WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun spot cycle

  1. Spots, activity cycles, and differential rotation on cool stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, I. Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The first results are reported from a search for activity cycles in stars similar to the sun based on modelling their spotting with an algorithm developed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory. Of the more than thirty program stars, 10 manifested a cyclical variation in their central latitudes and total starspot area. The observed cycles have durations of 4-15 years, i.e., analogous to the 11 year Schwabe sunspot cycle. Most of the stars have a rough analog of the solar butterfly pattern, with a reduction in the average latitude of the spots as their area increases. A flip-flop effect during the epoch of the maximum average latitude is noted in a number of these objects (e.g., the analog LQ Hya of the young sun or the RS CVn-type variable V711 Tau), as well as a reduction in the photometric rotation period of a star as the spots drift toward the equator, an analog of the differential rotation effect in the sun. Unlike in the sun, the observed spot formation cycles do not correlate uniquely with other indicators of activity— chromospheric emission in the CaII HK lines (Be Cet, EK Dra, Dx Leo), H line emission (LQ Hya, VY Ari, EV Lac), or cyclical flare activity (EV Lac). In V833 Tau, BY Dra, EK Dra, and VY Ari short Schwabe cycles coexist with long cycles that are analogous to the Gleissberg solar cycle, in which the spotted area can approach half the entire area of the star.

  2. Observational confirmation of the Sun's CNO cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mozina, M; Manuel, O; Mozina, Michael; Ratcliffe, Hilton

    2005-01-01

    Gamma rays from a solar flare in Active Region 10039 on 23 July 2002 with the RHESSI spacecraft spectrometer indicate that the CNO cycle occurs at the solar surface, in electrical discharges along closed magnetic loops. At the two feet of the loop, H ions are accelerated to energy levels that surpass Coulomb barriers for the C-12[H-1, gamma]N-13 and N-14[H-1, gamma]O-15 reactions. First x-rays appear along the discharge path. Next annihilation of positrons from N-13 and O-15 [half-life = 10 m and 2 m] produce bright spots of 0.511 MeV gammas at the loop feet. As C-13 increases from positron decay of N-13, the C-13[He-4, n]O-16 reaction produces neutrons and then the 2.2 MeV emission line appears from n-capture on H-1. These results suggest that the CNO cycle changed the N-15/N-14 ratio in the solar wind and at the solar surface over geologic time, and this ratio may contain an important historical record of climate changes related to sunspot activity.

  3. The Sun's interior structure and dynamics, and the solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Broomhall, A -M; Howe, R; Norton, A A; Thompson, M J

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's internal structure and dynamics can be studied with helioseismology, which uses the Sun's natural acoustic oscillations to build up a profile of the solar interior. We discuss how solar acoustic oscillations are affected by the Sun's magnetic field. Careful observations of these effects can be inverted to determine the variations in the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior as the solar cycle progresses. Observed variations in the structure and dynamics can then be used to inform models of the solar dynamo, which are crucial to our understanding of how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and maintained.

  4. Spring on the Sun: A New Cycle of Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Irene

    2008-05-01

    Amateur German astronomer Samuel Heinrich Schwabe was searching for a planet inside Mercury's orbit when he made the serendipitous discovery of the Sun's cycle in 1843. Scientists later figured out that the cycle supplies the energy that drives space weather. But anticipating the start of a new 11-year solar cycle is a bit like waiting for spring: It's hard to tell sometimes when will be the year's final winter chill.

  5. ALMA Observations of the Sun in Cycle 4 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, S; Battaglia, M; Labrosse, N; Fleishman, G; Hudson, H; Antolin, P; Alissandrakis, C; Ayres, T; Ballester, J; Bastian, T; Black, J; Benz, A; Brajsa, R; Carlsson, M; Costa, J; DePontieu, B; Doyle, G; de Castro, G Gimenez; Gunár, S; Harper, G; Jafarzadeh, S; Loukitcheva, M; Nakariakov, V; Oliver, R; Schmieder, B; Selhorst, C; Shimojo, M; Simões, P; Soler, R; Temmer, M; Tiwari, S; Van Doorsselaere, T; Veronig, A; White, S; Yagoubov, P; Zaqarashvili, T

    2016-01-01

    This document was created by the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON) in preparation of the first regular observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), which are anticipated to start in ALMA Cycle 4 in October 2016. The science cases presented here demonstrate that a large number of scientifically highly interesting observations could be made already with the still limited solar observing modes foreseen for Cycle 4 and that ALMA has the potential to make important contributions to answering long-standing scientific questions in solar physics. With the proposal deadline for ALMA Cycle 4 in April 2016 and the Commissioning and Science Verification campaign in December 2015 in sight, several of the SSALMON Expert Teams composed strategic documents in which they outlined potential solar observations that could be feasible given the anticipated technical capabilities in Cycle 4. These documents have been combined and supplemented w...

  6. The reversal of the Sun's magnetic field in cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Mordvinov, Alexander V; Bertello, Luca; Petrie, Gordon J D

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of synoptic data from the Vector Stokes Magnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) and the NASA/NSO Spectromagnetograph (SPM) at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope facility shows that the reversals of solar polar magnetic fields exhibit elements of a stochastic process, which may include the development of specific patterns of emerging magnetic flux, and the asymmetry in activity between northern and southern hemispheres. The presence of such irregularities makes the modeling and prediction of polar field reversals extremely hard if possible. In a classical model of solar activity cycle, the unipolar magnetic regions (UMRs) of predominantly following polarity fields are transported polewards due to meridional flows and diffusion. The UMRs gradually cancel out the polar magnetic field of the previous cycle, and re-build the polar field of opposite polarity setting the stage for the next cycle. We show, however, that this deterministic picture can be easily a...

  7. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  8. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity — comparison with the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovskaya, Elena; Bruevich, Vasiliy; Bruevich, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycle, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with a low level of chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by its minimum level of coronal radiation and minimum level of variations in photospheric flux.

  9. Magnetic cycles of Sun-like stars with different levels of coronal and chromospheric activity -- comparison with the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Shimanovskaya, E V

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars is analyzed involving observations from HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, the California and Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories and the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. We show that for stars of F, G and K spectral classes, the cyclic activity, similar to the 11-yr solar cycles, is different: it becomes more prominent in K-stars. Comparative study of Sun-like stars with different levels of the chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the Sun belongs to stars with the low level of the chromospheric activity and stands apart among these stars by the minimum level of its coronal radiation and the minimum level of its variations of the photospheric flux.

  10. Spot cycle reconstruction: an empirical tool - Application to the sunspot cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, A R G; Avelino, P P; Campante, T L

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in understanding stellar magnetic activity cycles is a strong motivation for the development of parameterised starspot models which may be constrained observationally. In this work we develop an empirical tool for the stochastic reconstruction of sunspot cycles, using the average solar properties as a reference. The synthetic sunspot cycle is compared with the sunspot data extracted from the National Geophysical Data Center, in particular using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. This tool yields synthetic spot group records, including date, area, latitude, longitude, rotation rate of the solar surface at the group's latitude, and an identification number. Comparison of the stochastic reconstructions with the daily sunspot records (from the National Geophysical Data Center) confirms that our empirical model is able to successfully reproduce the main properties of the solar sunspot cycle. As a by-product of this work, we show that the Gnevyshev-Waldmeier rule, which describes the spots' area-l...

  11. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  12. Evolution of the cycles of magnetic activity of the Sun and Sun-like stars in time

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Artamonov, B P

    2016-01-01

    We applied the method of continuous wavelet-transform to the time-frequency analysis to the sets of observations of relative sunspot numbers, sunspot areas and to 6 Mount Wilson HK-project stars with well-defined magnetic cycles. Wavelet analysis of these data reveals the following pattern: at the same time there are several activity cycles whose periods vary widely from the quasi-biennial up to the centennial period for the Sun and vary significant during observations time of the HK-project stars. These relatively low-frequency periodic variations of the solar and stellar activity gradually change the values of periods of different cycles in time. This phenomenon can be observed in every cycles of activity

  13. Magnetic Evolution and the Disappearance of Sun-Like Activity Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Travis S.; van Saders, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    After decades of effort, the solar activity cycle is exceptionally well characterized, but it remains poorly understood. Pioneering work at the Mount Wilson Observatory demonstrated that other Sun-like stars also show regular activity cycles, and suggested two possible relationships between the rotation rate and the length of the cycle. Neither of these relationships correctly describes the properties of the Sun, a peculiarity that demands explanation. Recent discoveries have started to shed light on this issue, suggesting that the Sun's rotation rate and magnetic field are currently in a transitional phase that occurs in all middle-aged stars. Motivated by these developments, we identify the manifestation of this magnetic transition in the best available data on stellar cycles. We propose a reinterpretation of previously published observations to suggest that the solar cycle may be growing longer on stellar evolutionary timescales, and that the cycle might disappear sometime in the next 0.8 - 2.4 Gyr. Future tests of this hypothesis will come from ground-based activity monitoring of Kepler targets that span the magnetic transition, and from asteroseismology with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission to determine precise masses and ages for bright stars with known cycles.

  14. A Solar cycle correlation of coronal element abundances in Sun-as-a-star observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David H.; Baker, Deborah; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Warren, Harry P.

    2017-08-01

    The elemental composition in the coronae of low-activity solar-like stars appears to be related to fundamental stellar properties such as rotation, surface gravity, and spectral type. Here we use full-Sun observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, to show that when the Sun is observed as a star, the variation of coronal composition is highly correlated with a proxy for solar activity, the F10.7 cm radio flux, and therefore with the solar cycle phase. Similar cyclic variations should therefore be detectable spectroscopically in X-ray observations of solar analogs. The plasma composition in full-disk observations of the Sun is related to the evolution of coronal magnetic field activity. Our observations therefore introduce an uncertainty into the nature of any relationship between coronal composition and fixed stellar properties. The results highlight the importance of systematic full-cycle observations for understanding the elemental composition of solar-like stellar coronae.

  15. Proton activity of the Sun in current solar cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chuan; Fang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of 7 large solar proton events (SPEs) of current solar cycle 24 (from 2009 January up to date). They were recorded by GOES spacecraft with highest proton fluxes over 200 pfu for energies $>$10 MeV. In situ particle measurements show that: (1) The profiles of the proton fluxes are highly dependent of the locations of their solar sources, namely flares or coronal mass ejections (CMEs); (2) The solar particle release (SPR) times fall in the decay phase of the flare emission, and are in accordance with the times when the CMEs travel to an average height of 7.9 solar radii; (3) The time differences between the SPR and the flare peak are also dependent of the locations of the solar active regions (ARs). The results tend to support the concept of proton acceleration by the CME-driven shock, even though there exists a possibility of particle acceleration at flare site with subsequent perpendicular diffusion of accelerated particles in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We derive the integral ...

  16. The Sun's Meridional Flow and Its Role in Magnetic Flux Transport and the Sunspot Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, D. H.; Upton, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Sun's meridional flow can be measured with a variety of measurement techniques including, but not limited to: direct Doppler, magnetic feature tracking, velocity feature tracking, time-distance helioseismology, and ring-diagram analysis. Direct Doppler gives information on the flow in the photosphere while the other measurement techniques provide information about the flow at some depth or range of depths in the Sun's convection zone. These various measurement methods now provide a converging (but not yet fully converged) picture of the meridional flow as a function of latitude, depth, and time. This converging picture has a flow which is poleward from the equator all the way to pole in the near surface layers, has an equatorward return flow beginning at a depth of about 50 Mm, and has another poleward branch deeper in the convection zone. The poleward flow in the near surface layers varies systematically in strength and latitudinal structure with the phase of the sunspot cycle and from one cycle to the next. This near surface meridional flow is observed to play a significant role in the poleward transport of the magnetic flux that emerges at the surface in the form of bipolar active regions. Variations in the strength and structure of the meridional flow introduce variations in the strength of the Sun's polar fields, which in turn introduce variations in the size of subsequent sunspot cycles. The polar fields at the end of cycle 23 (2008-2009) were much weaker than the polar fields at the end of the previous cycles. This led to the production of the weakest sunspot cycle in 100 years - cycle 24. Surprisingly, we find that the variations we observed in the meridional flow during cycle 23 led to stronger polar fields than would have been produced otherwise. This suggests that variations in the meridional flow can be one mechanism for modulating the sizes of sunspot cycles - helping to keep them from getting too big or too small.

  17. SUN-LIKE MAGNETIC CYCLES IN THE RAPIDLY ROTATING YOUNG SOLAR ANALOG HD 30495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, Ricky [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Metcalfe, Travis S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut St. Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Hall, Jeffrey C. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Henry, Gregory W., E-mail: egeland@ucar.edu [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States)

    2015-10-10

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial (∼2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, a ∼1 Gyr old G1.5 V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at ∼1.7 years and a long cycle of ∼12 years. We measure three individual long-period cycles and find durations ranging from 9.6 to 15.5 years. We find the short-term variability to be intermittent, but present throughout the majority of the time series, though its occurrence and amplitude are uncorrelated with the longer cycle. These essentially solar-like variations occur in a Sun-like star with more rapid rotation, though surface differential rotation measurements leave open the possibility of a solar equivalence.

  18. Reading The Sun: A Three Dimensional Visual Model of The Solar Environment During Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-fulmer, T. L.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The sun is a powerful force that has proven to our society that it has a large impact on our lives. Unfortunately, there is still a lack of awareness on how the sun is capable of affecting Earth. The over all idea of "Reading The Sun" installation is to help demonstrate how the sun impacts the Earth, by compiling various data sources from satellites (SOHO, SDO, and STERO) with solar and solar wind models (MAS and ENLIL) to create a comprehensive three dimensional display of the solar environment. It focuses on the current solar maximum of solar cycle 24 and a CME that impacted Earth's magnetic field on February 27, 2014, which triggered geomagnetic storms around the Earth's poles. The CME was an after-effect of a class X4.9 solar flare, which was released from the sun on February 25, 2014. "Reading The Sun" is a 48" x 48" x 48" hanging model of the sun with color coded open opposing magnetic field lines along with various layers of the solar atmosphere, the heliospheric current sheet, and the inner planets. At the center of the xyz axis is the sun with the open magnetic field lines and the heliospheric current sheet permeating inner planetary space. The xyz axes are color coded to represent various types of information with corresponding visual images for the viewer to be able to read the model. Along the z-axis are three colors (yellow, orange, and green) that represent the different layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona) that correspond to three satellite images in various spectrums related to a CME and Solar Flare and the xy-plane shows where the inner planets are in relation to the sun. The exhibit in which "Reading The Sun "is being displayed is called, The Rotation of Language at the Wheather Again Gallery in Rockaway, New York. The intent of the exhibit is to both celebrate as well as present a cautionary tale on the ability of human language to spark and ignite the individual and collective imagination towards an experience

  19. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Ana

    OpenAIRE

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves; Silvia Nietsche; Marlon Cristian Toledo Pereira; Manoel Xavier de Oliveira Júnior; Roberto Célio Antunes Júnior; Carlos Ruggiero

    2008-01-01

    Prata Ana is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible to several pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Ana cv. in the first and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with six treatments and four replications. lit an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found on Thap Maeo and Caip...

  20. Sun-Like Magnetic Cycles in the Rapidly-Rotating Young Solar Analog HD 30495

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Ricky; Hall, Jeffrey C; Henry, Gregory W

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that multiple dynamo mechanisms can drive magnetic variability on different timescales, not only in the Sun but also in other stars. Many solar activity proxies exhibit a quasi-biennial ($\\sim$2 year) variation, which is superimposed upon the dominant 11 year cycle. A well-characterized stellar sample suggests at least two different relationships between rotation period and cycle period, with some stars exhibiting long and short cycles simultaneously. Within this sample, the solar cycle periods are typical of a more rapidly rotating star, implying that the Sun might be in a transitional state or that it has an unusual evolutionary history. In this work, we present new and archival observations of dual magnetic cycles in the young solar analog HD 30495, an $\\sim$1 Gyr-old G1.5V star with a rotation period near 11 days. This star falls squarely on the relationships established by the broader stellar sample, with short-period variations at $\\sim$1.7 years and a long cycle of $...

  1. Why is the Sun No Longer Accelerating Particles to High Energy in Solar Cycle 24?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M.; Li, G.; Mason, G. M.; Smith, C. W.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Vourlidas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Why is the Sun No Longer Accelerating Particles to High Energy in Solar Cycle 24?Measurements by ACE, STEREO, and GOES show that the number of large Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events in solar cycle 24 is reduced by a factor of ~2 compared to this point of solar cycle 23, while the fluences of >10 MeV/nuc ions from H to Fe are reduced by factors ranging from ~4 to ~10. Compared to solar Cycle 22 and 23, the fluence of >100 MeV protons is reduced by factors of ~7 to ~10 in the current cycle. A common element of these observations is that the observed Cycle-24 energy spectra have "breaks" that suddenly steepen 2 to 4 times lower in energy/nucleon than in Cycle 23. We investigate the origin of these cycle-to-cycle spectral differences by evaluating possible factors that control the maximum energy of CME-shock-accelerated particles in the two cycles, including seed-particle densities of suprathermal ions, the interplanetary magnetic field strength and turbulence level, and properties of the associated CMEs. The effect of these conditions will be evaluated in the context of existing SEP acceleration models by comparing SEP data with simulations and with analytic evaluations of the maximum kinetic energy to which CME shocks can accelerate solar energetic ions from H to Fe. Understanding the properties that control the maximum kinetic energy of CME-shock accelerated particles has important implications for predicting future solar activity.

  2. Social influences on the estrous cycle of the captive sun bear (Helarctos Malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Cheryl; Hunt, Kathleen; Kyes, Randall; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara; Ha, James; Wasser, Samuel K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the potential influences of existing social housing arrangements on captive sun bear female reproductive cycling. Three social conditions were studied: 1.2, 1.1, and 0.2. Fecal hormone metabolites of total estrogens, progestins and glucocorticoids were compared between the three social conditions and were analyzed along with vaginal cytology data in individuals that experienced a change in social condition. Behavioral data were collected on females in each of the social conditions and summarized into agonistic, affiliative and sexual categories. Results indicated that sun bears are spontaneous ovulators, but that the presence of a male does influence hormone metabolite concentrations and cytological profiles. Male presence was also associated with a greater proportion of females cycling. In most female pairs, only one female cycled, typically the younger, subordinate female. The presence of a second female appeared to have a suppressive influence on both cycling and mating behavior. Agonistic behavior and associated stress may be a mechanism for lowering progesterone. In contrast, high estrogen levels were associated with low levels of agonistic interactions; thus, reproductive cycle monitoring could facilitate social introductions with either sex. Females in 1.2 social groupings had significantly higher GC metabolite concentrations and agonistic behavior, suggesting that 1.2 social groupings may not be advisable for captive breeding programs. Data from the North American historical captive population indicate that at most 32% of all sun bear pairs and only 18.5% of females have successfully reproduced. Implications of these social and reproductive patterns for captive management are discussed.

  3. Babcock Redux: An Ammendment of Babcock's Schematic of the Sun's Magnetic Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Ronald L; Sterling, Alphonse C

    2016-01-01

    We amend Babcock's original scenario for the global dynamo process that sustains the Sun's 22-year magnetic cycle. The amended scenario fits post-Babcock observed features of the magnetic activity cycle and convection zone, and is based on ideas of Spruit and Roberts (1983) about magnetic flux tubes in the convection zone. A sequence of four schematic cartoons lays out the proposed evolution of the global configuration of the magnetic field above, in, and at the bottom of the convection zone through sunspot Cycle 23 and into Cycle 24. Three key elements of the amended scenario are: (1) as the net following-polarity field from the sunspot-region omega-loop fields of an ongoing sunspot cycle is swept poleward to cancel and replace the opposite-polarity polar-cap field from the previous sunspot cycle, it remains connected to the ongoing sunspot cycle's toroidal source-field band at the bottom of the convection zone; (2) topological pumping by the convection zone's free convection keeps the horizontal extent of t...

  4. The unusual minimum of sunspot cycle 23 a consequence of Sun's meridional plasma flow variations

    CERN Document Server

    Nandy, Dibyendu; Martens, Petrus C H; 10.1038/nature09786

    2013-01-01

    Direct observations over the past four centuries show that the number of sunspots observed on the Sun's surface vary periodically, going through successive maxima and minima. Following sunspot cycle 23, the Sun went into a prolonged minimum characterized by a very weak polar magnetic field and an unusually large number of days without sunspots. Sunspots are strongly magnetized regions and are generated by a dynamo mechanism which recreates the solar polar field mediated via plasma flows. Here we report results from kinematic dynamo simulations which demonstrate that a fast meridional flow in the early half of a cycle, followed by a slower flow in the latter half, reproduces both the characteristics of the minimum of sunspot cycle 23 - a large number of spotless days and a relatively weak polar field. Our model predicts that, in general, very deep minima are associated with weak polar fields. Sunspots govern the solar radiative energy and radio flux, and in conjunction with the polar field, modulate the solar ...

  5. Rieger-type periodicities on the Sun and the Earth during solar cycles 21 and 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H. G.; Lopes, I.

    2017-03-01

    Rieger-type periods of the magnetic sunspot area time series have been found in two atmospheric time-series variables: neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric potential gradient. The data considered comprises two solar cycles (21, 22) and spans from 1978 to 1990. The study reveals the existence of similar and correlated features in sunspot area as well as neutron counts and atmospheric electric potential gradient, favoring the possibility that the Sun's activity affects the Earth's atmosphere and weather at a time scale between 150-300 days. Moreover, five different Rieger-type periods in the sunspot area time series are found, four of which are detected in the neutron monitor count rate, and three in the atmospheric electric potential gradient. These values are consistent with the periods predicted for stationary solar Rossby waves existing inside the Sun. The possibility is discussed that instabilities on the solar magnetic field caused by solar Rossby waves in the Sun's interior might indirectly be affecting the activity of the heliosphere and the Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Methods of estrus detection and correlates of the reproductive cycle in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Cheryl; Kyes, Randall; Hunt, Kathleen; Collins, Darin; Durrant, Barbara; Wasser, Samuel K

    2010-10-15

    The objective was to explore multiple methods for detecting and characterizing the reproductive cycle of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus). Thirteen H. m. euryspilus females, loaned from the Malaysian government to US zoos, were used. Fecal metabolite concentrations of estrogen and progesterone were compared to vaginal cytology, changes in genital appearance, and behavior (videotapes and zookeeper observations). Cytology and video behavior were characterized during five hormonally defined states: high, low, and baseline progesterone, estrus, and high estrogen. Among states, there were significant differences in cytology and behavior. Sexual, affiliative, and stereotypic behaviors were highest during estrus, whereas affiliative and social behaviors were lowest during high progesterone. In this captive breeding population, 30.8% of females cycled two or three times a year, 30.8% cycled once a year, and 38.5% did not cycle during this study. Inter-estrus intervals were (mean ± SEM) 115.7 ± 6.3 d (range, 101-131). Spearman rank correlations were significant between both ordinal sexual and affiliative behaviors and vulva swelling and color. Sexual behavior was significantly positively correlated with superficial and keratinized cells, but negatively correlated with parabasal and basophilic cells in cycling females (opposite pattern for appetitive behavior). In conclusion, data for cytology, vulva changes and behavior were consistent with, and complementary to, hormonal data; collectively, they delineated estrus and identified specific reproductive types.

  7. The active RS Canum Venaticorum binary II Pegasi. IV. The SPOT activity cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Ilyin, I.; Tuominen, I.

    1999-10-01

    A total of 6 new surface images of II Peg obtained for the years 1997 and 1998 confirms the recently revealed permanent active longitude structure. The lower limit of the active longitudes' lifetime is now extended up to 25 years. A new ``flip-flop'' phenomenon, redefined as a switch of the activity between the active longitudes, has started in summer of 1998. It coincides reasonably well with the moment predicted from the activity cycle of the star. This confirms definitely the cyclic behaviour of the activity of II Peg we recently discovered. Therefore, we assign numbers to the cycles of 4.65 yr since the earliest photoelectric observations of II Peg and define the active longitudes as ``odd'' and ``even'' corresponding to odd and even numbers of cycles. With such a definition, in late 1998 the 7th cycle began and the ``odd'' active longitude became more active. From the analysis of the spot area evolution within the active longitudes we conclude that the activity cycle is developed as a rearrangement of the nearly constant amount of the spot area between the active longitudes. We discuss the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon as a tracer of stellar activity and the role of the unseen secondary in establishing the cycle. Based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain; the 1.25m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine; the Phoenix 10 robotic telescope, APT Observatory, Arizona, USA.}

  8. Babcock Redux: An Amendment of Babcock's Schematic of the Sun's Magnetic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2017-08-01

    We amend Babcock's original scenario for the global dynamo process that sustains the Sun's 22-year magnetic cycle. The amended scenario fits post-Babcock observed features of the magnetic activity cycle and convection zone, and is based on ideas of Spruit & Roberts (1983, Nature, 304, 401) about magnetic flux tubes in the convection zone. A sequence of four schematic cartoons lays out the proposed evolution of the global configuration of the magnetic field above, in, and at the bottom of the convection zone through sunspot Cycle 23 and into Cycle 24. Three key elements of the amended scenario are: (1) as the net following-polarity magnetic field from the sunspot-region Ω-loop fields of an ongoing sunspot cycle is swept poleward to cancel and replace the opposite-polarity polar-cap field from the previous sunspot cycle, it remains connected to the ongoing sunspot cycle's toroidal source-field band at the bottom of the convection zone; (2) topological pumping by the convection zone's free convection keeps the horizontal extent of the poleward-migrating following-polarity field pushed to the bottom, forcing it to gradually cancel and replace old horizontal field below it that connects the ongoing-cycle source-field band to the previous-cycle polar-cap field; (3) in each polar hemisphere, by continually shearing the poloidal component of the settling new horizontal field, the latitudinal differential rotation low in the convection zone generates the next-cycle source-field band poleward of the ongoing-cycle band. The amended scenario is a more-plausible version of Babcock's scenario, and its viability can be explored by appropriate kinematic flux-transport solar-dynamo simulations. A paper giving a full description of our dynamo scenario is posted on arXiv (http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05371).This work was funded by the Heliophysics Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program and the Hinode

  9. A comparative study of Solar-Heliospheric Observations during very active Sun intervals in the 21st and 23rd solar cycles (April 1979 and March-April, 2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichevsky, D. B.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lepping, R. P.; Richardson, I. G.; Galvin, A. B.; Schwenn, R.; Reames, D. V.

    2002-05-01

    On March 24, 2001, the largest sun spot group in 10 years, consisting of three or more active regions (ARs) centered near AR 9393, emerged from behind the eastern limb of the Sun and began a 2-week passage across the visible hemisphere. During the same time, the Sun showed several other ARs so this period constituted a phase of unusually intense solar activity that continued almost 18 days beyond the disk passage of the largest sun spot group and included possibly the most energetic solar flare event in modern records (a > X20 flare in soft X-rays). We shall present an overview of the associated solar energetic particle events and an analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of the shocks observed in the Earth's vicinity. The investigation includes cross-correlation analysis of interplanetary plasma and magnetic field observations at ACE (SWEPAM/MAG level-2 data) situated 250 Re upstream of Earth and at Wind (SWE/MFI data), which was ahead of Earth and executing a distant prograde orbit with large Y-coordinate. The interval under study bears a close resemblance to a similar active period during April 1979 (i.e., 2 solar cycles earlier) observed by the Helios 1/2 probes and Earth solar wind monitors (ISEE-3, IMP). The similarities and differences between the two intervals are examined further.

  10. Dissection of a circumscribed recombination hot spot in HIV-1 after a single infectious cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetto, Román; Giacomoni, Véronique; Véron, Michel; Negroni, Matteo

    2006-02-03

    Recombination is a major source of genetic heterogeneity in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) population. The main mechanism responsible for the generation of recombinant viruses is a process of copy choice between the two copies of genomic RNA during reverse transcription. We previously identified, after a single cycle of infection of cells in culture, a recombination hot spot within the gp120 gene, corresponding to the top portion of a RNA hairpin. Here, we determine that the hot region is circumscribed to 18 nucleotides located in the descending strand of the stem, following the sense of reverse transcription. Three factors appeared to be important, albeit at different extents, for the high rate of recombination observed in this region. The position of the hot sequence in the context of the RNA structure appears crucial, because changing its location within this structure triggered differences in recombination up to 20-fold. Another pivotal factor is the presence of a perfectly identical sequence between donor and acceptor RNA in the region of transfer, because single or double nucleotide differences in the hot spot were sufficient to almost completely abolish recombination in the region. Last, the primary structure of the hot region also influenced recombination, although with effects only in the 2-3-fold range. Altogether, these results provide the first molecular dissection of a hot spot in infected cells and indicate that several factors contribute to the generation of a site of preferential copy choice.

  11. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ultraviolet light, or causes that are not known. Liver spots are very common after age 40. They occur ...

  12. Temporal Variation of Ca–K Line Profile of the Sun during the Solar Cycle 22 and 23

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. Sindhuja; Jagdev Singh

    2015-03-01

    We obtained the Ca–K line profile of the Sun as a star since 1969 at the Kodaikanal Observatory (KO) and analysis of the data showed the need to delineate the role of different chromospheric features to the variations of solar irradiance. We, therefore, initiated a new methodology to make observations of Ca–K line profiles of the Sun as a function of latitude and integrated over the longitude on a daily basis since 1986. We have collected the data for about thousand days, spread over two solar cycles. Earlier data (before 1997) were recorded on the photographic film and later data using the CCD detector. The photographic film data were digitized and analysed along with the data obtained from CCD camera. From these data, we computed K1 and K2 widths for the Sun as a star, using all the observed line profiles as a function of latitude. In addition, we have analyzed the spectra of the whole Sun as a star obtained on some days and compared it with the results obtained from latitude spectra of the same day. The K1 and K2 widths of the Sun as a star derived from the KO data are compared with values determined from the observations made at other observatories to compare results from the new methodology of observations adopted by us and the earlier techniques. The average values of K1 width during the minimum period. of solar cycle 23 are smaller than those during the minimum period of cycle 22. Day-to-day variations in the K1 and K2 widths and plage areas may imply that irradiance variations occur not only due to large-scale solar activity, but also because of variations in some of the three types of network in quiet regions of the Sun. The variation in intensity of the plages can also cause day-to-day variations in widths.

  13. De Novo Synthesis and Degradation of Lx and V Cycle Pigments during Shade and Sun Acclimation in Avocado Leaves1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster, Britta; Osmond, C. Barry; Pogson, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    The photoprotective role of the universal violaxanthin cycle that interconverts violaxanthin (V), antheraxanthin (A), and zeaxanthin (Z) is well established, but functions of the analogous conversions of lutein-5,6-epoxide (Lx) and lutein (L) in the selectively occurring Lx cycle are still unclear. We investigated carotenoid pools in Lx-rich leaves of avocado (Persea americana) during sun or shade acclimation at different developmental stages. During sun exposure of mature shade leaves, an unusual decrease in L preceded the deepoxidation of Lx to L and of V to A+Z. In addition to deepoxidation, de novo synthesis increased the L and A+Z pools. Epoxidation of L was exceptionally slow, requiring about 40 d in the shade to restore the Lx pool, and residual A+Z usually persisted overnight. In young shade leaves, the Lx cycle was reversed initially, with Lx accumulating in the sun and declining in the shade. De novo synthesis of xanthophylls did not affect α- and β-carotene pools on the first day, but during long-term acclimation α-carotene pools changed noticeably. Nonetheless, the total change in α- and β-branch carotenoid pools was equal. We discuss the implications for regulation of metabolic flux through the α- and β-branches of carotenoid biosynthesis and potential roles for L in photoprotection and Lx in energy transfer to photosystem II and explore physiological roles of both xanthophyll cycles as determinants of photosystem II efficiency. PMID:19060099

  14. Severity of banana leaf spot in an intercropping system in two cycles of banana Prata Anã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdeir Dias Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prata Anã is the most planted banana cultivar in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is however susceptible toseveral pathogens. This study was carried out to evaluate the disease severity of banana leaf spot in the Prata Anã cv. in thefirst and second cycle under six different planting systems. The randomized block experimental design was used with sixtreatments and four replications. In an evaluation of the severity of banana leaf spot, no disease symptoms were found onThap Maeo and Caipira. The evolution curve of the disease indicated seasonal effects in the first and second cycles. Theseverity of banana leaf spot was highest soon after the regional rainy period from November to March. A comparison of themeans of the evaluations indicated a reduction in disease severity from the first to the second cycle.

  15. Turbulent Pumping of Magnetic Flux Reduces Solar Cycle Memory and thus Impacts Predictability of the Sun's Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Karak, Bidya Binay

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of the Sun's magnetic activity is important because of its effect on space environmental conditions and climate. However, recent efforts to predict the amplitude of the solar cycle have resulted in diverging forecasts with no consensus. It is understood that the dynamical memory of the solar dynamo mechanism governs predictability and this memory is different for advection- and diffusion-dominated solar convection zones. By utilizing stochastically forced, kinematic dynamo simulations, we demonstrate that the inclusion of downward turbulent pumping of magnetic flux reduces the memory of both advection- and diffusion-dominated solar dynamos to only one cycle; stronger pumping degrades this memory further. We conclude that reliable predictions for the maximum of solar activity can be made only at the preceding minimum and for more accurate predictions, sequential data assimilation would be necessary in forecasting models to account for the Sun's short memory.

  16. Hijacking of host calreticulin is required for the white spot syndrome virus replication cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanasurorot, Apiruck; Guo, Enen; Tharntada, Sirinit; Lo, Chu-Fang; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Söderhäll, Irene

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that multifunctional calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is involved in ER-associated protein processing, responds to infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by increasing mRNA and protein expression and by forming a complex with gC1qR and thereby delaying apoptosis. Here, we show that CRT can directly interact with WSSV structural proteins, including VP15 and VP28, during an early stage of virus infection. The binding of VP28 with CRT does not promote WSSV entry, and CRT-VP15 interaction was detected in the viral genome in virally infected host cells and thus may have an effect on WSSV replication. Moreover, CRT was detected in the viral envelope of purified WSSV virions. CRT was also found to be of high importance for proper oligomerization of the viral structural proteins VP26 and VP28, and when CRT glycosylation was blocked with tunicamycin, a significant decrease in both viral replication and assembly was detected. Together, these findings suggest that CRT confers several advantages to WSSV, from the initial steps of WSSV infection to the assembly of virions. Therefore, CRT is required as a "vital factor" and is hijacked by WSSV for its replication cycle. Importance: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a double-stranded DNA virus and the cause of a serious disease in a wide range of crustaceans that often leads to high mortality rates. We have previously shown that the protein calreticulin (CRT), which resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the cell, is important in the host response to the virus. In this report, we show that the virus uses this host protein to enter the cell and to make the host produce new viral structural proteins. Through its interaction with two viral proteins, the virus "hijacks" host calreticulin and uses it for its own needs. These findings provide new insight into the interaction between a large DNA virus and the host protein CRT and may help in understanding

  17. Field chronobiology of a molluscan bivalve: how the moon and sun cycles interact to drive oyster activity rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Damien; Nadau, Arnaud; Durrieu, Gilles; Ciret, Pierre; Parisot, Jean-Paul; Massabuau, Jean-Charles

    2011-05-01

    The present study reports new insights into the complexity of environmental drivers in aquatic animals. The focus of this study was to determine the main forces that drive mollusc bivalve behavior in situ. To answer this question, the authors continuously studied the valve movements of permanently immersed oysters, Crassostrea gigas, during a 1-year-long in situ study. Valve behavior was monitored with a specially build valvometer, which allows continuously recording of up to 16 bivalves at high frequency (10 Hz). The results highlight a strong relationship between the rhythms of valve behavior and the complex association of the sun-earth-moon orbital positions. Permanently immersed C. gigas follows a robust and strong behavior primarily driven by the tidal cycle. The intensity of this tidal driving force is modulated by the neap-spring tides (i.e., synodic moon cycle), which themselves depend of the earth-moon distance (i.e., anomalistic moon cycle). Light is a significant driver of the oysters' biological rhythm, although its power is limited by the tides, which remain the predominant driver. More globally, depending where in the world the bivalves reside, the results suggest their biological rhythms should vary according to the relative importance of the solar cycle and different lunar cycles associated with tide generation. These results highlight the high plasticity of these oysters to adapt to their changing environment.

  18. Sunspot Cycle 24: Smallest Cycle in 100 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-11

    and H. B. Hathaway, D. H., R. M. Wilson, and E. J. Reichmann (1994), The shape of Snodgrass (1988), The extended solar activity cycle, Nature, 333...748, the sunspot cycle, Sol. Phys., 151, 177. doi:10.1038/333748a0. Hathaway, D. H., R. M. Wilson, and E. J. Reichmann (2002), Group sun- spot numbers

  19. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Piringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA, potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental hot spots at different levels of agricultural production systems. The first case study centers on the tractor as the key source of transportation and traction in modern agriculture. A common Austrian tractor model was investigated over its life-cycle, using primary data from a manufacturer and measured load profiles for field work. In all but one of the impact categories studied, potential impacts were dominated by the operation phase of the tractor’s life-cycle (mainly due to diesel fuel consumption, with 84.4-99.6% of total impacts. The production phase (raw materials and final assembly caused between 0.4% and 12.1% of impacts, while disposal of the tractor was below 1.9% in all impact categories. The second case study shifts the focus to an entire production chain for a common biogas feedstock, maize silage. System boundaries incorporate the effect of auxiliary materials such as fertilizer and pesticides manufacturing and application. The operation of machinery in the silage production chain was found to be critical to its environmental impact. For the climate change indicator GWP100 (global warming potential, 100-year reference period, emissions from tractor operation accounted for 15 g CO2-eq per kg silage (64% of total GWP100, followed by field emissions during fertilizer (biogas digestate application with 6 g CO2-eq per kg silage (24% of total GWP100. At a larger system scale that includes a silage-fed biogas plant with electricity generated by

  20. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  1. The Sun in transition? Persistence of near-surface structural changes through Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, R.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Basu, S.; Hale, S. J.; Ball, W. H.; Komm, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    We examine the frequency shifts in low-degree helioseismic modes from the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network covering the period from 1985 to 2016, and compare them with a number of global activity proxies well as a latitudinally resolved magnetic index. As well as looking at frequency shifts in different frequency bands, we look at a parametrization of the shift as a cubic function of frequency. While the shifts in the medium- and high-frequency bands are very well correlated with all of the activity indices (with the best correlation being with the 10.7-cm radio flux), we confirm earlier findings that there appears to have been a change in the frequency response to activity during solar Cycle 23, and the low-frequency shifts are less correlated with activity in the last two cycles than they were in Cycle 22. At the same time, the more recent cycles show a slight increase in their sensitivity to activity levels at medium and higher frequencies, perhaps because a greater proportion of activity is composed of weaker or more ephemeral regions. This lends weight to the speculation that a fundamental change in the nature of the solar dynamo may be in progress.

  2. The State of Self-Organized Criticality of the Sun During the Last 3 Solar Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the occurrence frequency distributions of peak fluxes $P$, total fluxes $E$, and durations $T$ of solar flares over the last three solar cycles (during 1980-2010) from hard X-ray data of HXRBS/SMM, BATSE/CGRO, and RHESSI. From the synthesized data we find powerlaw slopes with mean values of $\\alpha_P=1.75\\pm0.05$ for the peak flux, $\\alpha_E=1.61\\pm0.04$ for the total flux, and $\\alpha_T=2.08\\pm0.10$ for flare durations. We find no evidence that these frequency distributions have significantly different slopes during the minima of the solar cycles, including the current anomalously extended solar minimum. The powerlaw distributions can be interpreted in terms of a nonlinear dissipative system in the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). The invariance of the powerlaw slopes during the solar cycles, despite of the nonstationarity of the flare rate by orders of magnitude, implies a universal behavior in the nonlinear growth evolution of magnetic instabilities in solar flares, independent of a sl...

  3. Reproductive cycle, nutrition and growth of captive blue spotted stingray, Dasyatis kuhlii (Dasyatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, M.; Schrama, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    At Burgers' Ocean 7 male and 3 female blue spotted stingrays, Dasyatis kuhlii were born over a period of 4.5 years. This paper describes the experiences of the captive breeding results of this species. The first two young died within 2 days of birth. One of them had an internal yolk sac, which may f

  4. Role of the envelope glycoproteins in the infection cycle of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms the type member of the genus Tospovirus , which today harbors more than twelve different species. TSWV is able to infect an enormous variety of different plants, to which it often causes devastating effects, re

  5. Unusual Polar Activity of the Sun in the Northern Hemisphere and Its Implications for Solar Cycle 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Masuda, Satoshi; Yashiro, Seiji; Akiyama, Sachiko; Shibasaki, Kiyoto

    2016-07-01

    Polar field strength in one solar cycle is known to indicate the strength (e.g., Sunspot number) and phase of the next cycle. In particular the polar field strength (or its proxies such as the polar coronal hole area and microwave polar brightness) during the minimum phase of a given cycle seem to be well correlated with the maximum sunspot number of the next cycle. Polar prominence eruptions and coronal mass ejections have also been found to be indicators of low polar field; their cessation signals the time of polarity reversal. While these indicators are present in the current cycle, significant differences are found regarding the phase lag between the two hemispheres and the duration of polar eruptions. We use data from the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, SOLIS, and Wilcox Solar Observatory to highlight these differences. We find that the north polar region of the Sun has near-zero field strength for more than three years. This is unusually long and caused by surges of both polarities heading toward the north pole that prevent the buildup of the polar field. This seems to be due to anti-Hale active regions that appeared around the 2012 peak sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere. The unusual condition is consistent with (i) the continued high-latitude prominence eruption, (ii) the extended period of high tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, (iii) the weak microwave polar brightness, and (iv) the lack of north polar coronal hole. On the other hand, the south polar field has started building up and the coronal hole has appeared in early 2015 because of large active regions of the correct tilt in the southern hemisphere during the 2014 peak of sunspot activity. The extended period of near-zero field in the north polar region should result in very weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25. On the other hand the south polar field has already increased significantly, suggesting that the activity in

  6. Spatially-explicit life cycle assessment of sun-to-wheels transportation pathways in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Roland; Stoms, David; Kallaos, James

    2013-01-15

    Growth in biofuel production, which is meant to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy demand, is increasingly seen as a threat to food supply and natural habitats. Using photovoltaics (PV) to directly convert solar radiation into electricity for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) is an alternative to photosynthesis, which suffers from a very low energy conversion efficiency. Assessments need to be spatially explicit, since solar insolation and crop yields vary widely between locations. This paper therefore compares direct land use, life cycle GHG emissions and fossil fuel requirements of five different sun-to-wheels conversion pathways for every county in the contiguous U.S.: Ethanol from corn or switchgrass for internal combustion vehicles (ICVs), electricity from corn or switchgrass for BEVs, and PV electricity for BEVs. Even the most land-use efficient biomass-based pathway (i.e., switchgrass bioelectricity in U.S. counties with hypothetical crop yields of over 24 tonnes/ha) requires 29 times more land than the PV-based alternative in the same locations. PV BEV systems also have the lowest life cycle GHG emissions throughout the U.S. and the lowest fossil fuel inputs, except for locations with hypothetical switchgrass yields of 16 or more tonnes/ha. Including indirect land use effects further strengthens the case for PV.

  7. The acoustic cut-off frequency of the Sun and the solar magnetic activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, A; Palle, P L

    2011-01-01

    The acoustic cut-off frequency -the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes- is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but traveling waves. Interference amongst them give rise to higher-frequency peaks -the pseudomodes- in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p modes making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cut-off frequency. Using data from GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the SOHO spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cut-off frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 till the present), a variation in the acoustic cut-off frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  8. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  9. Sensitivity analysis and economic optimization studies of inverted five-spot gas cycling in gas condensate reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Bilal; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Gas condensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors because of propagation response of pressure drop from the wellbore into the reservoir. When reservoir pressure drops below the dew point in two phase flow of gas and condensate, the accumulation of large condensate amount occurs in the gas condensate reservoirs. Usually, the saturation of condensate accumulation in volumetric gas condensate reservoirs is lower than the critical condensate saturation that causes trapping of large amount of condensate in reservoir pores. Trapped condensate often is lost due to condensate accumulation-condensate blockage courtesy of high molecular weight, heavy condensate residue. Recovering lost condensate most economically and optimally has always been a challenging goal. Thus, gas cycling is applied to alleviate such a drastic loss in resources. In gas injection, the flooding pattern, injection timing and injection duration are key parameters to study an efficient EOR scenario in order to recover lost condensate. This work contains sensitivity analysis on different parameters to generate an accurate investigation about the effects on performance of different injection scenarios in homogeneous gas condensate system. In this paper, starting time of gas cycling and injection period are the parameters used to influence condensate recovery of a five-spot well pattern which has an injection pressure constraint of 3000 psi and production wells are constraint at 500 psi min. BHP. Starting injection times of 1 month, 4 months and 9 months after natural depletion areapplied in the first study. The second study is conducted by varying injection duration. Three durations are selected: 100 days, 400 days and 900 days. In miscible gas injection, miscibility and vaporization of condensate by injected gas is more efficient mechanism for condensate recovery. From this study, it is proven that the application of gas cycling on five-spot well pattern greatly enhances condensate recovery

  10. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo;

    2015-01-01

    for single- and two-phase heat transfer coefficients.The results indicate that severe load changes (0.4–1.0 MWs-1) can lead to exceedance of thetemperature limit of fluid decomposition for a period of 10 min. Ramp rates lower than 0.3MWs-1 areacceptable considering the stability of the electric grid......This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  11. Analysis of hot spots in boilers of organic Rankine cycle units during transient operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, A.; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the investigation of critical dynamic events causing thermochemical decompositionof the working fluid in organic Rankine cycle power systems. The case study is the plant of an oiland gas platform where one of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic Rankine cycle...... unit toincrease the overall energy conversion efficiency.The dynamic model of the plant is coupled with a one-dimensional model of the once-through boilerfed by the exhaust thermal power of the gas turbine. The heat exchanger model uses a distributedcross-flow physical topology and local correlations...... and fluid decomposition. It is demonstrated thatthe use of a spray attemperator can mitigate the problems of local overheating of the organic compound.As a practical consequence, this paper provides guidelines for safe and reliable operation of organicRankine cycle power modules on offshore installations....

  12. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Piringer; Alexander Bauer; Andreas Gronauer; Molly Saylor; Angelika Stampfel; Iris Kral

    2016-01-01

    Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA), potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental...

  13. Virus replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; De Gryse, Gaëtan M A; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    The replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei. The secondary cells formed a confluent monolayer at 24 h post-reseeding, and this monolayer could be maintained for 10 days with a viability of 90 %. Binding of WSSV to cells reached a maximum (73 ± 3 % of cells and 4.84 ± 0.2 virus particles per virus-binding cell) at 120 min at 4 °C. WSSV entered cells by endocytosis. The co-localization of WSSV and early endosomes was observed starting from 30 min post-inoculation (p.i.). Double indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that all cell-bound WSSV particles entered these cells in the period between 0 and 60 min p.i. and that the uncoating of WSSV occurred in the same period. After 1 h inoculation at 27 °C, the WSSV nucleocapsid protein VP664 and envelope protein VP28 started to be synthesized in the cytoplasm from 1 and 3 h p.i., and were transported into nuclei from 3 and 6 h p.i., respectively. The percentage of cells that were VP664- and VP28-positive in their nuclei peaked (50 ± 4 %) at 12 h p.i. Quantitative PCR showed that WSSV DNA started to be synthesized from 6 h p.i. In vivo titration of the supernatants showed that the progeny WSSV were released from 12 h p.i. and peaked at 18 h p.i. In conclusion, the secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ were proven to be ideal for examination of the replication cycle of WSSV.

  14. Properties of stellar activity cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Korhonen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    The current photometric datasets, that span decades, allow for studying long-term cycles on active stars. Complementary Ca H&K observations give information also on the cycles of normal solar-like stars, which have significantly smaller, and less easily detectable, spots. In the recent years, high precision space-based observations, for example from the Kepler satellite, have allowed also to study the sunspot-like spot sizes in other stars. Here I review what is known about the properties of the cyclic stellar activity in other stars than our Sun.

  15. Circadian rhythms are not involved in the regulation of circannual reproductive cycles in a sub-tropical bird, the spotted munia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budki, Puja; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2014-07-15

    Circannual rhythms regulate seasonal reproduction in many vertebrates. The present study investigated whether circannual reproductive phenotypes (rhythms in growth of gonads and molt) were generated independently of the circadian clocks in the subtropical non-photoperiodic spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata). Birds were subjected to light:dark (LD) cycles with identical light but varying dark hours, such that the period of LD cycle (T) equaled 16 h (T16; 12 h L:4 h D), 21 h (T21; 12 h L:9 h D), 24 h (T24; 12 h L:12 h D) and 27 h (T27; 12 h L:15 h D), or to continuous light (LL, 24 h L:0 h D) at ~18°C. During the ~21 month exposure, munia underwent at least two cycles of gonadal development and molt; changes in body mass were not rhythmic. This was similar to the occurrence of annual cycles in reproduction and molt observed in wild birds. A greater asynchrony between circannual cycles of gonad development and molt indicated their independent regulation. Females showed reproductive rhythms with similar circannual periods, whilst in males, circannual periods measured between peak gonadal size were longer in T21 and T24 than in T16 or T27. This suggested a sex-dependent timing of annual reproduction in the spotted munia. Also, food availability periods may not influence the circannual timing of reproduction, as shown by the results on the rhythm in gonadal growth and regression in munia under T-photocycles and LL that provided differential light (feeding) hours. Further, a short-term experiment revealed that activity-rest patterns in munia were synchronized with T-photocycles, but were arrhythmic under LL. We conclude that circadian rhythms are not involved in the timing of the annual reproductive cycle in the spotted munia.

  16. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  17. Day-night and reproductive cycle profiles of melatonin receptor, kiss, and gnrh expression in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ke; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2013-07-01

    It is suggested that the MT1 melatonin receptor mediates the effects of melatonin on reproduction in rodents. Three melatonin receptor types, MT1, MT2, and Mel1c, have been identified in fish. To understand the potential roles of each type of melatonin receptor on reproduction, we explored the day-night and reproductive cycle profiles of melatonin receptor, kiss, and gnrh expression in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). cDNAs encoding melatonin receptors (MT1, MT2, and Mel1c) were first isolated from the brain of the orange-spotted grouper. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of MT1 and MT2 were higher in most of the brain areas and pituitary, while mel1c mRNA was mainly distributed in some peripheral tissues and the pituitary. The expression levels of MT1 were much higher than those of MT2 and mel1c in most of the brain regions, and the day-night expression variations of MT1 were counter to those of kiss2 and gnrh1. Reproductive cycle variations in MT1 daytime expression were different from those for kiss2 and gnrh1, and contrary to ovarian fecundity. Our results suggest that MT1 may modulate gnrh1 expression through kiss2, or may directly influence it. Together, these signal cascades may regulate the seasonal breeding of the orange-spotted grouper. As the day-length variations were consistent with the ovarian fecundity variation observed during the reproductive cycle, we infer that photoperiod affects ovarian development of the orange-spotted grouper through MT1.

  18. Coupling of the Matched Gravity and Electromagnetic Fields of the Sun with Jupiter and its Moons Together in Nearest Portion of Jupiter's Orbit to the Sun as the Main Cause of the Peak of Approximately 11 Yearly Solar Cycles and Hazards from Solar Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Kazem; Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    On March 13, 1989 the entire province of Quebec Blackout by solar storm during solar cycle 22. The solar storm of 1859, also known as the Carrington event, was a powerful geomagnetic solar storm during solar cycle 10. The solar storm of 2012 during solar cycle 24 was of similar magnitude, but it passed Earth's orbit without striking the plane. All of these solar storms occurred in the peak of 11 yearly solar cycles. In this way, the White House in its project which is focusing on hazards from solar system, in a new strategy and action plan to increase protection from damaging solar emissions, should focus on coupling of the matched Gravity and Electromagnetic Fields)GEFs) of the Sun with Jupiter and its moons together. On the other hand, in solar system, the Jupiter's gravity has largest effect to the Sun's core and its dislocation, because the gravity force between the Jupiter and the Sun is 11.834 times, In addition overlapping of the solar cycles with the Jupiter's orbit period is 11.856 years. These observable factors lead us to the effect of the Jupiter and Sun gravity fields coupling as the main cause of the approximately 11 years duration for solar cycles. Its peak in each cycle is when the Jupiter is in nearest portion to the Sun in its orbit. In this way, the other planets in their coupling with Sun help to the variations and strengthening solar cycles. [Gholibeigian, 7/24/2015http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGU]. In other words, the both matched GEFs are generating by the large scale forced convection system inside the stars and planets [Gholibeigian et. al, AGU Fall Meeting 2015]. These two fields are couple and strengthening each other. The Jupiter with its 67 moons generate the largest coupled and matched GEFs in its core and consequently strongest effect on the Sun's core. Generation and coupling of the Jupiter's GEFs with its moons like Europa, Io and Ganymede make this planet of thousands of times brighter and many times bigger than Earth as the

  19. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  20. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  1. SU-E-T-266: Development of Evaluation System of Optimal Synchrotron Controlling Parameter for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy with Multiple Gate Irradiations in One Operation Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T; Fujii, Y [Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyamoto, N; Matsuura, T; Takao, S; Matsuzaki, Y [Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Koyano, H; Shirato, H [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Nihongi, H; Umezawa, M; Matsuda, K [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki (Japan); Umegaki, K [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We have developed a gated spot scanning proton beam therapy system with real-time tumor-tracking. This system has the ability of multiple-gated irradiation in a single synchrotron operation cycle controlling the wait-time for consecutive gate signals during a flat-top phase so that the decrease in irradiation efficiency induced by irregular variation of gate signal is reduced. Our previous studies have shown that a 200 ms wait-time is appropriate to increase the average irradiation efficiency, but the optimal wait-time can vary patient by patient and day by day. In this research, we have developed an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on the log data of the real-time-image gated proton beam therapy (RGPT) system. Methods: The developed system consists of logger for operation of RGPT system and software for evaluation of optimal wait-time. The logger records timing of gate on/off, timing and the dose of delivered beam spots, beam energy and timing of X-ray irradiation. The evaluation software calculates irradiation time in the case of different wait-time by simulating the multiple-gated irradiation operation using several timing information. Actual data preserved in the log data are used for gate on and off time, spot irradiation time, and time moving to the next spot. Design values are used for the acceleration and deceleration times. We applied this system to a patient treated with the RGPT system. Results: The evaluation system found the optimal wait-time of 390 ms that reduced the irradiation time by about 10 %. The irradiation time with actual wait-time used in treatment was reproduced with accuracy of 0.2 ms. Conclusion: For spot scanning proton therapy system with multiple-gated irradiation in one synchrotron operation cycle, an evaluation system of the optimal wait-time in each irradiation based on log data has been developed. Funding Support: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through the FIRST

  2. ON THE CONSTANCY OF THE DIAMETER OF THE SUN DURING THE RISING PHASE OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meftah, M.; Hauchecorne, A.; Irbah, A. [Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Sorbonne Universités, Université Paris VI—Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/INSU, Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France); Corbard, T.; Ikhlef, R.; Morand, F.; Renaud, C. [Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (OCA), Boulevard de l’Observatoire, 06304 Nice (France); Riguet, F.; Pradal, F., E-mail: Mustapha.Meftah@latmos.ipsl.fr, E-mail: Thierry.Corbard@oca.eu [Safran REOSC, Avenue de la Tour Maury, 91280 Saint-Pierre-du-Perray (France)

    2015-07-20

    The potential relationship between solar activity and changes in solar diameter remains the subject of debate and requires both models and measurements with sufficient precision over long periods of time. Using the PICARD instruments, we carried out precise measurements of variations in solar diameter during the rising phase of solar cycle 24. From new correction methods we found changes in PICARD space telescope solar radius amplitudes that were less than ±20 mas (i.e. ±14.5 km) for the years 2010–2011. Moreover, PICARD ground-based telescope solar radius amplitudes are smaller than ±50 mas from 2011 to 2014. Our observations could not find any direct link between solar activity and significant fluctuations in solar radius, considering that the variations, if they exist, are included within this range of values. Further, the contribution of solar radius fluctuations is low with regard to variations in total solar irradiance. Indeed, we find a small variation of the solar radius from space measurements with a typical periodicity of 129.5 days, with ±6.5 mas variation.

  3. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  4. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Photometric Variations In The Sun And Solar-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark

    The rich array of solar magnetic field-related phenomena we see occurs not only on stellar counterparts of our Sun but in stars that represent significant departures in their fundamental parameters from those of the Sun. Though these phenomena appear energetically negligible when compared to the total luminosity of stars, they nevertheless govern the angular momentum evolution and modulate the radiative and particle output of the Sun and late-type stars. The term "The Solar-Stellar Connection" has been coined to describe the solar-stellar synergisms in the investigation of the generation, emergence and coupling of magnetic fields with the outer solar-stellar atmosphere to produce what we broadly refer to as magnetic activity. With the discovery of literally thousands of planets beyond our solar system, the Solar-Stellar-Planet Connection is quickly emerging as a new area of investigation of the impacts of magnetic activity on exoplanet atmospheres. In parallel with this rapid evolution in our perspectives is the advent of transformative facilities for the study of the Sun and the dynamic Universe. The primary focus of this invited talk will be on photometric variations in solar-type stars and the Sun. These brightness variations are associated with thermal homogeneities typically defined by magnetic structures that are also spatially coincident with key radiative proxies. Photometric variability in solar-type stars and the Sun includes transient brightening, rotational modulation by cool spots and cycle-related variability, each with a characteristic signature in time and wavelength. The emphasis of this presentation will be on the relationship between broadband photometric variations and magnetic field-related activity in solar-type stars and the Sun. Facets of this topic will be discussed both retrospectively and prospectively as we enter a revolutionary, new era for astronomy.

  6. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  7. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  8. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  9. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  10. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  11. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  12. 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167479.html 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems The spots ... on the iris -- the colored part of the eye -- aren't cancerous, but these "eye freckles" could ...

  13. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  14. Spotted inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro, E-mail: matsuda@sit.ac.jp [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji, Okabe-machi, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions.

  15. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  16. Starspot-induced radial velocity jitter during a stellar cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Heidi Helena; Andersen, Jan Marie; Järvinen, Silva

    2012-01-01

    on the Sun and other cool stars changes cyclically during an activity cycle, which has length varying from about a year to longer than the solar 11 years. In this work we investigate the influence of varying amount of starspots on the sparsely sampled radial velocity observations - which are the norm...... in the radial velocity studies searching for exoplanets on wide orbits. We study two simulated cases: one with a random spot configuration, and one where the spot occurrence is concentrated. In addition we use Doppler images of young solar analogue V889 Her as a high activity case....

  17. Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively.

  18. Polar migration of prominences and the inversion of the polar magnetic field of the sun in the 11th and 12th solar cycles (1869 - 1885).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V. I.

    The trajectories of the polar migration of prominences are calculated on the basis of spectroscopic observations of prominences during 1869 - 1885. The epoch of the polarity inversion of the polar magnetic field is determined. Three "waves" of migration of polar prominences were observed in the southern hemisphere in the 12th solar cycle whose velocities were 3.9, 7.0 and 8.3 m sec-1. In the northern hemisphere only one "wave" of migration was observed whose velocity was 4.0 m sec-1. The 12th solar cycle is similar to the 14th solar cycle from the point of view of polar migration of prominences.

  19. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  20. Hysteresis Effect in the Activity Indices of the Atmospheres of the Sun and Solar-Type Stars During the Rising and Falling Phases of Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Yakunina, G. V.

    2016-09-01

    The hysteresis effect that shows up as a nonunique relationship among the emissions from the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona during the rising and falling phases of solar and stellar activity is analyzed. The following solar indices are analyzed and compared in different phases of the cycle: the radiative flux in the hydrogen Lyman alpha line FLα, radio emission at 10.7 cm F10.7, the sunspot number SSN, the radiative flux in the 530.0 nm green coronal line F530.3, the solar constant TSI, and the relative flux ratio c/w (ratio of the fluxes in the center and in the wings) for the 280 nm Mg II line. In stars with cycles, a hysteresis effect is observed between the CaII chromospheric S-activity index for stars in the Mount Wilson HK project and the photospheric flux Fph for these stars.

  1. Magnetic activity in the young solar analog LQ Hydrae. I. Active longitudes and cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Pelt, J.; Tuominen, I.

    2002-11-01

    We present the first evidence that a single active dwarf of solar type can show a long-lived, nonaxisymmetric spot distribution - active longitudes on opposite hemispheres, similar to evolved, rapidly rotating RS CVn-type binary stars. We analyse new as well as published photometric observations of the young active dwarf LQ Hya, spanning almost 20 years. We find that activity of the star has three activity cycles: a 5.2-yr ``flip-flop'' cycle, a 7.7-yr period in the amplitude modulation of the brightness and an approximately 15-yr period in variations of the mean brightness. The two shorter cycles are related to the alternating active longitudes and are similar to cycles observed in RS CVn-type stars. The 15-yr cycle reflects periodic changes of the mean spottedness of the star and resembles the solar 11-year cycle. The spot rotation period (about 1.6 days) changes during the 15-yr cycle, indicating the presence of small differential rotation. The lengths of the three cycles are related as 3:2:1, with the repetition of the spot configuration after 15 years. We discuss the possibility that the observed spot cycles represent two different magnetic dynamo modes operating in LQ Hya: an axisymmetric mode, as in the Sun, and a nonaxisymmetric higher order mode with two cycles in spot patterns. Our results suggest that young stars exhibit their cycles in spot distribution, as seen in LQ Hya. This is in contrast to the conclusion based on the analysis of Ca Ii H&K emission from plages. The results suggest also that the Vaughan-Preston gap represents a transition from a multiple-mode dynamo to a single-mode dynamo. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/394/505

  2. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  3. Evaluation of Scenic Spot Digital Services Based on Tourists' Experiences -A Case of Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum%基于游客体验的景区数字化服务水平评估——以南京中山陵为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇梦嫄; 沙润

    2012-01-01

    提高景区数字化服务水平对旅游景区的可持续发展具有重要意义。本文探讨了景区数字化服务水平评估体系构建的思路和原则,并以中山陵为例构建一套评估指标体系,利用25个三级指标对游客体验进行调查,评估景区数字化水平。研究表明游客对中山陵数字化建设各项指标的体验满意值与其交付性存在显著差异。在此基础上创建期望—体验矩阵对各类指标进行定位归类.进而讨论各类指标的优化策略,为中山陵景区向智慧景区转型创造条件。%The improvement of digital service level has made great importance to the sustainable development of tourist attractions. This article has discussed how to build an evaluation system of digital services in scenic spots and structured an evaluation system for Dr. Sun Yat- sen's Mausoleum, Which consists of 23 indicators to investigate tourists' experiences in order to understand the digital level of the spot. The result of the survey shows that tourists were not satisfied with the digital construction of Dr. Sml Yat-sen's Mausoleum. This article has built an expect-experience matrix to classify 23 indicators and discussed the optimization strategies of scenic spots' digl.tal index system.

  4. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  5. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  6. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  7. Using Kepler transit observations to measure stellar spot belt migration rates

    CERN Document Server

    Llama, J; Mackay, D H; Fares, R

    2012-01-01

    Planetary transits provide a unique opportunity to investigate the surface distributions of star spots. Our aim is to determine if, with continuous observation (such as the data that will be provided by the Kepler mission), we can in addition measure the rate of drift of the spot belts. We begin by simulating magnetic cycles suitable for the Sun and more active stars, incorporating both flux emergence and surface transport. This provides the radial magnetic field distribution on the stellar surface as a function of time. We then model the transit of a planet whose orbital axis is misaligned with the stellar rotation axis. Such a planet could occult spots at a range of latitudes. This allows us to complete the forward modelling of the shape of the transit lightcurve. We then attempt the inverse problem of recovering spot locations from the transit alone. From this we determine if transit lightcurves can be used to measure spot belt locations as a function of time. We find that for low-activity stars such as th...

  8. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  9. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  10. Astrometric jitter of the sun as a star

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, V V; Ulrich, R K

    2010-01-01

    The daily variation of the solar photocenter over some 11 years is derived from the Mount Wilson data reprocessed by Ulrich et al. 2010 to closely match the surface distribution of solar irradiance. The standard deviations of astrometric jitter are 0.52 $\\mu$AU and 0.39 $\\mu$AU in the equatorial and the axial dimensions, respectively. The overall dispersion is strongly correlated with the solar cycle, reaching $0.91 \\mu$AU at the maximum activity in 2000. The largest short-term deviations from the running average (up to 2.6 $\\mu$AU) occur when a group of large spots happen to lie on one side with respect to the center of the disk. The amplitude spectrum of the photocenter variations never exceeds 0.033 $\\mu$AU for the range of periods 0.6--1.4 yr, corresponding to the orbital periods of planets in the habitable zone. Astrometric detection of Earth-like planets around stars as quiet as the Sun is not affected by star spot noise, but the prospects for more active stars may be limited to giant planets.

  11. Mongolian spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  12. The alpha effect of Babcock-Leighton in the surface layers of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivodubskij, V.

    2017-06-01

    The paper reviews recent studies of cyclicity of magnetic activity of the Sun based on the αΩ-dynamo model. According to the αΩ-dynamo model the radial gradient of angular velocity δΩ/δr acts on the poloidal magnetic field BP, as a result generating the toroidal magnetic field BT (Ω-effect). Meanwhile helical turbulence, acting on the toroidal field BT, regenerates new poloidal magnetic component of opposite sign - BP. Since the differential rotation δΩ/δr is inherent in almost stable regularity in time, there is a functional dependence between the observed values of the poloidal BP and toroidal BT magnetic fields. Poloidal magnetic field BP in minimum epoch of the solar cycle (when field BP has maximum value) determines the amount of the generated toroidal magnetic field BT (which is responsible for intensity of the spots activity in the coming cycle). This allows us to predict the amplitude (Wolf numbers W) and the strength (the total area of spots) of cycle for the measured field BP at the beginning of the cycle. However, for a long time in past there were no detected the positive correlations between the characteristics of sunspots cycle (Wolf number or the total area of spots) and polar magnetic flux (which characterized the value of poloidal field BP) at the end of the cycle. In the terms of dynamo theory it was supposedly evidenced of the absence of functional dependence poloidal fields BP at the end of cycles on the toroidal field BT in maximum of cycles. As it turned out later, this was due to the fact that the surface α-effect of Babcock-Leighton (which defined by tilt angles of the bipolar magnetic fields, turbulent diffusion and meridional circulation, and causes the regeneration of the poloidal field) is characterized by random fluctuations in time and space. The situation, however, changed drastically after the introducing of the parameter of magnetic strength spots of cycle, which is a product of the area of spots cycle and tilt angles of

  13. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  14. Are 'hot spots' hot spots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.

    2012-07-01

    The term 'hot spot' emerged in the 1960s from speculations that Hawaii might have its origins in an unusually hot source region in the mantle. It subsequently became widely used to refer to volcanic regions considered to be anomalous in the then-new plate tectonic paradigm. It carried with it the implication that volcanism (a) is emplaced by a single, spatially restricted, mongenetic melt-delivery system, assumed to be a mantle plume, and (b) that the source is unusually hot. This model has tended to be assumed a priori to be correct. Nevertheless, there are many geological ways of testing it, and a great deal of work has recently been done to do so. Two fundamental problems challenge this work. First is the difficulty of deciding a 'normal' mantle temperature against which to compare estimates. This is usually taken to be the source temperature of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). However, Earth's surface conduction layer is ˜200 km thick, and such a norm is not appropriate if the lavas under investigation formed deeper than the 40-50 km source depth of MORB. Second, methods for estimating temperature suffer from ambiguity of interpretation with composition and partial melt, controversy regarding how they should be applied, lack of repeatability between studies using the same data, and insufficient precision to detect the 200-300 °C temperature variations postulated. Available methods include multiple seismological and petrological approaches, modelling bathymetry and topography, and measuring heat flow. Investigations have been carried out in many areas postulated to represent either (hot) plume heads or (hotter) tails. These include sections of the mid-ocean spreading ridge postulated to include ridge-centred plumes, the North Atlantic Igneous Province, Iceland, Hawaii, oceanic plateaus, and high-standing continental areas such as the Hoggar swell. Most volcanic regions that may reasonably be considered anomalous in the simple plate-tectonic paradigm have been

  15. DIMMING OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foukal, Peter, E-mail: pvfoukal@comcast.net [192 Willow Rd., Nahant, MA 01908 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s.

  16. New insight into Earth's weather through studies of Sun's magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Solar Vector Magnetograph is used to predict solar flares, and other activities associated with sun spots. This research provides new understanding about weather on the Earth, and solar-related conditions in orbit.

  17. SOHO starts a revolution in the science of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    In addition, SOHO has found clues to the forces that accelerate the solar wind of atomic particles blowing unceasingly through the Solar System. By relating the huge outbursts called coronal mass ejections to preceding magnetic changes in the Sun, SOHO scientists hope to predict such events which, in the Earth's vicinity, endanger power supplies and satellites. SOHO sees differences in the strength of the solar wind in various directions, by mapping a cavity in the cloud of interstellar hydrogen surrounding the Sun. As a bonus, SOHO secured remarkable images of Comet Hyakutake, by ultraviolet and visible light. The revolution in solar science will seem more complete when all the pieces and actions of the Sun, detected by twelve different instruments, are brought together in observations and concepts. Fundamental questions will then be open to re-examination, about the origin of the Sun's magnetism, the cause of its variations in the 11-year cycle of sunspot activity, and the consequences for the Solar System at large. SOHO is greater than the sum of its parts. "SOHO takes solar science by storm," says Roger Bonnet, the European Space Agency's Director of Science, "thanks to its combination of instruments. Unprecedented results from individual telescopes and spectrometers are impressive, of course, but what is breathtaking is SOHO's ability to explore the Sun all the way from its nuclear core to the Earth's vicinity and beyond. We can expect a completely new picture of how agitation inside the Sun, transmitted through the solar atmosphere, directly affects us on the Earth." SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO and provides the ground stations and an operations centre at the Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington. SOHO has an uninterrupted view of the Sun from a halo orbit around Lagrangian

  18. Spatial distributions of sulphur species and sulphate-reducing bacteria provide insights into sulphur redox cycling and biodegradation hot-spots in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsiedl, Florian; Pilloni, Giovanni; Ruth-Anneser, Bettina; Lueders, Tillman; Griebler, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Dissimilatory sulphate reduction (DSR) has been proven to be one of the most relevant redox reactions in the biodegradation of contaminants in groundwater. However, the possible role of sulphur species of intermediate oxidation state, as well as the role of potential re-oxidative sulphur cycling in biodegradation particularly at the groundwater table are still poorly understood. Here we used a combination of stable isotope measurements of SO42-, H2S, and S0 as well as geochemical profiling of sulphur intermediates with special emphasis on SO32-, S2O32-, and S0 to unravel possible sulphur cycling in the biodegradation of aromatics in a hydrocarbon-contaminated porous aquifer. By linking these results to the quantification of total bacterial rRNA genes and respiratory genes of sulphate reducers, as well as pyrotag sequencing of bacterial communities over depth, light is shed on possible key-organisms involved. Our results substantiate the role of DSR in biodegradation of hydrocarbons (mainly toluene) in the highly active plume fringes above and beneath the plume core. In both zones the concentration of sulphur intermediates (S0, SO32- and S2O32-) was almost twice that of other sampling-depths, indicating intense sulphur redox cycling. The dual isotopic fingerprint of oxygen and sulphur in dissolved sulphate suggested a re-oxidation of reduced sulphur compounds to sulphate especially at the upper fringe zone. An isotopic shift in δ34S of S0 of nearly +4‰ compared to the δ34S values of H2S from the same depth linked to a high abundance (∼10%) of sequence reads related to Sulphuricurvum spp. (Epsilonproteobacteria) in the same depth were indicative of intensive oxidation of S0 to sulphate in this zone. At the lower plume fringe S0 constituted the main inorganic sulphur species, possibly formed by abiotic re-oxidation of H2S with Fe(III)oxides subsequent to sulphate reduction. These results provide first insights into intense sulphur redox cycling in a hydrocarbon

  19. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  20. New Suns in the Cosmos II: Differential rotation in $Kepler$ Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Chagas, M L Das; Costa, A D; Lopes, C E Ferreira; Sobrinho, R Silva; Paz-Chinchón, F; Leão, I C; Valio, A; de Freitas, D B; Martins, B L Canto; Lanza, A F; De Medeiros, J R

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports the discovery of Sun-like stars, namely main-sequence stars with $T_{\\rm eff}$, $\\log g$ and rotation periods $P_{rot}$ similar to solar values, presenting evidence of surface differential rotation. An autocorrelation of the time series was used to select stars presenting photometric signal stability from a sample of 881 stars with light curves collected by the $Kepler$ space-borne telescope, in which we have identified 17 stars with stable signals. A simple two-spot model together with a Bayesian information criterion were applied to these stars in the search for indications of differential rotation; in addition, for all 17 stars, it was possible to compute the spot rotation period $P$, the mean values of the individual spot rotation periods and their respective colatitudes, and the relative amplitude of the differential rotation.

  1. New Suns in the Cosmos II: differential rotation in Kepler Sun-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Chagas, M. L.; Bravo, J. P.; Costa, A. D.; Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Silva Sobrinho, R.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Leão, I. C.; Valio, A.; de Freitas, D. B.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Lanza, A. F.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    The present study reports the discovery of Sun-like stars, namely main-sequence stars with Teff, log g and rotation periods Prot similar to solar values, presenting evidence of surface differential rotation (DR). An autocorrelation of the time series was used to select stars presenting photometric signal stability from a sample of 881 stars with light curves collected by the Kepler space-borne telescope, in which we have identified 17 stars with stable signals. A simple two-spot model together with a Bayesian information criterion were applied to these stars in the search for indications of DR; in addition, for all 17 stars, it was possible to compute the spot rotation period P, the mean values of the individual spot rotation periods and their respective colatitudes, and the relative amplitude of the DR.

  2. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  3. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  4. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  5. The lost sunspot cycle: New support from Be10 measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Karoff, C; Knudsen, M F; Olsen, J; Fogtmann-Schulz, A

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the deficit in the number of spots on the surface of the Sun between 1790 and 1830, known as the Dalton minimum, contained an extra cycle that was not identified in the original sunspot record by Wolf. Though this cycle would be shorter and weaker than the average solar cycle, it would shift the magnetic parity of the solar magnetic field of the earlier cycles. This extra cycle is sometimes referred to as the 'lost solar cycle' or 'cycle 4b'. Here we reanalyse Be10 measurements with annual resolution from the NGRIP ice core in Greenland in order to investigate if the hypothesis regarding a lost sunspot cycle is supported by these measurements. Specifically, we make use of the fact that the Galactic cosmic rays, responsible for forming Be10 in the Earth's atmosphere, are affected differently by the open solar magnetic field during even and odd solar cycles. This fact enables us to evaluate if the numbering of cycles earlier than cycle 5 is correct. For the evaluation, we use Bayesian...

  6. Low Frequency Radio Emission from the 'Quiet' Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Ramesh

    2000-09-01

    We present observations of the 'quiet' Sun close to the recent solar minimum (Cycle 22), with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph. Our main conclusion is that coronal streamers also influence the observed radio brightness temperature.

  7. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  8. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  9. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  10. 'My Sun' and 'Guided by the Moon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baillie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available My Sun and Guided by the Moon (2012 show the heavily pregnant artist with her swollen belly covered in gold and silver leaf. The work is suggestive that the connectivity experienced by an expectant mother, extends outwards, even as far as her relationship with the cosmos. The 'sun' portrait was taken on a bright September morning, and its partner image, the following October, on the night of a full moon. Female cycles and the importance of time passing during a pregnancy are referenced. Interestingly, bearing in mind that the artist gave birth to a son in November, creating the 'moon' portrait felt like a familiar, empowering and yet isolated expression of selfhood, whilst the 'sun/son' version exuded the energy of a collaboration, and stimulated feelings of joy, liberation and potentiality. By seeming contradiction, the boy was born on a full moon, exactly a month to the day that Guided by the Moon was taken.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  12. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  13. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  14. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  15. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  16. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  17. Glimpses of stellar surfaces. I. Spot evolution and differential rotation of the planet host star Kepler-210

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, P.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-10-01

    We use high accuracy photometric data obtained with the Kepler satellite to monitor the activity modulations of the Kepler-210 planet host star over a time span of more than four years. Following the phenomenology of the star's light curve in combination with a five spot model, we identify six different so-called spot seasons. A characteristic, which is common in the majority of the seasons, is the persistent appearance of spots in a specific range of longitudes on the stellar surface. The most prominent period of the observed activity modulations is different for each season and appears to evolve following a specific pattern, resembling the changes in the sunspot periods during the solar magnetic cycle. Under the hypothesis that the star exhibits solar-like differential rotation, we suggest differential rotation values of Kepler-210 that are similar to or smaller than that of the Sun. Finally, we estimate spot life times between ~60 days and ~90 days, taking into consideration the evolution of the total covered stellar surface computed from our model.

  18. Glimpses of stellar surfaces. I. Spot evolution and differential rotation of the planet host star Kepler-210

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannidis, P

    2016-01-01

    We use high accuracy photometric data obtained with the Kepler satellite to monitor the activity modulations of the Kepler-210 planet host star over a time span of more than four years. Following the phenomenology of the star's light curve in combination with a five spot model, we identify six different so-called spot seasons. A characteristic, which is common in the majority of the seasons, is the persistent appearance of spots in a specific range of longitudes on the stellar surface. The most prominent period of the observed activity modulations is different for each season and appears to evolve following a specific pattern, resembling the changes in the sunspot periods during the solar magnetic cycle. Under the hypothesis that the star exhibits solar-like differential rotation, we suggest differential rotation values of Kepler-210 that are similar to or smaller than that of the Sun. Finally, we estimate spot life times between 60 days and 90 days, taking into consideration the evolution of the total covere...

  19. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  20. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  1. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  2. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  3. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  4. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  5. Starspot evolution, differential rotation, and magnetic cycles in the chromospherically active binaries lambda andromedae, sigma Geminorum, II Pegasi, and V711 Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gregory W.; Eaton, Joel A.; Hamer, Jamesia; Hall, Douglas S.

    1995-01-01

    We have analyzed 15-19 yr of photoelectric photometry, obtained manually and with automated telescopes, of the chromospherically active binaries lambda And, sigma Gem, II Peg, and V711 Tau. These observations let us identify individual dark starspots on the stellar surfaces from periodic dimming of the starlight, follow the evolution of these spots, and search for long-term cyclic changes in the properties of these starspots that might reveal magnetic cycles analogous to the Sun's 11 yr sunspot cycle. We developed a computer code to fit a simple two-spot model to our observed light curves that allows us to extract the most easily determinable and most reliable spot parameters from the light curves, i.e., spot longitudes and radii. We then used these measured properties to identify individual spots and to chart their life histories by constructing migration and amplitude curves. We identified and followed 11 spots in lambda And, 16 in sigma Gem, 12 in II Peg, and 15 in V711 Tau. Lifetimes of individual spots ranged from a few months to longer than 6 yr. Differential rotation coefficients, estimated from the observed range of spot rotation periods for each star and defined by equation (2), were 0.04 for lambda And, 0.038 for sigma Gem, 0.005 for II Peg, and 0.006 for V711 Tau, versus 0.19 for the Sun. We searched for cyclic changes in mean brightness, B-V color index, and spot rotation period as evidence for long-term cycles. Of these, long-term variability in mean brightness appears to offer the best evidence for such cycles in these four stars. Cycles of 11.1 yr for lambda And, 8.5 yr for sigma Gem, 11 yr for II Peg, and 16 yr V711 Tau are implied by these mean brightness changes. Cyclic changes in spot rotation period were found in lambda And and possibly II Peg. Errors in B-V were too large for any long-term changes to be detectable.

  6. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  7. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  8. Presenting the science of the Sun to the general public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2016-07-01

    Although the science behind the Sun is so fascinating, there has not been sufficient worldwide effort in presenting this science to the general public. My recently published popular science book "Nature's Third Cycle: A Story of Sunspots" (Oxford University Press, 2015) is probably the first popular science book introducing the phenomenology of the solar cycle along with a non-technical account of dynamo theory. I shall discuss my perspective of the challenges involved in presenting the science of the Sun to the public. The Amazon link of my book is: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Natures-Third-Cycle-Story-Sunspots/dp/0199674752/

  9. Transiting the Sun: The impact of stellar activity on X-ray and ultraviolet transits

    CERN Document Server

    Llama, J

    2015-01-01

    Transits of hot Jupiters in X-rays and the ultraviolet have been shown to be both deeper and more variable than the corresponding optical transits. This variability has been attributed to hot Jupiters having extended atmospheres at these wavelengths. Using resolved images of the Sun from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory spanning 3.5 years of Solar Cycle 24 we simulate transit light curves of a hot Jupiter to investigate the impact of Solar like activity on our ability to reliably recover properties of the planet's atmosphere in soft X-rays (94 {\\AA}), the UV (131-1700 {\\AA}), and the optical (4500 {\\AA}). We find that for stars with similar activity levels to the Sun, the impact of stellar activity results in the derived radius of the planet in soft X-ray/EUV to be underestimated by up-to 25% or overestimated by up-to 50% depending on whether the planet occults active regions. We also find that in up-to 70% of the X-ray light curves the planet transits over bright star spots. In the far ultraviolet (1600 &am...

  10. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  11. HARPS-N observes the Sun as a star

    CERN Document Server

    Dumusque, Xavier; Phillips, David F; Buchschacher, Nicolas; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Cecconi, Massimo; Charbonneau, David; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Latham, David W; Li, Chih-Hao; Lodi, Marcello; Lovis, Christophe; Molinari, Emilio; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity perturbations induced by stellar surface inhomogeneities including spots, plages and granules currently limit the detection of Earth-twins using Doppler spectroscopy. Such stellar noise is poorly understood for stars other than the Sun because their surface is unresolved. In particular, the effects of stellar surface inhomogeneities on observed stellar radial velocities are extremely difficult to characterize, and thus developing optimal correction techniques to extract true stellar radial velocities is extremely challenging. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a solar telescope built to feed full-disk sunlight into the HARPS-N spectrograph, which is in turn calibrated with an astro-comb. This setup enables long-term observation of the Sun as a star with state-of-the-art sensitivity to radial velocity changes. Over seven days of observing in 2014, we show an average 50\\cms radial velocity rms over a few hours of observation. After correcting observed radial velocities for spot and...

  12. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  13. Solar-Like Cycle in Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, N

    2000-01-01

    I propose that the mechanism behind the formation of concentric semi-periodic shells found in several planetary nebulae (PNs) and proto-PNs, and around one asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, is a solar-like magnetic activity cycle in the progenitor AGB stars. The time intervals between consecutive ejection events is about 200-1,000 years, which is assumed to be the cycle period (the full magnetic cycle can be twice as long, as is the 22-year period in the sun). The magnetic field has no dynamical effects; it regulates the mass loss rate by the formation of magnetic cool spots. The enhanced magnetic activity at the cycle maximum results in more magnetic cool spots, which facilitate the formation of dust, hence increasing the mass loss rate. The strong magnetic activity implies that the AGB star is spun up by a companion, via a tidal or common envelope interaction. The strong interaction with a stellar companion explains the observations that the concentric semi-periodic shells are found mainly in bipolar PNs.

  14. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  15. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  16. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  17. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  18. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. hi-res Size hi-res: 377 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (b) Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. hi-res Size hi-res: 435 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (c) Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). hi-res Size hi-res: 121 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (d) Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degree hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. Neutron stars are the smallest kind of stars known. They are the super-dense remnants of massive stars that died in cataclysmic explosions called supernovae. They have been thrown through space like cannonballs and set spinning at a furious rate, with magnetic fields hundreds of billions of times stronger than Earth’s. In the case of Geminga, this cannonball contains one and a half times the mass of the Sun, squeezed into a sphere just 20 kilometres across and spinning four times every second. A cloud bustling with electrically charged particles surrounds Geminga. These particles are shepherded by its magnetic and electric fields. ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory had already discovered that some of these particles are ejected into space, forming tails that stream behind the neutron star as it hurtles along. Scientists did not know

  19. Spotted Seal Distribution Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains GIS layers that depict the known spatial distributions (i.e., ranges) and reported breeding areas of spotted seals (Phoca largha). It was...

  20. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  1. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  2. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  3. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  4. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  5. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  6. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  7. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  8. Spot evolution on the red giant star XX Triangulum. A starspot-decay analysis based on time-series Doppler imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Künstler, A; Strassmeier, K G

    2015-01-01

    Solar spots appear to decay linearly proportional to their size. The decay rate of solar spots is directly related to magnetic diffusivity, which itself is a key quantity for the length of a magnetic-activity cycle. Is a linear spot decay also seen on other stars, and is this in agreement with the large range of solar and stellar activity cycle lengths? We investigate the evolution of starspots on the rapidly-rotating ($P_{\\rm rot}$ $\\approx$ 24 d) K0 giant XX Tri, using consecutive time-series Doppler images. Our aim is to obtain a well-sampled movie of the stellar surface over many years, and thereby detect and quantify a starspot decay law for further comparison with the Sun. We obtained continuous high-resolution and phase-resolved spectroscopy with the 1.2-m robotic STELLA telescope on Tenerife over six years. For each observing season, we obtained between 5 to 7 independent Doppler images, one per stellar rotation, making up a total of 36 maps. To quantify starspot area decay and growth, we match the ob...

  9. The Sun and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Many geologic records of climatic and environmental change based on various proxy variables exhibit distinct cyclicities that have been attributed to extraterrestrial forcing. The best known of these are the changes in Earth’s orbital geometry called Milankovitch Cycles, with periodicities of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. However, many cycles seem to have subMilankovitch periodicities, commonly on decadal and centennial scales, similar to those of known solar cycles. A direct connection between solar irradiance (solar constant) and weather and climate has been suggested for more than 100 years but generally rejected by most scientists, who assume that the effect of solar variations would be small. However, recent satellite radiometer measurements and modeling studies indicate that small changes in total solar irradiance could produce global temperature changes of the magnitude suggested for climatic events such as the Little Ice Age (A.D. 1550–1700).

  10. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  11. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  12. A new solar signal: Average maximum sunspot magnetic fields independent of activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Livingston, William

    2016-01-01

    Over the past five years, 2010-2015, we have observed, in the near infrared (IR), the maximum magnetic field strengths for 4145 sunspot umbrae. Herein we distinguish field strengths from field flux. (Most solar magnetographs measure flux). Maximum field strength in umbrae is co-spatial with the position of umbral minimum brightness (Norton and Gilman, 2004). We measure field strength by the Zeeman splitting of the Fe 15648.5 A spectral line. We show that in the IR no cycle dependence on average maximum field strength (2050 G) has been found +/- 20 Gauss. A similar analysis of 17,450 spots observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal the same cycle independence +/- 0.18 G., or a variance of 0.01%. This is found not to change over the ongoing 2010-2015 minimum to maximum cycle. Conclude the average maximum umbral fields on the Sun are constant with time.

  13. Watching the Sun to Improve Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Looking for stars that wobble is one of the key ways by which we detect exoplanets: the gravitational pull of planets cause tiny variations in stars radial velocities. But our ability to detect Earth twins is currently limited by our ability to distinguish between radial-velocity variations caused by exoplanets, and those caused by noise from the star itself. A team of scientists has recently proposed that the key to solving this problem may be to examine our own star.Precision Amid NoiseThe radial-velocity technique works well for detecting large planets on close orbits, but detecting an Earth twin requires being able to detect star motion on the order of 10 cm/s! This precision is hard to reach, because activity on the stellar surface i.e., sunspots, plages (bright spots), or granulation can also cause variations in the measured radial velocity for the star, obscuring the signature of a planet.Because the stars were examining arent resolved, we cant track the activity on their surfaces so how can we better understand the imprint that stellar activity has on radial-velocity measurements? A team of scientists has come up with a clever approach: examine the Sun as though it were a distant star.Wealth of InformationThe team, led by Xavier Dumusque (Branco-Weiss Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and David F. Phillips (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), has begun a project to observe the Sun with a ground-based solar telescope. The telescope observes the full disk of the Sun and feeds the data into the HARPS-N spectrograph in Spain, a spectrograph normally used for radial-velocity measurements of other stars in the hunt for exoplanets.But the team has access to other data about the Sun, too: information from satellites like the Solar Dynamics Observatory and SORCE about the solar activity and total irradiance during the time when the spectra were taken. Dumusque and collaborators have combined all of this information, during a week

  14. Investigation of Digital Sun Sensor Technology with an N-Shaped Slit Mask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng You

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays sun sensors are being more widely used in satellites to determine the sunray orientation, thus development of a new version of sun sensor with lighter mass, lower power consumption and smaller size it of considerable interest. This paper introduces such a novel digital sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS mask with an N-shaped slit as well as a single linear array charge-coupled device (CCD. The sun sensor can achieve the measurement of two-axis sunray angles according to the three sun spot images on the CCD formed by sun light illumination through the mask. Given the CCD glass layer, an iterative algorithm is established to correct the refraction error. Thus, system resolution, update rate and other characteristics are improved based on the model simulation and system design. The test of sun sensor prototype is carried out on a three-axis rotating platform with a sun simulator. The test results show that the field of view (FOV is ±60° × ±60° and the accuracy is 0.08 degrees of arc (3σ in the whole FOV. Since the power consumption of the prototype is only 300 mW and the update rate is 14 Hz, the novel digital sun sensor can be applied broadly in micro/nano-satellites, even pico-satellites.

  15. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  16. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  17. XMM-Newton detects X-ray 'solar cycle' in distant star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The Sun as observed by SOHO hi-res Size hi-res: 708 Kb The Sun as observed by SOHO The Sun as observed by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory near the minimum of the solar cycle (left) and near its maximum (right). The signs of solar activity near the maximum are clearly seen. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Solar flare - 4 November 2003 The huge flare produced on 4 November 2003 This image of the Sun, obtained by the ESA/NASA SOHO observatory, shows the powerful X-ray flare that took place on 4 November 2003. The associated coronal mass ejection, coming out of the Sun at a speed of 8.2 million kilometres per hour, hit the Earth several hours later and caused disruptions to telecommunication and power distribution lines. New XMM-Newton observations suggest that this behaviour may be typical of stars like the Sun, such as HD 81809 in the constellation Hydra. Since the time Galileo discovered sunspots, in 1610, astronomers have measured their number, size and location on the disc of the Sun. Sunspots are relatively cooler areas on the Sun that are observed as dark patches. Their number rises and falls with the level of activity of the Sun in a cycle of about 11 years. When the Sun is very active, large-scale phenomena take place, such as the flares and coronal mass ejections observed by the ESA/NASA solar observatory SOHO. These events release a large amount of energy and charged particles that hit the Earth and can cause powerful magnetic storms, affecting radio communications, power distribution lines and even our weather and climate. During the solar cycle, the X-ray emission from the Sun varies by a large amount (about a factor of 100) and is strongest when the cycle is at its peak and the surface of the Sun is covered by the largest number of spots. ESA's X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, has now shown for the first time that this cyclic X-ray behaviour is common to

  18. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  19. Probing Solar Magnetic Field with the "Cosmic-Ray Shadow" of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M; Chen, D; Chen, T L; Chen, W Y; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu,; Ding, L K; Feng, C F; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z Y; Gou, Q B; Guo, Y Q; Hakamada, K; He, H H; He, Z T; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Jia, H Y; Jiang, L; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren,; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, H J; Li, W J; Liu, C; Liu, J S; Liu, M Y; Lu, H; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Munakata, K; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ozawa, S; Qian, X L; Qu, X B; Saito, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Shao, J; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, H; Wu, H R; Xue, L; Yamamoto, Y; Yang, Z; Yasue, S; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhai, L M; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhaxisangzhu,; Zhou, X X

    2013-01-01

    We report on a clear solar-cycle variation of the Sun's shadow in the 10 TeV cosmic-ray flux observed by the Tibet air shower array during a full solar cycle from 1996 to 2009. In order to clarify the physical implications of the observed solar cycle variation, we develop numerical simulations of the Sun's shadow, using the Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) model and the Current Sheet Source Surface (CSSS) model for the coronal magnetic field. We find that the intensity deficit in the simulated Sun's shadow is very sensitive to the coronal magnetic field structure, and the observed variation of the Sun's shadow is better reproduced by the CSSS model. This is the first successful attempt to evaluate the coronal magnetic field models by using the Sun's shadow observed in the TeV cosmic-ray flux.

  20. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  1. The histeresis of the indices of solar activity and of the ionospheric indices in 11-yr cycles. The histeresis of the stellar activity indices in the cyclic activity similar to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bruevich, E A; Kazachevskaya, T V; Katyushina, V V; Nusinov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the effect of the hysteresis, which manifests itself in an ambiguous relationship of radiation from the photosphere, chromosphere and corona on the rise and decline phases of the solar and stellar activity cycles have done. Some indices of solar activity: the flux of the hydrogen Lyman-alpha emission, the 10.7 cm flux, the sunspot number SSN, the flux in the coronal green line 530.3 nm, the solar constant TSI and the 280 nm Mg II flux were studied. The stars with the well-determined cycles were examined to detect the effect of hysteresis between the chromosphere's S-index CaII fluxes versus the photosphere's fluxes Fphotosphere.

  2. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  3. Sun Basking in Red Wood Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Individual Behaviour and Temperature-Dependent Respiration Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers' lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun. Sun-basking and non-sun-basking workers did not differ in body size nor in respiration rates. The number of sun-basking ants and the number of their visits to the hot spot depended on the temperature of both the air and the hot spot. To investigate whether sun basking leads to a physiological activation linked with increased lipolysis, we measured respiration rates of individual workers as a function of temperature, and compared respiration rates of sun-basking workers before and two days after they were allowed to expose themselves to a heat source over 10 days, at self-determined intervals. As expected for ectothermic animals, respiration rates increased with increasing temperatures in the range 5 to 35°C. However, the respiration rates of sun-basking workers measured two days after a long-term exposure to the heat source were similar to those before sun basking, providing no evidence for a sustained increase of the basal metabolic rates after prolonged sun basking. Based on our measurements, we argue that self-heating of the nest mound in early spring has therefore to rely on alternative heat sources, and speculate that physical transport of heat in the ant bodies may have a significant effect.

  4. Sun Basking in Red Wood Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Individual Behaviour and Temperature-Dependent Respiration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers’ lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun. Sun-basking and non-sun-basking workers did not differ in body size nor in respiration rates. The number of sun-basking ants and the number of their visits to the hot spot depended on the temperature of both the air and the hot spot. To investigate whether sun basking leads to a physiological activation linked with increased lipolysis, we measured respiration rates of individual workers as a function of temperature, and compared respiration rates of sun-basking workers before and two days after they were allowed to expose themselves to a heat source over 10 days, at self-determined intervals. As expected for ectothermic animals, respiration rates increased with increasing temperatures in the range 5 to 35°C. However, the respiration rates of sun-basking workers measured two days after a long-term exposure to the heat source were similar to those before sun basking, providing no evidence for a sustained increase of the basal metabolic rates after prolonged sun basking. Based on our measurements, we argue that self-heating of the nest mound in early spring has therefore to rely on alternative heat sources, and speculate that physical transport of heat in the ant bodies may have a significant effect. PMID:28114396

  5. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  6. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  7. No Sun-like dynamo on the active star ζ Andromedae from starspot asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettenbacher, R M; Monnier, J D; Korhonen, H; Aarnio, A N; Baron, F; Che, X; Harmon, R O; Kővári, Zs; Kraus, S; Schaefer, G H; Torres, G; Zhao, M; ten Brummelaar, T A; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L

    2016-05-12

    Sunspots are cool areas caused by strong surface magnetic fields that inhibit convection. Moreover, strong magnetic fields can alter the average atmospheric structure, degrading our ability to measure stellar masses and ages. Stars that are more active than the Sun have more and stronger dark spots than does the Sun, including on the rotational pole. Doppler imaging, which has so far produced the most detailed images of surface structures on other stars, cannot always distinguish the hemisphere in which the starspots are located, especially in the equatorial region and if the data quality is not optimal. This leads to problems in investigating the north-south distribution of starspot active latitudes (those latitudes with more starspot activity); this distribution is a crucial constraint of dynamo theory. Polar spots, whose existence is inferred from Doppler tomography, could plausibly be observational artefacts. Here we report imaging of the old, magnetically active star ζ Andromedae using long-baseline infrared interferometry. In our data, a dark polar spot is seen in each of two observation epochs, whereas lower-latitude spot structures in both hemispheres do not persist between observations, revealing global starspot asymmetries. The north-south symmetry of active latitudes observed on the Sun is absent on ζ And, which hosts global spot patterns that cannot be produced by solar-type dynamos.

  8. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    solar flares?The process of electron acceleration during solar flares is not well understood. When a flare-producing active region is occulted by the solar limb, NuSTAR will able to directly observe the flare loop above the solar surface which is where that acceleration is thought to happen.How is the solar corona heated?The solar corona is a toasty 13 million Kelvin significantly warmer than the ~6000 K solar photosphere. So how is the corona heated? One proposed explanation is that the Suns surface constantly emits tiny nanoflares in active regions, or even in the quiet Sun that are so faint that we havent detected them. But with its high sensitivity, NuSTAR may be able to!The first NuSTAR full-disk mosaic of the Sun. The checkerboard pattern is an artifact of the detectors being hit by particles from active regions outside of the field of view a problem which will be reduced as the Sun enters the upcoming quieter part of the solar cycle. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]First ObservationsIn NuSTARs first four observations of the Sun, the team unexpectedly observed a major flare (which unsurprisingly swamped the detectors), watched the emission above an active region that was hidden by the solar limb, stared at a section of quiet Sun near the north solar pole, and composed a full-disk mosaic of the solar surface from 16 12 x 12 tiles.All of these initial observations are currently being carefully analyzed and will be presented in detail in future publications. In the meantime, NuSTAR has demonstrated its effectiveness in detecting faint emission in solar hard X-rays, proving that it will be a powerful tool for heliophysics as well as for astrophysics. We look forward to seeing the future results from this campaign!CitationBrian W. Grefenstette et al 2016 ApJ 826 20. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/826/1/20

  9. Design and Manufacturing of a High-Precision Sun Tracking System Based on Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoosh Azizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration solar arrays require greater solar tracking precision than conventional photovoltaic arrays. This paper presents a high precision low cost dual axis sun tracking system based on image processing for concentration photovoltaic applications. An imaging device is designed according to the principle of pinhole imaging, making sun rays to be received on a screen through pinhole and to be a sun spot. The location of the spot is used to adjust the orientation of the solar panel. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to achieve this goal. A prototype was built, and experimental results have proven the good performance of the proposed system and low error of tracking. The operation of this system is independent of geographical location, initial calibration, and periodical regulations.

  10. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    Having constantly increasing amounts of data, the analysis of it is often entrusted for a MapReduce framework. The execution of an analytical workload can be cheapened by adopting cloud computing resources, and in particular by using spot instances (cheap, fluctuating price instances) offered by ...

  11. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajita, Shin, E-mail: kajita.shin@nagoya-u.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tsventoukh, Mikhail M. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Barengolts, Sergey A. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  12. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  13. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  14. HARPS-N OBSERVES THE SUN AS A STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumusque, Xavier; Glenday, Alex; Phillips, David F.; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Li, Chih-Hao; Sasselov, Dimitar; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Walsworth, Ronald [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Buchschacher, Nicolas; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stéphane [Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cameron, Andrew Collier [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cecconi, Massimo; Cosentino, Rosario; Ghedina, Adriano; Lodi, Marcello; Molinari, Emilio, E-mail: xdumusque@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF—Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Radial velocity (RV) perturbations induced by stellar surface inhomogeneities including spots, plages and granules currently limit the detection of Earth-twins using Doppler spectroscopy. Such stellar noise is poorly understood for stars other than the Sun because their surface is unresolved. In particular, the effects of stellar surface inhomogeneities on observed stellar radial velocities are extremely difficult to characterize, and thus developing optimal correction techniques to extract true stellar radial velocities is extremely challenging. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a solar telescope built to feed full-disk sunlight into the HARPS-N spectrograph, which is in turn calibrated with an astro-comb. This setup enables long-term observation of the Sun as a star with state-of-the-art sensitivity to RV changes. Over seven days of observing in 2014, we show an average 50 cm s{sup −1} RV rms over a few hours of observation. After correcting observed radial velocities for spot and plage perturbations using full-disk photometry of the Sun, we lower by a factor of two the weekly RV rms to 60 cm s{sup −1}. The solar telescope is now entering routine operation, and will observe the Sun every clear day for several hours. We will use these radial velocities combined with data from solar satellites to improve our understanding of stellar noise and develop optimal correction methods. If successful, these new methods should enable the detection of Venus over the next two to three years, thus demonstrating the possibility of detecting Earth-twins around other solar-like stars using the RV technique.

  15. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  16. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  17. Great Red Spot (GRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A huge permanent anticyclone in Jupiter's southern hemisphere, visible as a reddish oval at just over 20 °S. The earliest unequivocal observation was by Heinrich Schwabe in 1831 (the often-quoted sighting by Robert Hooke in 1664 now seems to have been of a similar but different spot). The GRS became a striking feature around 1880, when it developed a deep red coloration. It was also prominent in ...

  18. Could Ultracool Dwarfs Have Sun-Like Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    Solar-like stars exhibit magnetic cycles; our Sun, for instance, displays an 11-year period in its activity, manifesting as cyclic changes in radiation levels, the number of sunspots and flares, and ejection of solar material. Over the span of two activity cycles, the Suns magnetic field flips polarity and then returns to its original state.An artists illustration comparing the Sun to TRAPPIST-1, an ultracool dwarf star known to host several planets. [ESO]But what about the magnetic behavior of objects near the cooler end of the stellar main sequence do they exhibit similar activity cycles?Effects of a Convecting InteriorDwarf stars have made headlines in recent years due to their potential to harbor exoplanets. Because these cooler stars have lower flux levels compared to the Sun, their habitable zones lie much closer to the stars. The magnetic behavior of these stars is therefore important to understand: could ultracool dwarfs exhibit solar-like activity cycles that would affect planets with close orbits?The differences in internal structure between different mass stars. Ultracool dwarfs have fully convective interiors. [www.sun.org]Theres a major difference between ultracool dwarfs (stars of spectral type higher than M7 and brown dwarfs) and Sun-like stars: their internal structures. Sun-like stars have a convective envelope that surrounds a radiative core. The interiors of cool, low-mass objects, on the other hand, are fully convective.Based on theoretical studies of how magnetism is generated in stars, its thought that the fully convective interiors of ultracool dwarfs cant support large-scale magnetic field formation. This should prevent these stars from exhibiting activity cycles like the Sun. But recent radio observations of dwarf stars have led scientist Matthew Route (ITaP Research Computing, Purdue University) to question these models.A Reversing Field?During observations of the brown dwarf star J1047+21 in 20102011, radio flares were detected with

  19. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  20. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called “Zombies”. In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  1. Spot- Zombie Filtering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathy Rajagopal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A major security challenge on the Internet is the existence of the large number of compromised machines. Such machines have been increasingly used to launch various security attacks including spamming and spreading malware, DDoS, and identity theft. These compromised machines are called "Zombies". In general E-mail applications and providers uses spam filters to filter the spam messages. Spam filtering is a technique for discriminating the genuine message from the spam messages. The attackers send the spam messages to the targeted machine by exalting the filters, which causes the increase in false positives and false negatives. We develop an effective spam zombie detection system named SPOT by monitoring outgoing messages of a network. SPOT focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of Zombies. SPOT is designed based on a powerful statistical tool called Sequential Probability Ratio Test, which has bounded false positive and false negative error rates.

  2. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  3. Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L. SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of two divergent classes of SUN proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Carl R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear envelope that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm provides a surface for chromatin attachment and organization of the cortical nucleoplasm. Proteins associated with it have been well characterized in many eukaryotes but not in plants. SUN (Sad1p/Unc-84 domain proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and function with other proteins to form a physical link between the nucleoskeleton and the cytoskeleton. These bridges transfer forces across the nuclear envelope and are increasingly recognized to play roles in nuclear positioning, nuclear migration, cell cycle-dependent breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope, telomere-led nuclear reorganization during meiosis, and karyogamy. Results We found and characterized a family of maize SUN-domain proteins, starting with a screen of maize genomic sequence data. We characterized five different maize ZmSUN genes (ZmSUN1-5, which fell into two classes (probably of ancient origin, as they are also found in other monocots, eudicots, and even mosses. The first (ZmSUN1, 2, here designated canonical C-terminal SUN-domain (CCSD, includes structural homologs of the animal and fungal SUN-domain protein genes. The second (ZmSUN3, 4, 5, here designated plant-prevalent mid-SUN 3 transmembrane (PM3, includes a novel but conserved structural variant SUN-domain protein gene class. Mircroarray-based expression analyses revealed an intriguing pollen-preferred expression for ZmSUN5 mRNA but low-level expression (50-200 parts per ten million in multiple tissues for all the others. Cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA for a PM3-type maize gene, ZmSUN4, is described. Peptide antibodies to ZmSUN3, 4 were used in western-blot and cell-staining assays to show that they are expressed and show concentrated staining at the nuclear periphery. Conclusions The maize genome encodes and expresses at least five different SUN-domain proteins, of which the PM3

  4. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  5. Brazilian spotted fever: a reemergent zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Greca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is the most pathogenic species of the spotted-fever rickettsiae group and is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. Amblyomma cajennense is the most important tick species involved in the cycle of this zoonosis in Brazil as it presents low host specificity, great number of natural reservoirs and wide geographic distribution. It was first described in the state of São Paulo in 1929 and later in Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Bahia. The number of cases decreased in the 1940's with the development of new plague control techniques and antibiotics. In the last decades, the number of new cases has increased. The current review aimed at reporting some of the epidemiological and public health aspects of this reemergent disease with new foci, mainly in the southeastern region of Brazil.

  6. Senescent spotting of banana peel is inhibited by modified atmosphere packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choehom, R.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2004-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa cavendishii [Musa acuminata] AA Group cv. Sucrier) were placed in trays and held at 29-30 degreesC. Covering the trays with 'Sun wrap' polyvinyl chloride film prevented the early senescent peel spotting, typical for this cultivar. Carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations within

  7. Low-frequency heliographic observations of the quiet Sun corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Koval, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results of heliographic observations of quiet-Sun radio emission fulfilled by the UTR-2 radio telescope. The solar corona investigations have been made close to the last solar minimum (Cycle 23) in the late August and early September of 2010 by means of the two-dimensional heliograph within 16.5-33 MHz. Moreover, the UTR-2 radio telescope was used also as an 1-D heliograph for one-dimensional scanning of the Sun at the beginning of September 2010 as well as in short-time observational campaigns in April and August of 2012. The average values of integral flux density of the undisturbed Sun continuum emission at different frequencies have been found. Using the data, we have determined the spectral index of quiet-Sun radio emission in the range 16.5-200 MHz. It is equal to -2.1±0.1. The brightness distribution maps of outer solar corona at frequencies 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz have been obtained. The angular sizes of radio Sun were estimated. It is found that the solar corona at these frequencies is stretched-out along equatorial direction. The coefficient of corona ellipticity varies slightly during above period. Its mean magnitudes are equal to ≈ 0.75 and ≈ 0.73 at 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz, respectively. The presented results for continuum emission of solar corona conform with being ones at higher frequencies.

  8. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  9. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  10. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  11. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  12. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  13. Hot spots and active longitudes: Organization of solar activity as a probe of the interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, Phil H.

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate how solar activity is organized in longitude, major solar flares, large sunspot groups, and large scale photospheric magnetic field strengths were analyzed. The results of these analyses are reported. The following results are discussed: hot spots, initially recognized as areas of high concentration of major flares, are the preferred locations for the emergence of big sunspot groups; double hot spots appear in pairs that rotate at the same rate separated by about 180 deg in longitude, whereas, single hot spots have no such companions; the northern and southern hemispheres behave differently in organizing solar activity in longitude; the lifetime of hot spots range from one to several solar cycles; a hot spot is not always active throughout its lifetime, but goes through dormant periods; and hot spots with different rotational periods coexist in the same hemisphere during the same solar cycle.

  14. Turbulent spots in hypervelocity flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Joseph S.; Leyva, Ivett A.; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2017-04-01

    The turbulent spot propagation process in boundary layer flows of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and air/carbon dioxide mixtures in thermochemical nonequilibrium at high enthalpy is investigated. Experiments are performed in a hypervelocity reflected shock tunnel with a 5-degree half-angle axisymmetric cone instrumented with flush-mounted fast-response coaxial thermocouples. Time-resolved and spatially demarcated heat transfer traces are used to track the propagation of turbulent bursts within the mean flow, and convection rates at approximately 91, 74, and 63% of the boundary layer edge velocity, respectively, are observed for the leading edge, peak, and trailing edge of the spots. A simple model constructed with these spot propagation parameters is used to infer spot generation rates from observed transition onset to completion distance. Spot generation rates in air and nitrogen are estimated to be approximately twice the spot generation rates in air/carbon dioxide mixtures.

  15. The ultrasonic testing of the spot welded different steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vural

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of spot welded different steel sheets toultrasonic testing, because resistance spot welding of the steel sheets is widely used in the car bodies andtransport fields and ultrasonic testing is a good way to evaluate the fatique life of the spot welds.Design/methodology/approach: Methodology of this paper is that two different steel sheets (AISI 304 typeaustenitic stainless steel sheet and Galvanized steel sheet were welded to each other by using resistance spotwelding. Some pre-welding tests were made to obtain suitable and optimum weld nugget diameter; and thewelding current vs. nugget diameter curve were obtained. By using this curve and kepting constant weldingparameters such as current, electrode pressure, weld time, etch., fully identical four spot welded specimenshaving 5 mm (±0.2 nugget diameter were obtained. The specimens and nugget diameters were tested by usinga special ultrasonic test apparatus which is designed for spot welded joints.Findings: Findings are that after the first ultrasonic tests, the four identical spot welded sheets which have AISI304 – Galvanized steel sheet combination were subjected to the fatigue test in four different number of cycles.There is no any rupture or fracture in spot welded joints after fatigue tests. The spot welded specimens subjectedto fatigue test were tested in ultrasonic test apparatus to observe the variation in the weld nugget and joint. Theultrasonic test results before fatigue and after fatigue were compared with each other; and the decreasing of theweld nugget diameter were observed while increasing the number of cycles. The results were shown in figuresand discussed.Research limitations/implications: Spot welding of different steel sheets forms different microstructures whichrespond different values to ultrasonic testing. Evaluation of these responses are quiet difficult.Practical implications: Only a few spot welds can be

  16. Spotting effect in microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Huard Tristan

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray data must be normalized because they suffer from multiple biases. We have identified a source of spatial experimental variability that significantly affects data obtained with Cy3/Cy5 spotted glass arrays. It yields a periodic pattern altering both signal (Cy3/Cy5 ratio and intensity across the array. Results Using the variogram, a geostatistical tool, we characterized the observed variability, called here the spotting effect because it most probably arises during steps in the array printing procedure. Conclusions The spotting effect is not appropriately corrected by current normalization methods, even by those addressing spatial variability. Importantly, the spotting effect may alter differential and clustering analysis.

  17. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. Recent Progress in Understanding the Sun's Magnetic Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David. H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.The 11-year time scale for the sunspot cycle indicates the presence of a magnetic dynamo within the Sun. For decades this dynamo was though to operate within the Sun's convection zone - the outmost 30% of the Sun where convective currents transport heat and advect magnetic lines of force. The two leading theories for the dynamo had very different models for the dynamics of the convection zone. Actual measurements of the dynamics using the techniques of helioseismology showed that both of these models had to be wrong some 20 years ago. A thin layer of strongly sheared flow at the base of the convection zone (now called the tachocline) was then taken to be the seat of the dynamo. Over the last 10 years it has become apparent that a weak meridional circulation within the convection zone also plays a key role in the dynamo. This meridional circulation has plasma rising up from the tachocline in the equatorial regions, spreading out toward the poles at a top speed of about 10-20 m/s at the surface, sinking back down to the tachocline in the polar regions, and then flowing back toward the equator at a top speed of about 1-2 m/s in the tachocline itself. Recent dynamo

  19. Recent Progress in Understanding the Sun's Magnetic Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David. H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.The 11-year time scale for the sunspot cycle indicates the presence of a magnetic dynamo within the Sun. For decades this dynamo was though to operate within the Sun's convection zone - the outmost 30% of the Sun where convective currents transport heat and advect magnetic lines of force. The two leading theories for the dynamo had very different models for the dynamics of the convection zone. Actual measurements of the dynamics using the techniques of helioseismology showed that both of these models had to be wrong some 20 years ago. A thin layer of strongly sheared flow at the base of the convection zone (now called the tachocline) was then taken to be the seat of the dynamo. Over the last 10 years it has become apparent that a weak meridional circulation within the convection zone also plays a key role in the dynamo. This meridional circulation has plasma rising up from the tachocline in the equatorial regions, spreading out toward the poles at a top speed of about 10-20 m/s at the surface, sinking back down to the tachocline in the polar regions, and then flowing back toward the equator at a top speed of about 1-2 m/s in the tachocline itself. Recent dynamo

  20. Design and realization of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yanan; Cui, Jian; Zhao, Yuan; Chen, Ran; Liu, Xin

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the research activity at the Beijing institute of control engineering about the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor. The light system of the miniature coded sun sensor is composed with a semi-column silex glass, a cube silex with coded shape on the bottom and an integrative silicon battery with 14 cells. The sun line forms a light spot through the slit on light system on the coded plate. The sensor determines the orientation of sun through the position of light spot. With the limitation of the diameter of sun plate the accuracy of only 0.5° can be realized with 8-bit coarse code in FOV of 124°. To achieve high accuracy of 0.05° the subdivision technique must be adopted. The main scheme of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor is integrating the light system and the signal processing circuits in one mechanical house, using FPGA to calculate the angle, generate the control signal of Multiplexer and AD and realize the function of UART, using flexibility board to connect analog board and digital board, using second power of the satellite, using RS422 interface to communicate with central computer. The performance of the miniature long-life integrative coded sun sensor is listed as below : FOV 124°x124°,accuracy 0.05°(3σ), resolution 14″, power consumption 0.5W,update rate 40Hz,mass 475g, designed life-time 15 years. It has been adopted in the new platform of Remote Sensing Satellite of CAST. The first flight will be at 2015.

  1. The Mount Wilson Observatory S-index of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie; Baliunas, Sallie; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Bertello, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly used index of stellar magnetic activity is the instrumental flux scale of singly ionized calcium H & K line core emission, S, developed by the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) HK Project, or the derivative index {R}{HK}\\prime . Accurately placing the Sun on the S scale is important for comparing solar activity to that of the Sun-like stars. We present previously unpublished measurements of the reflected sunlight from the Moon using the second-generation MWO HK photometer during solar cycle 23 and determine cycle minimum {S}23,\\min =0.1634+/- 0.0008, amplitude {{Δ }}{S}23=0.0143+/- 0.0012, and mean =0.1701+/- 0.0005. By establishing a proxy relationship with the closely related National Solar Observatory Sacramento Peak calcium K emission index, itself well correlated with the Kodaikanal Observatory plage index, we extend the MWO S time series to cover cycles 15–24 and find on average =0.1621+/- 0.0008, =0.0145+/- 0.0012, =0.1694+/- 0.0005. Our measurements represent an improvement over previous estimates that relied on stellar measurements or solar proxies with non-overlapping time series. We find good agreement from these results with measurements by the Solar-Stellar Spectrograph at Lowell Observatory, an independently calibrated instrument, which gives us additional confidence that we have accurately placed the Sun on the S-index flux scale.

  2. The SPOT satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, J.-P.

    1981-03-01

    The background, objectives and data products of the French SPOT remote sensing satellite system are presented. The system, which was developed starting in 1978 with the subsequent participation of Sweden and Belgium, is based on a standard multimission platform with associated ground control station and a mission-specific payload, which includes two High-Resolution Visible range instruments allowing the acquisition of stereoscopic views from different orbits. Mission objectives include the definition of future remote sensing systems, the compilation of a cartographic and resources data base, the study of species discrimination and production forecasting based on frequent access and off-nadir viewing, the compilation of a stereoscopic data base, and platform and instrument qualification, for possible applications in cartography, geology and agriculture. Standard data products will be available at three levels of preprocessing: radiometric correction only, precision processing for vertical viewing, and cartographic quality processing.

  3. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  4. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  5. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    SOHO's scientists are impressed by the vigorous action that they see going on every day, because the Sun is in the very quietest phase of its eleven-year cycle of activity. To ground-based observatories it appears extremely calm just now. The early indications of SOHO's performance amply justify the creation of a sungazing spacecraft capable of observing ultraviolet emissions that are blotted out by the Earth's atmosphere. Apart from the imager, two ultraviolet spectrometers and an ultraviolet coronagraph (an imager for the outer atmosphere) are busy analysing the violent processes at a wide range of wavelengths. Between them, these instruments should cure long-lasting ignorance concerning the Sun, especially about why the atmosphere is so hot and what drives the solar wind that blows non-stop into the Solar System. Scientists from other experimental teams use SOHO to explore the Sun from its deep interior to the far reaches of the solar wind. They have watched the supposedly quiet Sun belching huge masses of gas into space. They have mapped a hole burnt by the solar wind in a breeze of gas coming from the stars. And they have detected currents of gas flowing just below the visible surface. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO on 2 December 1995, and also provides the ground stations and an operations centre near Washington. The first results are the more remarkable because SOHO arrived at its vantage point 1,500,000 kilometres out in space only in February, and formally completed its commissioning on 16 April. It has a long life ahead of it. All scientific instruments are working well. The luminosity oscillation imager belonging to the VIRGO experiment had trouble with its lens cover. When opened, the cover rebounded on its hinges and closed again. Commands were devised that gave a shorter impulse

  6. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  7. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  8. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  9. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  10. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  11. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  12. Justifications Shape Ethical Blind Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-01-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous se

  13. Divide and conquer spot noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, W.C. de; Liere, R. van

    1997-01-01

    The design and implementation of an interactive spot noise algorithm is presented. Spot noise is a technique which utilizes texture for the visualization of flow fields. Various design tradeoffs are discussed that allow an optimal implementation on a range of high end graphical workstations. Two app

  14. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  15. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  16. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  17. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  18. Ring of nine Gamma Ray Burst overlap with the hot spot of my hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dayong

    2016-03-01

    During 2004 to 2014, a symmetry axis and a cold spot (a structure of one billion light years across) of CMB were observed, and I supposed there is a hot spot, and there is a symmetry between the cold spot and the hot spot of CMB. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2430415 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.MAR.Y33.9 In 2015, a Ring of Nine Gamma Ray Burst (a structure of FIVE BILLION light years across) which is a part of structure of double helix and overlap with the hot spot was observed. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3185193 The Ring of Nine Gamma Ray Burst could be explained by the hot spot. There is a balance systemic model with structure of double helix of the flat universe between cold spot and hot spot-a balance between stellar matter and dark massenergy (include dark matter and dark energy). The model can explain of the Hubble's redshift. There is a larger dark hole instead of the huge black hole of the center of the Milky Way galaxy, and a dark hole builds up a balance system with sun. This model should explain of the seasonal Extinctions. http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2015.APR.H14.8

  19. effect of a microbial-based acaricidal product on spotted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    EFFECT OF A MICROBIAL-BASED ACARICIDAL PRODUCT ON SPOTTED ... reproductive potential and short life cycle facilitate rapid resistance ... This product is currently used in the .... abamectin (5 or 7 ppm), we observed faster decline.

  20. The impact of education on adolescents’ sun behavior: Experiences from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Serbia, there have been no broad campaigns or educational programs focused on adolescents’ sun protection. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess whether an educational program would have impact on changes of attitudes and sun-protective behaviors of high school students. More specific aim was to examine whether sex and age differences in sun behavior exists. Methods. Educational program was designed to provoke changes in attitudes towards sun protection and sun behavior. The investigation was carried out in Belgrade, Serbia in two educational cycles, during spring 2007 and 2008. Sixteen- and 17-year old high schools students were targeted and assessed before and after the educational intervention by means of self-report questionnaire designed for this study (about skin types and sun behavior. The students’ attitudes towards sun protection and sun behavior before and after the educational intervention were compared and analyzed by the Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analyses. In the second educational cycle (2008 age and gender differences in sun behavior were analyzed. Results. Overall 3205 students in 2007, and 2155 students in 2008 year from 11 high schools participated. A statistically significant behavior change was observed for the use of sunglasses in 2007 - the number of students using them increased from 41.6 % to 45.6% (p<0.05. There were no significant changes in other ways of protection i.e. sunscreen use, protective clothes or staying in shade. Conclusion. Educational program had an impact, but broader activities involving schools, local communities and media are needed for significant changes in sun behavior and attitude.

  1. Numerical Simulations of Active Region Scale Flux Emergence: From Spot Formation to Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, M.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2014-04-01

    We present numerical simulations of active region scale flux emergence covering a time span of up to 6 days. Flux emergence is driven by a bottom boundary condition that advects a semi-torus of magnetic field with 1.7 × 1022 Mx flux into the computational domain. The simulations show that, even in the absence of twist, the magnetic flux is able the rise through the upper 15.5 Mm of the convection zone and emerge into the photosphere to form spots. We find that spot formation is sensitive to the persistence of upflows at the bottom boundary footpoints, i.e., a continuing upflow would prevent spot formation. In addition, the presence of a torus-aligned flow (such flow into the retrograde direction is expected from angular momentum conservation during the rise of flux ropes through the convection zone) leads to a significant asymmetry between the pair of spots, with the spot corresponding to the leading spot on the Sun being more axisymmetric and coherent, but also forming with a delay relative to the following spot. The spot formation phase transitions directly into a decay phase. Subsurface flows fragment the magnetic field and lead to intrusions of almost field free plasma underneath the photosphere. When such intrusions reach photospheric layers, the spot fragments. The timescale for spot decay is comparable to the longest convective timescales present in the simulation domain. We find that the dispersal of flux from a simulated spot in the first two days of the decay phase is consistent with self-similar decay by turbulent diffusion.

  2. The variability of Sun-like stars: reproducing observed photometric trends

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, A I; Krivova, N A; Schmutz, W K; Ball, W T; Knaack, R; Rozanov, E V; Unruh, Y C

    2014-01-01

    The Sun and stars with low magnetic activity levels, become photometrically brighter when their activity increases. Magnetically more active stars display the opposite behaviour and get fainter when their activity increases. We reproduce the observed photometric trends in stellar variations with a model that treats stars as hypothetical Suns with coverage by magnetic features different from that of the Sun. The presented model attributes the variability of stellar spectra to the imbalance between the contributions from different components of the solar atmosphere, such as dark starspots and bright faculae. A stellar spectrum is calculated from spectra of the individual components, by weighting them with corresponding disc area coverages. The latter are obtained by extrapolating the solar dependences of spot and facular disc area coverages on chromospheric activity to stars with different levels of mean chromospheric activity. We have found that the contribution by starspots to the variability increases faster...

  3. In a Tight Spot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With chilly headwinds blowing through a number of sectors, the global economy is undoubtedly entering a downward cycle. More disturbing, though, is the slack emanating from an aging society that is posing a headache to countries of the world. China is no exception, with its population bonus expected to dry up around 2015. Ha Jii lg, chief economist at China International Capital Corp. Ltd., discussed these issues in an article recently published in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:

  4. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  5. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  6. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

  7. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  8. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  9. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  10. SOHO reveals how sunspots take a stranglehold on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    what order the contestants arrive at the finish. Here the runners are packets of sound waves, and the obstacles are local variations in temperature, magnetic fields and gas flows beneath the Sun's surface. "We needed better mathematical tricks," comments Duvall. "So we put together ideas from classical and quantum physics, and also from a recent advance in seismology on the Earth." In an earlier application of solar tomography, the team examined in detail the ante-natal events for an important group of sunspots born on 12 January 1998. They found sound waves beginning to travel faster and faster through the region where sunspots were about to form. Less than half a day elapsed between signs of unusual magnetic activity in the Sun's interior and the appearance of the dark spots on a previously unblemished surface. "Sunspots form when intense magnetic fields break through the visible surface," says Alexander Kosovichev of Stanford. "We could see the magnetic field shooting upwards like a fountain, faster than we expected." Even late on the previous day there was little hint of anything afoot, either at the surface or in the interior. By midnight (Universal Time) a region of strong magnetic field had risen from a depth of 18 000 kilometres and was already half way to the surface, travelling at 4500 km/hr. Sound speeds were increasing above the perturbed zone. By 8:00 a.m. an intense, rope-like magnetic field was in possession of a column of gas 20 000 kilometres wide and reaching almost to the visible surface. In the uppermost layer beneath the surface, the magnetic rope divided itself into strands that made the individual sunspots of the group. Under a large, well-established sunspot, in June 1998, the sound waves revealed a persistent column of hot, magnetised gas rising from deep in the interior. At a depth of 4000 kilometres it spread fingers towards neighbouring parts of the surface where it sustained some smaller sunspots. The magnetic column was not connected to

  11. Understanding Space Weather: The Sun as a Variable Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Keith; Saba, Julia; Kucera, Therese

    2012-01-01

    The Sun is a complex system of systems and until recently, less than half of its surface was observable at any given time and then only from afar. New observational techniques and modeling capabilities are giving us a fresh perspective of the solar interior and how our Sun works as a variable star. This revolution in solar observations and modeling provides us with the exciting prospect of being able to use a vastly increased stream of solar data taken simultaneously from several different vantage points to produce more reliable and prompt space weather forecasts. Solar variations that cause identifiable space weather effects do not happen only on solar-cycle timescales from decades to centuries; there are also many shorter-term events that have their own unique space weather effects and a different set of challenges to understand and predict, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar wind variations.

  12. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO GRANULATION AND FACULAE ON SUN-LIKE STARS FROM THE KEPLER MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karoff, C. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Campante, T. L. [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Ballot, J. [CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, 14 avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400, Toulouse (France); Kallinger, T. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K. U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Gruberbauer, M. [Institute for Computational Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, B3H 3C3 Halifax (Canada); Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universit Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Caldwell, D. A.; Christiansen, J. L. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kinemuchi, K., E-mail: karoff@phys.au.dk [Bay Area Environmental Research Inst./NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Sun-like stars show intensity fluctuations on a number of timescales due to various physical phenomena on their surfaces. These phenomena can convincingly be studied in the frequency spectra of these stars-while the strongest signatures usually originate from spots, granulation, and p-mode oscillations, it has also been suggested that the frequency spectrum of the Sun contains a signature of faculae. We have analyzed three stars observed for 13 months in short cadence (58.84 s sampling) by the Kepler mission. The frequency spectra of all three stars, as for the Sun, contain signatures that we can attribute to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations. The temporal variability of the signatures attributed to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations was analyzed and the analysis indicates a periodic variability in the granulation and faculae signatures-comparable to what is seen in the Sun.

  14. Handheld sun photometer measurements in Southwestern Africa: results from Benin and Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Jean-François; Akpo, Aristide; Bedou, Mohamadou; Bodjrenou, Marleine; Djossou, Julien; Konaté, Ismael; Yoboué, Véronique; Liousse, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    The atmosphere of the Gulf of Guinea and adjacent countries is influenced by a large amount of aerosol particles advected from the African continent. This place is one of the hot-spot of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the world. However AOD in situ observations remains scarce in this area. We present in this paper new measurements of the AOD at 4 sites in southwestern Africa: Cotonou (6.37°N, 2.43°W) and Savè (8.1°N, 2.4°E) cities in Benin, and Abidjan (5.34°N, 3.99°W) city and Lamto (6.22°N, 5.03°W) observatory in Côte d'Ivoire. We use a lightweight handheld sun photometer measuring the solar irradiance at 465, 540 and 619 nm operated manually once per day. Measurements are performed without cloud cover in the field of view. Possible remaining cloud contamination is removed by checking the AOD variability during the measurement sequence. A total of 708 daily observations have been acquired in 2015. The AOD time series in Benin and Ivory Coast highlight a seasonal cycle with a maximum during the dry season (December-Mars) and a minimum during the wet season (May-September). The Angström exponent derived from the spectral AOD measurements enables to attribute the maximum AOD to the presence of large desert dust particles advected by the Harmattan wind during the dry season. We have found an excellent agreement (overall correlation coefficient R=0.85) between our data set and the MODIS (Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol products.

  15. TRIGONOMETRIC SU(N) GAUDIN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model based on the quasi-classical limit of the trigonometric SU(N) chain with the periodic boundary condition.By using the quantum inverse scattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generating function of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model.

  16. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  17. Sun awareness in Maltese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, S; Gauci, A Amato; Ellul, M; Scerri, L

    2004-11-01

    Studies indicate that reducing exposure to ultraviolet light during childhood and adolescence decreases the risk of skin cancer. From a young age, children need to be educated about the sun's harmful effects on the skin and how best to protect themselves. To help in the design of school-based interventions to raise sun awareness, a school survey was carried out to identify students' stereotypes and misconceptions. A total of 965 students attending Maltese secondary schools in forms 1, 2 and 3 were surveyed in May 2002, using a structured questionnaire designed to examine students' sun-related attitudes and knowledge. A high level of sun awareness among students was demonstrated, with high scores on knowledge of the effects of the sun on the skin, knowledge of skin cancer and knowledge of sun protection. Girls were clearly more knowledgeable than boys. However, of all the students surveyed, 55% thought that a suntan made them look better and 70% thought that their friends would desire a tan. These views were commoner among the older students. Skin type and hair or eye colour had no bearing on attitudes towards tanning or sun-related knowledge. The commonest misconceptions were that 'the sun is bad for your skin only when you get sunburnt' and that 'you cannot get too much sun on a cloudy day'. Deliberate suntanning was more frequently reported by girls than by boys and by students in the higher forms. Attitude change lags behind knowledge. Future school sun awareness interventions need to take into account gender and age differences in students' attitudes and perspectives. They should aim at motivating attitude change and preventive behaviour through consistent and repeated sun-education messages that are supported by a sun-conscious school environment.

  18. Revival of the "Sun Festival": An educational and outreach project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montabone, Luca

    2016-10-01

    In ancient times, past civilisations used to celebrate both the winter and summer solstices, which represented key moments in the periodical cycle of seasons and agricultural activities. In 1904, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion, the engineer Gustave Eiffel, the science writer Wilfrid de Fonvielle and the Spanish astronomer Josep Comas i Solà decided to celebrate the summer solstice with a festival of science, art and astronomical observations opened to the public at the Eiffel tower in Paris. For ten consecutive years (1904-1914) on the day of the summer solstice, the "Sun Festival" (Fête du Soleil in French) included scientific and technological lectures and demostrations, celestial observations, music, poetry, danse, cinema, etc. This celebration was interrupted by the First World War, just to resume in Barcelona, Spain, between 1915 and 1937, and in Marseille, France, in the 1930s. It was the founders' dream to extend this celebration to all cities in France and elsewhere.It is only during the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, to our knowledge, that the "Sun Festival" was given another chance in France, thanks to the joint effort of several scientific and cultural centers (Centres de Culture Scientifique, Technique et Industrielle, CCSTI) and the timely support of the European Space Agency (ESA). In this occasion again, the festival was characterized by the combination of science, art and technological innovation around a common denominator: our Sun!We have recently revived the idea of celebrating the summer solstice with a "Sun Festival" dedicated to scientific education and outreach about our star and related topics. This project started last year in Aix-les-Bains, France, with the "Sun and Light Festival" (2015 was the International Year of Light), attended by about 100 people. This year's second edition was in Le Bourget-du-Lac, France. Following the COP21 event, the specific theme was the "Sun and Climate Festival", and we had about 250

  19. Sun Jingxia Devotes Herself to Nursing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "I really didn’t expect that at my advanced age, I would be awarded the highest honor in international nursing circles," said Mme. Sun Jingxia, 81, who had just returned from Beijing where she received the Nightingale Medal. Wearing a light yellow suit, with a collar bordered in red, Sun is inhigh spirits, reminding people of the beauty of the setting sun. It is clear that Sun Jingxia has deep feelings as she looks at the medal which shows a relief of Florence Nightingale’s head. She spoke in her usual soft voice but with some excitement, "President Jiang

  20. The Sun as you never saw it before

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    to the minimum count of sunspots, LASCO observes so many outbursts large and small - roughly one a day - that scientists are having to think again about how to define a coronal mass ejection. SOHO's continuing success Later LASCO images, on 6 January 1997, revealed a large mass ejection directed towards the Earth. As it swelled it appeared as a halo around the Sun. The mass ejection reached SOHO itself less than four days later, and the solar-wind analyser CELIAS detected an acceleration in the solar wind, from 350 to more than 500 kilometres per second. Soon afterwards, American, Russian and Japanese satellites operating closer to the Earth registered the event, which caused a magnetic storm and bright auroras. The failure of an American TV satellite on 11 January may have been directly related to this event. Mass ejections and other upheavals on the Sun will become even commoner during the coming years, as the count of sunspots increases towards the expected maximum of solar activity in 2000-01. Meanwhile, SOHO is seeking the fundamental reason for the cycle of sunspot activity, which is essentially a magnetic phenomenon. One of the helioseismic instruments probing the solar interior, SOI/MDI, has detected a likely source for the Sun's puzzling magnetism. There may be a natural dynamo operating at the base of the turbulent outer region of the Sun, called the convective zone. This rotates about 7 per cent faster than the underlying and more cohesive region of dense gas, the radiative zone. With the spacecraft in excellent condition and their instruments performing beyond expectations, SOHO's scientists are urging ESA and NASA to allow them to continue their work beyond April 1998, when the initial year of their scientific operations will have been completed.

  1. A highly accurate wireless digital sun sensor based on profile detecting and detector multiplexing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minsong; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    The advancing growth of micro- and nano-satellites requires miniaturized sun sensors which could be conveniently applied in the attitude determination subsystem. In this work, a profile detecting technology based high accurate wireless digital sun sensor was proposed, which could transform a two-dimensional image into two-linear profile output so that it can realize a high update rate under a very low power consumption. A multiple spots recovery approach with an asymmetric mask pattern design principle was introduced to fit the multiplexing image detector method for accuracy improvement of the sun sensor within a large Field of View (FOV). A FOV determination principle based on the concept of FOV region was also proposed to facilitate both sub-FOV analysis and the whole FOV determination. A RF MCU, together with solar cells, was utilized to achieve the wireless and self-powered functionality. The prototype of the sun sensor is approximately 10 times lower in size and weight compared with the conventional digital sun sensor (DSS). Test results indicated that the accuracy of the prototype was 0.01° within a cone FOV of 100°. Such an autonomous DSS could be equipped flexibly on a micro- or nano-satellite, especially for highly accurate remote sensing applications.

  2. The Mount Wilson Observatory S-index of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Ricky; Baliunas, Sallie; Hall, Jeffrey C; Pevtsov, Alexei A; Bertello, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The most commonly used index of stellar magnetic activity is the instrumental flux scale of singly-ionized calcium H & K line core emission, S, developed by the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) HK Project, or the derivative index R'_HK. Accurately placing the Sun on the S scale is important for comparing solar activity to that of the Sun-like stars. We present previously unpublished measurements of the reflected sunlight from the Moon using the second-generation MWO HK photometer during solar cycle 23 and determine cycle minimum S_min,23 = 0.1634 +/- 0.0008, amplitude Delta S_23 = 0.0143 +/- 0.0015, and mean = 0.1701 +/- 0.0005. By establishing a proxy relationship with the closely related National Solar Observatory Sacramento Peak calcium K emission index, itself well-correlated with the Kodaikanal Observatory plage index, we extend the MWO S time series to cover cycles 15-24 and find on average = 0.1621 +/- 0.0008, = 0.0145 +/- 0.0012, = 0.1694 +/- 0.0005. Our measurements represent an improvement ove...

  3. Development of a Long-Range Gliding Underwater Vehicle Utilizing Java Sun SPOT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    flexible copper tubing and fittings to eliminate any possible malfunction due to increased pressure collapsing the transfer lines. E. SUMMARY This...these hoses need to be replaced by copper tubing or steel jacketed hoses. Figure 20. Expansion bladder for main ballast and associated tubing...personal flotation device in the body of the vehicle. When the processor experiences any number of emergency conditions, or a lack of sufficient power

  4. The pulsations of the Sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Rozelot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This volume of lecture notes brings together the knowledge on pulsations of the Sun and the stars, with a particular emphasis on recent observations and modelling, and on the influence of pulsations of other physical processes. The book begins with an extensive introduction to helioseismology. The solar cycle and gravity modes are discussed before the focus is widened from helioseismology to asteroseismology which is detailed in a series of specific chapters. Based on courses given at a graduate school, these tutorial lecture notes will be of interest and useful to a rather broad audience of scientists and students.

  5. Regina vs Hubbs: Determining the Sun's Position

    CERN Document Server

    Samra, Raminder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Here I determined the Sun's position as an expert witness for crown counsel. From my calculations I found the Sun's location in the sky was such that it could not impede the driver's vision, as a result it could not have been the reason for the accused to be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

  6. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  8. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Patla, Bijunath

    2007-01-01

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

  9. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  10. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  11. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  12. Dynamics of the global Sun from interior to outer atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus

    2012-07-01

    The Sun is the only star whose magnetic activity can be resolved in stunning detail. Current observational capabilities range from full-sphere coverage to measurements of details more than 10,000 times smaller than that. Acoustic waves enable us to probe the dynamics of the deep interior, while heliospheric imagers reveal the evolution of coronal mass ejections to beyond the orbit of the Earth. This comprehensive view of a magnetically active star, complemented by rapid advances in numerical capabilities, are revealing how the coupled system of interior, atmosphere, and heliosphere evolves dynamically through the sunspot cycle, punctuated by flux emergence, field eruptions, and irradiance variations. The Sun is not only a touchstone for the interpretation of many astrophysical observations, but its variability affects our society in more ways than we routinely appreciate; this drives a need to understand it well enough that forecasts of its electromagnetic weather can be made. This lecture, starting from the very different perspectives of astrophysical curiosity and societal need, focuses on trends near the frontier of our knowledge about the Sun's functioning as a global system.

  13. Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation: A Path to Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation is an ancient and sacred yogic technique of India for expressing gratitude to the Sun. Surya Namaskar is a set of 12 Asanas (postures, It is done preferably in the morning while facing the rising sun. There are numerous health benefits of Surya Namaskar for different system of the body specially musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous system, respiratory and endocrinal. The heart, liver, intestine, stomach, chest, throat, legs and backbone are main benefited organs. By practicing Surya Namaskar each and every cell of body get revitalize and regenerated, therefore it is highly recommended by all yoga experts for healthy routine life. The regular practice of Surya Namaskar improves blood circulation throughout the body, maintains health and makes the body disease-free. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar gives strength, flexibility and vitality to the body. Sun Salutation asanas help to burn extra body fat on belly, buttocks and back by modulating endocrinal system. It also helps to regulate menstrual cycles among women and also facilitate an easy childbirth. Apart from these benefits of Surya Namaskar also help to keep the mind stress free, calm and illuminated. Thus, a regular practice of Surya Namaskar is highly recommended to keep the body and mind healthy. Though the Surya Namaskar steps are very scientific and practical science ancient time but still it needs advance modern scientific justification to spread it globally, keeping this thing into the mind the present review has been framed to revalidate sacred steps of Surya Namaskar on the basis of available evidence based studies.

  14. SPOT satellite family: Past, present, and future of the operations in the mission and control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Pacholczyk

    1993-01-01

    SPOT sun-synchronous remote sensing satellites are operated by CNES since February 1986. Today, the SPOT mission and control center (CCM) operates SPOT1, SPOT2, and is ready to operate SPOT3. During these seven years, the way to operate changed and the CCM, initially designed for the control of one satellite, has been modified and upgraded to support these new operating modes. All these events have shown the performances and the limits of the system. A new generation of satellite (SPOT4) will continue the remote sensing mission during the second half of the 90's. Its design takes into account the experience of the first generation and supports several improvements. A new generation of control center (CMP) has been developed and improves the efficiency, quality, and reliability of the operations. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites at the same time during launching, in-orbit testing, and operating phases. It supports several automatic procedures and improves data retrieval and reporting.

  15. The puzzling MILAGRO hot spots

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Luke

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the reported detection by the MILAGRO experiment of localised hot spots in the cosmic ray arrival distribution and the difficulty of interpreting these observations. A model based on secondary neutron production in the heliotail is shown to fail. An alternative model based on loss-cone leakage through a magnetic trap from a local source region is proposed.

  16. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  17. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  18. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  19. Fecal steroid analysis for monitoring reproduction in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarzenberger, F.; Schaller, K.; Kolter, L.; Fredriksson, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Fecal steroid analyses were conducted on captive (n 1/4 10) and free-ranging (n 1/4 2) sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in order to establish a noninvasive technique for monitoring endocrine profiles during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Secondly, the effect of the contraceptive porcine zona pelluc

  20. Observations of time variation in the sun's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of solar p-mode frequency splittings obtained at Big Bear Solar Observatory in 1986 and during 1988-90 reveal small (about 1 percent) changes in the sun's subsurface angular velocity with solar cycle. An asymptotic inversion of the splitting data yields the latitude dependence of the rotation rate and shows that the largest changes in the angular velocity, about 4 nanoHz, occurred between 1986 and the later years, at high (about 60 deg) solar latitudes. Earlier helioseismic observations suggest that solar cycle changes in the ratio of magnetic to turbulent pressure in the solar convection zone are large enough to account for the magnitude of the observed angular velocity variations, but a detailed model of the phenomenon does not exist.

  1. A Novel Multi-Aperture Based Sun Sensor Based on a Fast Multi-Point MEANSHIFT (FMMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Fei Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the current increased widespread interest in the development and applications of micro/nanosatellites, it was found that we needed to design a small high accuracy satellite attitude determination system, because the star trackers widely used in large satellites are large and heavy, and therefore not suitable for installation on micro/nanosatellites. A Sun sensor + magnetometer is proven to be a better alternative, but the conventional sun sensor has low accuracy, and cannot meet the requirements of the attitude determination systems of micro/nanosatellites, so the development of a small high accuracy sun sensor with high reliability is very significant. This paper presents a multi-aperture based sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS mask with 36 apertures and an active pixels sensor (APS CMOS placed below the mask at a certain distance. A novel fast multi-point MEANSHIFT (FMMS algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability, the two key performance features, of an APS sun sensor. When the sunlight illuminates the sensor, a sun spot array image is formed on the APS detector. Then the sun angles can be derived by analyzing the aperture image location on the detector via the FMMS algorithm. With this system, the centroid accuracy of the sun image can reach 0.01 pixels, without increasing the weight and power consumption, even when some missing apertures and bad pixels appear on the detector due to aging of the devices and operation in a harsh space environment, while the pointing accuracy of the single-aperture sun sensor using the conventional correlation algorithm is only 0.05 pixels.

  2. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  3. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  4. The Jovian period in the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".

  5. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasson, Jean L.; Hendrickx, Olivier; Marin, Jean-Luc

    2017-07-01

    The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  6. White spot lesions: Does etching really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abufarwa, Moufida; Voorhees, Robert D; Varanasi, Venu G; Campbell, Phillip M; Buschang, Peter H

    2017-08-01

    The clinical significance of acid etching prior to orthodontic bonding is controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 15 seconds of acid etching on enamel demineralization. Twenty-seven human molars were sectioned and assigned to two groups. Under standardized conditions, the enamel surfaces were imaged using FluoreCam to obtain baseline data. Group 1 was etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, rinsed with water, and then imaged again; group 2 was only rinsed with water. Water rinse was collected for calcium chemical analysis using inductively-coupled plasma auger electron spectrometry. Both groups were subjected to 9 days of pH cycling, after which final FluoreCam images were obtained. Group 1 showed a significant increase in lesion area (P=.012), decrease in light intensity (P=.009), and decrease in impact (P=.007) after acid etching. The amount of calcium that leached out over the 15 seconds was 14 ppm ±2.4 (0.35 mmol/L±0.06). Following pH cycling, there was no statistically-significant between-group difference in overall enamel demineralization. Initial demineralization caused by 15 seconds of acid etching does not increase enamel susceptibility to further demineralization. This suggests that acid etching does not increase the risk of developing white spot lesions during orthodontics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. SPOT- 4 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  8. SPOT 5 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  9. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics ...

  10. SPOT- 5 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  11. SPOT 4 North American Data Buy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS has contracted with SPOT Image Corporation to acquire and provide Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite data for calendar years 2010 and...

  12. ULYSSES comes full circle, before revisiting the Sun's poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Ulysses discovered unusually strong magnetic waves in the polar regions. Another surprise concerns unexpected connections between the polar and equatorial regions. Rhythmic variations in the intensity of energetic particles and cosmic rays, recorded by Ulysses at high latitudes, originate in effects of the Sun's rotation much closer to the equator. Scientists are debating how their picture of the magnetic field in the heliosphere must change, to make sense of the Ulysses observations. Without this new knowledge of the solar wind's behaviour, and its widespread effects, shocks felt in the Earth's vicinity would remain incomprehensible. For two centuries, sketchy links between sunspots, auroras and magnetic storms have puzzled scientists. Results from Ulysses and other solar spacecraft, including ESA's SOHO and Cluster II, are expected to transform human understanding of solar-terrestrial events. The task is urgent because astronauts and technological systems are becoming ever more vulnerable to the stormy Sun. After the quiet Sun, a peak of activity When Ulysses conducted the first-ever investigation of the high-latitude heliosphere, the Sun was quiet, being near the minimum of solar activity. As scientists expected, the circumstances were ideal for revealing the underlying structure of the Sun's atmosphere and the solar wind, in their simplest form. With the first phase of the voyage safely and very productively completed, Ulysses faces a new challenge, as it continues along its unique path. Obeying a cycle of roughly eleven years, the Sun is once again becoming restless as sunspot activity builds towards the next peak around 2000. When Ulysses revisits the polar regions at that time it will encounter conditions vastly different from those of 1994-95. The international mission of exploration has already given a new and thought-provoking view of the heliosphere. Its findings at solar maximum are guaranteed to do the same, and to give new insights into the gusts and shocks

  13. Effect of weld schedule variation on the weldability and durability of AHSS spot weld joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weishaupt, Eric Raymond

    Tensile strength testing and high cycle fatigue testing of advanced high strength steel spot welded shear lap joints were performed for the various weld conditions. The materials used in this study were DP 980, DP 780 and TRIP 780. The microstructure and microhardness of the shear lap joints were examined in an effort to identify the effect of microstructural changes on the strength and fatigue durability of the spot weld specimens. The occurrence of interfacial failure was recorded for the differing weld processes. Several weld schedules were examined and used to produce shear lap spot weld joints, specifically varying the squeeze force and the average current. The weld force used to produce a spot weld does not have a significant effect on the fracture mode of the specimen given the average current is constant. The average current used to produce a spot weld has a significant effect on the fracture mode of the spot weld for several squeeze forces. Interfacial failure of spot welded TRIP 780 can be mitigated using a certain range of currents when welding. This appears to come as a tradeoff for sacrificing the strength of the joint. Higher values of weld strength were obtainable; however, welds that failed with higher strengths also experienced interfacial failure. A fracture mechanics approach to estimating the high cycle fatigue life of the shear lap specimen is also proposed and represents a conservative estimate of the shear lap specimen durability.

  14. Improvements on analytic modelling of stellar spots

    CERN Document Server

    Montalto, M; Oshagh, M; Boisse, I; Bruno, G; Santos, N C

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the solution of the stellar spot problem using the Kelvin-Stokes theorem. Our result is applicable for any given location and dimension of the spots on the stellar surface. We present explicitely the result up to the second degree in the limb darkening law. This technique can be used to calculate very efficiently mutual photometric effects produced by eclipsing bodies occulting stellar spots and to construct complex spot shapes.

  15. Finding the lost siblings of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Feltzing, Sofia; Ruchti, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a spectral analysis on 18 stars solar sibling candidate. We found that only one one of the candidateshas solar metallicity and at the same time might have an age comparable to that of the Sun.

  16. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  17. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  18. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  19. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  20. Solar Cycle Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  1. The Association of the Moon and the Sun with Large Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Chiou, Lyndie

    2012-01-01

    The role of the moon in triggering earthquakes has been studied since the early 1900s. Theory states that as land tides swept by the moon cross fault lines, stress in the Earth's plates intensifies, increasing the likelihood of small earthquakes. This paper studied the association of the moon and sun with larger magnitude earthquakes (magnitude 5 and greater) using a worldwide dataset from the USGS. Initially, the positions of the moon and sun were considered separately. The moon showed a reduction of 1.74% (95% confidence) in earthquakes when it was 10 hours behind a longitude on earth and a 1.62% increase when it was 6 hours behind. The sun revealed even weaker associations (<1%). Binning the data in 6 hours quadrants (matching natural tide cycles) reduced the associations further. However, combinations of moon-sun positions displayed significant associations. Cycling the moon and sun in all possible quadrant permutations showed a decrease in earthquakes when they were paired together on the East and Wes...

  2. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Print A A A What's in ... en español La rickettsiosis maculosa About RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection that's ...

  3. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random...

  4. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  5. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  6. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  7. Seismic constraints on rotation of Sun-like star and mass of exoplanet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizon, Laurent; Ballot, Jérome; Michel, Eric; Stahn, Thorsten; Vauclair, Gérard; Bruntt, Hans; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Benomar, Othman; Vauclair, Sylvie; Appourchaux, Thierry; Auvergne, Michel; Baglin, Annie; Barban, Caroline; Baudin, Fréderic; Bazot, Michaël; Campante, Tiago; Catala, Claude; Chaplin, William; Creevey, Orlagh; Deheuvels, Sébastien; Dolez, Noël; Elsworth, Yvonne; García, Rafael; Gaulme, Patrick; Mathis, Stéphane; Mathur, Savita; Mosser, Benoît; Régulo, Clara; Roxburgh, Ian; Salabert, David; Samadi, Réza; Sato, Kumiko; Verner, Graham; Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2013-08-13

    Rotation is thought to drive cyclic magnetic activity in the Sun and Sun-like stars. Stellar dynamos, however, are poorly understood owing to the scarcity of observations of rotation and magnetic fields in stars. Here, inferences are drawn on the internal rotation of a distant Sun-like star by studying its global modes of oscillation. We report asteroseismic constraints imposed on the rotation rate and the inclination of the spin axis of the Sun-like star HD 52265, a principal target observed by the CoRoT satellite that is known to host a planetary companion. These seismic inferences are remarkably consistent with an independent spectroscopic observation (rotational line broadening) and with the observed rotation period of star spots. Furthermore, asteroseismology constrains the mass of exoplanet HD 52265b. Under the standard assumption that the stellar spin axis and the axis of the planetary orbit coincide, the minimum spectroscopic mass of the planet can be converted into a true mass of 1.85(-0.42)(+0.52)M(Jupiter), which implies that it is a planet, not a brown dwarf.

  8. Seismic constraints on rotation of Sun-like star and mass of exoplanet

    CERN Document Server

    Gizon, Laurent; Michel, Eric; Stahn, Thorsten; Vauclair, Gérard; Bruntt, Hans; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Benomar, Othman; Vauclair, Sylvie; Appourchaux, Thierry; Auvergne, Michel; Baglin, Annie; Barban, Caroline; Baudin, Fréderic; Bazot, Michaël; Campante, Tiago; Catala, Claude; Chaplin, William; Creevey, Orlagh; Deheuvels, Sébastien; Dolez, Noël; Elsworth, Yvonne; García, Rafael; Gaulme, Patrick; Mathis, Stéphane; Mathur, Savita; Mosser, Benoît; Régulo, Clara; Roxburgh, Ian; Salabert, David; Samadi, Réza; Sato, Kumiko; Verner, Graham; Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2013-01-01

    Rotation is thought to drive cyclic magnetic activity in the Sun and Sun-like stars. Stellar dynamos, however, are poorly understood owing to the scarcity of observations of rotation and magnetic fields in stars. Here, inferences are drawn on the internal rotation of a distant Sun-like star by studying its global modes of oscillation. We report asteroseismic constraints imposed on the rotation rate and the inclination of the spin axis of the Sun-like star HD 52265, a principal target observed by the CoRoT satellite that is known to host a planetary companion. These seismic inferences are remarkably consistent with an independent spectroscopic observation (rotational line broadening) and with the observed rotation period of star spots. Furthermore, asteroseismology constrains the mass of exoplanet HD 52265b. Under the standard assumption that the stellar spin axis and the axis of the planetary orbit coincide, the minimum spectroscopic mass of the planet can be converted into a true mass of 1.85 (+0.52,-0.42) M...

  9. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  10. Orientation in birds. The sun compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K; Ganzhorn, J U; Ranvaud, R

    1991-01-01

    The sun compass was discovered by G. Kramer in caged birds showing migratory restlessness. Subsequent experiments with caged birds employing directional training and clock shifts, carried out by Hoffman and Schmidt-Koenig, showed that the sun azimuth is used, and the sun altitude ignored. In the laboratory, McDonald found the accuracy to be +/- 3 degrees(-)+/- 5 degrees. According to Hoffmann and Schmidt-Koenig, caged birds trained at medium northern latitudes were able to allow for the sun's apparent movement north of the arctic circle, but not in equatorial and trans-equatorial latitudes. In homing experiments, and employing clock shifts, Schmidt-Koenig demonstrated that the sun compass is used by homing pigeons during initial orientation. This finding is the principal evidence for the existence of a map-and-compass navigational system. Pigeons living in equatorial latitudes utilize the sun compass even under the extreme solar conditions of equinox, achieving angular resolution of about 3 degrees in homing experiments. According to preliminary analyses, the homing pigeons' ephemerides are retarded by several weeks (Ranvaud, Schmidt-Koenig, Ganzhorn et al.).

  11. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  12. ldentification and Control Methods of Eggplant Bacterial Wilt, Soft Rot, Necrotic Leaf Spot, Mo-saic Virus, Root-knot Ne-matode Disease, Sun-scald, Leaf Scorch and Dehiscent Fruit%茄子青枯病、软腐病、细菌性褐斑病、病毒病、根结线虫病、日灼病、叶烧病和裂果的识别与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丹丹; 张杨林

    2012-01-01

    介绍了茄子青枯病、软腐病、细菌性褐斑病、病毒病、根结线虫病、日灼病、叶烧病和裂果的危害症状、发病特点,并从农业措施、化学防治等方面总结了各病害的综合防治方法。%The symptom and disease characteristics of eggplant bacterial wilt, soft rot, necrotic leaf spot, mosaic virus, root-knot nematode disease, sunscald, leaf scorch and dehiscent fruit were in-troduced. Then the integrated control methods were put forward, which con-tained measures of agricultural control, chemical control and so on.

  13. Assessing the potential of Sun-Induced Fluorescence and the Canopy Scattering Coefficient to track large-scale vegetation dynamics in Amazon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.; Guanter, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Walther, S.

    2016-12-01

    Two new remote sensing vegetation parameters derived from spaceborne spectrometers and simulated with a three dimensional radiative transfer model have been evaluated in terms of their prospects and drawbacks for the monitoring of dense vegetation canopies: (i) sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), a unique signal emitted by photosynthetically active vegetation and (ii) the canopy scattering coefficient (CSC), a vegetation parameter derived along with the directional area scattering factor (DASF) and expected to be particularly sensitive to leaf optical properties. Here, we present the first global data set of DASF/CSC and examine the potential of CSC and SIF for providing complementary information on the controversially discussed vegetation seasonality in the Amazon rainforest. A comparison between near-infrared SIF derived from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) instrument and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) (overpass time in the morning and noon, respectively) reveals the response of SIF to instantaneous photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and the response of SIF to changing pigment concentrations ('green-up'). The observed seasonality of SIF largely depends on the satellite overpass time which is due to changing temporal trajectories of (instantaneous) PAR with daytime. Therefore, GOME-2 SIF reaches its seasonal maximum in October and around February, while OCO-2 SIF peaks in February and November. We further examine anisotropic reflectance characteristics with the finding that the hot spot effect significantly impacts observed GOME-2 SIF values. On the contrary, our sensitivity analysis suggests that CSC is highly independent of sun-sensor geometry as well as atmospheric effects. The slight annual variability of CSC shows a seasonal cycle attributable to variations in leaf area and/or the amount of precipitation, rather supporting the 'green-up' hypothesis for periods of less intense precipitation.

  14. Skylab II - Seeing the sun in a different light. [mission equipment, experiments and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    The second Skylab mission continued the detailed investigation of man's interrelated physiological functions as they react to the novel situation of weightlessness in orbit. In general terms, the most important finding is that the increase in mission duration from 28 to 59 days failed to reveal any effects that would put a specific upper limit on the time that men can live in weightlessness. Observations of the sun during the second mission covered almost two full solar revolutions, yielding detailed data on the evolution of several active regions as they traversed the face of the sun, disappeared around the limb, then reappeared on the next cycle.

  15. Dark winter how the sun is causing a 30-year cold spell

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, John L

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been a perplexing problem for years. In Dark Winter, author John L. Casey, a former White House national space policy advisor, NASA headquarters consultant, and space shuttle engineer tells the truth about ominous changes taking place in the climate and the Sun. Casey's research into the Sun's activity, which began almost a decade ago, resulted in discovery of a solar cycle that is now reversing from its global warming phase to that of dangerous global cooling for the next thirty years or more. This new cold climate will dramatically impact the world's citizens. In Dark Wint

  16. Bashful ballerina: The asymmetric Sun viewed from the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursula, K.

    Long-term observations of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) at 1 AU have depicted interesting systematic hemispheric and longitudinal asymmetries that have far-reaching implications for the understanding of solar magnetism. It has recently been found that the HMF sector that is prevalent in the northern solar hemisphere dominates the observed HMF sector occurrence for a few years in the late declining to minimum phase of the solar cycle. This leads to a persistent southward shift or coning of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) at these times, which has been described by the concept of the bashful ballerina. This result was later verified by direct measurements of the solar magnetic field which showed that the average field intensity was smaller and the corresponding area larger in the northern (heliographic) hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere during roughly 3 years in the late declining to minimum phase of the cycle. During these years when the HCS was shifted southwards, the solar quadrupole moment was found to be systematically non-zero and oppositely oriented with respect to the dipole moment. Long-term observations of the geomagnetic field can yield information on the HMF sector structure in the pre-satellite era, showing that the ballerina was bashful since 1930s. In addition to the hemispheric asymmetries, the Sun is systematically asymmetric in longitude. It has been shown that the global HMF has persistent active longitudes whose dominance depicts an oscillation with a period of about 3.2 years. Accordingly, the bashful ballerina takes three such steps per activity cycle, thus dancing in waltz tempo. Stellar observations show that this is a general pattern for sun-like cool stars. We describe these phenomena and discuss their implications.

  17. Comparison of sunspot properties in cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Reza; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Beck, Christian

    Sunspots form by coalescence of small-scale magnetic elements and pores in magnetic flux emergence areas. By observing recently formed sunspots just after their initial growth and before substantial decay, one samples a magnetic signal which has been least disturbed by granulation. Properties of the emergence events have a direct impact on the results. Failed active regions, e.g. the ones which cannot form a sunspot, are a clear example: in several cases, they would harbor enough magnetic flux to form a small sunspot but fail to do so. Another way to evaluate secular variations of flux emergence events is to quantify long-term trends of sunspot properties. The 11-year solar magnetic activity cycle has been known for centuries. During this time the activity level changed dramatically from the Maunder minimum (1650-1700) to the Modern maximum in mid 20-th century. The extended minimum of the last solar cycle alerted solar physicist about possible long-term variation in the solar magnetic activity. While some argue that the Sun was unusually active in mid 20-th century, others find it unusually inactive now. This caused speculations whether the solar activity cycle is overlaid with a long-term decline that may lead to another grand minimum in the near future. Some extrapolations predicted that there will be no sunspots in the next cycle. Detailed observations of sunspot properties were performed only in the last few cycles. Such spectropolarimetric observations enable us to accurately derive the magnetic field strengths of spots and their physical properties. We present measurements of sunspot intensity, area, and magnetic field strength and compare the present cycle 24 with the previous one. We analyze a sample of about 400 sunspots observed from 1999 until 2014 with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope as well as with the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter of the Dunn Solar Telescope of the NSO. The magnetic field strength is

  18. Nature's third cycle a story of sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2015-01-01

    The cycle of day and night and the cycle of seasons are two familiar natural cycles around which many human activities are organized. But is there a third natural cycle of importance for us humans? On 13 March 1989, six million people in Canada went without electricity for many hours: a large explosion on the sun was discovered as the cause of this blackout. Such explosions occur above sunspots, dark features on the surface of the Sun that have been observed through telescopes since the time of Galileo. The number of sunspots has been found to wax and wane over a period of 11 years. Although this cycle was discovered less than two centuries ago, it is becoming increasingly important for us as human society becomes more dependent on technology. For nearly a century after its discovery, the cause of the sunspot cycle remained completely shrouded in mystery. The 1908 discovery of strong magnetic fields in sunspots made it clear that the 11-year cycle is the magnetic cycle of the sun. It is only during the last ...

  19. Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Luteal (after egg release) Changes During the Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is regulated by the complex interaction of ... egg release) Luteal (after egg release) The menstrual cycle begins with menstrual bleeding (menstruation), which marks the first day of ...

  20. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  1. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  2. The Solar Rotational Activity Variations during the 23-th Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R.; Hempelmann, A.; Valev, D.; Kostadinov, I.; Atanassov, At.; Giovanelli, G.; Petritoli, A.; Bortoli, D.; Ravegnani, F.

    2006-03-01

    The study of the solar activity variability has been of great interest since its discovery. On the one hand it is important for the understanding of the Sun as an active star and on the other hand for the investigations of the solar-terrestrial connections. The solar magnetic field reverses approximately every 22 years, and manifests the 11-year solar cycle, in which the Sun changes its activity from its maximum value to the minimum one. The activity variations, developed by the sun surface rotation in connection with the nonsymmetrical distribution of active regions over the solar disc appear in a shorter time scale. As it is well known, these variations have periods of about 27 days. The solar surface rotates with different velocity, depending on the latitude. The differential solar rotation period, observed from the Earth, varies from 26.75 days at the solar equator up to approximately 29 days at higher latitudes. However the observed periodicity is generally in a wider range: from 20 up to 36 days. This wider spread is a result of the combination of both active-region evolution and solar rotation. A simple empirical solar activity model is proposed, which describes the obtained behavior by harmonic oscillations with simultaneous amplitude and phase modulation. The solar rotational periodicity is analyzed using wavelet. It is demonstrated, that the model describes well the separate episodes of the active region evolution. Both kinds of modulations are the consequence of activity region growth or decay and hence, they are a result of a variable pattern of spots and active regions on the solar surface.

  3. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  4. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  5. The Sun as a star: empirical estimates of stellar coronal mass ejection rates and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2017-05-01

    Our nearest star provides exquisite, up-close views of the physical processes driving energetic phenomena we observe on stars and cannot yet spatially resolve. Stars provide a statistical ensemble of solar analogs spanning a range of ages representing snapshots along our Sun's full life cycle. In this talk, I will share a project bringing the astronomer's large scale statistical approach to bear on solar data. Combining a decades' worth of solar flare and CME data, we characterize for the first time a relationship between flare and CME properties in order to extend analogy to readily observable stellar flares. We aim to better understand the properties and evolution of magnetic activity on Sun-like stars and exoweather on planets about distant Suns.

  6. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  7. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  8. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  9. The Spectrum of Darkonium in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  10. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  11. The sun since the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  12. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rasson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  13. Testing the Sun-climate Connection with Paleoclimate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Howard, Matthew K.

    1990-01-01

    If there is a significant sun-climate connection, it should be detectable in high-resolution paleoclimate records. Of particular interest is the last few thousand years, where we have both indices of solar variability (C-14 and Be-10) and climate variations (alpine glaciers, tree rings, ice cores, corals, etc.). Although there are a few exceptions, statistical analyses of solar and climate records generally indicates a flickering relationship between the two -- sometimes it seems to be present, sometimes not. The most repeatable solar climate periods occur at approx. 120 and approx. 56 yrs, although there is also evidence for approx. 420 and approx. 200 yrs. power in some records. However, coherence between solar and climate spectra is usually low, and occurrence of solar spectra in climate records is sometimes dependent on choice of analysis program. These results suggest in general a relatively weak sun-climate link on time scales of decades to centuries. This conclusion is consistent with previous studies and with the observation that inferred climate fluctuations of 1.0 to 1.5 C on this time scale would require solar constant variations of approximately 0.5 to 1.0 percent. This change in forcing is almost an order of magnitude greater than observed changes over the last solar cycle and appears to be on the far-outer limit of acceptable changes for a Maunder Minimum-type event.

  14. Minimal Magnetic States of the Sun and the Solar Wind: Implications for the Origin of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliver, E. W.; von Steiger, R.

    2017-09-01

    During the last decade it has been proposed that both the Sun and the solar wind have minimum magnetic states, lowest order levels of magnetism that underlie the 11-yr cycle as well as longer-term variability. Here we review the literature on basal magnetic states at the Sun and in the heliosphere and draw a connection between the two based on the recent deep 2008-2009 minimum between cycles 23 and 24. In particular, we consider the implications of the low solar activity during the recent minimum for the origin of the slow solar wind.

  15. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  16. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

    2003-11-14

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  17. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  18. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  19. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  20. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  1. A Hot Spot in Coma

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, R H; Forman, W R; Jones, C; Churazov, E; Gilfanov, M R

    1999-01-01

    We study the temperature structure of the central part (r<18' ~0.7 h50**-1 Mpc) of the Coma cluster of galaxies using ASCA data. Two different analysis methods produce results in good agreement with each other and reveal the presence of interesting structures in the gas temperature distribution. Globally, the average temperature in the center of the cluster is 9.0 +/- 0.6 keV in good agreement with previous results. Superimposed on this, we find a cool area with temperatures of 4-6 keV associated with a filament of X-ray emission extending southeast from the cluster center detected by Vikhlinin and coworkers. We also find a hot spot with a temperature of around 13 keV displaced north from the central peak of emission. The distribution of the gas temperatures and relative specific entropies suggests that the cool features are most likely gas stripped from a galaxy group centered on NGC 4874 falling toward the core from outside, while the hot spot located ``ahead'' of this in-falling gas is due to shock heat...

  2. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  3. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  4. Integrating Sustainable Hunting in Biodiversity Protection in Central Africa: Hot Spots, Weak Spots, and Strong Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting. PMID:25372705

  5. Magnetic fields on young, moderately rotating Sun-like stars II. EK Draconis (HD 129333)

    CERN Document Server

    Waite, Ian; Carter, Brad; Petit, Pascal; Jeffers, Sandra; Morin, Julien; Vidotto, Aline; Donati, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic fields, activity and dynamos of young solar-type stars can be empirically studied using time-series of spectropolarimetric observations and tomographic imaging techniques such as Doppler imaging and Zeeman Doppler imaging. In this paper we use these techniques to study the young Sun-like star EK Draconis (Sp-Type: G1.5V, HD 129333) using ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and NARVAL at the T\\`elescope Bernard Lyot. This multi-epoch study runs from late 2006 until early 2012. We measure high levels of chromospheric activity indicating an active, and varying, chromosphere. Surface brightness features were constructed for all available epochs. The 2006/7 and 2008 data show large spot features appearing at intermediate-latitudes. However, the 2012 data indicate a distinctive polar spot. We observe a strong, almost unipolar, azimuthal field during all epochs that is similar to that observed on other Sun-like stars. Using magnetic features, we determined an average equatorial rotational vel...

  6. New dynamics of the Sun convection zone and global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2008-01-01

    Solar activity is studied using cluster analysis of the sunspot number time-fluctuations. It is shown that for a Historic period (1850-1932yy) the cluster exponent $\\alpha \\simeq 0.37$ (strong clustering) for the high activity components of the solar cycles, whereas for a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) the cluster exponent $\\alpha \\simeq 0.50$ (random, white noise-like situation). Then, comparing these results with the corresponding data from the classic laboratory convection experiments it is shown, that for the Historic period emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. For the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics in the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had clear detectable impact on the global Earth climate at this period. Name...

  7. The Sun and its Planets as detector for invisible matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, Sergio; Hofmann, Sebastian; Maroudas, Marios

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing / deflection of invisible streaming matter towards the Sun could explain the puzzling solar flares and the unexplained solar emission in the EUV. Assuming that this invisible matter has some form of interaction with normal matter and that there exist preferred directions in its flow, then one would expect a more pronounced solar activity at certain planetary heliocentric longitudes. This is best demonstrated in the case of the 3 inner planets, considering their relatively short revolution time in comparison to a solar cycle of about 11 years. We have analyzed the solar flares as well as the EUV emission. We observe statistically significant signals when one or more planets have heliocentric longitudes mainly between 230o and 300o. The broad velocity spectrum of the assumed constituents makes it at this stage difficult to identify its source(s) in space. More refined future analyses might increase the precision of the determination of the stream direction and some properties of its consti...

  8. Fecal steroid analysis for monitoring reproduction in the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Franz; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Schaller, Karl; Kolter, Lydia

    2004-12-01

    Fecal steroid analyses were conducted on captive (n = 10) and free-ranging (n = 2) sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) in order to establish a noninvasive technique for monitoring endocrine profiles during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Secondly, the effect of the contraceptive porcine zona pellucida protein (PZP) on reproductive function was studied. Finally, we investigated whether the sun bear, naturally living in the aseasonal tropical forests of Southeast Asia, is a seasonal breeder. Fecal samples were collected over periods of 7-48 months in captive untreated (n = 8) and PZP-treated (n = 2) female sun bears. In addition samples were collected over a period of 12 months from radio-collared free-ranging females (n = 2) in their natural habitat in Indonesian Borneo. Androgens, precursors of estrogens, were found to be reliable indicators of the follicular phase, whereas estrogens were found unsuitable. Pregnanediol assay was found to be a reliable indicator of luteal function. Results indicate that sun bears are polyestrous, nonseasonal breeders. Interestrus intervals in nonpregnant animals (n = 2), which were monitored for 27 months, were between 140 and 216 days. Luteal phases (89.6 +/- 3.7 days; n = 9) were preceded by androgen peaks of 15.2 +/- 1.0 days (n = 10). Hormonal profiles of two females treated with PZP indicated missing ovarian activity in one, and persistent follicular and luteal activity in another animal. However, extended periods of missing ovarian, and persistent follicular and luteal activity were also observed in other sun bears studied.

  9. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  10. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  11. Stellar magnetic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliunas, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Is hope for understanding the solar magnetic cycle to be found in stars? Observations of stars with significant sub-surface convective zones -- masses smaller than about 1.5 solar masses on the lower main sequence and many types of cool, post-main-sequence stars -- indicate the presence of surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities analogous to solar magnetic features, making stellar magnetic activity a cosmically widespread phenomenon. Observations have been made primarily in visible wavelengths, and important information has also been derived from the ultraviolet and x-ray spectrum regions. Interannual to interdecadal variability of spectrum indicators of stellar magnetic features is common, and in some cases similar in appearance to the 11-year sunspot cycle. Successful models of the physical processes responsible for stellar magnetic cycles, typically cast as a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo, require advances in understanding not only convection but also the magnetic field's interaction with it. The observed facts that underpin the hope for models will be summarized. Properties of stellar magnetic cycles will be compared and contrasted with those of the sun, including inferences from paleo-environmental reservoirs that contain information on solar century- to millennial-scale magnetic variability. Partial support of this research came from NASA NAG5-7635, NRC COBASE, CRDF 322, MIT-MSG 5710001241, JPL 1236821, AF 49620-02-1-0194, Richard Lounsberry Foundation, Langley-Abbot, Rollins, Scholarly Studies and James Arthur Funds (Smithsonian Institution) and several generous individuals.

  12. Biogeochemical cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Boersema, J.J.; Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    It is now often assumed that life first appeared on planet Earth about 3,500 million years ago. Since then ‘our’ Sun has changed considerably. While the flux of solar energy to the Earth has increased by about 30% over this period, though, this has not led to a corresponding increase in the Earth's

  13. Solar Cycle 24 and the Solar Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Schatten, K.

    2007-01-01

    We will discuss the polar field precursor method for solar activity prediction, which predicts cycle 24 will be significantly lower than recent activity cycles, and some new ideas rejuvenating Babcock's shallow surface dynamo. The polar field precursor method is based on Babcock and Leighton's dynamo models wherein the polar field at solar minimum plays a major role in generating the next cycle's toroidal field and sunspots. Thus, by examining the polar fields of the Sun near solar minimum, a forecast for the next cycle's activity is obtained. With the current low value for the Sun's polar fields, this method predicts solar cycle 24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 135 plus or minus 35 (2 sigma), in the 2012-2013 timeframe (equivalent to smoothed Rz near 80 plus or minus 35 [2 sigma]). One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. We discuss unusual behavior in the Sun's polar fields that support this prediction. Normally, the solar precursor method is consistent with the geomagnetic precursor method, wherein geomagnetic variations are thought to be a good measure of the Sun's polar field strength. Because of the unusual polar field, the Earth does not appear to be currently bathed in the Sun's extended polar field (the interplanetary field), hence negating the primal cause behind the geomagnetic precursor technique. We also discuss how percolation may support Babcock's original shallow solar dynamo. In this process ephemeral regions from the solar magnetic carpet, guided by shallow surface fields, may collect to form pores and sunspots.

  14. Rational SU(N) Gaudin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.

  15. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...

  16. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Community, The SunPy; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from mis...

  17. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  18. Sino-Sun Architects & Engineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sino-Sun is an A-Class state architectural design company organized by a group of experts who have returned to China after studying abroad. In the 10 yearssince its establishment, it has grown into an outstanding andwell-known design team, which has influence in the national archi-tectural design field.

  19. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  20. Isotopes Tell Sun's Origin and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, O.; Kamat, Sumeet A.; Mozina, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Modern versions of Aston's mass spectrometer enable measurements of two quantities - isotope abundances and masses - that tell the Sun's origin and operation. Isotope analyses of meteorites, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, the solar wind, and solar flares over the past 45 years indicate that fresh, poorly-mixed, supernova debris formed the solar system. The iron-rich Sun formed on the collapsed supernova core and now itself acts as a magnetic plasma diffuser, as did the precursor star, separating ions by mass. This process covers the solar surface with lightweight elements and with the lighter isotopes of each element. Running difference imaging provides supporting evidence of a rigid, iron-rich structure below the Sun's fluid outer layer of lightweight elements. Mass measurements of all 2,850 known nuclides expose repulsive interactions between neutrons that trigger neutron-emission at the solar core, followed by neutron-decay and a series of reactions that collectively generate solar luminosity, solar neutrinos, the carrier gas for solar mass separation, and an outpouring of solar-wind hydrogen from the solar surface. Neutron-emission and neutron-decay generate ~ 65% of solar luminosity; H-fusion ~ 35%, and ~ 1% of the neutron-decay product survives to depart as solar-wind hydrogen. The energy source for the Sun and other ordinary stars seems to be neutron-emission and neutron-decay, with partial fusion of the decay product, rather than simple fusion of hydrogen into helium or heavier elements.

  1. Sun Baiqiu Fights for the Human Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Baiqiu liked to read well known literature from all over the world when she was a little girl. She sympathized with the good-hearted characters and hated the greedy and the evil. She imagined that she would become like a fairy godmother, holding a magic wand and helping the poor but kind people in distress. In 1963 she graduated from Haerbin

  2. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have...

  3. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  4. The Heliosphere through the Solar Activity Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André; Suess, Steven T

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how the Sun changes though its 11-year sunspot cycle and how these changes affect the vast space around the Sun – the heliosphere – has been one of the principal objectives of space research since the advent of the space age. This book presents the evolution of the heliosphere through an entire solar activity cycle. The last solar cycle (cycle 23) has been the best observed from both the Earth and from a fleet of spacecraft. Of these, the joint ESA-NASA Ulysses probe has provided continuous observations of the state of the heliosphere since 1990 from a unique vantage point, that of a nearly polar orbit around the Sun. Ulysses’ results affect our understanding of the heliosphere from the interior of the Sun to the interstellar medium - beyond the outer boundary of the heliosphere. Written by scientists closely associated with the Ulysses mission, the book describes and explains the many different aspects of changes in the heliosphere in response to solar activity. In particular, the authors...

  5. Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, Hardin; Hefner, Jeromi

    2012-01-01

    The Spotted Salamander is a wide-ranging salamander of the eastern United States that typically breeds in winter or early spring in ephemeral pools in lowland forests. Ambystoma maculatum is known to deposit 2-4 egg masses per year, each containing 1-250 eggs. As part of ongoing research into the ecology and reproductive biology of Spotted Salamanders in the Kisatchie District of Kisatchie National Forest in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA, we have been counting the number of embryos per egg mass. We captured seven female A. maculatum in a small pool, six of which were still gravid. We took standard measurements, including SVL, and then implanted a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag) into each adult female as was the protocol. About an hour after processing these animals we marked new A. maculatum egg masses found in the same small pool using PVC pin flags pushed carefully through the outer jelly. We did not have enough time to process them that evening, and it was not until a few days later that we photographed those masses. We discovered that one of the masses contained a PIT tag in the outer jelly that corresponded to one of the six gravid females that were marked that same evening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PIT tags being the means, albeit coincidentally, by which a particular egg mass of Ambystoma maculatum has been assigned to a particular female. For our purposes, losing the PIT tag from the adult female is counter to the goals of our study of this population, and we will no longer be implanting PIT tags into gravid females.

  6. Tan spot - the most harmful wheat leaf disease in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is one of the most important wheat diseases in Latvia. Significant spreading of this disease was observed from 1998. Field experiments were carried out at the Research and Training Farm "Peterlauki" of the Latvia University of Agriculture, during 1998-2003. Development of diseases was observed on 14 winter wheat varieties, dynamics of development was investigated on 'Donskaja polukarlikovaja' and 'Stava'. Assessments of the disease severity were carried out on the upper three leaves each week from the start of stem elongation to full ripening. Tan spot was observed at the stage of stem elongation in 2003, and only after flowering in 1999. Increase of the disease severity was slow until stage of milk ripeness, and only in late stages of wheat development sharp increase of the disease was observed. Total rate of infection (through the session of vegetation was very slow (0,01-0,19, but during ripening rate achieved 0,5-0,6. The main reason of so unequal development of the disease seems changes in amount of infection sources. Other possible reason of rapid increase of the disease development is the relationship between leaf age and susceptibility to the disease. Further research is necessary for better understanding of tan spot life cycle.

  7. A Solar Energy Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    In sixth grade, students understand that Earth gets visible light from the Sun, but students may also believe the Earth gets heat from the Sun. This last part is incorrect because the Sun is too far from the Earth to heat it directly. So, how does the Sun heat the Earth? When light strikes an object, it can be reflected or absorbed. Absorbed light…

  8. A Solar Energy Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    In sixth grade, students understand that Earth gets visible light from the Sun, but students may also believe the Earth gets heat from the Sun. This last part is incorrect because the Sun is too far from the Earth to heat it directly. So, how does the Sun heat the Earth? When light strikes an object, it can be reflected or absorbed. Absorbed light…

  9. The effect of desogestrel, gestodene, and other factors on spotting and bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S; Higgins, J E

    1996-02-01

    Spotting and bleeding are among the most common side effects associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use and their occurrence is a prime determinant of whether a new user will continue to use OCs. Desogestrel and gestodene are two new progestins that were developed in part to minimize the occurrence of these side effects. Assessing the effect of these progestins is difficult, however, in part because their effects may be subtle, requiring a large sample size and possibly being overshadowed by other factors. To address these issues, we analyzed data from two comparative multicenter clinical trials that included 15,421 cycles among 2767 women. One study compared 75 micrograms gestodene + 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) with 150 micrograms desogestrel + 30 micrograms EE, the other compared the same gestodene preparation with 150 micrograms desogestrel + 20 micrograms EE. Both studies found a higher risk of spotting or bleeding in all cycles among users of the desogestrel-containing preparation, with the differences ranging between 20% and 70% higher for the first study and 40% and 140% in the second. These differences were statistically significant in four of six cycles in each study and persisted after controlling for consistency and recency of OC use as well as smoking. After pooling the data and controlling for estrogen dose, the desogestrel-containing preparation was significantly associated with more frequent spotting or bleeding in five of six cycles. Smoking and consistency and recency of OC use were also independent predictors of spotting or bleeding.

  10. New Views of the Sun: STEREO and Hinode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Tsuneta, Saku; Bougeret, J.-L.; Galvin, Antoinette; Howard, R. A.; Kaiser, Michael; Thompson, W. T.

    The twin-spacecraft STEREO mission has now been in orbit for 1.5 years. Although the main scientific objective of STEREO is the origin and evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their heliospheric consequences, the slow decline of the previous solar cycle has provided an extraordinary opportunity for close scrutiny of the quiet corona and solar wind, including suprathermal and energetic particles. However, STEREO has also captured a few late cycle CMEs that have given us a taste of the observations and analyses to come. Images from the SECCHI investigation afforded by STEREO's separated perspectives and the heliospheric imager have already allowed us to visibly witness the origins of the slow solar wind and the Sun-to-1 AU transit of ICMEs. The SWAVES investigation has monitored the transit of interplanetary shocks in 3D while the PLASTIC and IMPACT in-situ measurements provide the 'ground truth' of what is remotely sensed. New prospects for space weather forecasting have been demonstrated with the STEREO behind spacecraft, a successful proof-of-concept test for future space weather mission designs. The data sets for the STEREO investigations are openly available through a STEREO Science Center web interface that also provides supporting information for potential users from all communities. Comet observers and astronomers, interplanetary dust researchers and planetary scientists have already made use of this resource. The potential for detailed Sun-to-Earth CME/ICME interpretations with sophisticated modeling efforts are an upcoming STEREO-Hinode partnering activity whose success we can only anticipate at this time. Since its launch in September 2006, Hinode has sent back solar images of unprecedented clarity every day. The primary purpose of this mission is a systems approach to understanding the generation, transport and ultimate dissipation of solar magnetic fields with a well-coordinated set of advanced telescopes. Hinode is equipped with three

  11. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  12. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  13. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  14. The biology of the California spotted owl

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Douglas J. Tempel; M. Zachariah Peery

    2017-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is one of the most studied raptors in the world (Lõmus 2004) because forest management throughout its range has the potential to negatively affect owl populations. Information on the California spotted owl (S. o. occidentalis) has been summarized in several literature reviews (e.g.,...

  15. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  16. [Clitoris and G spot: an intimate affair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldes, P; Buisson, O

    2007-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a good means for studying the clitoris and its relationship with the G spot. We used it to demonstrate that clitoral bodies have a descending movement and come close to the distal anterior vaginal wall during a voluntary or reflex contraction of levator ani muscles. This fact could explain the particular sensitivity of the G spot and its role in the orgasm.

  17. HotSpot Software Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Test Plan (STP) describes the procedures used to verify and validate that the HotSpot Health Physics Codes meet the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot conducting consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendation 2 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  18. HotSpot Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) describes the software configuration management procedures used to ensure that the HotSpot dispersion model meets the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot for consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendations 1 and 3 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  19. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  20. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  1. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  2. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  3. Biogeochemical Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  4. The Sun as a planet-host star: Proxies from SDO images for HARPS radial-velocity variations

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R D; Unruh, Y C; Lovis, C; Lanza, A F; Llama, J; Deleuil, M; Fares, R; Gillon, M; Moutou, C; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D

    2016-01-01

    The Sun is the only star whose surface can be directly resolved at high resolution, and therefore constitutes an excellent test case to explore the physical origin of stellar radial-velocity (RV) variability. We present HARPS observations of sunlight scattered off the bright asteroid 4/Vesta, from which we deduced the Sun's activity-driven RV variations. In parallel, the HMI instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with simultaneous high spatial resolution magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and continuum images of the Sun in the Fe I 6173A line. We determine the RV modulation arising from the suppression of granular blueshift in magnetised regions and the flux imbalance induced by dark spots and bright faculae. The rms velocity amplitudes of these contributions are 2.40 m/s and 0.41 m/s, respectively, which confirms that the inhibition of convection is the dominant source of activity-induced RV variations at play, in accordance with previous studies. We find the Doppler imbalances of spot and pl...

  5. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-15

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  6. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  7. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  8. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  9. Radiation-induced chromosomal hot spots at G 1 and G 2 stages of human lymphocytes in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced chromosomal break points in cultured lymphocytes of normal healthy individuals as well as of those with certain genetic disorders are reported to be localized at certain specific loci (hot spots. These reports are based on studies carried out in lymphocytes irradiated at G 1 stage. The present study examines whether the location of hot spots and the frequency seen in cells irradiated at G 1 are similar to those irradiated at G 2 stage of the cell cycle and also tests whether cells of patients exhibit hot spots on irradiation.The results showed that the radiation induced chromosomal break points to be similar in those irradiated are G 1 and G 2 stages of the cell cycle and also that cells of patients exhibited chromosomal hot spots.

  10. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  11. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias, E-mail: emb@kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Edsjoe, Joakim, E-mail: edsjo@physto.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ohlsson, Tommy, E-mail: tommy@theophys.kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  12. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... other options to prevent UV damage. Too Much Sun Hurts Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged ...

  13. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  14. Asteroseismology from multi-month Kepler photometry: the evolved Sun-like stars KIC 10273246 and KIC 10920273

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Campante; R. Handberg; S. Mathur; T. Appourchaux; T.R. Bedding; W.J. Chaplin; B. Mosser; O. Benomar; A. Bonanno; E. Corsaro; S.T. Fletcher; P. Gaulme; S. Hekker; C. Karoff; D. Salabert; G.A. Verner; T.R. White; G. Houdek; I.M. Brandao; O.L. Creevey; G. Dogan; M. Bazot; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M.S. Cunha; Y. Elsworth; D. Huber; H. Kjeldsen; M. Lundkvist; J. Molenda-Zakowicz; M.J.P.F.G. Monteiro; D. Stello; B.D. Clarke; F.R. Girouard; J.R. Hall; R.A. Garcia; C. Regulo

    2011-01-01

    Context. The evolved main-sequence Sun-like stars KIC 10273246 (F-type) and KIC 10920273 (G-type) were observed with the NASA Kepler satellite for approximately ten months with a duty cycle in excess of 90%. Such continuous and long observations are unprecedented for solar-type stars other than the

  15. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  16. Hierarchical analysis of the quiet Sun magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2014-01-01

    Standard statistical analysis of the magnetic properties of the quiet Sun rely on simple histograms of quantities inferred from maximum-likelihood estimations. Because of the inherent degeneracies, either intrinsic or induced by the noise, this approach is not optimal and can lead to highly biased results. We carry out a meta-analysis of the magnetism of the quiet Sun from Hinode observations using a hierarchical probabilistic method. This model allows us to infer the statistical properties of the magnetic field vector over the observed field-of-view consistently taking into account the uncertainties in each pixel due to noise and degeneracies. Our results point out that the magnetic fields are very weak, below 275 G with 95% credibility, with a slight preference for horizontal fields, although the distribution is not far from a quasi-isotropic distribution.

  17. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES; Bruce; William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3 size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  18. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  19. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes.

  20. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  1. Operational Art and the Rising Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-16

    shall run wild for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second or third ’Potter, p. 46; Michael Slackman, Target...attack that no american carriers in 26Joseph K. Taussig , "A Tactical View of Pearl Harbor", Paul Stillwell, ed., Air Raid: Pearl Harbor! (Annapolis, MD...Weiner, 1991. Slackman, Michael . Target: Pearl Harbor. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Stephan, John J. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun

  2. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Tian; LIM Boon-Han; LIM Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuthelevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  3. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  4. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  5. ON FELICITOUS CHARACTER OF GENERALIZED SUN-GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-hua; YAO Bing; YAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    Felicitous character of some generalized sun-graphs is investigated in this note, and furthermore the exact felicitous labellings of two classes of generalized sun-graphs are obtained by analyzing the structures of the generalized sun-graphs. And the constructed graph theory models in coding theory, communication networks, logistics and other aspects have important applications.

  6. Design and Fabrication of an Albedo Insensitive Analog Sun Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Leijtens, J.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 μm) is not included in

  7. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  8. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Nemiroff, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are {\\it not} particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below $c$, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above $c...

  9. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  10. Solar Cycle #24 and the Solar Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, Kenneth; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2007-01-01

    We focus on two solar aspects related to flight dynamics. These are the solar dynamo and long-term solar activity predictions. The nature of the solar dynamo is central to solar activity predictions, and these predictions are important for orbital planning of satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). The reason is that the solar ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiances inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the thermosphere and exosphere through which these satellites orbit. Concerning the dynamo, we discuss some recent novel approaches towards its understanding. For solar predictions we concentrate on a solar precursor method, in which the Sun's polar field plays a major role in forecasting the next cycle s activity based upon the Babcock-Leighton dynamo. With a current low value for the Sun s polar field, this method predicts that solar cycle #24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 130 plus or minus 30 (2 sigma), in the 2013 timeframe. One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. Concomitant effects of low solar activity upon satellites in LEO will need to be considered, such as enhancements in orbital debris. Support for our prediction of a low solar cycle #24 is borne out by the lack of new cycle sunspots at least through the first half of 2007. Usually at the present epoch in the solar cycle (approx. 7+ years after the last solar maximum), for a normal size following cycle, new cycle sunspots would be seen. The lack of their appearance at this time is only consistent with a low cycle #24. Polar field observations of a weak magnitude are consistent with unusual structures seen in the Sun s corona. Polar coronal holes are the hallmarks of the Sun's open field structures. At present, it appears that the polar coronal holes are relatively weak, and there have been many equatorial coronal holes

  11. Mapping Magnetic Field Lines between the Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cairns, Iver; Gosling, J. T.; Lobzin, Vasili; Steward, Graham; Neudegg, Dave; Owens, Mathew

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic field topologies between the Sun and Earth are important for the connectivity to Earth of solar suprathermal particles, e.g., solar energetic particles and the electrons in type III solar radio bursts. An approach is developed for mapping large-scale magnetic field lines in the solar equatorial plane, using near-Earth observations and a solar wind model with nonzero azimuthal magnetic field at the source surface. The predicted field line maps show that near both minimal and maximal solar activity the field lines are typically open and that loops with both ends either connected to or disconnected from the Sun occur sometimes. The open field lines, nonetheless, often do not closely follow the Parker spiral, being less or more tightly wound, or strongly azimuthally or radially oriented, or inverted. Assessments of the mapped field line configurations using time-varying suprathermal electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) observed by Wind show that the mapping predictions agree quantitatively (˜90%) with the PAD observations and outperform (by ˜20%) the predictions using the standard Parker spiral model. Application to a type III radio burst observed by Ulysses and Wind shows that the mapping prediction agrees well with the local magnetic field line traced by the type III source path, which covers heliocentric distances of ˜0.1--0.4 AU. Furthermore, applications to local field structures inferred from ACE observations demonstrate that the mapping can predict the majority (65-75%) of the local field line inversions for the multiple phases of the solar cycle.

  12. CMB Cold Spot from Inflationary Feature Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a "feature-scattering" mechanism to explain the cosmic microwave background cold spot seen from {\\it WMAP} and {\\it Planck} maps. If there are hidden features in the potential of multi-field inflation, the inflationary trajectory can be scattered by such features. The scattering is controlled by the amount of isocurvature fluctuations, and thus can be considered as a mechanism to convert isocurvature fluctuations into curvature fluctuations. This mechanism predicts localized cold spots (instead of hot ones) on the CMB. In addition, it may also bridge a connection between the cold spot and a dip on the CMB power spectrum at $\\ell \\sim 20$.

  13. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  14. The Telemachus mission: dynamics of the polar sun and heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelof, E.

    Telemachus in Greek mythology was the faithful son of Ulysses. The Telemachus mission is envisioned as the next logical step in the exploration of the polar regions of the Sun and heliosphere so excitingly initiated by the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission. Telemachus is a polar solar-heliospheric mission described in the current NASA Sun-Earth Connections Roadmap (2003-2028) that has successfully undergone two Team X studies by NASA/JPL. The pioneering observations from Ulysses transformed our perception of the structure and dynamics of these polar regions through which flow the solar wind, magnetic fields and energetic particles that eventually populate most of the volume of the heliosphere. Ulysses carried only fields and particles detectors. Telemachus, in addition to modern versions of such essential in situ instruments, will carry imagers that will give solar astronomers a new viewpoint on coronal mass ejections and solar flares, as well as their first purely polar views of the photospheric magnetic field, thereby providing new helioseismology to probe the interior of the Sun. Unlike the RTG-powered Ulysses, the power for Telemachus will come simply from solar panels. Gravity assist encounters with Venus and Earth (twice) will yield ˜5 years of continuous in-ecliptic cruise science between 0.7 AU and 3.3 AU that will powerfully complement other contemporary solar-heliospheric missions. The Jupiter gravity assist, followed by a perihelion burn ˜8 years after launch, will place Telemachus in a permanent ˜0.2 AU by 2.5 AU heliographic polar orbit (inclination >80 deg) whose period will be 1.5 years. Telemachus will then pass over the solar poles at ˜0.4 AU (compared to 1.4 AU for Ulysses) and spend ˜2 weeks above 60 deg on each polar pass (alternating perihelions between east and west limbs as viewed from Earth). In 14 polar passes during a 10.5 year solar cycle, Telemachus would accumulate over half a year of polar science data. During the remainder of the time, it

  15. Sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors: testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melinda; Caputi, Peter; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build on existing understanding of adolescent sun-related behavior by combining sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors and testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Data were collected for 692 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. General linear modeling was undertaken to test the relationship of sun-related behaviors with indicators of UV exposure. Overall, the combined sun protection and sun exposing behaviors accounted for 13.8% of the variance in the number of sunburns, 28.1% of the variance in current tan and 57.5% of the variance in desired tan, respectively. Results indicated that having a strong desire for a tan was significantly associated with spending time tanning, delaying the use of sun protection, wearing brief clothing and using no sun protection; whereas the number of sunburns was significantly associated with sunscreen use, avoiding peak hours and delaying sun protection. Current tan was significantly associated with wearing sunglasses, shade use and time spent tanning. In examining sun-related behaviors among adolescents, consideration needs to be given to both sun exposing and sun protecting behaviors. This research has important implications for conceptualizing outcomes in programs designed to reduce UV exposure.

  16. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  17. [Research on absolute calibration of sun channel of sun photometer using laser raster scanning method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bing

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a new calibration method of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of sun channel of sun photometer was developed. A tunable laser was used as source and a standard tranfer detector, calibrated against cryogenic absolute radiometer, was used to measure laser beam power. By raster scanning of a single collimated laser beam to generate the uniform irradiance field at the plane of effective aperture stop of sun photometer, the absolute irradiance responsivity of center wavelength of the 870 nm unpolarized sun channels of sun photometer was obtained accurately. The relative spectral irradiance responsivity of corresponding channel was obtained by using lamp-monochromator system and then used to acquire the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity in the laboratory. On the basis of the above results, the top-of-the-atmosphere responsive constant V0 was obtained by integration with extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance data. Comparing the calibration result with that from GSFC, NASA in 2009, the difference is only 3.75%. In the last, the uncertainties of calibration were evaluated and reached to 2.06%. The principle feasibility of the new method was validated.

  18. Effects of motives on reactions to safe sun messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Trefor; Ingledew, David K; Parkinson, John A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether appearance motive for sun exposure, which strongly predicts exposure behaviour, would predict reactions to safe sun messages. In a survey with an embedded experiment, 245 individuals completed measures of motives, read a safe sun message framed by incentive (appearance/health), tone (directive/nondirective) and valence (gain/loss), then completed measures of reactions. For participants high in appearance motive, an appearance-nondirective message was most persuasive. Regardless of individual's appearance motive, appearance messages produced lower reactance if phrased using nondirective language. To maximise persuasion and minimise reactance in individuals most motivated to sun expose, safe sun messages should focus on appearance using nondirective language.

  19. FES cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, D J; Donaldson, N de N

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a partial or complete disruption of motor, sensory, and autonomic nerve pathways below the level of the lesion. In paraplegic patients, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was originally widely considered as a means to restore walking function but this was proved technically very difficult because of the numerous degrees of freedom involved in walking. FES cycling was developed for people with SCI and has the advantages that cycling can be maintained for reasonably long periods in trained muscles and the risk of falls is low. In the article, we review research findings relevant to the successful application of FES cycling including the effects on muscle size, strength and function, and the cardiovascular and bone changes. We also describe important practical considerations in FES cycling regarding the application of surface electrodes, training and setting up the stimulator limitations, implanted stimulators and FES cycling including FES cycling in groups and other FES exercises such as FES rowing.

  20. Seismic sensitivity of normal-mode coupling to Lorentz stresses in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the governing mechanism of solar magnetism remains an outstanding challenge in astrophysics. Seismology is the most compelling technique to infer the internal properties of the Sun and stars. Waves in the Sun, nominally acoustic, are sensitive to the emergence and cyclical strengthening of magnetic field, evidenced by measured changes in resonant oscillation frequencies that are correlated with the solar cycle. The inference of internal Lorentz stresses from these measurements has the potential to significantly advance our appreciation of the dynamo. Indeed, seismological inverse theory for the Sun is well understood for perturbations in composition, thermal structure and flows but, is not fully developed for magnetism, owing to the complexity of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equation. Invoking first-Born perturbation theory to characterize departures from spherically symmetric hydrostatic models of the Sun and applying the notation of generalized spherical harmonics, we calculate sensitivity functions of seismic measurements to the general time-varying Lorentz stress tensor. We find that eigenstates of isotropic (i.e. acoustic only) background models are dominantly sensitive to isotropic deviations in the stress tensor and much more weakly than anisotropic stresses (and therefore challenging to infer). The apple cannot fall far from the tree.

  1. The Apsidal Precession for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By nodal regression and apsidal precession, the Earth flattering at satellite low Earth orbits (LEO is manifested. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun. Nodal regression is orbit feature utilized for circular orbits to be Sun synchronized. A sun¬-synchronized orbit lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Sun direction. In the low Earth Sun synchronized circular orbits are suited the satellites that accomplish their photo imagery missions. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the respective orbital altitudes the inclination window for the Sun synchronization to be attained is determined. The apsidal precession represents major axis shift, respectively the argument of perigee deviation. The apsidal precession simulation, for inclination window of sun synchronized orbital altitudes, is provided through this paper.

  2. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  3. Grand Challenges in the Physics of the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The study of stellar structure and evolution is one of the main building blocks of astrophysics, and the Sun has an importance both as the star that is most amenable to detailed study and as the star that has by far the biggest impact on the Earth and near-Earth environment through its radiative and particulate outputs. Over the past decades, studies of stars and of the Sun have become somewhat separate. But in recent years, the rapid advances in asteroseismology, as well as the quest to better understand solar and stellar dynamos, have emphasized once again the synergy between studies of the stars and the Sun. In this article I have selected two "grand challenges" both for their crucial importance and because I thnk that these two problems are tractable to significant progress in the next decade. They are (i) understanding how solar and stellar dynamos generate magnetic field, and (ii) improving the predictability of geo-effective space weather.

  4. Carousel Trackers with 1-Sun or 3-Sun Modules for Commercial Building Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Huang, H, [JX Crystals, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The goal is lower cost solar electricity. Herein, two evolutional steps are described toward achieving this goal. The first step is to follow the sun with a solar tracker. Herein, a carousel tracker is described for mounting on commercial building flat rooftops in order to produce more kWh per kW relative to fixed PV modules. The second evolutionary improvement is to produce lower cost 3-sun CPV modules where two thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon material is replaced by less expensive mirror material. This paper describes the performance and durability of two prototype installations demonstrating these evolutionary innovations. In the first case, the installation and operation of 2 carousels equipped with traditional flat plate modules is described. In the second case, the operation of a carousel equipped with new 3-sun CPV modules is described. Both systems have been operating as expected for several months through the winter of 2007.

  5. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  6. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  7. The Sun to the Earth - and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The sun is the source of energy for life on earth and is the strongest modulator of the human physical environment. In fact, the Sun's influence extends throughout the solar system, both through photons, which provide heat, light, and ionization, and through the continuous outflow of a magnetized, supersonic ionized gas known as the solar wind. While the accomplishments of the past decade have answered important questions about the physics of the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies, they have also highlighted other questions, some of which are long-standing and fundamental. The Sun to the Earth--and Beyond organizes these questions in terms of five challenges that are expected to be the focus of scientific investigations in solar and space physics during the coming decade and beyond. While the accomplishments of the past decades have answered important questions about the physics of the Sun, the interplanetary medium, and the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies, they have also highlighted other questions, some of which are long-standing and fundamental. This report organizes these questions in terms of five challenges that are expected to be the focus of scientific investigations in solar and space physics during the coming decade and beyond: Challenge 1: Understanding the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior, the generation of solar magnetic fields, the origin of the solar cycle, the causes of solar activity, and the structure and dynamics of the corona. Challenge 2: Understanding heliospheric structure, the distribution of magnetic fields and matter throughout the solar system, and the interaction of the solar atmosphere with the local interstellar medium. Challenge 3: Understanding the space environments of Earth and other solar system bodies and their dynamical response to external and internal influences. Challenge 4: Understanding the basic physical principles manifest

  8. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load-elongation cu......Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...

  9. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  10. Tissue Testing Can Spot Zika at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166828.html Tissue Testing Can Spot Zika at Birth: CDC Just 1 in 10 possible cases actually ... havoc on babies, but diagnosing the infection before birth remains a challenge. Now, there's some good news: ...

  11. Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166957.html Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis Large study finds key ... Researchers say they've come closer to pinpointing genes linked with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's ...

  12. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  13. A comprehensive overview of the Cold Spot

    CERN Document Server

    Vielva, P

    2010-01-01

    The report of a significant deviation of the CMB temperature anisotropies distribution from Gaussianity (soon after the public release of the WMAP data in 2003) has become one of the most solid WMAP anomalies. This detection grounds on an excess of the kurtosis of the Spherical Mexican Hat Wavelet coefficients at scales of around 10 degrees. At these scales, a prominent feature --located in the southern Galactic hemisphere-- was highlighted from the rest of the SMHW coefficients: the Cold Spot. This article presents a comprehensive overview related to the study of the Cold Spot, paying attention to the non-Gaussianity detection methods, the morphological characteristics of the Cold Spot, and the possible sources studied in the literature to explain its nature. Special emphasis is made on the Cold Spot compatibility with a cosmic texture, commenting on future tests that would help to give support or discard this hypothesis.

  14. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  15. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  16. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  17. HST image of Saturn's 'white spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's 'white spot' or cloud believed to be ammonia ice crystals recorded by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) planetary camera in blue and infrared light. HST data was computer-processed improving the image sharpness.

  18. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  19. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  20. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijn, Alfred; Lites, B.; Berger, T.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Hinode Team

    2007-05-01

    We study strong flux elements in the quiet sun in the context of the nature of quiet-sun magnetism, its coupling to chromospheric, transition-region and coronal fields, and the nature of a local turbulent dynamo. Strong, kilogauss flux elements show up intermittently as small bright points in G-band and Ca II H images. Although bright points have been extensively studied in the magnetic network, internetwork magnetism has only come under scrutiny in recent years. A full spectrum of field strengths seems to be ubiquitously present in the internetwork at small spatial scales, with the stronger elements residing in intergranular lanes. De Wijn et al. (2005) found that bright points in quiet sun internetwork areas appear recurrently with varying intensity and horizontal motion within long-lived patches that outline cell patterns on mesogranular scales. They estimate that the "magnetic patches" have a mean lifetime of nine hours, much longer than granular timescales. We use multi-hour sequences of G-band and Ca II H images as well as magnetograms recorded by the Hinode satellite to follow up on their results. The larger field of view, the longer sequences, the addition of magnetograms, and the absence of atmospheric seeing allows us to better constrain the patch lifetime, to provide much improved statistics on IBP lifetime, to compare IBPs to network bright points, and to study field polarity of IBPs in patches and between nearby patches. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, build and operation of the mission.

  1. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  2. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang; Wu, Yongcheng

    2017-02-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. The dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  3. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].

  4. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  5. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  6. Dual Axis Light Sensor for Tracking Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miki; Tambo, Toyokazu

    We have developed convenient light sensors to control a platform of solar cell panel. Dual axis light sensor in the present paper has structure of 5 PD (photodiode) light sensor which is composed of 5 photodiodes attached on a frustum of pyramid(1). Light source can be captured in front of the sensor by rotating the X and Y axis as decreasing the output deviation between two pairs of outside photodiodes. We here report the mechanism of sun tacking using the dual axis 5 PD light sensor and the fundamental results performed in the dark room.

  7. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  8. Selective factors in sun-weather research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the correlations between solar wind/IMF disturbances and subsequent winter troposphere vorticity changes (denoted SV) are reviewed to investigate sun-weather relationships. Uncertainties in the research attempting to link short-term solar variations and associated changes in the lower atmosphere are discussed, and it is noted that such analyses have generally not addressed either the choice of parameters or the selective factors involved in the physical relationships existing between parameters. It is suggested that the identification of a viable mechanism scenario would require a detailed multiparameter selective factor analysis, extending to the investigation of the atmospheric data as well as the solar wind/IMF parameters.

  9. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Businger, S

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed.

  10. The long sunspot cycle 23 predicts a significant temperature decrease in cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Solheim, Jan-Erik; Humlum, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Relations between the length of a sunspot cycle and the average temperature in the same and the next cycle are calculated for a number of meteorological stations in Norway and in the North Atlantic region. No significant trend is found between the length of a cycle and the average temperature in the same cycle, but a significant negative trend is found between the length of a cycle and the temperature in the next cycle. This provides a tool to predict an average temperature decrease of at least 1.0 "C from solar cycle 23 to 24 for the stations and areas analyzed. We find for the Norwegian local stations investigated that 25-56% of the temperature increase the last 150 years may be attributed to the Sun. For 3 North Atlantic stations we get 63-72% solar contribution. This points to the Atlantic currents as reinforcing a solar signal.

  11. Solar Cycle Predictions (Invited Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. Dean

    2012-11-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions, just as weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on low-Earth orbit spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as the reduced propellant load is consumed more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5 - 20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations of how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future are discussed.

  12. Optimization of parameters and study of joint microstructure of resistance spot welding of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yarong; Zhang Zhongdian; Li Dongqing

    2006-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the DC spot welding of Mg alloy AZ31B are presented. Experiments are carried out to study the influence of spot welding parameters (electrode force, welding heat input and welding time) on the tensile shear load and the diameter of nugget, based on an orthogonal test and analysis method. The optimum parameters are as follows:electrode force is 2 000 N, welding heat input is 80% and welding time is 6 cycles. The microstructure of spot weld is single fine equiaxed crystals in the nugget, of which the structure is β-Mg17Al12 precipitated on α-Mg boundaries induced by nonequilibrium freezing. And the surface condition of the workpiece has great influence on the joint quality.

  13. Characterization of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welded DP600 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramazani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW as a predominant welding technique used for joining steels in automotive applications needs to be studied carefully in order to improve the mechanical properties of the spot welds. The objectives of the present work are to characterize the resistance spot weldment of DP600 sheet steels. The mechanical properties of the welded joints were evaluated using tensile-shear and cross-tensile tests. The time-temperature evolution during the welding cycle was measured. The microstructures observed in different sites of the welds were correlated to thermal history recorded by thermocouples in the corresponding areas. It was found that cracks initiated in the periphery region of weld nuggets with a martensitic microstructure and a pull-out failure mode was observed. It was also concluded that tempering during RSW was the main reason for hardness decrease in HAZ.

  14. Melanomas of unknown primary have a mutation profile consistent with cutaneous sun-exposed melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton-Regester, Ken; Kakavand, Hojabr; Aoude, Lauren G; Stark, Mitchell S; Gartside, Michael G; Johansson, Peter; O'Connor, Linda; Lanagan, Cathy; Tembe, Varsha; Pupo, Gulietta M; Haydu, Lauren E; Schmidt, Christopher W; Mann, Graham J; Thompson, John F; Scolyer, Richard A; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2013-11-01

    Melanoma of unknown primary (MUP) is an uncommon phenomenon whereby patients present with metastatic disease without an evident primary site. To determine their likely site of origin, we combined exome sequencing from 33 MUPs to assess the total rate of somatic mutations and degree of UV mutagenesis. An independent cohort of 91 archival MUPs was also screened for 46 hot spot mutations highly prevalent in melanoma including BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11. Results showed that the majority of MUPs exhibited high somatic mutation rates, high ratios of C>T/G>A transitions, and a high rate of BRAF (45 of 101, 45%) and NRAS (32 of 101, 32%) mutations, collectively indicating a mutation profile consistent with cutaneous sun-exposed melanomas. These data suggest that a significant proportion of MUPs arise from regressed or unrecognized primary cutaneous melanomas or arise de novo in lymph nodes from nevus cells that have migrated from the skin.

  15. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  16. Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun, primarily composed of ionized hydrogen and helium, has a surface temperature of 5777~K and a radius $R_\\odot \\approx 696,000$ km. In the outer $R_\\odot/3$, energy transport is accomplished primarily by convection. Using typical convective velocities $u\\sim100\\,\\rm{m\\,s^{-1}}$ and kinematic viscosities of order $10^{-4}$ m$^{2}$s$^{-1}$, we obtain a Reynolds number $Re \\sim 10^{14}$. Convection is thus turbulent, causing a vast range of scales to be excited. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, of the convecting fluid is very low, of order $10^{-7}$\\,--\\,$10^{-4}$, so that the Rayleigh number ($\\sim Re^2 Pr$) is on the order of $10^{21}\\,-\\,10^{24}$. Solar convection thus lies in extraordinary regime of dynamical parameters, highly untypical of fluid flows on Earth. Convective processes in the Sun drive global fluid circulations and magnetic fields, which in turn affect its visible outer layers ("solar activity") and, more broadly, the heliosphere ("space weather"). The precise determination of the depth of sola...

  17. Exoplanets Clue to Sun's Curious Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    A ground-breaking census of 500 stars, 70 of which are known to host planets, has successfully linked the long-standing "lithium mystery" observed in the Sun to the presence of planetary systems. Using ESO's successful HARPS spectrograph, a team of astronomers has found that Sun-like stars that host planets have destroyed their lithium much more efficiently than "planet-free" stars. This finding does not only shed light on the lack of lithium in our star, but also provides astronomers with a very efficient way of finding stars with planetary systems. "For almost 10 years we have tried to find out what distinguishes stars with planetary systems from their barren cousins," says Garik Israelian, lead author of a paper appearing this week in the journal Nature. "We have now found that the amount of lithium in Sun-like stars depends on whether or not they have planets." Low levels of this chemical element have been noticed for decades in the Sun, as compared to other solar-like stars, and astronomers have been unable to explain the anomaly. The discovery of a trend among planet-bearing stars provides a natural explanation to this long-standing mystery. "The explanation of this 60 year-long puzzle is for us rather simple," adds Israelian. "The Sun lacks lithium because it has planets." This conclusion is based on the analysis of 500 stars, including 70 planet-hosting stars. Most of these stars were monitored for several years with ESO's High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher. This spectrograph, better known as HARPS, is attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope and is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. "This is the best possible sample available to date to understand what makes planet-bearing stars unique," says co-author Michel Mayor. The astronomers looked in particular at Sun-like stars, almost a quarter of the whole sample. They found that the majority of stars hosting planets possess less than 1% of the amount of lithium shown by most of the other stars

  18. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES Bruce William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3″ size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  19. Promoting sun safety among zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J A; Lewis, E C; Eckhardt, L; Slymen, D; Belch, G; Elder, J; Engelberg, M; Eichenfield, L; Achter, A; Nichols, T; Walker, K; Kwon, H; Talosig, M; Gearen, C

    2001-09-01

    Each year, millions of children visit zoological parks, where they are exposed to long bouts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We conducted a study in the winter and replicated it in the summer to evaluate an intervention for reducing UVR exposure during the zoo visit. Each study used a nonequivalent control group design: one zoological site received the intervention and a second received evaluation only. Key outcome measures consisted of observed prevalence of hat use by exiting children (N = 8,721 and 8,524, respectively, in winter and summer studies) and purchase rates of sunscreen and hats in zoo gift shops. Intervention consisted of tip sheets for parents, children's activities, prompts, and discounts off the price of sunscreen and sun-protective hats. In the summer study, sales of both sunscreen and target hats increased significantly at the intervention site relative to the control site, whereas in the winter study, only sunscreen sales at the intervention site had a significant (relative) increase. Children's hat use increased significantly at the intervention site, but only in the winter study. The multicomponent program was effective in promoting purchases of sun-safe items, but its impact on children's hat use was inconclusive. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  20. Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

  1. Understanding Activity Cycles of Solar Type Stars with Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Guadalupe; Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the era of exploring new worlds and systems advances we seek to answer the question: How common is our Sun? There is considerable evidence about the recurring activity cycles of our Sun but very little is known about the activity cycles of other stars. By calibrating the full frame images from the original Kepler mission that were taken once a month over the course of four years, we are able to do relative photometry on roughly 5 million stars. By building a model of the pixel response function we were able to achieve 0.8% precision photometry. We identify 50,000 solar type stars based on magnitude, surface gravity, and temperature cuts. We observe the relative increase and decrease in brightness of the stars indicating signs of activity cycles similar to our Sun. We continue to explore how a data driven pixel response function model could improve our precision to 0.1% photometry measurements.

  2. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  3. Two sun-like superflare stars rotating as slow as the Sun*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Daisaku; Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two "superflare stars," KIC 9766237 and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have recently been discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 d on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have rotation periods of 21.8 d and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairly high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not detect any hint of binarity in our spectra, although more data are needed to firmly rule out the presence of an unseen low-mass companion. These results claim that the spectroscopic properties of these superflare stars are very close to those of the Sun, and support the hypothesis that the Sun might cause a superflare.

  4. The Sun-as-a-star As Seen By Hinode XRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Steven H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2007-05-01

    We study full disk images of the Sun taken in multiple filters with the Hinode XRT during the current low state of the solar cycle (late 2006). Taking advantage of the wide temperature sensitivity of the XRT, we construct spatially averaged emission measure (EM) curves for each of several solar region types, including coronal holes, quiet Sun, bright points, and active regions of various description. These are used to determine the relative contribution of the various features to the total solar EM, as a starting point for a program to investigate their time variation. We also explore use of the average EM curves for understanding spatially unresolved stellar spectra and their correlation with underlying magnetic fields. The US XRT team is supported by a contract from NASA to SAO. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, development and operation of the mission.

  5. Perry, Kelvin, and the age of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    Lord Kelvin argued that the Sun had to be between 20 and 100 million years old, based on the assumption that the Sun's energy source was gravitational contraction. As everyone now knows, the Sun's actual power source is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. But Kelvin's number is based on a physical assumption for which he could give no justification: the Sun's density is approximately constant. Had Kelvin assumed instead that the Sun had a small core near a black hole radius - an assumption allowed by the knowledge of physicists at the end of the nineteenth century - he would have obtained an age for the Sun as long as 10 trillion years, completely consistent with the long time scale required for evolution. Conversely, had Kelvin accepted the geologists' time scale, he would have been forced to acknowledge the existence of very dense objects, making it easier for twentieth century astronomers to accept the existence of black holes and neutron stars.

  6. Scalar model of SU(N) glueball \\`a la Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Nonperturbative model of glueball is studied. The model is based on the nonperturbative quantization technique suggested by Heisenberg. 2- and 4-point Green functions for a gauge potential are expressed in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field describes quantum fluctuations of a subgroup $SU(n) \\subset SU(N)$, and the second one describes quantum fluctuations of coset $SU(N) / SU(n)$. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields is obtained. The coefficients for all terms in the Lagrangian are calculated, and it is shown that they depend on $\\dim SU(n), \\dim SU(N)$. It is demonstrated that spherically symmetric solution describing the glueball does exist.

  7. Sun One Portal Server体系架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇泉

    2003-01-01

    目前,门户市场上存在着国内外多种多样的产品,本文主要介绍Sun公司的Sun ONE Portal Servero Sun ONE Portal Server到目前为止,在全球拥有400多个客户,分布于金融、电信、政府、汽车、制造、教育等行业。Sun ONE Portal Server是Sun ONE的重要组成部分。首先,让我们来看看Sun ONE(Sun Open Net Environment)的

  8. Induced electromagnetic stirring behavior in a resistance spot weld nugget

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-physics hybrid numerical model,which couples electric,magnetic,thermal and flow fields,was used to investigate electromagnetic stirring behavior in a resistance spot weld nugget.The differences of two kinds of different excitation inputs,i.e.,a sinusoidal current and its root-mean-square(RMS) value,were studied to examine if they could produce equivalent electromagnetic stirring effects in the weld nugget.Research showed that the two types of current inputs could produce almost identical fluid flow and heat transfer patterns and consistent evolution of flow and thermal fields in the nugget.At the end of the welding cycles,the maximum flow velocity and temperature between the two inputs differed by 11.6% and 0.3%,respectively.Therefore,the RMS current can be assumed to produce an approximately equivalent electromagnetic stirring effect with the sinusoidal current,and can be used in the future research to greatly improve the solution efficiency of the electromagnetic stirring behavior in the resistance spot weld nugget.

  9. Dynamo Models of the Solar Cycle: Current Trends and Future Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Nandy, Dibyendu

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic cycle of the Sun, as manifested in the cyclic appearance of sunspots, significantly influences our space environment and space-based technologies by generating what is now termed as space weather. Long-term variation in the Sun's magnetic output also influences planetary atmospheres and climate through modulation of solar irradiance. Here, I summarize the current state of understanding of this magnetic cycle, highlighting important observational constraints, detailing the kinematic dynamo modeling approach and commenting on future prospects.

  10. Energetic Particles: From Sun to Heliosphere - and vice versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Boden, S.; Boettcher, S. I.; Cernuda, I.; Dresing, N.; Drews, C.; Droege, W.; Elftmann, R.; Espinosa Lara, F.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Ho, G. C.; Klassen, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Mann, G. J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Mason, G. M.; Panitzsch, L.; Prieto, M.; Sanchez, S.; Steinhagen, J.; Tammen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Energetic particles in the heliosphere can be measured at their elevated energetic status after three processes: injection, acceleration, and transport. Suprathermal seed particles have speeds well above the fast magnetosonic speed in the solar wind frame of reference and can vary from location to location and within the solar activity cycle. Acceleration sites include reconnecting current sheets in solar flares or magnetspheric boundaries, shocks in the solar corona, heliosphere and a planetary obstacles, as well as planetary magnetospheres. Once accelerated, particles are transported from the acceleration site into and through the heliosphere. Thus, by investigating properties of energetic particles such as their composition, energy spectra, pitch-angle distribution, etc. one can attempt to distinguish their origin or injection and acceleration site. This in turn allows us to better understand transport effects whose underlying microphysics is also a key ingredient in the acceleration of particles. In this presentation we will present some clear examples which link energetic particles from their observing site to their source locations. These include Jupiter electrons, singly-charged He ions from CIRs, and 3He from solar flares. We will compare these examples with the measurement capabilities of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on Solar Orbiter and consider implications for the key science goal of Solar Orbiter and Solar Proble Plus - How the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere.

  11. Nonlinear problems of complex natural systems: Sun and climate dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2012-01-01

    Universal role of the nonlinear one-third subharmonic resonance mechanism in generation of the strong fluctuations in such complex natural dynamical systems as global climate and global solar activity is discussed using wavelet regression detrended data. Role of the oceanic Rossby waves in the year-scale global temperature fluctuations and the nonlinear resonance contribution to the El Nino phenomenon have been discussed in detail. The large fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature on the millennial time-scales (Antarctic ice cores data for the past 400,000 years) are also shown to be dominated by the one-third subharmonic resonance, presumably related to Earth precession effect on the energy that the intertropical regions receive from the Sun. Effects of Galactic turbulence on the temperature fluctuations are discussed in this content. It is also shown that the one-third subharmonic resonance can be considered as a background for the 11-years solar cycle, and again the global (solar) rotation and chaoti...

  12. Flux Transport and the Sun's Global Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The Sun s global magnetic field is produced and evolved through the emergence of magnetic flux in active regions and its transport across the solar surface by the axisymmetric differential rotation and meridional flow and the non-axisymmetric convective flows of granulation, supergranulation, and giant cell convection. Maps of the global magnetic field serve as the inner boundary condition for space weather. The photospheric magnetic field and its evolution determine the coronal and solar wind structures through which CMEs must propagate and in which solar energetic particles are accelerated and propagate. Producing magnetic maps which best represent the actual field configuration at any instant requires knowing the magnetic field over the observed hemisphere as well as knowing the flows that transport flux. From our Earth-based vantage point we only observe the front-side hemisphere and each pole is observable for only six months of the year at best. Models for the surface magnetic flux transport can be used to provide updates to the magnetic field configuration in those unseen regions. In this presentation I will describe successes and failures of surface flux transport and present new observations on the structure, the solar cycle variability, and the evolution of the flows involved in magnetic flux transport. I find that supergranules play the dominant role due to their strong flow velocities and long lifetimes. Flux is transported by differential rotation and meridional flow only to the extent that the supergranules participate in those two flows.

  13. The Suns Halloween Scare and the Media Frenzy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, P.

    2004-05-01

    SOHO appeared to be in everyone's focus this fall as the Sun turned from an almost spotless orb into an ominously scarred source of mighty fireworks in just a few days. Over two weeks, it featured three unusually large sunspot groups (including the largest one of this solar cycle), 11 X-class flares (including the strongest ever recorded), numerous halo CMEs (two with near-record speeds) and two significant proton storms which lasted for a combined five days. Satellites, power grids, radio communication and navigation systems were significantly affected in this period. The events caused unprecedented attention from the media and the public. Images from SOHO as well as quotes from SOHO scientists appeared in nearly every major news outlet (CNN, BBC, Associated Press, Reuters, to mention a few). Stories including SOHO images made the front page of newspapers and were featured prominently on including USA Today and The Washington Post. NASA estimated that the story reached "all" US newspapers and 2000 US TV channels. Media coverage in Europe was also impressive. The attention wiped out all existing SOHO web traffic records

  14. Superoscillating electron wave functions with subdiffraction spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remez, Roei; Tsur, Yuval; Lu, Peng-Han; Tavabi, Amir H.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Arie, Ady

    2017-03-01

    Almost one and a half centuries ago, Abbe [Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 9, 413 (1873), 10.1007/BF02956173] and shortly after Lord Rayleigh [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 8, 261 (1879), 10.1080/14786447908639684] showed that, when an optical lens is illuminated by a plane wave, a diffraction-limited spot with radius 0.61 λ /sinα is obtained, where λ is the wavelength and α is the semiangle of the beam's convergence cone. However, spots with much smaller features can be obtained at the focal plane when the lens is illuminated by an appropriately structured beam. Whereas this concept is known for light beams, here, we show how to realize it for a massive-particle wave function, namely, a free electron. We experimentally demonstrate an electron central spot of radius 106 pm, which is more than two times smaller than the diffraction limit of the experimental setup used. In addition, we demonstrate that this central spot can be structured by adding orbital angular momentum to it. The resulting superoscillating vortex beam has a smaller dark core with respect to a regular vortex beam. This family of electron beams having hot spots with arbitrarily small features and tailored structures could be useful for studying electron-matter interactions with subatomic resolution.

  15. SOAP: A Tool for the Fast Computation of Photometry and Radial Velocity Induced by Stellar Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisse, I.; Bonfils, X.; Santos, N. C.; Figueira, P.

    2013-04-01

    Dark spots and bright plages are present on the surface of dwarf stars from spectral types F to M, even in their low-active phase (like the Sun). Their appearance and disappearance on the stellar photosphere, combined with the stellar rotation, may lead to errors and uncertainties in the characterization of planets both in radial velocity (RV) and photometry. Spot Oscillation and Planet (SOAP) is a tool offered to the community that enables to simulate spots and plages on rotating stars and computes their impact on RV and photometric measurements. This tool will help to understand the challenges related to the knowledge of stellar activity for the next decade: detect telluric planets in the habitable zone of their stars (from G to M dwarfs), understand the activity in the low-mass end of M dwarf (on which future projects, like SPIRou or CARMENES, will focus), limitation to the characterization of the exoplanetary atmosphere (from the ground or with Spitzer, JWST), search for planets around young stars. These can be simulated with SOAP in order to search for indices and corrections to the effect of activity.

  16. Simulation of Temperature Distribution in TIG Spot Welds of(Al-Mg Alloy Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Abid Ameer Alkhafajy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research concern to analyse and simulate the temperature distribution in the spot welding joints using tungsten arc welding shielded with inert gas (TIG Spot for the aluminum-magnesium alloy type (5052-O. The effect of and the quantity of the heat input that enter the weld zone has been investigated welding current, welding time and arc length on temperature distribution. The finite element method (by utilizing programme ANSYS 5.4 is presented the temperature distribution in a circular weld pool and the weld pool penetration (depth of welding through the top sheet ,across the interface into the lower sheet forming a weld spot. A three dimensional (3-D model has been constructed to study the temperature distribution and the depth or penetration of the weld spot. The results showed that the weld zone and heat affected zone (HAZ suffer from high temperature variation caused by severe thermal cycle. The temperature reaches the highest value of the melt metal at the weld spot 698°C at weld current 130 Amp, weld time 6 sec and arc length 1.6 mm, then drops further away from the weld spot in the direction the base metal. Figuers were plotted to explain the results and to show the temperature distribution and its value in the weld spot and heat effected zone.

  17. Attitudes and practice of couples regarding sexual relations during the menses and spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K; Furman, I; Devoto, L

    1995-02-01

    To determine attitudes and practices regarding sexual relations during menstruation and vaginal spotting, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was performed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Materno Infantil, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. A total of 287 women and 206 men were randomly selected from an urban population. Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding sexual relations during vaginal bleeding were surveyed and stratified by educational level and other demographic characteristics. Overall, 70% of women and 72% of men were found to avoid sexual relations during menstruation. Fifty-four percent of women and 60% of men avoided sexual relations during vaginal spotting. Women with higher education (technical or university) were less likely to avoid sexual intercourse compared to those with a lower educational level (basic or secondary education) during menstruation (73% vs. 57%) and vaginal spotting (69% vs. 34%). Men with a higher educational level (university) avoided intercourse less frequently when their partner was spotting (48% vs. 64%). As many methods of contraception affect a woman's menstrual cycle, they therefore may affect the intimacy of a couple. Counseling and education regarding the menstrual cycle and expected alterations by a contraceptive method may reduce any negative impact of a contraceptive device on a couple's sexual life.

  18. Fes cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkelmans Rik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research with functional electrical stimulation (FES has been done to regain mobility and for health benefits. Better results have been reported for FES-cycling than for FES-walking. The majority of the subjects during such research are people with a spinal cord injury (SCI, cause they often lost skin sensation. Besides using surface stimulation also implanted stimulators can be used. This solves the skin sensation problem, but needs a surgery. Many physiological effects of FES-cycling has been reported, e.g., increase of muscles, better blood flow, reduction of pressure ulcers, improved self-image and some reduction of bone mineral density (BMD loss. Also people with an incomplete SCI benefit by FES-cycling, e.g. cycling time without FES, muscle strength and also the walking abilities increased. Hybrid exercise gives an even better cardiovascular training. Presently 4 companies are involved in FES-cycling. They all have a stationary mobility trainer. Two of them also use an outdoor tricycle. One combined with voluntary arm cranking. By optimizing the stimulation parameters the power output and fatigue resistance will increase, but will still be less compared to voluntary cycling.

  19. Mineral content of ionomer cements and preventive effect of these cements against white spot lesions around restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Lilian Fernanda Santos; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ion exchange at the material/enamel interface and the preventive effect of restorative materials submitted to cariogenic challenge against white spot. Restorations in enamel/dentin of bovine teeth were performed with composite resin (Filtek™ Z250 - control group) and glass-ionomers cements - GICs (Ionomaster R™ and Fuji IX™ - experimental groups). Samples were grouped and submitted to neutral saliva (n = 15) or pH-cycling regimen (n = 15). After eight days of pH cycling, material/enamel interfaces were analyzed by EDX in order to determine the differences (p white spot lesion formation was evaluated macroscopically (p 0.05) versus the experimental groups. Ca and P content were higher in enamel than in restorative materials. After pH cycling, the GIC enamel bulk showed a significantly higher Sr content compared with the composite resin (p white spot formation around restorations in comparison with Ionomaster R™ (p white spot formation and presented a preventive effect (p = 0.051). GICs presented a greater percentage of fluoride, aluminum, and strontium, and proved effective in white spot lesion prevention around restorations.

  20. Optimization design of resistance spot welding parameters of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lang Bo; Sun Daqian; Wu Qiong; Xuan Zhaozhi

    2008-01-01

    By means of the quadratic regression combination design process, the regression equations of nugget diameter and tensile shear load of spot welded joint were established. Effects of welding parameters on the nugget diameter and the tensile shear load were investigated. The results show that effect of welding current on nugget diameter is the most evident. And higher welding current will result in bigger nugget diameter. Besides, interaction effect of electrode force and welding current on tensile shear load is the most evident compared with others. The optimum welding parameters corresponding to the maximum of tensile shear load have been obtained by programming using Matlab software, which is 4.7kN electrode force, 28kA welding current and 4 cycle welding time. Under the condition of the optimum welding parameters, the joint having no visible defects can be obtained, nugget diameter and tensile shear load being 6.8mm and 3 256N, respectively.

  1. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  2. Interstellar Dust Close to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C

    2012-01-01

    The low density interstellar medium (ISM) close to the Sun and inside of the heliosphere provides a unique laboratory for studying interstellar dust grains. Grain characteristics in the nearby ISM are obtained from observations of interstellar gas and dust inside of the heliosphere and the interstellar gas towards nearby stars. Comparison between the gas composition and solar abundances suggests that grains are dominated by olivines and possibly some form of iron oxide. Measurements of the interstellar Ne/O ratio by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft indicate that a high fraction of interstellar oxygen in the ISM must be depleted onto dust grains. Local interstellar abundances are consistent with grain destruction in ~150 km/s interstellar shocks, provided that the carbonaceous component is hydrogenated amorphous carbon and carbon abundances are correct. Variations in relative abundances of refractories in gas suggest variations in the history of grain destruction in nearby ISM. The large observed ...

  3. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  4. Choosing an expected sun protection factor value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, John R; Caswell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection factor, SPF, is a measure of the efficacy of a topical sunscreen product; the higher the SPF, the greater the blockage of ultraviolet-induced erythema. While there are several methods to determine SPF, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) methods are unique. The FDA methods define the label SPF value as the largest whole integer after subtracting an "A" value from the mean SPF. The A value, composed of the product of the upper 5% point of the t-distribution and the standard deviation (SD), divided by √(n), where n equals the number of subjects, has a significant impact on the label SPF value. Two examples explore this impact. Development of strategies to mitigate the impact of A using expected SPF values are explored using historical clinical trial data. A more enlightened choice of expected SPF values is shown to lead to higher label SPF values.

  5. Coronal Mass Ejections: From Sun to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are gigantic expulsions of magnetized plasmas from the solar corona into the interplanetary (IP) space. CMEs spawn ~ 1015 gr of mass and reach speeds ranging between several hundred to a few thousand km/s (e.g., Gopalswamy et al. 2009; Vourlidas et al. 2010). It takes 1-5 days for a CME to reach Earth. CMEs are one of the most energetic eruptive manifestations in the solar system and are major drivers of space weather via their magnetic fields and energetic particles, which are accelerated by CME-driven shocks. In this review we give a short account of recent, mainly observational, results on CMEs from the STEREO and SDO missions which include the nature of their pre-eruptive and eruptive configurations and the CME propagation from Sun to Earth. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting capabilities in CME studies that will soon become available from new solar and heliospheric instrumentation.

  6. An Encounter between the Sun and Venus

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The astronomical event of the year will take place on Tuesday, 8 June, when Venus transits across the disk of the sun. In the framework of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations, the CERN Astronomy Club and the Orion Club invite you to attend their observation of the event on the car park of the Val-Thoiry shopping centre (France) between 7.15 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Various instruments will be set up in a special tent so that the event can be observed without any risk of damage to the eyes. As the observation of this astronomical event will depend on the weather forecast, confirmation of the above arrangements will be given on the 50th anniversary website the day before.

  7. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  8. Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.

  9. Substructure of Quiet Sun Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Andic, Aleksandra; Goode, Phillip R

    2010-01-01

    Since photospheric bright points (BPs) were first observed, there has been a question as to how are they structured. Are they just single flux tubes or a bundle of the flux-tubes? Surface photometry of the quiet Sun (QS) has achieved resolution close to 0.1" with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This resolution allowed us to detect a richer spectrum of BPs in the QS. The smallest BPs we observed with TiO 705.68 nm were 0.13", and we were able to resolve individual components in some of the BPs clusters and ribbons observed in the QS, showing that they are composed of the individual BPs. Average size of observed BPs was 0.22".

  10. Cartography of the sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of the surface of stars requires diverse skills, analysis techniques and advanced modeling, i.e. the collaboration of scientists in various specialties. This volume gives insights into new techniques allowing for the first time to obtain resolved images of stars. It takes stock of what has been achieved so far in Chile, on the ESO VLTI instrument or, in the States, on the CHARA instrument. In recent times interferometry, combined with adaptive optics has allowed to reconstruct images of stars. Besides the Sun (of course) by now five stars have been resolved in detail. In addition to interferometry, this book highlights techniques used for mapping the surfaces of stars using photometry made by space observatories; Zeeman- and Doppler Imaging; mapping the surface element abundances via spectroscopy. This book will also take stock of the best images of the  solar surface, made by connecting the differential rotation to the underlying physical parameters derived from helioseismology. Recent measureme...

  11. Simulating acoustic waves in spotted stars

    CERN Document Server

    Papini, Emanuele; Gizon, Laurent; Hanasoge, Shravan M

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic modes of oscillation are affected by stellar activity, however it is unclear how starspots contribute to these changes. Here we investigate the non-magnetic effects of starspots on global modes with angular degree $\\ell \\leq 2$ in highly active stars, and characterize the spot seismic signature on synthetic light curves. We perform 3D time-domain simulations of linear acoustic waves to study their interaction with a model starspot. We model the spot as a 3D change in the sound speed stratification with respect to a convectively stable stellar background, built from solar Model S. We perform a parametric study by considering different depths and perturbation amplitudes. Exact numerical simulations allow investigation of the wavefield-spot interaction beyond first order perturbation theory. The interaction of the axisymmetric modes with the starspot is strongly nonlinear. As mode frequency increases, the frequency shifts for radial modes exceed the value predicted by linear theory, while the shifts for...

  12. Note: Resistance spot welding using a microgripper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Podrzaj, P.; Hashimoto, H.

    2013-10-01

    Interest in thin-film nanostructures as building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is increasing. Resistance spot welding (RSW) on a nano or micro scale can play a significant role; similar to that of its macro counterpart for forming connections in device assembly processes. This Note presents a novel micron scale RSW technique using a microgripper as mobile spot welding electrodes to assemble ultra-thin film nanostructures. As an example, assembly of three-dimensional helical nanobelt (HNB) based device was successfully demonstrated using the proposed system. The spot-welding process was fully monitored by the built-in capacitive micro force sensor of the microgripper. Experiments show that RSW, using the microgripper, provides a stable electrical contact with sufficient mechanical strength for the construction of devices such as HNB based devices demonstrated here.

  13. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  14. Butterfly Diagram and Activity Cycles in HR 1099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2007-04-01

    We analyze photometric data of the active RS CVn-type star HR 1099 for the years 1975-2006 with an inversion technique and reveal the nature of two activity cycles of 15-16 yr and 5.3+/-0.1 yr duration. The 16 yr cycle is related to variations of the total spot area and is coupled with the differential rotation, while the 5.3 yr cycle is caused by the symmetric redistribution of the spotted area between the opposite stellar hemispheres (flip-flop cycle). We recover long-lived active regions comprising two active longitudes that migrate in the orbital reference frame with a variable rate because of the differential rotation along with changes in the mean spot latitudes. The migration pattern is periodic with the 16 yr cycle. Combining the longitudinal migration of the active regions with a previously measured differential rotation law, we recover the first stellar butterfly diagram without an assumption about spot shapes. We find that mean latitudes of active regions at opposite longitudes change antisymmetrically in the course of the 16 yr cycle: while one active region migrates to the pole, the other approaches the equator. This suggests a precession of the global magnetic field with respect to the stellar rotational axis.

  15. Membrane-associated proteomics of chickpea identifies Sad1/UNC-84 protein (CaSUN1), a novel component of dehydration signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Poonam; Subba, Pratigya; Rathi, Divya; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2014-02-01

    Dehydration affects almost all the physiological processes including those that result in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn elicits a highly conserved signaling, the unfolded protein response (UPR). We investigated the dehydration-responsive membrane-associated proteome of a legume, chickpea, by 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 184 protein spots were significantly altered over a dehydration treatment of 120 h. Among the differentially expressed proteins, a non-canonical SUN domain protein, designated CaSUN1 (Cicer arietinum Sad1/UNC-84), was identified. CaSUN1 localized to the nuclear membrane and ER, besides small vacuolar vesicles. The transcripts were downregulated by both abiotic and biotic stresses, but not by abscisic acid treatment. Overexpression of CaSUN1 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, functional complementation of the yeast mutant, slp1, could rescue its growth defects. We propose that the function of CaSUN1 in stress response might be regulated via UPR signaling.

  16. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  17. Whole Genome Amplification from Blood Spot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Karina Meden

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome amplification is an invaluable technique when working with DNA extracted from blood spots, as the DNA obtained from this source often is too limited for extensive genetic analysis. Two techniques that amplify the entire genome are common. Here, both are described with focus on the benefits and drawbacks of each system. However, in order to obtain the best possible WGA result the quality of input DNA extracted from the blood spot is essential, but also time consumption, flexibility in format and elution volume and price of the technology are factors influencing system choice. Here, three DNA extraction techniques are described and the above aspects are compared between the systems.

  18. Sun-induced fluorescence - a new probe of photosynthesis: First maps from the imaging spectrometer HyPlant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascher, U; Alonso, L; Burkart, A; Cilia, C; Cogliati, S; Colombo, R; Damm, A; Drusch, M; Guanter, L; Hanus, J; Hyvärinen, T; Julitta, T; Jussila, J; Kataja, K; Kokkalis, P; Kraft, S; Kraska, T; Matveeva, M; Moreno, J; Muller, O; Panigada, C; Pikl, M; Pinto, F; Prey, L; Pude, R; Rossini, M; Schickling, A; Schurr, U; Schüttemeyer, D; Verrelst, J; Zemek, F

    2015-12-01

    Variations in photosynthesis still cause substantial uncertainties in predicting photosynthetic CO2 uptake rates and monitoring plant stress. Changes in actual photosynthesis that are not related to greenness of vegetation are difficult to measure by reflectance based optical remote sensing techniques. Several activities are underway to evaluate the sun-induced fluorescence signal on the ground and on a coarse spatial scale using space-borne imaging spectrometers. Intermediate-scale observations using airborne-based imaging spectroscopy, which are critical to bridge the existing gap between small-scale field studies and global observations, are still insufficient. Here we present the first validated maps of sun-induced fluorescence in that critical, intermediate spatial resolution, employing the novel airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. HyPlant has an unprecedented spectral resolution, which allows for the first time quantifying sun-induced fluorescence fluxes in physical units according to the Fraunhofer Line Depth Principle that exploits solar and atmospheric absorption bands. Maps of sun-induced fluorescence show a large spatial variability between different vegetation types, which complement classical remote sensing approaches. Different crop types largely differ in emitting fluorescence that additionally changes within the seasonal cycle and thus may be related to the seasonal activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery. We argue that sun-induced fluorescence emission is related to two processes: (i) the total absorbed radiation by photosynthetically active chlorophyll; and (ii) the functional status of actual photosynthesis and vegetation stress.

  19. The Solar Dynamics Observatory, Studying the Sun and Its Influence on Other Bodies in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, P. C.

    2011-01-01

    The solar photon output, which was once thought to be constant, varies over all time scales from seconds during solar flares to years due to the solar cycle. These solar variations cause significant deviations in the Earth and space environments on similar time scales, such as affecting the atmospheric densities and composition of particular atoms, molecules, and ions in the atmospheres of the Earth and other planets. Presented and discussed will be examples of unprecedented observations from NASA's new solar observatory, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Using three specialized instruments, SDO measures the origins of solar activity from inside the Sun, though its atmosphere, then accurately measuring the Sun's radiative output in X-ray and EUV wavelengths (0.1-121 nm). Along with the visually appealing observations will be discussions of what these measurements can tell us about how the plasma motions in all layers of the Sun modifies and strengthens the weak solar dipole magnetic field to drive large energy releases in solar eruptions. Also presented will be examples of how the release of the Sun's energy, in the form of photons and high energy particles, physically influence other bodies in the solar system such as Earth, Mars, and the Moon, and how these changes drive changes in the technology that we are becoming dependent upon. The presentation will continuously emphasize how SDO, the first satellite in NASA's Living with a Star program, improving our understanding of the variable Sun and its Heliospheric influence.

  20. Regulation of Mammary Tumor Formation and Lipid Biosynthesis by Spot14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    metabolism and altering the way they use the Citric Acid cycle in the mitochondria, tumor cells also increase de novo fatty acid synthesis. This is thought...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Spot14 (S14), encoded by the THRSP gene, regulates de novo fatty acid synthesis in the liver, adipose...and lactating mammary gland. S14 has recently been shown to stimulate FASN activity, increasing the synthesis of medium chain fatty acids in mammary

  1. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  2. Variation in T-SPOT.TB spot interpretation between independent observers from different laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Willeke P J; Thijsen, Steven; Wolterbeek, Ron; Bouwman, John J M; el Bannoudi, Hanane; Kik, Sandra V; van Dissel, Jaap T; Arend, Sandra M

    2009-10-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a specific assay for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The assay needs to be performed with freshly isolated cells, and interpretation requires training. T-SPOT.TB has been used in various clinical-epidemiological settings, but so far no studies have evaluated the effect of interobserver variation in test reading. Our aim was to evaluate variation between different observers in reading T-SPOT.TB results. The study was nested within an ongoing cohort study, in which part of the T-SPOT.TB had been performed with frozen material. Culture plates were read visually by four different observers from two laboratories and by two automated readers. Of 313 T-SPOT.TB assays, 235 were performed with fresh cells and 78 were performed with frozen cells. No significant difference was found between results obtained with fresh cells and those obtained with frozen cells. The percentage of positive results varied between readers by maximally 15%; five/six raters were within a 6% difference in positive results. Analysis of the observed interrater differences showed that some individuals systematically counted more spots than others did. Because test interpretation includes subtraction of background values, this systematic variance had little influence on interindividual differences. The test result as positive or negative varied between independent raters, mainly due to samples with values around the cutoff. This warrants further study regarding determinants affecting the reading of T-SPOT.TB.

  3. Predicting cycle 24 using various dynamo-based tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dikpati

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Various dynamo-based techniques have been used to predict the mean solar cycle features, namely the amplitude and the timings of onset and peak. All methods use information from previous cycles, including particularly polar fields, drift-speed of the sunspot zone to the equator, and remnant magnetic flux from the decay of active regions. Polar fields predict a low cycle 24, while spot zone migration and remnant flux both lead to predictions of a high cycle 24. These methods both predict delayed onset for cycle 24. We will describe how each of these methods relates to dynamo processes. We will present the latest results from our flux-transport dynamo, including some sensitivity tests and how our model relates to polar fields and spot zone drift methods.

  4. Glacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity...... and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduce glacial cycles. Rather, changes in solar insolation associated with changes in Earth's orbit are needed...

  5. Spot Weight Adaptation for Moving Target in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMorel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study describes a real-time spot weight adaptation method in spot-scanning proton therapy for moving target or moving patient, so that the resultant dose distribution closely matches the planned dose distribution. Materials and Methods: The method proposed in this study adapts the weight (MU of the delivering pencil beam to that of the target spot it will actually hit during patient/target motion. The target spot a certain delivering pencil beam may hit relies on patient monitoring and/or motion modeling using four-dimensional (4D CT. After the adapted delivery, the required total weight (MU for this target spot is then subtracted from the planned value. With continuous patient motion and continuous spot scanning, the planned doses to all target spots will eventually be all fulfilled. In a proof-of-principle test, a lung case was presented with realistic temporal and motion parameters; the resultant dose distribution using spot weight adaptation was compared to that without using this method. The impact of the real-time patient/target position tracking or prediction was also investigated.Results: For moderate motion (i.e., mean amplitude 0.5 cm, D95% to the planning target volume (PTV was only 81.5% of the prescription (RX dose; with spot weight adaptation PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. For large motion amplitude (i.e., 1.5 cm, without spot weight adaptation PTV D95% is only 42.9% of RX; with spot weight adaptation, PTV D95% achieves 97.7%RX. Larger errors in patient/target position tracking or prediction led to worse final target coverage; an error of 3mm or smaller in patient/target position tracking is preferred. Conclusion: The proposed spot weight adaptation method was able to deliver the planned dose distribution and maintain target coverage when patient motion was involved. The successful implementation of this method would rely on accurate monitoring or prediction of patient/target motion.

  6. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. I. Makarov; A. G. Tlatov

    2000-09-01

    A possible scenario of polar magnetic field reversal of the Sun during the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) is discussed using data of magnetic field reversals of the Sun for 1880-1991 and the 14C content variations in the bi-annual rings of the pine-trees in 1600-1730 yrs.

  7. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  8. Sun avoidance strategies at the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David R.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wallace, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope observatory is extending its night time operation to the day time. A sun avoidance strategy was therefore implemented in the control system in real-time to avoid excessive heating and damage to the secondary mirror and the prime focus. The LMT uses an "on-the-fly" trajectory generator that receives as input the target location of the telescope and in turn outputs a commanded position to the servo system. The sun avoidance strategy is also implemented "on-the-fly" where it intercepts the input to the trajectory generator and alters that input to avoid the sun. Two sun avoidance strategies were explored. The first strategy uses a potential field approach where the sun is represented as a high-potential obstacle in the telescope's workspace and the target location is represented as a low-potential goal. The potential field is repeatedly calculated as the sun and the telescope move and the telescope follows the induced force by this field. The second strategy is based on path planning using visibility graphs where the sun is represented as a polygonal obstacle and the telescope follows the shortest path from its actual position to the target location via the vertices of the sun's polygon. The visibility graph approach was chosen as the favorable strategy due to the efficiency of its algorithm and the simplicity of its computation.

  9. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  10. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  11. Wien's Law and the Temperature of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Mark L.; Katz, Debora M.; Aho, Robert; Diaz-Barriga, James; Petron, Jerome

    2002-10-01

    A simple approach is used in an attempt to determine the temperature of the sun by modeling the sun as a blackbody radiator and applying Wein's Law. Apparently excellent results are obtained, but the results are false as a consequence of two corrections which cancel out.

  12. Mr. Sun Laiyan Appointed as Administrator of CNSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced on April 23, 2004 that Mr. Sun Laiyan was appointed to be the Administrator of China National Space Administration (CNSA). Mr. Luan Enjie was announced to retire from the office. Mr. Sun Laiyan, born in October 1957, graduated from Xian Communication

  13. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    A number of species of sun and shade plants in the vegetative phase were grown in different light intensities, different light qualities (r/fr ratio) and different combinations of light intensity and nutrient supply. Sun and shade species were also grown at various plant densities and in interspecif

  14. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  15. Surface Flux Transport and the Evolution of the Sun's Polar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-M.

    2017-09-01

    The evolution of the polar fields occupies a central place in flux transport (Babcock-Leighton) models of the solar cycle. We discuss the relationship between surface flux transport and polar field evolution, focusing on two main issues: the latitudinal profile of the meridional flow and the axial tilts of active regions. Recent helioseismic observations indicate that the poleward flow speed peaks at much lower latitudes than inferred from magnetic feature tracking, which includes the effect of supergranular diffusion and thus does not represent the actual bulk flow. Employing idealized simulations, we demonstrate that flow profiles that peak at mid latitudes give rise to overly strong and concentrated polar fields. We discuss the differences between magnetic and white-light measurements of tilt angles, noting the large uncertainties inherent in the sunspot group measurements and their tendency to underestimate the actual tilts. We find no clear evidence for systematic cycle-to-cycle variations in Joy's law during cycles 21-23. Finally, based on the observed evolution of the Sun's axial dipole component and polar fields up to the end of 2015, we predict that cycle 25 will be similar in amplitude to cycle 24.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella; Fusi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from...... of the main hot spots in the cereal supply chain.......This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...

  17. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  18. Restricted spread of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and population development of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis were studied on the pepper accessions CPRO-1 and Pikante Reuzen, which are resistant and susceptible to thrips, respectively. Viruliferous thrips were released on plants of each accession (

  19. Pips and spots in the microwave sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J.L.

    1989-04-15

    An analysis is presented of some local statistical properties in the microwave sky such as mean number of hotspots over the celestial sphere, mean size of a hotspot, mean number of pips at fixed declination and 95 per cent confidence interval for the threshold of the hottest spot or pip, associated with three different experiments. (author).

  20. The sweet spots in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.