sub 50g} for Al-rich layer and around 151 HV{sub 25g} for Mg-rich layer. The improved corrosion resistance of Zn–5%Al-1.5%Mg coating comes from the corrosion product of flocculent type simonkolleite, which prolongs the micro-path and impedes the movement of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, ultimately retards the overall corrosion process. - Highlights: • Two-layer structured Zn–Al–Mg coatings were prepared by hot dipping method. • Mg exists in the outer layer while Al exists in the inner layer of Zn–Al–Mg coating. • Zn–Al–Mg coating has better protective ability than Zn and Zn–Al coatings. • The Mg-modified simonkolleite is the reason of the enhanced corrosion resistance.

  20. RAM-SCB simulations of electron transport and plasma wave scattering during the October 2012 "double-dip" storm (United States)

    Jordanova, V. K.; Tu, W.; Chen, Y.; Morley, S. K.; Panaitescu, A.-D.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.


    Mechanisms for electron injection, trapping, and loss in the near-Earth space environment are investigated during the October 2012 "double-dip" storm using our ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB). Pitch angle and energy scattering are included for the first time in RAM-SCB using L and magnetic local time (MLT)-dependent event-specific chorus wave models inferred from NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science observations. The dynamics of the source (approximately tens of keV) and seed (approximately hundreds of keV) populations of the radiation belts simulated with RAM-SCB is compared with Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer observations in the morning sector and with measurements from NOAA 15 satellite in the predawn and afternoon MLT sectors. We find that although the low-energy (E< 100 keV) electron fluxes are in good agreement with observations, increasing significantly by magnetospheric convection during both SYM-H dips while decreasing during the intermediate recovery phase, the injection of high-energy electrons is underestimated by this mechanism throughout the storm. Local acceleration by chorus waves intensifies the electron fluxes at E≥50 keV considerably, and RAM-SCB simulations overestimate the observed trapped fluxes by more than an order of magnitude; the precipitating fluxes simulated with RAM-SCB are weaker, and their temporal and spatial evolutions agree well with POES/Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors data.

  1. Spontaneous formation of nanopatterns in velocity-dependent dip-coated organic films: from dragonflies to stripes. (United States)

    Corrales, Tomas P; Bai, Mengjun; del Campo, Valeria; Homm, Pia; Ferrari, Piero; Diama, Armand; Wagner, Christian; Taub, Haskell; Knorr, Klaus; Deutsch, Moshe; Retamal, Maria Jose; Volkmann, Ulrich G; Huber, Patrick


    We present an experimental study of the micro- and mesoscopic structure of thin films of medium length n-alkane molecules on the native oxide layer of a silicon surface, prepared by dip-coating in a n-C32H66/n-heptane solution. Electron micrographs reveal two distinct adsorption morphologies depending on the substrate withdrawal speed v. For small v, dragonfly-shaped molecular islands are observed. For a large v, stripes parallel to the withdrawal direction are observed. These have lengths of a few hundred micrometers and a few micrometer lateral separation. For a constant v, the stripes' quality and separation increase with the solution concentration. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy show that both patterns are 4.2 nm thick monolayers of fully extended, surface-normal-aligned alkane molecules. With increasing v, the surface coverage first decreases then increases for v > v(cr) ∼ 0.15 mm/s. The critical v(cr) marks a transition between the evaporation regime, where the solvent's meniscus remains at the bulk's surface, and the entrainment (Landau-Levich-Deryaguin) regime, where the solution is partially dragged by the substrate, covering the withdrawn substrate by a homogeneous film. The dragonflies are single crystals with habits determined by dendritic growth in prominent 2D crystalline directions of randomly seeded nuclei assumed to be quasi-hexagonal. The stripes' strong crystalline texture and the well-defined separation are due to an anisotropic 2D crystallization in narrow liquid fingers, which result from a Marangoni flow driven hydrodynamic instability in the evaporating dip-coated films, akin to the tears of wine phenomenology.

  2. Measuring the Earth’s magnetic field dip angle using a smartphone-aided setup: a simple experiment for introductory physics laboratories (United States)

    Arabasi, Sameer; Al-Taani, Hussein


    Measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field dip angle is a widely used experiment in most introductory physics laboratories. In this paper we propose a smartphone-aided setup that takes advantage of the smartphone’s magnetometer sensor to measure the Earth’s magnetic field dip angle. This set-up will help students visualize the vector nature of the Earth’s magnetic field, especially high school and first year college students who are not quite experienced with vectors. This set-up is affordable and easy to use and could be easily produced by any high school or college physics instructor.

  3. Dip coating process: Silicon sheet growth development for the large-area silicon sheet task of the low-cost silicon solar array project (United States)

    Heaps, J. D.; Maciolek, R. B.; Harrison, W. B.; Wolner, H. A.


    The research program to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of producing solar-cell-quality sheet silicon by dip-coating one surface of carbonized ceramic substrates with a thin layer of large-grain polycrystalline silicon is reported. The initial effort concentrated on the design and construction of the experimental dip-coating facility. The design was completed and its experimental features are discussed. Current status of the program is reported, including progress toward solar cell junction diffusion and miscellaneous ceramic substrate procurement.

  4. Mesures magnétiques de l'aimant dipôle 097 révisé de type MBA

    CERN Document Server

    Dutour, J


    Dans l'anneau SPS, les dipôles MBA et MBB sont installés depuis 1975 (assemblés au CERN, Réf. 1 et 2). Lorsque certains de ces aimants sont défectueux, ils sont révisés: changement de chambre, isolation, etc. Après révision, il est nécessaire de contrôler leurs caractéristiques magnétiques. C'est le cas du dipôle MBA 097.

  5. Endocytosis of the Aspartic Acid/Glutamic Acid Transporter Dip5 Is Triggered by Substrate-Dependent Recruitment of the Rsp5 Ubiquitin Ligase via the Arrestin-Like Protein Aly2 ▿ (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Riko; Kamiya, Masao; Takahara, Terunao; Maeda, Tatsuya


    Endocytosis of nutrient transporters is stimulated under various conditions, such as elevated nutrient availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, endocytosis is triggered by ubiquitination of transporters catalyzed by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5. However, how the ubiquitination is accelerated under certain conditions remains obscure. Here we demonstrate that closely related proteins Aly2/Art3 and Aly1/Art6, which are poorly characterized members of the arrestin-like protein family, mediate endocytosis of the aspartic acid/glutamic acid transporter Dip5. In aly2Δ cells, Dip5 is stabilized at the plasma membrane and is not endocytosed efficiently. Efficient ubiquitination of Dip5 is dependent on Aly2. aly1Δ cells also show deficiency in Dip5 endocytosis, although less remarkably than aly2Δ cells. Aly2 physically interacts in vivo with Rsp5 at its PY motif and also with Dip5, thus serving as an adaptor linking Rsp5 with Dip5 to achieve Dip5 ubiquitination. Importantly, the interaction between Aly2 and Dip5 is accelerated in response to elevated aspartic acid availability. This result indicates that the regulation of Dip5 endocytosis is accomplished by dynamic recruitment of Rsp5 via Aly2. PMID:20956561

  6. Drag—An EXCEL visual basic program for modeling fault drag using cubic splines and calculation of minimum dip and strike separation (United States)

    Ozkaya, S. I.; Mattner, J.


    An EXCEL visual basic program is presented for modeling fault drag using cubic splines. The objective of the program is to estimate minimum dip and strike separation using dip measurements in the vicinity of a fault. The program is useful especially for estimating stratigraphic separation in the subsurface environment where only limited structural information is available from dipmeter logs. A modified cubic spline curve fitting procedure is used to model bedding trace within the fault drag zone. The solution procedure is based on the assumption that the dip angle is the same at equal distances away from the fault trace on a cross-section or map projection within the fault drag zone on the same side of the fault. On a cross-section perpendicular to the strike of a fault, the distance between the points of intersection of the fault trace with dragged bed and projection of the undisturbed bed gives half of the minimum dip separation. On a map projection, this distance is equal to half of the strike separation.

  7. Discovery of periodic dips in the light curve of GX 13+1: the X-ray orbital ephemeris of the source

    CERN Document Server

    Iaria, R; Burderi, L; Riggio, A; D'Ai, A; Robba, N R


    The bright low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) GX 13+1 is one of the most peculiar Galactic binary systems. A periodicity of 24.27 d with a formal statistical error of 0.03 d was observed in its power spectrum density obtained with RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) data spanning 14 years. Starting from a recent study, indicating GX 13+1 as a possible dipping source candidate, we systematically searched for periodic dips in the X-ray light curves of GX 13+1 from 1996 up to 2013 using RXTE/ASM, and MAXI data to determine for the first time the X-ray orbital ephemeris of GX 13+1. We searched for a periodic signal in the ASM and MAXI light curves, finding a common periodicity of 24.53 d. We folded the 1.3-5 keV and 5-12.1 keV ASM light curves and the 2-4 and 4-10 keV MAXI light curves at the period of 24.53 d finding a periodic dip. To refine the value of the period we used the timing technique dividing the ASM light curve in eight intervals and the MAXI light curve in two intervals, obtaining four and two dip arrival times fr...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏静; 范翔宇; 刘跃辉; 陈林; 罗庆


    地层倾角测井是一种在裸眼井中探测地层面空间位置的测井方法,主要通过测量地层倾角及其倾斜方位角来研究各种地质问题,对指导油气田的勘探开发具有重要意义.本文论述了地层倾角测井资料的地质应用,包括地质构造的识别、最大地应力的判断、沉积环境的研究以及裂缝的识别四个方面,并结合油田实例,说明了这些方法的具体应用特点及效果.%Dip logging is a logging method to detect the spatial position of formation in an open hole. Stratigraphic dip and dip azimuth are used to study different kinds of geological problems which are of great significance in supervising oil and gas field exploration and development.This paper discusses the geological application of dip logging data including i-dentification of geological structure, estimation of the largest crustal stress, research of depositional environment and identification of fractures. It also explains the application features and effect of the methods combing with field cases.

  9. Modal dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fibers encompass a central dip in the core index profile (United States)

    El-Diasty, Fouad; El-Hennawi, H. A.; El-Ghandoor, H.; Soliman, Mona A.


    Intermodal and intramodal dispersions signify one of the problems in graded-index multi-mode optical fibers (GRIN) used for LAN communication systems and for sensing applications. A central index dip (depression) in the profile of core refractive-index may occur due to the CVD fabrication processes. The index dip may also be intentionally designed to broaden the fundamental mode field profile toward a plateau-like distribution, which have advantages for fiber-source connections, fiber amplifiers and self-imaging applications. Effect of core central index dip on the propagation parameters of GRIN fiber, such as intermodal dispersion, intramodal dispersion and root-mean-square broadening, is investigated. The conventional methods usually study optical signal propagation in optical fiber in terms of mode characteristics and the number of modes, but in this work multiple-beam Fizeau interferometry is proposed as an inductive but alternative methodology to afford a radial approach to determine dispersion, pulse broadening and maximum transmission rate in GRIN optical fiber having a central index dip.

  10. Surface Coating of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys with Calcium Phosphates by Dip-coating or Plasma-spraying-biological Characterization Examined by in vitro Testing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influence of different surface coatings of NiTi shape memory alloys was examined using in vitro testing methods. Plates of superelastic nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi) were coated with calcium phosphates (hydroxyapatite) by high-temperature plasma-spraying or by dip-coating. The biocompatibility was tested in vitro by cultivation of isolated human granulocytes and whole blood cells. As substrates, pure NiTi,plasma-spray-coated NiTi and dip-coated NiTi were used. Isolated granulocytes showed an increased adhesion to both calcium phosphate-coated NiTi samples. Compared to non-coated NiTi or dip-coated NiTi, the number of dead granulocytes adherent to plasma-sprayed surfaces was significantly increased (p < 0.01). Whether the differences in apoptosis of granulocytes on dip-coated vs plasma-sprayed coatings observed are due to differences in material surface morphologies bas to be analyzed in further studies. Because of the cellular interactions with the coating layers, it is likely that the results obtained are not caused by the underlying NiTi but due to the coating itself.

  11. Hydrodynamics of dip-coated thin films in the presence of evaporation, and, Surfactant structures controlling spontaneous dewetting (United States)

    Qu, Dan

    In this dissertation, we discuss the investigation of two problems in dynamic wetting: the hydrodynamics of dip-coated, finite-length films of evaporative fluids and the surfactant structures controlling the spontaneous dewetting of a surfactant solution. While films pulled from non-volatile fluids on a vertical substrate are essentially infinite in length, films pulled from volatile fluids have a finite length. We examine such finite films using three well-controlled oligomer liquids as well as surfactant solutions. We find that the finite length of the film is controlled by a global balance between mass lost by evaporation and mass input by viscous forces. While the attendant thermally driven Marangoni flows have small impact on the mass balance, they do alter the velocity field in the film in the direction parallel to the substrate. Using measured film profiles, wit have developed a novel method to determine the combined effects of evaporation and Marangoni flow on velocity and pressure fields in the film. This method is independent of any specific model of the evaporation process. In preliminary studies with surfactant solutions, we observed strong effects of solutal Marangoni flows on dip-coated films. For the second problem, we examine the structures of self-assemblies left on a solid as a contact line spontaneously retreats across a surface during an autophobing event. We find that surfactants of a continuous structural gradient are deposited: from molecules lying down on the surface with low packing densities in a region never touched by the solution, to molecules standing up with higher packing densities in a region where the contact line has moved slowly. Despite significant free volumes within the self-assemblies, we see no evidence of clustering of molecules. We see a clear correlation between contact line speed and the surfactant structures. We show that the dynamics during at least a later period of the autophobing event is dominated by the time

  12. The Role of Magmatic and Volcanic Loads in Generating Seaward Dipping Reflector Structures on Volcanic Rifted Margins (United States)

    Tian, X.; Buck, W. R.


    The largest volcanic constructs on Earth are the seismically imaged seaward dipping reflector (SDR) units found offshore of many rifted continental margins, including a large portion that border the Atlantic Ocean. There is considerable controversy over whether their formation requires large offset (i.e. 10s of km) normal faults or not. Although there is some evidence for faulting in association with SDRs, we here show that a wide range of SDRs structures can be produced solely by volcanic loading. To do this we first derive a simple analytic description of a particular type of volcanic construct. We assume that the increase in density when fluid magma in a dike solidifies provides load at the rift center onto the end of a lithospheric plate. Extrusives are assumed to form flat-topped layers that fill in the flexural depression produced by the load of the solidified dike. The thin-plate flexure approximation is used to calculate the deflections due to the vertical load. This simple model produces structures similar to the observed SDRs. Expressions for the maximum thickness of the volcanic pile and the dip of an individual SDR are derived in terms of the flexure parameter and material densities. Asymmetry of SDR units seen across some conjugate margins can be explained with this model if periodic offsets, or jumps of the center of magmatism are included. In addition, we developed a numerical model of lithospheric extension, magma intrusion and volcanism with a temperature dependent elasto-viscous and brittle-plastic rheology. Results of these 2D cross-sectional models with fixed thermal structure confirm the qualitative predictions of the analytic model without the simplified uniform plate assumption. Preliminary results suggest that the rapid subsidence of SDRs, inferred for some rifted margins, can occur if magma is supplied only to the brittle upper layer and the hot weak lower crust is thinned by stretching. This numerical approach may also allow us to test

  13. Terrane daylight mapping on large dip-slope terrain based on high-resolution DTM and semi-automatic geoprocessing processes (United States)

    Yeh, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Lang; Chan, Yu-Chang; Chang, Kuo-Jen; Hsieh, Yu-Chung


    "Daylight" in slope engineering means a lineament appearing on the ground surface casued by a internal weak plane of a rock slope. The morphology of the daylight implies the free surface condition of the rock mass upper the weak plane, directly affecting the slope stability and safety. Traditionally, the reconnaissance of daylight employs field investigation and drillings in local dip slope area, but when mapping in large area, it would be subjected to vegetation cover and budget limitation to get a simply result not used for engineering applications. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable mapping program based on high-resolution DTM, and to generate a large-scale daylight map for large dip slope area. The methodology can be divided into two phases: the first is re-mapping terrane boundary lineaments using LiDAR data and 3D GIS mapping technology; the second is automatically mapping daylight tracks by trend surface analysis and python scripts based on above terrane boundary lineaments. This study takes the area of Keelung River north bank, which is mainly cuesta topography, for an example. Recently, in the area, the frequency of dip slope landslide occurrence becomes more higher because of human development. One major reason to cause the daylight appearing on downslope is the slope toe cutting or river incision. Hereby, according to the final results of the daylight map, we can assess where the potential landsides dip slops are, and further differentiate three different risks of dip slope from the daylight's morphology, expecting to provide more detail engineering and geological information for furture engineering site selection and the design and application of disaster prevention.

  14. RAM-SCB Simulations of Electron Transport and Plasma Wave Scattering During the October 2012 double-dip Storm (United States)

    Jordanova, V.


    The mechanisms for particle injection in the near-Earth space environment and their subsequent trapping or loss have been studied for many years, however, their theoretical evaluation and implementation in numerical models remain challenging. We address these outstanding questions using our RAM-SCB model that couples the kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model with an Euler potential-based three-dimensional plasma equilibrium code. We simulate wave-particle interactions on a global scale using L and MLT-dependent event-specific wave models and investigate the fast dropout of the radiation belts during the October 2012 "double-dip" storm event. The calculated cold plasma densities with a coupled time-dependent 2-D plasmasphere model show good agreement with in situ EMFISIS observations along the Van Allen Probes' orbits. The simulated with RAM-SCB precipitating electron fluxes are compared with measurements of electron precipitation by multiple NOAA satellites during the investigated storm event. The combined effects from radial transport and scattering by plasma waves on ring current and radiation belt dynamics are evaluated.

  15. Electrochemical Behavior and Microstructure of Recyclable Aluminium-magmesium Alloy Hot-dip Coating Deposited on Low Carbon Steel Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panomkorn KWAKHONG; Apichart ARTNASEAW; Chaiyaput KRUEHONG


    With the abundance and good corrosion resistance of aluminium, hot-dip technique was used to prepare the recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating on low carbon steel substrates. Electrochemical behavior of this coating was investigated by an-odic polarization and open circuit potential measurement. Its microstructure and composition were observed by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The long lasting corrosion performance of coated steels was in-vestigated under the salt fog spray test. From anodic polarization curves and open circuit potential, recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg coating performed adequate sacriifcial ability. At 0.40 V, current density of recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating was about 200 000 times higher than that of pure recycled Al coating, and was about 0.5 times lower than that of Zn coating. The microstruc-ture of recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coating on the steel substrate consisted of Al3Mg2, Al-Fe intermetallic compound and Al matrix. The results from salt fog spray test showed that recycled Al with 8.2 mass% Mg alloy coated steel had similar corrosion resistance ability to Zn coated steel.

  16. Optical enhancement of Au doped ZrO2 thin films by sol-gel dip coating method (United States)

    John Berlin, I.; Joy, K.


    Homogeneous and transparent Au doped ZrO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The films have mixed phase of tetragonal, monoclinic and face centered cubic with crack free surface. Due to the increase in Au doping concentration many-body interaction occurs between free carriers and ionized impurities causing decrease in optical band gap from 5.72 to 5.40 eV. Localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the Au doped films appeared at 610 nm. Conversion of photons to surface plasmons allows the sub-wavelength manipulation of electromagnetic radiation. Hence the prepared Au doped ZrO2 thin films can be applied in nanoscale photonic devices such as lenses, switches, waveguides etc. Moreover the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of Au doped ZrO2 thin films decrease due to decrease in the radiative recombination, life time of the excitons and suppression of grain growth of ZrO2 with increasing Au dopant.

  17. Characterization of Ni-doped TiO2 thin films deposited by dip-coating technique (United States)

    Kharoubi, Abdelmalek; Bouaza, A.; Benrabah, B.; Ammari, A.; Khiali, A.


    Undoped and Ni-doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method on glass and silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction studies show that both TiO2 and Ni-doped TiO2 thin films are of anatase phase with (1 0 1) as preferential orientation. From the UV-visible spectroscopy analysis, all films exhibits a high transparency ~ 80% and shows that the optical band gap decreases from 3.66 to 3.59 eV, which may be related with the phase composition and impurities. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the presence of Ti-O, Ti=O and O-H bands. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetriy (DSC) shows endothermic reactions between 30 °C and 280 °C and exothermic reactions between 370 °C and 540 °C corresponding to the crystallization of TiO2 in the anatase phase. The Nyquist plots suggests that the equivalent circuit of the films is an RpCp parallel circuit and shows an increase in resistance Rp with increasing the Ni concentration and a decrease in capacity Cp.

  18. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sivakumar; V Senthil Kumar; N Muthukumarasamy; M Thambidurai; T S Senthil


    ZnO nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating method. ZnO thin films have been coated at room temperature and at four different pH values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that ZnO nanocrystalline thin films are of hexagonal structure and the grain size was found to be in the range of 25–45 nm. Scanning electron microscopic images show that the surface morphology improves with increase of pH values. TEM analysis reveals formation of ZnO nanocrystalline with an average grain size of 44 nm. The compositional analysis results show that Zn and O are present in the sample. Optical band studies show that the films are highly transparent and exhibit a direct bandgap. The bandgap has been found to lie in the range of 3.14–3.32 eV depending on pH suggesting the formation of ZnO nanocrystalline thin films.

  19. Electrochemical methods for corrosion testing of Ce-based coating prepared on AA6060 alloy by dip immersion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Bore V.


    Full Text Available Dip-immersion is simple and cost-effective method for the preparation of Ce-based conversion coatings (CeCCs, a promising alternative to the toxic chromate coatings, on the metal substrates. In this work CeCCs were prepared on Al-alloy AA6060 from aqueous solution of cerium chloride at room temperature. Effect of immersion time and post-treatment in phosphate solution on the microstructure and corrosion properties of the coatings was studied. The longer immersion time, the thicker but nonhomogeneous and cracked CeCCs. The post-treatment contributed to the sealing of cracks, as proven by an increase in corrosion resistance compared with as-deposited coatings. CeCCs prepared at longer deposition time and post-treated showed much better corrosion protection than those prepared at short deposition time. A detailed EIS study was undertaken to follow the evolution of corrosion behaviour of CeCCs with time of exposure to aggressive chloride environment (3.5 % NaCl. For the sake of comparison, the EIS properties of bare AA6060 were also investigated. A linear voltammetry was performed to complete the study. Results confirmed a formation of protective CeCCs on AA6060 surface. However, even CeCCs prepared at longer deposition time and post-treated provided a short term protection in aggressive environment, due to the small thickness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i br. III 45012

  20. Grafting Carbon Nanotubes on Glass Fiber by Dip Coating Technique to Enhance Tensile and Interfacial Shear Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Dastorian Jamnani


    Full Text Available The effects of noncovalent bonding and mechanical interlocking of carbon nanotubes (CNT coating on tensile and interfacial strength of glass fiber were investigated. CNT were coated over glass fiber by a simple dip coating method. Acid treated CNT were suspended in isopropanol solution containing Nafion as binding agent. To achieve uniform distribution of CNT over the glass fiber, an optimized dispersion process was developed by two parameters: CNT concentration and soaking time. CNT concentration was varied from 0.4 to 2 mg/mL and soaking time was varied from 1 to 180 min. The provided micrographs demonstrated appropriate coating of CNT on glass fiber by use of CNT-Nafion mixture. The effects of CNT concentration and soaking time on coating layer were studied by performing single fiber tensile test and pull-out test. The obtained results showed that the optimum CNT concentration and soaking time were 1 mg/mL and 60 min, respectively, which led to significant improvement of tensile strength and interfacial shear stress. It was found that, at other concentrations and soaking times, CNT agglomeration or acutely curly tubes appeared over the fiber surface which caused a reduction of nanotubes interaction on the glass fiber.