WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun safety practices

  1. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling.

  2. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  3. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  4. Translation of a Ski School Sun Safety Program to North American Ski and Snowboard Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, M D; Liu, X; Cutter, G R; Dignan, M B

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion programs that develop and implement strategies to promote sun safety practices to children have the potential to reduce skin cancer occurrence later in life. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a sun safety program for employees and guests of ski areas, was distributed to determine if an enhanced dissemination strategy was more effective than a basic dissemination strategy at reaching parents at ski and snowboard schools. On-site observations of GSS use and surveys of 909 parents/caregivers with children enrolled in ski and snowboard schools at 63 ski areas were conducted and analyzed using techniques for clustered designs. No differences were identified by dissemination strategy. Greater implementation of GSS (>5 messages posted) was associated with greater parental recall, 36.6% versus 16.7%, of materials, but not greater sun protection practices. Greater recall of messages, regardless of level of implementation, resulted in greater sun protection practices including applying sunscreen (p Ski areas with more program materials appeared to reach parents with sun safety advice and thus convinced them to take more precautions for their children. Sun safety need not be at odds with children's outdoor recreation activities.

  5. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  6. Promoting sun safety among zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J A; Lewis, E C; Eckhardt, L; Slymen, D; Belch, G; Elder, J; Engelberg, M; Eichenfield, L; Achter, A; Nichols, T; Walker, K; Kwon, H; Talosig, M; Gearen, C

    2001-09-01

    Each year, millions of children visit zoological parks, where they are exposed to long bouts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We conducted a study in the winter and replicated it in the summer to evaluate an intervention for reducing UVR exposure during the zoo visit. Each study used a nonequivalent control group design: one zoological site received the intervention and a second received evaluation only. Key outcome measures consisted of observed prevalence of hat use by exiting children (N = 8,721 and 8,524, respectively, in winter and summer studies) and purchase rates of sunscreen and hats in zoo gift shops. Intervention consisted of tip sheets for parents, children's activities, prompts, and discounts off the price of sunscreen and sun-protective hats. In the summer study, sales of both sunscreen and target hats increased significantly at the intervention site relative to the control site, whereas in the winter study, only sunscreen sales at the intervention site had a significant (relative) increase. Children's hat use increased significantly at the intervention site, but only in the winter study. The multicomponent program was effective in promoting purchases of sun-safe items, but its impact on children's hat use was inconclusive. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  7. Practical Patient Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Reynard, John; Stevenson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Following recent high profile cases of surgical error in the UK and USA, patient safety has become a key issue in healthcare, now placed at heart of junior doctor's training. Errors made by doctors are very similar to those made in other high risk organisations, such as aviation, nuclear and petrochemical industries. Practical Patient Safety aims to demonstrate how core principles of safety from these industries can be applied in surgical and medical practice, in particular throughtraining for health care professionals and healthcare managers.Whilst theoretical aspects of risk management form

  8. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  9. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  10. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  11. Disseminating a sun safety program to zoological parks: the effects of tailoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Mayer, Joni A; Slymen, Donald; Belch, George; Engelberg, Moshe; Walker, Kristina; Kwon, Harry; Elder, John

    2005-09-01

    Previous research found that a sun safety program for visitors at 1 zoo increased sun safety behaviors. This randomized study compared the effects of tailored dissemination materials plus 2 brief follow-up phone calls (tailored group) versus generic materials (basic group) on implementation by other zoos of the previously evaluated sun safety program. Education directors of 126 zoos completed surveys several months following initial dissemination and 1 year later. During Summer 1, 40% of tailored group zoos and 24% of basic group zoos offered visitors at least 1 sun safety activity (odds ratio=2.2, 95% confidence interval=1.0-4.8). During Summer 2, these rates were 34% and 44%, respectively (ns). The pattern of findings suggests that tailoring had no incremental long-term impact and that the generic materials produced a good level of dissemination.

  12. Evaluation of a sun safety education programme for primary school students in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph R; Gerber, Nathalie; Surber, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, with rates being especially high in Switzerland compared with other European countries. Extensive sun exposure during childhood is considered a key factor for skin carcinogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of a school-based sun safety education programme developed by the Swiss Cancer Leagues on primary school students' sun-related knowledge, protective behaviours and sunburn rates. In summer 2011, 1-h sun safety education sessions were held at 33 primary schools throughout the Canton of Zurich (North-Eastern Switzerland). Children in the participating school classes (first, second and third graders) answered a questionnaire on their sun-related knowledge, behaviours and sunburn experience shortly before and 1 year after the intervention. Overall, 3110 completed pretest and 1738 post-test questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The evaluation of pretest data showed considerable room for improvement in terms of sun-related knowledge, considering that merely a good half of the children were conscious that the sun may present a hazard to health. Overall, more than 95% of students benefited from the protection of sunscreen (application by parents: 73%; application by child: 66%), but only 36% stated that they generally sought shade on sunny days. After the intervention, knowledge increased considerably and significantly (P<0.0001), but there was no change in sun-protective behaviours (use of sunscreen, seeking shade). However, we observed a nonsignificant trend towards decreased sunburn rates. The brief one-time sun safety education sessions were effective in sustainably improving children's sun-related knowledge and possibly to some extent in decreasing their sunburn rates.

  13. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  14. Safety Learning, Organizational Contradictions and the Dynamics of Safety Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Silvio Carlo; Scaratti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the enactment of safety routines in a transshipment port. Research on work safety and reliability has largely neglected the role of the workers' knowledge in practice in the enactment of organisational safety. The workers' lack of compliance with safety regulations represents an enduring problem…

  15. HIV/AIDS Universal Precaution Practices in Sun Dance Ceremonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Jennifer; Takehara, Joan; Asetoyer, Charon; Welty, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Area Indian Health Service has sponsored educational projects to reduce risk of HIV transmission via skin piercing and flesh offerings during traditional Sun Dance ceremonies. Projects emphasized universal precautions, provided medical supplies, and respected the sacredness of the ceremony. Evaluation indicates that…

  16. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  17. Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

    2010-11-01

    Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace.

  18. Simplifying sun safety: a guide to the new FDA sunscreen monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrener, Roman

    2014-04-01

    Dermatologists are instrumental in educating their patients about safe sun practices. As residents, we should begin to instill this teaching point into our daily patient encounters. The new US Food and Drug Administration sunscreen guidelines, instituted fully in December 2012, help consumers make more educated decisions about sunscreens they purchase but also introduce new classifications and claims with which dermatologists should be intimately familiar. This article aims to concisely summarize the revisions as well as any continued controversies with the guidelines.

  19. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong-Bae [Department of Safety Engineering, Chungju National University, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sejong [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)], E-mail: sbae@hsc.unt.edu; Ham, Byung-Ho [Department of Industrial Safety, Ministry of Labor (Korea, Republic of); Singh, Karan P. [Department of Biostatistics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Boulevard, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended.

  20. Incorporating organisational safety culture within ergonomics practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David

    2010-10-01

    This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.

  1. Sun exposure behaviours, attitudes and protection practices among Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University Students- A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman Bahakim, Nasr Addin; Alanazi, Bader Ghanem; Alead, Mohammed Yousef; Alaql, Abdulrahman Bader; Al-Ogail, Nasser Abdulla; Alghulaydhawi, Fahad Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate sun exposure behaviours, sun protection practices, general knowledge, attitudes and awareness of University students about the benefits of sun exposure and harmful effects of too much or avoidance of sun exposure. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted in December 2014 and January2015 at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice closed questions was used. Sample was collected using cluster sampling method. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 399 participants, 200(50.1%) were men and 199(49.9%) were women. The overall mean age was 21±1.82years (range: 18-30 years). Moreover, 217(54.4%) participants intentionally exposed themselves to sun. Spending summer holidays in coastal areas was reported by 150(37.6%). Sunglasses were used by 161(40.4%) participants. Besides, 274(68.7%) participants agreed that sun exposure of 5 to 10 minutes for two or three times per week was very important; 189(47.4%) were aware of the importance of sun exposure for child health. 165(66%), knew that too much sun exposure was harmful and might cause skin cancer. Most of the participants were aware of both beneficial effects of the appropriate sun exposure and harmful effects of too much exposure or its avoidance. However, proper sun exposure practices and sun protection practices need further guidance and encouragements from health-promoting programmes.

  2. Time Safety Margin: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    safety plan as the test event approaches. Did the planners miss anything? What doesn’t make sense ? Is it too conservative or not conservative enough? The...seconds of TSM for a 10-degree dive at 150 KTAS, producing inefficiency with excessive margin. Somewhere in the middle, the restriction makes sense , but...412TW-TIH-16-01 TIME SAFETY MARGIN: THEORY AND PRACTICE WILLIAM R. GRAY, III Chief Test Pilot USAF Test Pilot School SEPTEMBER 2016

  3. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  4. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  5. A Randomised Controlled Trial Using Mobile Advertising to Promote Safer Sex and Sun Safety to Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J.; Aitken, C. K.; Dixon, H. G.; Lim, M. S. C.; Gouillou, M.; Spelman, T.; Wakefield, M.; Hellard, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the…

  6. A Randomised Controlled Trial Using Mobile Advertising to Promote Safer Sex and Sun Safety to Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, J.; Aitken, C. K.; Dixon, H. G.; Lim, M. S. C.; Gouillou, M.; Spelman, T.; Wakefield, M.; Hellard, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone text messages (SMS) are a promising method of health promotion, but a simple and low cost way to obtain phone numbers is required to reach a wide population. We conducted a randomised controlled trial with simultaneous brief interventions to (i) evaluate effectiveness of messages related to safer sex and sun safety and (ii) pilot the…

  7. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  8. Primary School Sun Protection Policies and Practices 4 Years after Baseline--A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I.; Jopson, Janet A.; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Before the 2005 launch of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP), 242 randomly sampled primary schools completed a mail survey about sun protection policies, practices, curriculum and environment. A 2009 follow-up included 189 (78%) and their mean Total Accreditation Score (TAS = total SSAP requirements met, range 0-12),…

  9. The College Student Non-profit Social Practice based on the Service-learning Concept--project study of “Safety and rational drug-use in the community” by Sun Yat-sen University%基于服务学习理念的大学生公益活动探析--以中山大学“安全合理用药进社区”项目为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小球

    2014-01-01

    服务学习是一种将青年志愿服务与大学教育整合的模式。大学生公益性社会实践活动从整体上能促进学生素质的全面提高,特别是沟通能力、社交能力、解决问题能力、与学科相关的知识技巧能力培养等方面,但在活动组织能力方面有待进一步提升。%Taking the project safety and rational drug use in the community, held by Sun Yat-sen University as an example, this paper analyzed and compared the performances before and after participating the public activities from several aspects as: communication skills, social skills, problem-solving skills and other academic skills associated with relative knowledge. On this basis, the article also evaluates how the concept of service-learning applied in nonprofit social practice and provided suggestions about innovation and development of nonprofit social practice for college students.

  10. A culture of safety: a business strategy for medical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, James W; Finkelstein, Maggie M; Marles, Adam F

    2012-01-01

    Physician practices can enhance their economics by taking patient safety to a new level within their practices. Patient safety has a lot to do with systems and processes that occur not only at the hospital but also within a physician's practice. Historically, patient safety measures have been hospital-focused and -driven, largely due to available resources; however, physician practices can impact patient safety, efficiently and effectively, with a methodical plan involving assessment, prioritization, and compliance. With the ever-increasing focus of reimbursement on quality and patient safety, physician practices that implement a true culture of safety now could see future economic benefits using this business strategy.

  11. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara City (Naher Elneel State Sudan) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors ...

  12. Initial development of a practical safety audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Friswell, Rena; Mooren, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Work-related vehicle crashes are a common cause of occupational injury. Yet, there are few studies that investigate management practices used for light vehicle fleets (i.e. vehicles less than 4.5 tonnes). One of the impediments to obtaining and sharing information on effective fleet safety management is the lack of an evidence-based, standardised measurement tool. This article describes the initial development of an audit tool to assess fleet safety management practices in light vehicle fleets. The audit tool was developed by triangulating information from a review of the literature on fleet safety management practices and from semi-structured interviews with 15 fleet managers and 21 fleet drivers. A preliminary useability assessment was conducted with 5 organisations. The audit tool assesses the management of fleet safety against five core categories: (1) management, systems and processes; (2) monitoring and assessment; (3) employee recruitment, training and education; (4) vehicle technology, selection and maintenance; and (5) vehicle journeys. Each of these core categories has between 1 and 3 sub-categories. Organisations are rated at one of 4 levels on each sub-category. The fleet safety management audit tool is designed to identify the extent to which fleet safety is managed in an organisation against best practice. It is intended that the audit tool be used to conduct audits within an organisation to provide an indicator of progress in managing fleet safety and to consistently benchmark performance against other organisations. Application of the tool by fleet safety researchers is now needed to inform its further development and refinement and to permit psychometric evaluation.

  13. 77 FR 63242 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 821 Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings AGENCY: National Transportation... immediately changing its Rules of Practice applicable to air safety proceedings. The statute is effective..., are applicable to all NTSB proceedings conducted under 49 CFR part 821, subparts C (rules...

  14. Evaluation of radiation safety in 29 central Ohio veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, S.A.; Wilkins, J.R. III; Hueston, W.D.

    1989-07-01

    A sample of 29 veterinary practices in Central Ohio were visited to assess radiation safety practices and observance of state regulations. Lead aprons and gloves were usually available, but gloves were not always worn. Protective thyroid collars and lead glasses were not available in any practice, lead shields in only five practices, and lead-lined walls and doors in only two practices. Eighteen practices had none of the required safety notices posted.

  15. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  16. Safety Management Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Unnikrishnan

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Competition between SMEs was found to be major reason for implementation of safety practices in the SMEs. The major contribution of the study has been awareness building on safety issues in the SMEs that participated in the project.

  17. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  18. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  19. [Online hemodiafiltration: Practical aspects, safety and efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaud, Bernard; Chénine, Leïla; Leray-Moraguès, Hélène; Patrier, Laure; Rodriguez, Annie; Gontier-Picard, A; Moréna, Marion

    2017-05-01

    Purification of high molecular uremic toxins by conventional hemodialysis is limited. It remains associated with a high morbidity and excessively high mortality. Online hemodiafiltration using a high permeability hemodiafilter, an ultrapure dialysate, and which tends to maximize substitution volumes, provides a high efficiency and low bio-incompatibility renal supplementation. Regular use of online hemodiafiltration is associated with reduced morbidity (reduction of intradialytic hypotension episodes, improved blood pressure control, reduced inflammatory profile, better anemia correction and prevention of β2-microglobulin-associated amyloidosis). Recently, several cohort studies have shown that hemodiafiltration with high substitution volume was associated with a significant reduction in mortality. Randomized studies have been conducted in Europe to confirm these facts. The high safety of online hemodiafiltration has been confirmed in clinical practice by prospective studies. Online hemodiafiltration has reached its full maturity phase and is expected to represent the new standard of renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  1. 78 FR 57602 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 821 Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings AGENCY: National Transportation... amending one of its rules of practice that is applicable to cases proceeding on an emergency timeline. This... ] paragraph (d) of Sec. 821.55, regarding the release of the EIR in emergency cases proceeding under subpart...

  2. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  3. Improving the safety features of general practice computer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Avery; Boki Savelyich; Sheila Teasdale

    2003-01-01

    General practice computer systems already have a number of important safety features. However, there are problems in that general practitioners (GPs) have come to rely on hazard alerts when they are not foolproof. Furthermore, GPs do not know how to make best use of safety features on their systems. There are a number of solutions that could help to improve the safety features of general practice computer systems and also help to improve the abilities of healthcare professionals to use these ...

  4. Patient Safety Culture in Nephrology Nurse Practice Settings: Initial Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beth; Kear, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety culture has been studied in many practice settings, but there is a dearth of information on the culture of safety in nephrology nurse practice settings. This research study employed the use of an online survey to assess patient safety cultures in nephrology nurse practice settings. The survey was created using items from two Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) survey assessment tools--the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Select items from these tools were combined to address the safety of care delivered in hospital and outpatient nephrology nurse practice settings. Almost 1,000 nephrology nurses responded to the survey. Analysis of results and comparison with AHRQ comparative data found high ratings for teamwork, but indicted a continued needfor additional education and attention related to hand hygiene, medication administration safety, communication, and prioritization in nephrology practice settings. Nurses in all nephrology nurse practice settings need to routinely assess and positively contribute to the culture of patient safety in their practice settings, and lead and engage in efforts to ensure that patients are safe.

  5. Safety Practices for Commercial Diving. Module SH-43. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on safety practices for commercial diving is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module provides a brief orientation to safety considerations for commercial diving. Following the introduction, nine objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to accomplish are listed (e.g., Name…

  6. Good Practices Guide for Bicycle Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to serve as an informational resource for educators and other interested professionals in planning and developing bicycle safety education programs. The guide examines 15 existing bicycle safety education programs in the United States and one from Canada. (Author)

  7. Software safety analysis practice in installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H. W.; Chen, M. H.; Shyu, S. S., E-mail: hwhwang@iner.gov.t [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000 Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, 32546 Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    This work performed a software safety analysis in the installation phase of the Lung men nuclear power plant in Taiwan, under the cooperation of Institute of Nuclear Energy Research and Tpc. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission requests licensee to perform software safety analysis and software verification and validation in each phase of software development life cycle with Branch Technical Position 7-14. In this work, 37 safety grade digital instrumentation and control systems were analyzed by failure mode and effects analysis, which is suggested by IEEE standard 7-4.3.2-2003. During the installation phase, skew tests for safety grade network and point to point tests were performed. The failure mode and effects analysis showed all the single failure modes can be resolved by the redundant means. Most of the common mode failures can be resolved by operator manual actions. (Author)

  8. The effect of team building practices on safety performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sykes, Marshall T.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS Team Building creates a working atmosphere where characteristics are developed that enable the team to be effective. Construction projects that have successful safety programs have many of the same characteristics of effective teams. This thesis analyzes whether team building use affects safety performance for different sized projects. Comparisons are also made of safety practices based on team building use. The analysis is centered on the data collected in the 1996 and 1997 Benchma...

  9. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part II: Policies To Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Katherine

    This publication is a supplementary chapter to "Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide; Part I: General School Health Policies, Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention." It discusses various aspects of a complete school policy and plan to promote sun safety. The first section "Purpose…

  10. Fit, Healthy, and Ready To Learn: A School Health Policy Guide. Part II: Policies To Promote Sun Safety and Prevent Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Katherine

    This publication is a supplementary chapter to "Fit, Healthy, and Ready to Learn: A School Health Policy Guide; Part I: General School Health Policies, Physical Activity, Healthy Eating, and Tobacco-Use Prevention." It discusses various aspects of a complete school policy and plan to promote sun safety. The first section "Purpose…

  11. Dimensions of patient safety culture in family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Derflingher, Luz; O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam; Zwicker, Karen; Harding, Brianne K; Casebeer, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Safety culture has been shown to affect patient safety in healthcare. While the United States and United Kingdom have studied the dimensions that reflect patient safety culture in family practice settings, to date, this has not been done in Canada. Differences in the healthcare systems between these countries and Canada may affect the dimensions found to be relevant here. Thus, it is important to identify and compare the dimensions from the United States and the United Kingdom in a Canadian context. The objectives of this study were to explore the dimensions of patient safety culture that relate to family practice in Canada and to determine if differences and similarities exist between dimensions found in Canada and those found in previous studies undertaken in the United States and the United Kingdom. A qualitative study was undertaken applying thematic analysis using focus groups with family practice offices and supplementary key stakeholders. Analysis of the data indicated that most of the dimensions from the United States and United Kingdom are appropriate in our Canadian context. Exceptions included owner/managing partner/leadership support for patient safety, job satisfaction and overall perceptions of patient safety and quality. Two unique dimensions were identified in the Canadian context: disclosure and accepting responsibility for errors. Based on this early work, it is important to consider differences in care settings when understanding dimensions of patient safety culture. We suggest that additional research in family practice settings is critical to further understand the influence of context on patient safety culture.

  12. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Injection Safety among Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    State University Teaching Hospital Healthcare Professionals ... Overall, the respondents had good (70.2%)knowledge, positive (87.2%) ... practice of injection safety and hospital waste. 10,12 management over the decade and their ..... occupational hazards of injection safety, the ... Organisation, Health Technology and.

  13. Safety, Health, and Environmental Auditing A Practical Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Simon Watson

    2010-01-01

    A practical guide to environmental, safety, and occupational health audits. It allows organizations and business to avoid expensive external auditors and retain the knowledge and learning 'in-house'. It allows any competent manager or safety/environmental officer to undertake in-house audits in a competent and reproducible fashion.

  14. Observed Food Safety Practices in the Summer Food Service Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Emily Vaterlaus; Alcorn, Michelle; Watkins, Tracee; Cole, Kerri; Paez, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this exploratory, observational study was three-fold: 1) Determine current food safety practices at Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) sites; 2) Identify types of food served at the sites and collect associated temperatures; and 3) Establish recommendations for food safety training in the SFSP.…

  15. 78 FR 63438 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 821 Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings AGENCY: National Transportation... proceeding under subpart I of the NTSB's rules. On October 1, 2013, the NTSB ceased normal agency...

  16. Safety management practices in small and medium enterprises in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, Seema; Iqbal, Rauf; Singh, Anju; Nimkar, Indrayani M

    2015-03-01

    Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are often the main pillar of an economy. Minor accidents, ergonomics problems, old and outdated machinery, and lack of awareness have created a need for implementation of safety practices in SMEs. Implementation of healthy working conditions creates positive impacts on economic and social development. In this study, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 30 randomly chosen SMEs in and around Mumbai, Maharashtra, and other states in India to evaluate safety practices implemented in their facilities. The study also looked into the barriers and drivers for technology innovation and suggestions were also received from the respondent SMEs for best practices on safety issues. In some SMEs, risks associated with safety issues were increased whereas risks were decreased in others. Safety management practices are inadequate in most SMEs. Market competitiveness, better efficiency, less risk, and stringent laws were found to be most significant drivers; and financial constraints, lack of awareness, resistance to change, and lack of training for employees were found to be main barriers. Competition between SMEs was found to be major reason for implementation of safety practices in the SMEs. The major contribution of the study has been awareness building on safety issues in the SMEs that participated in the project.

  17. Using baby books to increase new mothers' safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K; Duncan, Greg J

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether educational baby books are an effective method for increasing low-income, first-time mothers' safety practices during their child's first 18 months. Primiparous women (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: an educational book group, a noneducational book group, or a no-book group. Home visits and interviews measured safety practices when women were in their third trimester of pregnancy (baseline) and when their children were 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of age. Women in the educational book group had fewer risks in their homes and exercised more safety practices than the no-book group (- 20% risk reduction; effect size = -.30). When the safety practices involved little time or expense (eg, putting away sharp objects), the educational book group was significantly more likely to engage in these behaviors than the no-book group (40% higher practices; effect size = 0.19) or noneducational book group (27% higher practices; effect size = 0.13). However, no differences were found between groups for behaviors that required high effort in time, money, or hassle (eg, installing latches on cabinets). Educational baby books appear to be an easy and low-cost way to increase the safety practices of new mothers, especially if the practices involve little to no time, money, or hassle. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Food Safety Practices in the Egg Products Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K; Noyes, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a national census survey of egg product plants (n = 57) to obtain information on the technological and food safety practices of the egg products industry and to assess changes in these practices from 2004 to 2014. The questionnaire asked about operational and sanitation practices, microbiological testing practices, food safety training for employees, other food safety issues, and plant characteristics. The findings suggest that improvements were made in the industry's use of food safety technologies and practices between 2004 and 2014. The percentage of plants using advanced pasteurization technology and an integrated, computerized processing system increased by almost 30 percentage points. Over 90% of plants voluntarily use a written hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan to address food safety for at least one production step. Further, 90% of plants have management employees who are trained in a written HACCP plan. Most plants (93%) conduct voluntary microbiological testing. The percentage of plants conducting this testing on egg products before pasteurization has increased by almost 30 percentage points since 2004. The survey findings identify strengths and weaknesses in egg product plants' food safety practices and can be used to guide regulatory policymaking and to conduct required regulatory impact analysis of potential regulations.

  19. Putting road safety awareness into practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To round off the series of articles and posters published as part of its road safety awareness campaign, CERN is organising two information and demonstration open days on 23 and 25 September. Can you brake in time ? Did you know that you are 21 times more at risk of being killed if you are not wearing a seat belt in the event of your car rolling over? All your questions on road safety will be answered at two special days that are being organized on 23 and 25 September. You will also be able to test your reflexes and your knowledge by taking part in demonstrations. The CERN Management attaches high priority to an improvement in safety standards on the Laboratory's roads. These two open days have been arranged to round off the road safety awareness and highway courtesy campaign which was launched last year. They are intended to provide us with an opportunity, through a more "hands-on" approach, of heightening our awareness of the risks associated with road traffic, of the legislation in force, and above all t...

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. AlGhamdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western. Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601 of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544 were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001. Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02. The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001. Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  1. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. A multiprofessional 'expert' group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  2. Safety Management Practices in the Bhutanese Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Dorji

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is considered as one of the most hazardous industrial sectors wherein the construction workers are more prone to accidents. In developed countries such as United Kingdom and United States of America, there is strict legal enforcement of safety in the construction industry and also in the implementation of safety management systems which are designed to minimize or eliminate accidents at work places. However, occupational safety in construction industry is very poor in developing countries such as Bhutan. This study investigates the prevalent safety management practices and perceptions in the construction industry in Bhutan. The study was conducted among 40 construction contractors and 14 government officials through method of questionnaire survey, interview and discussion. The result of the study revealed that there are many occupational safety problems in the construction industry in Bhutan, problems such as lack of safety regulations and standards, low priority of safety, lack of data on safety at construction sites, lack of competent manpower, lack of safety training, lack of safety promotion and lack of documented and organized safety management systems. Furthermore, the study also proposes some recommendations for safe construction in Bhutan.

  3. Cultural safety and its importance for Australian midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Jasten; Dietsch, Elaine; Bonner, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Cultural safety is an important concept in health care that originated in Aotearoa (New Zealand) to address Maori consumer dissatisfaction with health care. In Australia and internationally, midwives are now expected to provide culturally safe midwifery care to all women. Historically, Australia has received large numbers of immigrants from the United Kingdom, European countries and the Middle East. There have also been refugees and immigrants from South-East Asia, and most recently, from Africa. Australia continues to become more culturally diverse and yet to date no studies have explored the application of cultural safety in Australian midwifery practice. This paper explores how cultural safety has evolved from cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity. It examines the importance of cultural safety in nursing and midwifery practice. Finally, it explores the literature to determine how midwives can apply the concept of cultural safety to ensure safe and woman centred care.

  4. Food safety knowledge and practices of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric J; Knechtges, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to ascertain the food safety knowledge and practices of undergraduate students attending a major American university. The study participants were undergraduate college students (mean age 18.9 +/- 1.14 SD) enrolled in a required health course. The students were invited to take a validated food safety knowledge questionnaire as part of a health risk behavior online survey. The 786 respondents indicated their food is most often prepared at on-campus dining facilities and the majority of the students (72%) felt they were "unlikely or "very unlikely" at risk of foodborne disease. The mean food safety knowledge score of the participants was 10.23 (43%) +/- 4.13 SD (25%-60%), indicating the study population overall has poor knowledge of safe food practices. As a result, food safety educational initiatives and awareness campaigns should be developed to better inform young adults about safe food handling practices and habits.

  5. Recipe Modification Improves Food Safety Practices during Cooking of Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Chambers Iv, Edgar

    2016-08-01

    Many consumers do not practice proper food safety behaviors when preparing food in the home. Several approaches have been taken to improve food safety behaviors among consumers, but there still is a deficit in actual practice of these behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess whether the introduction of food safety instructions in recipes for chicken breasts and ground turkey patties would improve consumers' food safety behaviors during preparation. In total, 155 consumers in two locations (Manhattan, KS, and Nashville, TN) were asked to prepare a baked chicken breast and a ground turkey patty following recipes that either did or did not contain food safety instructions. They were observed to track hand washing and thermometer use. Participants who received recipes with food safety instructions (n = 73) demonstrated significantly improved food safety preparation behaviors compared with those who did not have food safety instructions in the recipe (n = 82). In addition, the majority of consumers stated that they thought the recipes with instructions were easy to use and that they would be likely to use similar recipes at home. This study demonstrates that recipes could be a good source of food safety information for consumers and that they have the potential to improve behaviors to reduce foodborne illness.

  6. Canadian Consumer Food Safety Practices and Knowledge: Foodbook Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona; Gardhouse, Christine; Marshall, Barbara; Ciampa, Nadia; Franklin, Kristyn; Hurst, Matt; Thomas, M Kate; Nesbitt, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Understanding consumers' food safety practices and knowledge supports food safety education for the prevention of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to describe Canadian consumer food safety practices and knowledge. This study identifies demographic groups for targeted food safety education messaging and establishes a baseline measurement to assess the effectiveness of food safety interventions over time. Questions regarding consumer food safety practices and knowledge were included in a population-based telephone survey, Foodbook, conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The results were analyzed nationally by age group and by gender. The results showed that approximately 90% of Canadians reported taking the recommended cleaning and separating precautions when handling raw meat to prevent foodborne illness. Only 29% of respondents reported using a food thermometer when cooking any meat, and even fewer (12%) reported using a food thermometer for small cuts of meat such as chicken pieces. The majority (>80%) of Canadians were aware of the foodborne illness risks related to chicken and hamburger, but fewer (food safety education in Canada should focus on increasing people's awareness of high-risk foods, specifically foods for which the awareness of risk found in this study was low; targeting messaging to demographic groups as appropriate; and promoting the use of food thermometers when cooking meat and poultry.

  7. Sun Exposure, Shade and Vitamin D: A Practical Activity for the Australian Climate and Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, David; Parisi, Alfio; Downs, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Australia has one of the highest rates of incidence and mortality due to skin cancer in the world. Exposure to the sun also has a beneficial side. The beneficial effects are relatively few, but they are essential to a person's well being. It is well known that exposure to small amounts of UV radiation are beneficial for the human body and…

  8. Collaborating with nurse leaders to develop patient safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Anne; Kivinen, Tuula; Lammintakanen, Johanna

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The organisational level and leadership development are crucial elements in advancing patient safety, because patient safety weaknesses are often caused by system failures. However, little is known about how frontline leader and director teams can be supported to develop patient safety practices. The purpose of this study is to describe the patient safety development process carried out by nursing leaders and directors. The research questions were: how the chosen development areas progressed in six months' time and how nursing leaders view the participatory development process. Design/methodology/approach Participatory action research was used to engage frontline nursing leaders and directors into developing patient safety practices. Semi-structured group interviews ( N = 10) were used in data collection at the end of a six-month action cycle, and data were analysed using content analysis. Findings The participatory development process enhanced collaboration and gave leaders insights into patient safety as a part of the hospital system and their role in advancing it. The chosen development areas advanced to different extents, with the greatest improvements in those areas with simple guidelines to follow and in which the leaders were most participative. The features of high-reliability organisation were moderately identified in the nursing leaders' actions and views. For example, acting as a change agent to implement patient safety practices was challenging. Participatory methods can be used to support leaders into advancing patient safety. However, it is important that the participants are familiar with the method, and there are enough facilitators to steer development processes. Originality/value Research brings more knowledge of how leaders can increase their effectiveness in advancing patient safety and promoting high-reliability organisation features in the healthcare organisation.

  9. EUROSAFE Forum for nuclear safety. Towards Convergence of Technical Nuclear Safety Practices in Europe. Safety Improvements - Reasons, Strategies, Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Ulrich (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard (ed.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De (ed.) [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining

  10. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  11. Workplace road safety risk management: An investigation into Australian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, more than 30% of the traffic volume can be attributed to work-related vehicles. Although work-related driver safety has been given increasing attention in the scientific literature, it is uncertain how well this knowledge has been translated into practice in industry. It is also unclear how current practice in industry can inform scientific knowledge. The aim of the research was to use a benchmarking tool developed by the National Road Safety Partnership Program to assess industry maturity in relation to risk management practices. A total of 83 managers from a range of small, medium and large organisations were recruited through the Victorian Work Authority. Semi-structured interviews aimed at eliciting information on current organisational practices, as well as policy and procedures around work-related driving were conducted and the data mapped onto the benchmarking tool. Overall, the results demonstrated varying levels of maturity of risk management practices across organisations, highlighting the need to build accountability within organisations, improve communication practices, improve journey management, reduce vehicle-related risk, improve driver competency through an effective workplace road safety management program and review organisational incident and infringement management. The findings of the study have important implications for industry and highlight the need to review current risk management practices.

  12. Leveraging best practices to promote health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie D

    2013-08-01

    Strategically leveraging health and safety initiatives with sustainability and stewardship helps organizations improve profitability and positively impact team member and customer attachment to the organization. Collective efficacy enhances the triple bottom line: healthy people, healthy planet, and healthy profits. The HS(3)™ Best Practice Exchanges group demonstrated that collective efficacy can leverage the social cohesion, communication channels, and activities within workplaces to promote a healthy, sustainable work culture. This in turn (1) protects the health and safety of workers, (2) preserves the natural environment, and (3) increases attachment to the organization. Community-based participatory research using the Attach21 survey assessed the progress of these companies in their efforts to integrate health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship. Monthly Best Practice Exchanges promoted collective efficacy by providing support, encouragement, and motivation to share and adopt new ideas.

  13. Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K; Olson, J; Morisseau, D

    1994-06-01

    This paper focuses on work practices that may contribute to fatigue-induced performance decrements in the commercial nuclear power industry. Specifically, the amount of overtime worked by operations, technical, and maintenance personnel and the 12-h operator shift schedule are studied. Although overtime for all three job categories was fairly high at a number of plants, the analyses detected a clear statistical relationship only between operations overtime and plant safety performance. The results for the 12-h operator shift schedule were ambiguous. Although the 12-h operator shift schedule was correlated with operator error, it was not significantly related to the other five safety indicators. This research suggests that at least one of the existing work practices--the amount of operator overtime worked at some plants--represents a safety concern in this industry; however, further research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  14. Assessment of Knowledge, Behaviour and Sun Protection Practices among Health Services Vocational School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Yurtseven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the cases of skin cancer throughout the world in the last few decades. Although the mortality rate of skin cancer is relatively low, its impact on other health aspects is high and the treatment of undesired aesthetic damage is costly. According to disability-adjusted life year rates (DALY, 1.5 million days are estimated to be lost from people’s lives every year worldwide due to ultraviolet (UV radiation. The purpose of this study was to raise sun health awareness levels among health services vocational school students. A total of 414 students were included in the analysis. A questionnaire form was used to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among the survey sample. The average level of knowledge concerning the effects of the sun was found to be 8.64 ± 2.5 out of 15 points. All socio-demographic factors were analysed, but the only significant variables found were age and the possible presence of skin cancer within the immediate family (p < 0.05.

  15. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Cathy M; White, Katherine M; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Starfelt, Louise C; Wihardjo, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explo...

  16. [Patient safety culture in Family practice residents of Galicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela Romero, Manuel; Bugarín González, Rosendo; Rodríguez Calvo, María Sol

    To determine the views held by Family practice (FP) residents on the different dimensions of patient safety, in order to identify potential areas for improvement. A cross-sectional study. Seven FP of Galicia teaching units. 182 FP residents who completed the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire was chosen because it is translated, validated, and adapted to the Spanish model of Primary Care. The results were grouped into 12 composites assessed by the mentioned questionnaire. The study variables were the socio-demographic dimensions of the questionnaire, as well as occupational/professional variables: age, gender, year of residence, and teaching unit of FP of Galicia. The "Organisational learning" and "Teamwork" items were considered strong areas. However, the "Patient safety and quality issues", "Information exchange with other settings", and "Work pressure and pace" items were considered areas with significant potential for improvement. First-year residents obtained the best results and the fourth-year ones the worst. The results may indicate the need to include basic knowledge on patient safety in the teaching process of FP residents in order to increase and consolidate the fragile patient safety culture described in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Restaurant employees' perceptions of barriers to three food safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Amber D; Roberts, Kevin R; Shanklin, Carol W; Pilling, Valerie K; Brannon, Laura A; Barrett, Betsy B

    2008-08-01

    Limited research has been conducted to assess employees' perceptions of barriers to implementing food safety practices. Focus groups were conducted with two groups of restaurant employees to identify perceived barriers to implementing three food safety practices: handwashing, using thermometers, and cleaning work surfaces. Ten focus groups were conducted with 34 employees who did not receive training (Group A). Twenty focus groups were conducted with 125 employees after they had participated in a formal ServSafe training program (Group B). The following barriers were identified in at least one focus group in both Group A and Group B for all three practices: time constraints, inconvenience, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. In Group A, additional barriers identified most often were a lack of space and other tasks competing with cleaning work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and thermometers in inconvenient locations. Additional barriers identified most often by Group B were no incentive to do it and the manager not monitoring whether employees cleaned work surfaces; inconvenient location of sinks and dry skin from handwashing; and lack of working thermometers and manager not monitoring the use of thermometers. Results will be used to develop and implement interventions to overcome perceived barriers that training appears not to address. Knowledge of perceived barriers among employees can assist food and nutrition professionals in facilitating employees in overcoming these barriers and ultimately improve compliance with food safety practices.

  18. Safety Management Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises in India

    OpenAIRE

    Unnikrishnan, Seema; Iqbal, Rauf; Singh, Anju; Nimkar, Indrayani M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are often the main pillar of an economy. Minor accidents, ergonomics problems, old and outdated machinery, and lack of awareness have created a need for implementation of safety practices in SMEs. Implementation of healthy working conditions creates positive impacts on economic and social development. Methods In this study, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 30 randomly chosen SMEs in and around Mumbai, Maharashtra, and other state...

  19. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  20. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R.N.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in

  1. Vitamin D supply: from sun or pill? - Attitudes and recommendation on vitamin D and impact on sun protection practices among German general practitioners evaluated by the network of dermato-oncologists, Onkoderm e.V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Uwe; Dirschka, Thomas; Hartgens, Klaus; Kirchesch, Herbert; Ostendorf, Rolf; Petering, Holger; Prieur, Hanspeter; Krähn-Senftleben, Gertraud; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-12-01

    Recommendations concerning the intake of vitamin D and/or sunlight exposure in the handling of patients with vitamin D deficiency remain a matter of debate. The present study of the German network of dermato-oncologists (Onkoderm e.V.) refers to an inquiry conducted among general practitioners on this and related issues. Based on 448 answers provided to 10 distinct questions, the consulted physicians recommended vitamin D intake (94% replies) and/or exposure to sunlight (63% replies) in their patients with vitamin D deficiency. An average of approximately 26 min daily unprotected exposure to sunlight at midday in spring and summer was recommended. Nevertheless, 91% of the physicians considered the use of creams protecting against sunlight to be judicious. However, only 54% of physicians considered it worthwhile practice to protect oneself intensively against UV radiation. This study indicates evidence of a reduction in sun protection practices. Yet, approximately 25% of the patients were considered to present vitamin D deficiency and, hence, recommendations to prevent or correct the latter situation should not be ignored. Nevertheless, we consider that there is a need to focus messages regarding sun exposure and for continued sun protection practices. These messages should specifically focus on the vitamin D issue to ensure that the incidence of skin cancer does not increase.

  2. Consumer Knowledge and Perceptions Towards Food Safety Practices: Implications for Consumer Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food safety knowledge and perceptions of consumers are important factors in preventing incidence of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers’ knowledge and perceptions towards food safety and practices. In particular, this study assessed knowledge level of consumers related to key food safety practices and determined the perceptions of consumers regarding food safety practices in foodservice operations. Additionally, it determined consumers’ ability to observe food safety practices in foodservice operations. Results revealed that, in general, consumers were knowledgeable about food safety but did not understand certain basic processes of food safety, such as handwashing and preventing food safety hazards. This study also found that respondents were concerned about food safety and adhered to foodservice operations’ food safety practices. Implications and recommendations for Extension programming were drawn from study results.

  3. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  4. Reliability of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Arnout R H; Frewer, Lynn J

    2009-10-01

    A reduced version of the Rasch Food Safety Practices scale [Fischer, A. R. H., Frewer, L. J., & Nauta, M. J. (2006). Towards improving food safety in the domestic environment: a multi-item Rasch scale for the measurement of the safety efficacy of domestic food handling practices. Risk Analysis, 26(5), 1323-1338] was investigated to establish its reliability and robustness. A second set of survey data were collected using the reduced Rasch scale. We discuss the reliability and robustness of the original Rasch scale in terms of the second analysis. In general, the results of the reduced scale provided results that were very similar to those obtained in the original study. In both studies the goodness of fit of the different items was stable. The range of the difficulty parameters was smaller in this study than in the previous one, which may be attributed to methodological causes. The high level of similarity of the key parameters shows that the Rasch scale is reliable and robust.

  5. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  6. Advancing patient safety: a framework for accountability and practical action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N J; Hatlie, M J

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of the patient safety movement in healthcare from 1997 to the present. It reviews the findings and recommendations in the Institute of Medicine report on medical errors, which issued a call to action. Moving beyond the call to action requires aligning incentives, in both public and private sectors, consistent with complexity theory and the tenets of a systems approach to the reliable delivery of service in dynamic environments in which failure produces severe consequences. Because safety is a fundamental value of healthcare and has money-saving potential, it can be a powerful pathway forcultural change. Thisarticle explains a simple framework that requires alignment among stakeholder groups and communities. It recommends a practical problem-solving approach and explores the roles and responsibilities of each segment within the framework. Finally, it describes a VHA Inc. leadership initiative, based on the framework, to promote change within healthcare systems.

  7. Laser Safety: A Laser Alignment Practical Training Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Michael; Edstrom, Steve; /SLAC

    2011-01-26

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a Laser Alignment Practical Training Course as one of its core laser safety classes. The course is taught to small groups of up to three students and takes 1-3 hours to complete. This practical course is not a substitute for site-specific On-the-Job Training; it does, however, provide a good introduction in core laser safety practices that can be broadly applied. Alignment and diagnostic tasks are performed with low power lasers. Students learn safe alignment and diagnostic techniques and how to avoid common mistakes that might lead to an accident. The class is taught by laser supervisors, enabling them to assess the skill level of new laser personnel and determine the subsequent level of supervision needed. The course has six alignment tasks. For each task, discussion points are given for the instructor to review with the students. The optics setup includes different wavelength lasers, a beam expander, mirrors, irises, a periscope, a beam-splitting polarizer and a diffraction grating. Diagnostic tools include viewing cards, an IR viewer and a ccd camera. Laser eyewear is available to block some laser wavelengths in the setup.

  8. Practice-specific risk perceptions and self-reported food safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alan S; Choinière, Conrad J; Fein, Sara B

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between risk perception and risk avoidance is typically analyzed using self-reported measures. However, in domains such as driving or food handling, the validity of responses about usual behavior is threatened because people think about the situations in which they are self-aware, such as when they encounter a hazard. Indeed, researchers have often noted a divergence between what people say about their behavior and how they actually behave. Thus, in order to draw conclusions about risk perceptions and risk avoidance from survey data, it is important to identify particular cognitive elements, such as those measured by questions about risk and safety knowledge, risk perceptions, or information search behavior, which may be effective antecedents of self-reported safety behavior. It is also important to identify and correct for potential sources of bias that may exist in the data. The authors analyze the Food and Drug Administration's 1998 Food Safety Survey to determine whether there are consistent cognitive antecedents for three types of safe food practices: preparation, eating, and cooling of foods. An assessment of measurement biases shows that endogeneity of food choices affects reports of food preparation. In addition, response bias affects reports of cooling practices as evidenced by its relation to knowledge and information search, a pattern of cognitive effects unique to cooling practices. After correcting for these biases, results show that practice-specific risk perceptions are the primary cognitive antecedents of safe food behavior, which has implications for the design of effective education messages about food safety.

  9. HealthLines: Quick Tips for Seasonal Health, Safety and Fun... "Ah, when the sun beats down…"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for Complementary and Integrataive Health . With the game on the line, safety pays off! From pick- ... preseason physical exam. Follow the rules of the game. Wear appropriate protective gear. Know how to use ...

  10. China’s regional inequity in pharmacist’s drug safety practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Liyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promotion of patient safety and drug safety through promotion of pharmacist’s drug safety practice was among the most important aims of China’s health delivery system reform, but regional inequity in pharmacist’s drug safety practice was still serious in China. Methods The 2011 national patient safety and medication error baseline survey was carried out for the first time in China, and through analyzing dataset from the survey, this study was set up to test both China’s regional inequity in pharmacist’s drug safety practice and major influencing factors for pharmacist’s drug safety practice among different districts of China. Results Pharmacist’s drug safety practice in regions with higher per capita GDP and more abundant medical resources was still better than that in regions with lower per capita GDP and less abundant medical resources. In all districts of China, pharmacist’s drug safety knowledge, drug safety attitude, self-perceived pressure and fatigue, hospital management quality, and hospital regulation were major influencing factors for pharmacist’s drug safety practice, while only in regions with higher per capita GDP and more abundant medical resources, hospital drug safety culture, supervisor’s work team management, cooperation atmosphere of work team, and drug safety culture of work team were major influencing factors for pharmacist’s drug safety practice. Conclusion Regional inequity in pharmacist’s drug safety practice still existed in China. In all districts of China, promoting pharmacist’s drug safety knowledge, drug safety attitude, self-perceived pressure and fatigue, hospital management quality, and hospital regulation could help promote pharmacist’s drug safety practice, while only in regions with higher per capita GDP and more abundant medical resources, promoting hospital drug safety culture, supervisor’s work team management, cooperation atmosphere of work team, and

  11. Workplace safety and health: assessing current practices and promoting change in the profession

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneid, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    .... This book reviews and challenges many of the commonly accepted practices as well as misconceptions about safety in the workplace and provide new and innovative options for safety professionals to consider...

  12. Safety in the mountaineering practices: training in Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Palacio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical Education Teaching with Orientation in Regional Mountain Activities at the Universidad Nacional del Comahue (PEF-CRUB-UNCo is the only one in the country that has a history with over 20 years of training physical education teachers with a particular orientation. It was through dynamic and continuous work over the years that theoretical and practical appropriate contents could be defined for this career.(Palacios, Lopez, Schneider, 2011 Coincidences with those experiences made in other countries such as Spain and Germany where the climbing activities are part of the teacher training and educational curricula have been noticed. (Saez Padilla, Gimenez, Fuentes Guerra 2005; Arribas Cubero 2008; Winter, 2000. It was determined together with other authors (Hepp, Güllich and Heidorn, 2001 that the contents related to Trekking and Climbing are the correct ones to develop a Teaching Program with these characteristics. The handling of safety conditions as an educational content is a permanent concern that challenges the activity. This paper will explain the conditions of safety that had been compiled over the years from experience, permanent research, consultation of specialized literature and actions carried out in teacher training

  13. MRI with cardiac pacing devices – Safety in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Touko, E-mail: touko.kaasalainen@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pakarinen, Sami, E-mail: sami.pakarinen@hus.fi [HUS Department of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Kivistö, Sari, E-mail: sari.kivisto@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Miia, E-mail: miia.holmstrom@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Hänninen, Helena, E-mail: helena.hanninen@hus.fi [HUS Department of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Peltonen, Juha, E-mail: juha.peltonen@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, School of Science, Aalto University, Helsinki (Finland); Lauerma, Kirsi, E-mail: kirsi.lauerma@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Sipilä, Outi, E-mail: outi.sipila@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce a single centre “real life” experience of performing MRI examinations in clinical practice on patients with cardiac pacemaker systems. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the safety of using a dedicated safety protocol for these patients. Materials and methods: We used a 1.5 T MRI scanner to conduct 68 MRI scans of different body regions in patients with pacing systems. Of the cardiac devices, 32% were MR-conditional, whereas the remaining 68% were MR-unsafe. We recorded the functional parameters of the devices prior, immediately after, and approximately one month after the MRI scanning, and compared the device parameters to the baseline values. Results: All MRI examinations were completed safely, and each device could be interrogated normally following the MRI. We observed no changes in the programmed parameters of the devices. For most of the participants, the distributions of the immediate and one-month changes in the device parameters were within 20% of the baseline values, although some changes approached clinically important thresholds. Furthermore, we observed no differences in the variable changes between MR-conditional and MR-unsafe pacing systems, or between scans of the thorax area and other scanned areas. Conclusion: MRI in patients with MR-conditional pacing systems and selected MR-unsafe systems could be performed safely under strict conditions in this study.

  14. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  15. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  16. Parental practice of child car safety in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu KI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available KI Ndu,1,* U Ekwochi,1,* DC Osuorah,2,* OC Ifediora,3 FO Amadi,1 IN Asinobi,1 OW Okenwa,1 JC Orjioke,1 FN Ogbuka,1 TO Ulasi4 1Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Engu, Nigeria; 2Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council UK, The Gambia Unit, Fajara, Gambia; 3Griffiths University Medical School, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4Department of Paediatrics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Child safety restraints and seat belts are regarded as the most successful safety and cost-effective protective devices available to vehicle occupants, which have saved millions of lives. This cross-sectional descriptive study evaluated the practice and use of child car restraints (CCRs among 458 purposively selected respondents resident in two local government areas in Enugu State, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to parents of children attending private schools who owned a car. Chi-square and multivariate analyses were used to assess the determinants of the use of car restraints in children among respondents. In all, 56% and 45% of adults and children, respectively, used car restraints regularly. The awareness of child safety laws and actual use of age-appropriate CCRs among respondents was negatively and weakly correlated (r=–0.121, P=0.310. Only respondent’s use of seat belt during driving (P=0.001 and having being cautioned for non-use of CCRs (P=0.005 maintained significance as determinants of the use of CCRs in cars on multivariate analysis. The most frequent reasons given for the non-use of CCRs included the child being uncomfortable, 64 (31%; restraints not being important, 53 (26%, and restraints being too expensive, 32 (15%. Similarly, for irregular users, exceptions for non-use included the child being asleep (29%, inadequate number of CCRs (22%, and the child being sick (18

  17. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); King, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Takase, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  18. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, Keith [PPPL

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  19. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety.

  20. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  1. Improving patient safety culture in general practice: An interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Verbakel (Natasha J.); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette); T.J. Verheij; C. Wagner (Cordula); D.L.M. Zwart (Dorien Lyd Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground When improving patient safety a positive safety culture is key. As little is known about improving patient safety culture in primary care, this study examined whether administering a culture questionnaire with or without a complementary workshop could be used as an interventio

  2. Food safety knowledge and hygiene practices among veterinary medicine students at Trakia University, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A

    2017-02-07

    The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  4. Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon; Ha, Ae Wha

    2010-12-01

    In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in stage 3 (4.55) or stage 2 (4.50) children were significantly higher than those in stage 1 children (4.17) (P food safety behavior items "hand washing practice" and "avoidance of harmful food" were significantly different among the three groups (P food safety knowledge and practice. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the total food safety behavior score (r = -0.142, P food safety (P < 0.01).

  5. A study of the safety of tenoxicam in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, D; Waterworth, R F

    1989-11-08

    An open, noncomparative study was undertaken to examine the safety of tenoxicam, a new nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) in general practice. One thousand two hundred and sixty-seven patients with rheumatic conditions were recruited by 392 general practitioners throughout New Zealand. Forty-three point six percent of patients recruited were over 65 years of age, 62.5% had some form of concomitant disease and 76.3% of patients were already receiving NSAIDs. Three hundred and four (23.9%) patients experienced adverse drug reactions, the commonest being gastrointestinal (11.4%), central and peripheral nervous system disorders (2.8%) and skin reactions (2.5%). The profile of adverse drug reactions in those more than 65 was similar to those in patients under 65 years. Of the reactions reported, 14.7% were considered severe. Three peptic ulcers were reported. There were no unexpected adverse drug reactions. Eight hundred and forty-nine patients completed 6 months treatment. Subjective assessments of overall efficacy, pain at night, pain on movement and stiffness made before treatment and at 1, 3 and 6 months posttreatment showed that tenoxicam significantly improved all parameters. The clinical response was maintained throughout the 6 month study period and was not different in patients less than or greater than 65 years.

  6. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R.N.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-N

  7. The Impact of Parental Knowledge and Tanning Attitudes on Sun Protection Practice for Young Children in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Gefeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  8. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT – OPTIMIZATION OF EXISTING PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Valenta Grebenšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving aviation safety has always been a priority for the aviation industry. While in recent decades the reliability of machinery and computers dramatically improved the reliability of the people and the organizational aspect of safety did not change much. Many of air accident investigations have shown that one of the causal factors, which increase the probability and severity of accidents, is exactly poor safety culture. The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of safety culture assessment and the overview and review of different methods of measuring the safety culture in aviation. This research provides the suggestion that by use of different methods of assessment (evaluation of the results, more credible insight into the level of safety culture in the organization can be obtained. It also provides an understanding of how measurement systems in order to guide future performance can be used proactively.

  10. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  11. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  12. Good practices on cost - effective road infrastructure safety investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Evgenikos, Petros; Dragomanovits, Anastasios

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the findings of a research project aiming to quantify and subsequently classify several infrastructure-related road safety measures, based on the international experience attained through extensive and selected literature review and additionally on a full consultation process including questionnaire surveys addressed to experts and relevant workshops. Initially, a review of selected research reports was carried out and an exhaustive list of road safety infrastructure investments covering all types of infrastructure was compiled. Individual investments were classified according to the infrastructure investment area and the type of investment and were thereafter analysed on the basis of key safety components. These investments were subsequently ranked in relation to their safety effects and implementation costs and on the basis of this ranking, a set of five most promising investments was selected for an in-depth analysis. The results suggest that the overall cost effectiveness of a road safety infrastructure investment is not always in direct correlation with the safety effect and is recommended that cost-benefit ratios and safety effects are always examined in conjunction with each other in order to identify the optimum solution for a specific road safety problem in specific conditions and with specific objectives.

  13. Constrained consumer practices and food safety concerns in Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Vellema, S.; Spaargaren, G.

    2014-01-01

    Food safety is a widely recognized concern in Vietnam. Public officials, companies and consumers find different ways to address risks of pesticide residues and bacterial contamination related to the use of fresh vegetables in daily diets. The response of the government to these food safety risks

  14. [Good Practice of Clinical Physiology Examination for Patient Safety with a Team-Based Approach: Quality Practice in Ultrasonographic Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Satomi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2015-07-01

    For the safety of patient care, a team-based approach has been advocated as an effective measure. In clinical physiology examination, we have been making efforts to promote good practice for patient safety based on such an approach in Tokai University Hospital, as represented by quality practice in ultrasonographic examination. The entire process of ultrasonographic examination can be divided into three parts: pre-examination, examination, and post-examination processes. In each process of the examination, specific quality issues must be considered, eventually ensuring the quality and safety of patient care. A laboratory physician is responsible for not only quality assurance of examination, diagnosis, and reporting, but also patient safety. A laboratory physician can play a key role in all aspects of patient safety related to each process of the examination by taking a leadership role in the team-based approach.

  15. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  16. Lessons in Safety Climate and Safety Practices from a California Hospital Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research (CHP/PCOR) and the Patient Safety Culture Institute (PSCI) at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Palo Alto Health...Table 1. Problematic responses to questions included in both survey implementations Patient Safety Culture in 12 California Hospitals 2001–2002...Problematic responses to questions included in both survey implementations, cont. Patient Safety Culture in 12 California Hospitals 2001–2002 Question

  17. Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi

    2017-09-25

    Adequate management of healthcare waste (HCW) is a prerequisite for efficient delivery of healthcare services. In Nigeria, there are several constraints militating against proper management of HCW. This is raising some environmental concerns among stakeholders in the health sector. In this study, we analyzed the practices of HCW management and determinants of risky/safe indices of HCW disposal. The study used the 2013/2014 Service Delivery Indicator (SDI) data that were collected from 2480 healthcare facilities in Nigeria. Descriptive statistics, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression were used to analyze the data. The results showed that 52.20% and 38.21% of the sampled healthcare facilities from Cross River and Bauchi states possessed guidelines for HCW management, respectively. Trainings on management of HCW were attended by 67.18% and 53.19% of the healthcare facilities from Cross River and Imo states, respectively. Also, 32.32% and 29.50% of healthcare facilities from rural and urban areas previously sent some of their staff members for trainings on HCW management, respectively. Sharp and non-sharp HCW were burnt in protected pits in 45.40% and 45.36% of all the sampled healthcare facilities, respectively. Incinerators were reported to be functional in only 2.06% of the total healthcare facilities. In Bauchi and Kebbi states, 23.58% and 21.05% of the healthcare facilities respectively burnt sharp HCW without any protection. Using PCA, computed risky indices for disposal of sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.3070) and Kebbi state (0.2172), while indices of risky disposal of non-sharp HCW were highest in Bayelsa state (0.2868) and Osun state (0.2652). The OLS results showed that at 5% level of significance, possession of medical waste disposal guidelines, staff trainings on HCW management, traveling hours from the facilities to local headquarters and being located in rural areas significantly influenced indices of

  18. Surgical team member assessment of the safety of surgery practice in 38 South Carolina hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sara J; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Lyen C; Gibbons, Lorri; Kiang, Mathew V; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Gawande, Atul A; Berry, William R

    2015-06-01

    We assessed surgical team member perceptions of multiple dimensions of safe surgical practice in 38 South Carolina hospitals participating in a statewide initiative to implement surgical safety checklists. Primary data were collected using a novel 35-item survey. We calculated the percentage of 1,852 respondents with strongly positive, positive, and neutral/negative responses about the safety of surgical practice, compared results by hospital and professional discipline, and examined how readiness, teamwork, and adherence related to staff perception of care quality. Overall, 78% of responses were positive about surgical safety at respondent's hospitals, but in each survey dimension, from 16% to 40% of responses were neutral/negative, suggesting significant opportunity to improve surgical safety. Respondents not reporting they would feel safe being treated in their operating rooms varied from 0% to 57% among hospitals. Surgeons responded more positively than nonsurgeons. Readiness, teamwork, and practice adherence related directly to staff perceptions of patient safety (p < .001).

  19. Annotated Bibliography: Understanding Ambulatory Care Practices in the Context of Patient Safety and Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Maria F; Mehdi, Harshal; Nash, David B

    2016-11-01

    The ambulatory care setting is an increasingly important component of the patient safety conversation. Inpatient safety is the primary focus of the vast majority of safety research and interventions, but the ambulatory setting is actually where most medical care is administered. Recent attention has shifted toward examining ambulatory care in order to implement better health care quality and safety practices. This annotated bibliography was created to analyze and augment the current literature on ambulatory care practices with regard to patient safety and quality improvement. By providing a thorough examination of current practices, potential improvement strategies in ambulatory care health care settings can be suggested. A better understanding of the myriad factors that influence delivery of patient care will catalyze future health care system development and implementation in the ambulatory setting.

  20. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  1. Best practices in road safety : handbook for measures at the country level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Machata, K.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook contains a large variety of road safety measures from throughout Europe. The goal of SUPREME was to collect, analyse, summarise and publish best practices in road safety in the Member States of the European Union, as well as in Switzerland and Norway. This document is a collection of b

  2. Pharmacist Staffing, Technology Use, and Implementation of Medication Safety Practices in Rural Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Michelle M.; Moscovice, Ira S.; Davidson, Gestur

    2006-01-01

    Context: Medication safety is clearly an important quality issue for rural hospitals. However, rural hospitals face special challenges implementing medication safety practices in terms of their staffing and financial and technical resources. Purpose: This study assessed the capacity of small rural hospitals to implement medication safety…

  3. A Systematic Analysis of Functional Safety Certification Practices in Industrial Robot Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, industry robotics have delivered on the promise of speed, efficiency and productivity. The last several years have seen a sharp resurgence in the orders of industrial robots in China, and the areas addressed within industrial robotics has extended into safety-critical domains. However, safety standards have not yet been implemented widely in academia and engineering applications, particularly in robot software development. This paper presents a systematic analysis of functional safety certification practices in software development for the safety-critical software of industrial robots, to identify the safety certification practices used for the development of industrial robots in China and how these practices comply with the safety standard requirements. Reviewing from Chinese academic papers, our research shows that safety standards are barely used in software development of industrial robot. The majority of the papers propose various solutions to achieve safety, but only about two thirds of the papers refer to non-standardized approaches that mainly address the systematic level rather than the software development level. In addition, our research shows that with the development of artificial intelligent, an emerging field is still on the quest for standardized and suitable approaches to develop safety-critical software.

  4. Operational safety practices as determinants of machinery-related injury on Saskatchewan farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Gopinath R; Peng, Yingwei; Crowe, Trever G; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is a major source of injury on farms. The importance of machinery safety practices as potential determinants of injury remains incompletely understood. We examined two such safety practices as risk factors for injury: (1) the presence of safety devices on machinery and (2) low levels of routine machinery maintenance. Our data source was the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort baseline survey (n=2390 farms). Factor analysis was used to create measures of the two operational safety practices. The farm was the unit for all analyses and associations were evaluated using multiple Poisson regression models. Limited presence of safety devices on machinery during farm operations was associated with higher risks for injury (RR 1.94; 95% CI 1.13-3.33; p(trend)=0.02). Lower routine maintenance scores were associated with significantly reduced risks for injury (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.98; p(trend)=0.05). The first finding implies that injury prevention programs require continued focus on the use of safety devices on machinery. The second finding could indicate that maintenance itself is a risk factor or that more modern equipment that requires less maintenance places the operator at lower risk. These findings provide etiological data that confirms the practical importance of operational safety practices as components of injury control strategies on farms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational safety training and practices in selected vocational training institutions and workplaces in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintu, Denis; Kyakula, Michael; Kikomeko, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Several industrial accidents, some of them fatal, have been reported in Uganda. Causes could include training gaps in vocational training institutions (VTIs) and workplaces. This study investigated how occupational safety training in VTIs and workplaces is implemented. The study was carried out in five selected VTIs and workplaces in Kampala. Data were collected from instructors, workshop technicians, students, workshop managers, production supervisors, machine operators and new technicians in the workplaces. A total of 35 respondents participated in the study. The results revealed that all curricula in VTIs include a component of safety but little is practiced in VTI workshops; in workplaces no specific training content was followed and there were no regular consultations between VTIs and industry on safety skills requirements, resulting in a mismatch in safety skills training. The major constraints to safety training include inadequate funds to purchase safety equipment and inadequate literature on safety.

  6. PREPARING TEACHERS LIFE SAFETY TO THE ORGANIZATION OF INTERDEPARTMENTAL INTERACTION BY MEANS OF EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Любовь Петровна Кислякова

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify areas of interdepartmental interaction in the organization of the educational practice of future teachers life safety.Methodology: a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature; analysis of the content of educational practice.Results: identified areas of interdepartmental interaction in the organization of the educational practice of future teachers life safety: Health Organization, the Office of Civil Defense, Emergencies and Disaster Relief, the Office of Internal Affairs, the office of drug control.Practical implications: the system of pedagogical education.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-15

  7. Food suppliers' perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hwa Ko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the perceptions and practical implementation of food safety regulations by food suppliers in Taiwan were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was used to identify individuals who were full-time employees of the food supply industry with at least 3 months of experience. Dimensions of perceptions of food safety regulations were classified using the constructs of attitude of employees and corporate concern attitude for food safety regulation. The behavior dimension was classified into employee behavior and corporate practice. Food suppliers with training in food safety were significantly better than those without training with respect to the constructs of perception dimension of employee attitude, and the constructs of employee behavior and corporate practice associated with the behavior dimension. Older employees were superior in perception and practice. Employee attitude, employee behavior, and corporate practice were significantly correlated with each other. Satisfaction with governmental management was not significantly related to corporate practice. The corporate implementation of food safety regulations by suppliers was affected by employees' attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, employees' attitudes and behaviors explain 35.3% of corporate practice. Employee behavior mediates employees' attitudes and corporate practices. The results of this study may serve as a reference for governmental supervision and provide training guidelines for workers in the food supply industry.

  8. The consideration of ecological safety in judicial practice-also on the ecological safety legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Zhongmei

    2006-01-01

    Ecological safety has been one of the hot issues of environmental law in recent years.The maintenance of ecological safety has become one of the legislative principles,as exemplified by the revision of the Law of Sand Prevention and Sand.Management and the Law against Solid Waste Environmental Pollution,and the relevant rules that will be established.However actual cases will still happen,whether the legislators have made the statutory law or not.While scholars and legislators are debating,the judges have to handle cases and render judgments.Through the analysis of a case,this article will discuss the feasibility for judges to make ecological safety considerations in the judicial process by applying the principle of good faith and will also discuss the legislative issues related to ecological safety.

  9. An Agent-based Model of Food Safety Practices Adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaart, T.; Valeeva, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    Food processors and governments have an interest to motivate suppliers of animal products to implement food safety measures. This paper proposes an agentbased simulation model to compare possible consequences of alternative communication programs and incentive systems. The agent model combines econo

  10. Translating patient safety legislation into health care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Alan B K; Clarke, John R; Marella, William; Johnston, Janet; Baker, Laurie; Doering, Michael

    2006-12-01

    An independent state agency, the Authority is charged with taking steps to reduce and eliminate medical errors by identifying problems and recommending solutions that promote patient safety. PENNSYLVANIA PATIENT SAFETY REPORTING SYSTEM (PA-PSRS): The Authority implemented PA-PSRS, a mandatory reporting and analysis system for both adverse events and near-misses, among 450 hospitals, birthing centers, and ambulatory surgical facilities. Pennsylvania is the only state to require the reporting of both adverse events and near-misses. The Patient Safety Advisory is a quarterly publication containing articles about trends in reports submitted to PA-PSRS. The peer-reviewed articles include analysis of and lessons learned from PA-PSRS reports and evidence-based risk reduction strategies based on research in the clinical literature. To complement and reinforce the effectiveness of certain Advisory articles, the Authority has introduced electronic, educational tool kits on its Web site that can be downloaded. They include posters, draft policies, audio-slide presentations for staff training, and other materials related to clinical implementation of patient safety interventions and protocols. In just over two years, the Authority has developed a program that turns reports into actionable items through the analysis and research of adverse events and near-misses.

  11. Health and safety management practices in small and medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... poor health and safety performance within the construction industry in South Africa, ... been anecdotally experienced (Construction Industry Development. Board [CIDB]), 2008: 22). ... 1.1 Challenges and constraints facing Small and Medium. Construction ..... to be practised by the SMEs, as their mean was above 4.00. The.

  12. Patient safety culture measurement in general practice. Clinimetric properties of 'SCOPE'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwart Dorien LM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A supportive patient safety culture is considered to be an essential condition for improving patient safety. Assessing the current safety culture in general practice may be a first step to target improvements. To that end, we studied internal consistency and construct validity of a safety culture questionnaire for general practice (SCOPE which was derived from a comparable questionnaire for hospitals (Dutch-HSOPS. Methods The survey was conducted among caregivers of Dutch general practice as part of an ongoing quality accreditation process using a 46 item questionnaire. We conducted factor analyses and studied validity by calculating correlations between the subscales and testing the hypothesis that respondents' patient safety grade of their practices correlated with their scores on the questionnaire. Results Of 72 practices 294 respondents completed the questionnaire. Eight factors were identified concerning handover and teamwork, support and fellowship, communication openness, feedback and learning from error, intention to report events, adequate procedures and staffing, overall perceptions of patient safety and expectations and actions of managers. Cronbach's alpha of the factors rated between 0.64 and 0.85. The subscales intercorrelated moderately, except for the factor about intention to report events. Respondents who graded patient safety highly scored significantly higher on the questionnaire than those who did not. Conclusions The SCOPE questionnaire seems an appropriate instrument to assess patient safety culture in general practice. The clinimetric properties of the SCOPE are promising, but future research should confirm the factor structure and construct of the SCOPE and delineate its responsiveness to changes in safety culture over time.

  13. [Development and validation of indicators for best patient safety practices: the ISEP-Brazil Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Zenewton André da Silva; Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesus; Ribeiro, Denise Nieuwenhoff Cardoso; Freitas, Marise Reis de; Medeiros, Paulo José de; Batista, Almária Mariz; Barreto, Analúcia Filgueira Gouveia; Lira, Benize Fernandes; Medeiros, Carlos Alexandre de Souza; Vasconcelos, Cilane Cristina Costa da Silva; Silva, Edna Marta Mendes da; Faria, Eduardo Dantas Baptista de; Dantas, Jane Francinete; Neto, José Gomes; Medeiros, Luana Cristina Lins de; Sicolo, Miguel Angel; Fonseca, Patrícia de Cássia Bezerra; Costa, Rosângela Maria Morais da; Monte, Francisca Sueli; Melo, Veríssimo de

    2016-09-19

    Efficacious patient safety monitoring should focus on the implementation of evidence-based practices that avoid unnecessary harm related to healthcare. The ISEP-Brazil project aimed to develop and validate indicators for best patient safety practices in Brazil. The basis was the translation and adaptation of the indicators validated in the ISEP-Spain project and the document Safe Practices for Better Healthcare (U.S. National Quality Forum), recommending 34 best practices. A 25-member expert panel validated the indicators. Reliability and feasibility were based on a pilot study in three hospitals with different management formats (state, federal, and private). Seventy-five best practice indicators were approved (39 structure; 36 process) for 31 of the 34 recommendations. The indicators were considered valid, reliable, and useful for monitoring patient safety in Brazilian hospitals.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers in food safety: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Laís Mariano; da Cunha, Diogo Thimoteo; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Stedefeldt, Elke

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an overview of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of food handlers with training in food safety, in addition to proposing reflections on the training of food handlers, considering its responsibility for food safety and health of consumers. The review was based on the integrative method. The descriptors used were: (food handler), (knowledge, attitudes and practice) and (training). Six databases were searched, 253 articles were consulted and 36 original articles were included. Fifty per cent of the articles pointed that there was no proper translation of knowledge into attitudes/practices or attitudes into practices after training. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers are important for identifying how efficient training in food safety is allowing prioritize actions in planning training. The evaluation of KAP is the first step to understand the food handler's point of view. After this evaluation other diagnostic strategies become necessary to enhance this understanding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Pharmaceuticals Safety Practices-A Comparative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kamilia A.; Jabeen, Arshia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The safety of medicine is essential for the safety of patients. Inappropriate drug storage, expiration dates, sharing prescription drugs, self medication habits and misuse of some drugs are contributing factors affecting medication safety. One or more of these factors may lead to serious health complications and even death. Objectives The purpose of this study was to highlight the common errors and pharmaceutical malpractices that people usually engage in on a daily basis and to correlate these to culture, gender and educational levels. This may spread awareness in an easy and understandable manner and provide certain guidelines to drug consumers ensuring that pharmaceutical preparations are used correctly and safely. Methods Two hundred questionnaires were randomly distributed in two countries; Saudi Arabia and India. The collected data were statistically analyzed. Outcomes and conclusion Results showed that alarming percentages of various participants were using pharmaceuticals inappropriately due to carelessness, unawareness or intentional mistakes. Therefore, active participation by health care professionals is essential for the prevention of drug misuse. Increasing population awareness about self medication, products expiration, pharmaceuticals labels and optimum storage conditions would minimize the adverse effects and may even be life saving. PMID:24533025

  16. Injection safety practices in a main referral hospital in northeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-25

    Mar 25, 2013 ... phlebotomist in 27 units/wards of the hospital. The study instruments were ... Key words: Injection waste management, safe injections practices, tertiary health care facility ..... Table 4: Indicators reflecting risk to the provider at.

  17. Radiation safety knowledge and practices among Irish orthopaedic trainees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2014-04-23

    Fluoroscopy is frequently used in orthopaedic surgery, particularly in a trauma setting. Exposure of patients and staff to ionising radiation has been studied extensively; however, little work has been done to evaluate current knowledge and practices among orthopaedic trainees.

  18. Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry; Allen, Barbara; Barca, Stefania; Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Henry, Emmanuel; Kaur, Amarjit; Massard-Guilbaud, Genvieve; Melling, Joseph; Menendez-Navarro, Alfredo; Renfrew, Daniel; Santiago, Myrna; Sellers, Christopher; Tweedale, Geoffrey; Zalik, Anna; Zavestoski, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    At a conference held at Stony Brook University in December 2007, "Dangerous Trade: Histories of Industrial Hazard across a Globalizing World," participants endorsed a Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations. The Code outlines practices that would ensure corporations enact the highest health and environmentally protective measures in all the locations in which they operate. Corporations should observe international guidelines on occupational exposure to air contaminants, plant safety, air and water pollutant releases, hazardous waste disposal practices, remediation of polluted sites, public disclosure of toxic releases, product hazard labeling, sale of products for specific uses, storage and transport of toxic intermediates and products, corporate safety and health auditing, and corporate environmental auditing. Protective measures in all locations should be consonant with the most protective measures applied anywhere in the world, and should apply to the corporations' subsidiaries, contractors, suppliers, distributors, and licensees of technology. Key words: corporations, sustainability, environmental protection, occupational health, code of practice.

  19. A system of safety management practices and worker engagement for reducing and preventing accidents: an empirical and theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Jan K; Yorio, Patrick L

    2014-07-01

    The overall research objective was to theoretically and empirically develop the ideas around a system of safety management practices (ten practices were elaborated), to test their relationship with objective safety statistics (such as accident rates), and to explore how these practices work to achieve positive safety results (accident prevention) through worker engagement. Data were collected using safety manager, supervisor and employee surveys designed to assess and link safety management system practices, employee perceptions resulting from existing practices, and safety performance outcomes. Results indicate the following: there is a significant negative relationship between the presence of ten individual safety management practices, as well as the composite of these practices, with accident rates; there is a significant negative relationship between the level of safety-focused worker emotional and cognitive engagement with accident rates; safety management systems and worker engagement levels can be used individually to predict accident rates; safety management systems can be used to predict worker engagement levels; and worker engagement levels act as mediators between the safety management system and safety performance outcomes (such as accident rates). Even though the presence of safety management system practices is linked with incident reduction and may represent a necessary first-step in accident prevention, safety performance may also depend on mediation by safety-focused cognitive and emotional engagement by workers. Thus, when organizations invest in a safety management system approach to reducing/preventing accidents and improving safety performance, they should also be concerned about winning over the minds and hearts of their workers through human performance-based safety management systems designed to promote and enhance worker engagement. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A Practical Scheme to Quantify Safety Benefits of Disaster Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young; Jeong, Kyungmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Germantown (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The nuclear robotics team of KAERI is also endeavoring to construct disaster robots, and first of all, interested in how much safety benefits the disaster robots will bring about. The nuclear robotics team of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has long been involved in robot development for a variety of applications such as emergency refueling manipulation at a pressurized heavy water reactor and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. In light of great advances these days in remote response technology and the need to upgrade the coping capabilities of the nuclear power plants against beyond-design-basis external events, a primary focus is placed on developing disaster robots that can be deployed to the field where a disastrous or potentially disastrous event is happening. Where a decision has to be made to select a robotic mitigating measure out of several alternatives, the approach also may be applied in evaluating the safety benefit for each alternative so that the result can be used in the selection process together with other decision factors. As part of the fundamental research in the robotics development program of KAERI, a new approach to quantify the safety benefits associated with the mitigation actions to be implemented by disaster robots in the case of an extreme nuclear accident has been developed. This approach is based on a PRA model, and seismic-induced station blackout condition was used as the target scenario. Where a decision has to be made to select a robotic mitigating measure out of several alternatives, the approach also may be applied in evaluating the safety benefit for each alternative so that the result can be used in the selection process along with other decision factors (e.g., development costs, technical feasibility). Although only the action of starting and aligning the SBO diesel generator was used as a mitigating measure that might be performed by the disaster robots in this study, they could also be used for many

  1. Food safety knowledge and practice by the stages of change model in school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 342 grade 4-6 elementary school students in Gyeonggi-do were recruited to determine their readiness to change food safety behavior and to compare their food safety knowledge and practices by the stages of change. The subjects were divided into three stages of change; the percentage of stage 1 (precontemplation) was 10.1%, the percentage of stage 2 (contemplation and preparation) was 62.4%, and that of stage 3 (action and maintenance) was 27.5%. Food safety knowledge scores in stage 3 (4.55) or stage 2 (4.50) children were significantly higher than those in stage 1 children (4.17) (P food safety behavior items "hand washing practice" and "avoidance of harmful food" were significantly different among the three groups (P food safety knowledge and practice. Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the total food safety behavior score (r = -0.142, P food safety (P < 0.01). PMID:21286413

  2. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies' inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeman, Cassandra D. [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Sociology (United States); Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Satterfield, Terre A. [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States); Holden, Patricia A. [UC Center for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (UC CEIN), University of California, Santa Barbara (United States); Harthorn, Barbara Herr, E-mail: harthorn@cns.ucsb.edu [University of California, Santa Barbara, NSF Center for Nanotechnology and Society (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated 'lack of information' as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  3. Governance implications of nanomaterials companies' inconsistent risk perceptions and safety practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Cassandra D.; Baumgartner, Lynn; Carr, Benjamin M.; Fish, Allison M.; Meyerhofer, John D.; Satterfield, Terre A.; Holden, Patricia A.; Harthorn, Barbara Herr

    2012-03-01

    Current research on the nanotechnology industry indicates its downstream expansion at a rapid pace, while toxicological research and best practices for environmental health and safety are still being developed. Companies that use and/or produce engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have enormous potential to influence safe-handling practices for ENMs across the product life cycle. Knowledge of both industry practices and leaders' perceptions of risk is vital for understanding how companies will act to control potential environmental and health risks. This article reports results from a new international survey of nanomaterials companies in 14 countries. In this survey, company participants reported relatively high levels of uncertainty and/or perceived risk with regard to ENMs. However, these perspectives were not accompanied by expected risk-avoidant practices or preferences for regulatory oversight. A majority of companies indicated "lack of information" as a significant impediment to implementing nano-specific safety practices, but they also reported practices that were inconsistent with widely available guidance. Additionally, in the absence of safe-handling regulations, companies reported nano-specific health and safety programs that were narrow in scope. Taken together, these findings indicate that health and safety guidance is not reaching industry. While industry leaders' reluctance toward regulation might be expected, their own reported unsafe practices and recognition of possible risks suggest a more top-down approach from regulators is needed to protect workers and the environment.

  4. An Investigative Study of Safety Management Practices in Chemical-Related Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewers, Sarah Grace

    Industrial chemicals are a major part of the United States economic growth and impact every product that we use in everyday life. Some of the major products produced by chemical-related industries are plastics, textiles, petroleum, paper and important metals. Governmental regulations like those created by the Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board are vital to a chemical-related industries' safety management. Contributing to and helping to drive economic growth, the enforcement of proper safety practices is a necessity. This study was conducted to investigate and assess various safety management practices in selected chemical-related industries. The research design involved the use of a questionnaire/survey method in which a random sample of participants completed a questionnaire related to the variables of interest. Random sampling helps to ensure the generalizability of the survey results. The target population consisted of a subset of employees currently working for plants, businesses and organizations in chemical-related industries. To collect the data, surveys were given to employees in various positions at chemical-related industries such as basic chemicals, specialty chemicals, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals and consumer products. A set of criteria was created to establish the qualification to be recognized as a chemical-related industry. The questionnaire/survey was reviewed by the Institutional Review Board at NC A&T State University to meet necessary regulation guidelines for research involving human subjects. The results showed that 60.22% or more than half of the respondents have worked with their company and organization for over thirty years providing the ability to see the progression of chemical-related industry safety management practices over time. Over eighty percent (80.66%) or 146 respondents agreed that their company or

  5. Workplace safety and health programs, practices, and conditions in auto collision repair businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, L M; Bejan, A; Parker, D L; Skan, M; Xi, M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a pre-intervention safety assessment conducted in 49 auto collision repair businesses and owners' commitments to specific improvements. A 92-item standardized audit tool employed interviews, record reviews, and observations to assess safety and health programs, training, and workplace conditions. Owners were asked to improve at least one-third of incorrect, deficient, or missing (not in compliance with regulations or not meeting best practice) items, of which a majority were critical or highly important for ensuring workplace safety. Two-thirds of all items were present, with the highest fraction related to electrical safety, machine safety, and lockout/tagout. One-half of shops did not have written safety programs and had not conducted recent training. Many had deficiencies in respiratory protection programs and practices. Thirteen businesses with a current or past relationship with a safety consultant had a significantly higher fraction of correct items, in particular related to safety programs, up-to-date training, paint booth and mixing room conditions, electrical safety, and respiratory protection. Owners selected an average of 58% of recommended improvements; they were most likely to select items related to employee Right-to-Know training, emergency exits, fire extinguishers, and respiratory protection. They were least likely to say they would improve written safety programs, stop routine spraying outside the booth, or provide adequate fire protection for spray areas outside the booth. These baseline results suggest that it may be possible to bring about workplace improvements using targeted assistance from occupational health and safety professionals.

  6. A Review of Safety Practices and Safety Training for the Explosives Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    situation. 7. Teach new personnel to respect, not fear, explosives; recognize that knowledge is the key to safety. 8. Hold a Monday-morning meeting...L. R. Rothstein, and John H. Smith, " Thermochemistry and the Demilitarization of Explosives," NWSY-TR7-TR76-2, July 1976. 59 .4 The following...SENSITIVITY (I) Thermochemistry and the Demilitarization of Explosives, Robert Petersen, Lewis R. Rothstein, and John H. Smith, NWSY-TR 76-2, Jul 76, (2470

  7. On the Use of Safety Certification Practices in Autonomous Field Robot Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Johann Thor Ingibergsson; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Kuhrmann, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Robotics has recently seen an increasing development, and the areas addressed within robotics has extended into domains we consider safety-critical, fostering the development of standards that facilitate the development of safe robots. Safety standards describe concepts to maintain desired...... reactions or performance in malfunctioning systems, and influence industry regarding software development and project management. However, academia seemingly did not reach the same degree of utilisation of standards. This paper presents the findings from a systematic mapping study in which we study...... the state-of-the-art in developing software for safety-critical software for autonomous field robots. The purpose of the study is to identify practices used for the development of autonomous field robots and how these practices relate to available safety standards. Our findings from reviewing 49 papers show...

  8. An evaluation of a new instrument to measure organisational safety culture values and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cabrera, D; Hernández-Fernaud, E; Isla-Díaz, R

    2007-11-01

    The main aim of this research is to evaluate a safety culture measuring instrument centred upon relevant organisational values and practices related to the safety management system. Seven dimensions that reflect underlying safety meanings are proposed. A second objective is to explore the four cultural orientations in the field of safety arising from the competing values framework. The study sample consisted of 299 participants from five companies in different sectors. The results show six dimensions of organisational values and practices and different company profiles in the organisations studied. The four cultural orientations proposed by the competing values framework are not confirmed. Nevertheless, a coexistence of diverse cultural orientations or paradoxes in the companies is observed.

  9. Development of the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire: A Measure of Consumer Perceptions and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairnduff, Victoria; Dean, Moira; Koidis, Anastasios

    2016-09-01

    Food preparation and storage behaviors in the home deviating from the "best practice" food safety recommendations may result in foodborne illnesses. Currently, there are limited tools available to fully evaluate the consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behavior in the area of refrigerator safety. The current study aimed to develop a valid and reliable tool in the form of a questionnaire, the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire (CRSQ), for assessing systematically all these aspects. Items relating to refrigerator safety knowledge (n =17), perceptions (n =46), and reported behavior (n =30) were developed and pilot tested by an expert reference group and various consumer groups to assess face and content validity (n =20), item difficulty and consistency (n =55), and construct validity (n =23). The findings showed that the CRSQ has acceptable face and content validity with acceptable levels of item difficulty. Item consistency was observed for 12 of 15 in refrigerator safety knowledge. Further, all 5 of the subscales of consumer perceptions of refrigerator safety practices relating to risk of developing foodborne disease showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α value > 0.8). Construct validity of the CRSQ was shown to be very good (P = 0.022). The CRSQ exhibited acceptable test-retest reliability at 14 days with the majority of knowledge items (93.3%) and reported behavior items (96.4%) having correlation coefficients of greater than 0.70. Overall, the CRSQ was deemed valid and reliable in assessing refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior; therefore, it has the potential for future use in identifying groups of individuals at increased risk of deviating from recommended refrigerator safety practices, as well as the assessment of refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior for use before and after an intervention.

  10. Cytotoxic Drug Dispersal, Cytotoxic Safety, and Cytotoxic Waste Management: Practices and Proposed India-specific Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoor, Malini R; Bhowmik, Kumar Tapas

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with practices related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management and attempts at India-specific guidelines for their dispersal and disposal. The articles related to cytotoxic drug dispersal, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management were reviewed from PubMed and their applicability in Indian health-care facilities (HCFs) was also reviewed. All HCFs dealing with cytotoxic drugs should consider cytotoxic policy, patient safety and health-care worker safety, and environmental monitoring program as per the available international guidelines customized as per Indian conditions. Utmost care in handling cytotoxic waste is quintessential. The formation of India-specific cytotoxic guidelines requires the inputs from all stakeholders. Cytotoxic waste, cytotoxic safety, and cytotoxic waste management should be the subject of a national strategy with an infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority, and trained personnel.

  11. Kitchen safety in hospitals: practices and knowledge of food handlers in istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Aydan; Kiziltan, Gul

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to identify the practices and knowledge of food handlers about workplace safety in hospital kitchens (four on-premises and eight off-premises) in Istanbul. A kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire was administered and a kitchen safety checklist was completed by dietitians. The mean total scores of the on-premise and off-premise hospital kitchens were 32.7 ± 8.73 and 37.0 ± 9.87, respectively. The mean scores for the items about machinery tools, electricity, gas, and fire were lower in off-premise than on-premise hospital kitchen workers. The kitchen safety knowledge questionnaire had five subsections; 43.7% of the food handlers achieved a perfect score. Significant differences were found in the knowledge of food handlers working in both settings about preventing slips and falls (p kitchen safety knowledge of the food handlers (p < .05).

  12. The practice of pre-marketing safety assessment in drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang-Stein, Christy; Xia, H Amy

    2013-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen a substantial increase in efforts devoted to safety assessment by statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. While some of these efforts were driven by regulations and public demand for safer products, much of the motivation came from the realization that there is a strong need for a systematic approach to safety planning, evaluation, and reporting at the program level throughout the drug development life cycle. An efficient process can help us identify safety signals early and afford us the opportunity to develop effective risk minimization plan early in the development cycle. This awareness has led many pharmaceutical sponsors to set up internal systems and structures to effectively conduct safety assessment at all levels (patient, study, and program). In addition to process, tools have emerged that are designed to enhance data review and pattern recognition. In this paper, we describe advancements in the practice of safety assessment during the premarketing phase of drug development. In particular, we share examples of safety assessment practice at our respective companies, some of which are based on recommendations from industry-initiated working groups on best practice in recent years.

  13. Prisoner reentry: a public health or public safety issue for social work practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, George T

    2013-01-01

    A significant literature identifies the policy, economic, health, and social challenges that confront released prisoners. This literature also describes the public health and public safety risks associated with prisoner reentry, provides recommendations for improving the reentry process, and describes the effectiveness of prison-based programs on recidivism rates. Public health and public safety risks are particularly significant in communities where large numbers of prisoners are released and few evidence-based services exist. The purpose of this article is to describe the public health and public safety risks that released prisoners experience when they reenter communities, and to discuss the social justice issues relevant for social work practice.

  14. New graduate registered nurses' knowledge of patient safety and practice: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melanie; Sundin, Deborah; Cope, Vicki

    2017-03-02

    To critically appraise available literature and summarise evidence pertaining to the patient safety knowledge and practices of new graduate registered nurses. Responsibility for patient safety should not be limited to the practice of the bedside nurses, rather the responsibility of all in the healthcare system. Previous research identified lapses in safety across the health care, more specifically with new practitioners. Understanding these gaps and what may be employed to counteract them is vital to ensuring patient safety. A focused review of research literature. The review used key terms and Boolean operators across a 5-year time frame in CINAHL, Medline, psycINFO and Google Scholar for research articles pertaining to the area of enquiry. Eighty-four articles met the inclusion criteria, 39 discarded due to irrelevant material and 45 articles were included in the literature review. This review acknowledges that nursing has different stages of knowledge and practice capabilities. A theory-practice gap for new graduate registered nurses exists, and transition to practice is a key learning period setting new nurses on the path to becoming expert practitioners. Within the literature, there was little to no acknowledgement of patient safety knowledge of the newly registered nurse. Issues raised in the 1970s remain a concern for today's new graduate registered nurses. Research has recognised several factors affecting transition from nursing student to new graduate registered nurse. These factors are leaving new practitioners open to potential errors and risking patient safety. Understanding the knowledge of a new graduate registered nurse upon entering clinical practice may assist in organisations providing appropriate clinical and theoretical support to these nurses during their transition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Food Preparation, Practices, and Safety In The Hmong Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Pérez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses are syndromes that are acquired as a result of eating foods that contain sufficient quantities of poisonous substances or pathogens. Cultural practices place the Hmongat an increased risk for food borne illnesses resulting from improper food handling, preparation, and storage. The risk for illness is further complicated by the fact that the Hmong have verylimited knowledge about food-borne disease and they find themselves in a situation in which they cannot control the space in the house available for food preparation. Data for this qualitative study were collected from 25 Hmong individuals aged 18 and over residing in Fresno, California. Participants in this study did not appear to understand the direct relationship between bacteria and food borne illnesses. Similarly, study participants were more likely to reportreliance on traditional medicine to address foodborne illnesses. Results from this study indicate a need to reach the Hmong community with culturally appropriate messages relating to food preparation and practice. Messages must acknowledge the role of food in cultural celebrations, while seeking to decrease the risk for foodborne illnesses.

  16. Food Safety Perceptions and Practices among Smallholder Pork Value Chain Actors in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Fries, Reinhard; Nguyen-Thanh, Huong; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Lam, Steven; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred

    2016-09-01

    Pork safety is an important public health concern in Vietnam and is a shared responsibility among many actors along the pork value chain. We examined the knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding food safety, disease, and health risk among selected pork value chain actors (slaughterhouse owners and workers, people living around slaughterhouses, pork sellers, consumers, and veterinary and public health staff) in three districts in Hung Yen Province, Vietnam. We randomly selected 52 pork value chain actors to be surveyed through questionnaires, observation checklists, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. Most slaughterhouse workers acquired knowledge and experience of food safety through "learning by doing" rather than from training by a veterinary or public health professional. Both slaughterhouse worker and pork seller groups had some accurate perceptions about pig diseases and foodborne diseases; however, misperceptions of risk and, especially, of zoonoses were present. Furthermore, while workers and sellers often use cloths to dry the meat and clean equipment, they did not think this was a risk for meat contamination. Moreover, when sellers wear protective equipment, such as gloves, masks, or hats, consumers perceive that the sellers may have health issues they are trying to conceal and so consumers avoid buying from them. The perceived freshness of pork, along with trust in the seller and in the pork production process, were strong indicators of consumer preference. And yet, pork value chain actors tend to trust their own individual food safety practices more, rather than the practices of other actors along the chain. Veterinary and public health staff emphasized the gap between regulations and food safety practices. Education and training on food safety risks and proper handling are priorities, along with integrated and intensive efforts to improve food safety among pork value chain actors.

  17. Use of sanitizing products: safety practices and risk situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aurélia Rocha da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the handling and risk factors for poisoning and/or digestive tract injuries associated with the use of sanitizing products at home. METHODS: interviews were conducted in 419 households from different regions, collecting epidemiological data from residents and risk habits related to the use and storage of cleaning products. RESULTS: sanitizing products considered to be a health risk were found in 98% of the households where the research was conducted, and in 54% of cases, they were stored in places easily accessible to children. Lye was found in 19%, followed by illicit products in 39% of homes. In 13% of households, people produced soap, and in 12% they stored products in non-original containers. The use of illicit products and the manufacture of handmade soap were associated with lower educational level of the household owners and with the regions and socioeconomic classes with lower purchasing power. CONCLUSIONS: risk practices such as inadequate storage, manufacturing, and use of sanitizing products by the population evidence the need for public health policies, including educational measures, as a means of preventing accidents.

  18. Effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in real-world clinical practice: Review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pesch, Vincent; Sindic, Christian J; Fernández, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown that natalizumab is highly effective for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a targeted review of data from country-specific observational studies and registries of natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing MS in order to more fully investigate the longer-term effectiveness and safety of this disease-modifying therapy in real-world clinical practice settings. A PubMed search was conducted on March 13, 2014, using the terms (natalizumab AND multiple sclerosis) AND (observational OR registry OR post-marketing OR clinical practice). Only English-language papers that reported effectiveness (in terms of effects on relapses, disability progression, and magnetic resonance imaging findings) and/or safety results from studies were included. Data from 22 studies/registries were included. Annualized relapse rates decreased by 73%-94% from baseline across the studies, with improvement maintained for up to 5 years during natalizumab treatment. Natalizumab effectiveness was also demonstrated via assessment of disability progression (Expanded Disability Status Scale), radiological measures, and no-evidence-of-disease-activity measures (clinical, radiological, and overall). Results were similar among patient groups stratified by level of disease activity. Safety outcomes were consistent with natalizumab's known safety profile. Data from country-specific observational studies and registries varying in size and scope support the effectiveness and safety of natalizumab in a broad range of patients in clinical practice.

  19. Effects of a team-based assessment and intervention on patient safety culture in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, B; Müller, V; Rochon, J

    2014-01-01

    culture and decided on about 10 actions per practice to improve it. After 12 months, no significant differences were found between intervention and control groups in terms of error management (competing probability = 0.48, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.63, p = 0.823), 11 further patient safety culture indicators...

  20. Cultural Safety Circles and Indigenous Peoples' Perspectives: Inclusive Practices for Participation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseron, Johnnie; Greymorning, S. Neyooxet; Miller, Adrian; Wilde, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous experiences, as found within traditional ways and cultural practices, are an acknowledgement of traditional methods for sharing, learning, and collective knowledge development and maintenance. The application of Cultural Safety Circles can help provide a collective space where definitions for cultural and educational exchange can take…

  1. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  2. Food-Safety Practices in the Domestic Kitchen: Demographic, Personality, and Experiential Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of consumer behavior in determining the safety of foods prepared at home has focused so far on the role of isolated consumer practices. In addition, demographic factors have been applied primarily to explain differences between individuals. In this paper, the use of psychological factors

  3. Food-Safety Practices in the Domestic Kitchen: Demographic, Personality, and Experiential Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of consumer behavior in determining the safety of foods prepared at home has focused so far on the role of isolated consumer practices. In addition, demographic factors have been applied primarily to explain differences between individuals. In this paper, the use of psychological factors

  4. Use of Safety Pin on Garments in Pregnancy: A Belief and Cultural Practice with Potential Harmful Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kola M Owonikoko; Aramide M Tijani; Olarewaju G Bajowa; Oluseyi O Atanda

    2017-01-01

    Background: Culture has been known to influence practices and beliefs of people world over. Several cultural practices have been noted among pregnant women who were passed from one generation to the next with its potential harmful and beneficial effect. The use of safety pin in is one of such cultural practices that are widely practiced by many pregnant Nigerian women. Objective: We sought to gain a deeper understanding of the source of knowledge and motivation behind the use of safety pin on...

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 54: Radiotherapy and Non-Radiotherapy Safety Practices Beyond Licensing Expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosierb, Rick [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety and security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international obligations on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In order to perform this regulatory activity, the CNSC issue licences and has its staff perform inspections to verify conformity to the aspects of those licences. Within the CNSC, the Accelerators and Class II Facilities Division (ACFD) is responsible for the regulatory oversight of Class II Prescribed Equipment used in medical, academic, and industrial sectors in Canada. In performing inspections, ACFD has encountered licensees with practices that are either below, meet or exceed regulatory expectations in specific areas. Unfortunately, none of these practices are ever communicated to the broader Class II community to help other licensees avoid the same problem or achieve high standards. In this poster, ACFD will highlight safety practices that go beyond expectations. These practices are taken from observations during site inspections between 2007 and 2013 and will be presented in six areas: Procedures, Participation, Awareness, Equipment, Servicing and Software. Each area briefly discusses a number of practices that the CNSC feels went beyond the expectations dictated by the licence. Where possible, names are added of the contact people at the centres who can be reached for full details of their implementations. It is hoped that this communication will assist other licensees to achieve these same high levels of compliance and possibly go beyond.

  6. Electronic health records and patient safety: co-occurrence of early EHR implementation with patient safety practices in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C; Gans, D; White, J; Nath, R; Pohl, J

    2015-01-01

    The role of electronic health records (EHR) in enhancing patient safety, while substantiated in many studies, is still debated. This paper examines early EHR adopters in primary care to understand the extent to which EHR implementation is associated with the workflows, policies and practices that promote patient safety, as compared to practices with paper records. Early adoption is defined as those who were using EHR prior to implementation of the Meaningful Use program. We utilized the Physician Practice Patient Safety Assessment (PPPSA) to compare primary care practices with fully implemented EHR to those utilizing paper records. The PPPSA measures the extent of adoption of patient safety practices in the domains: medication management, handoffs and transition, personnel qualifications and competencies, practice management and culture, and patient communication. Data from 209 primary care practices responding between 2006-2010 were included in the analysis: 117 practices used paper medical records and 92 used an EHR. Results showed that, within all domains, EHR settings showed significantly higher rates of having workflows, policies and practices that promote patient safety than paper record settings. While these results were expected in the area of medication management, EHR use was also associated with adoption of patient safety practices in areas in which the researchers had no a priori expectations of association. Sociotechnical models of EHR use point to complex interactions between technology and other aspects of the environment related to human resources, workflow, policy, culture, among others. This study identifies that among primary care practices in the national PPPSA database, having an EHR was strongly empirically associated with the workflow, policy, communication and cultural practices recommended for safe patient care in ambulatory settings.

  7. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  8. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  9. Interprofessional collaborative practice for medication safety: Nursing, pharmacy, and medical graduates' experiences and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amanda Jane; Palmer, Lorinda; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor; Outram, Sue

    2016-09-01

    Medication errors are the second most prevalent cause of adverse patient incidents in Australian hospital settings. Although numerous strategies to address this patient safety issue have been implemented, the impact of interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) on medication safety has received limited attention. The aim of this article is to report the perspectives and experiences of recently graduated, currently practicing Australian nurses, pharmacists, and doctors in relation to IPCP and medication safety. Sixty-eight graduates from three Australian states participated in focus groups. Thematic analysis of transcripts was conducted using an iterative process. The findings from this study illustrate how knowing about and valuing the skills and responsibilities of other team members and respecting each person's unique contribution to the work of the team can lead to more effective communication and collaboration in the context of medication safety. Although collaborative practice is critical to safe medication prescribing, dispensing, and administration, there are recurring and pervasive challenges to its achievement. This study indicated the need for improved preparation of graduates to equip them with the knowledge and skills needed to participate in an interprofessional team; and we advocate that deliberate, structured, and meaningful interprofessional clinical education initiatives are required.

  10. Injection safety practices in a main referral hospital in Northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzama, G B; Bawa, S B; Ajinoma, Z; Saidu, M M; Umar, A S

    2014-01-01

    No adherence of safe injection policies remains a major challenge, and, worldwide, annually, it leads to 21 million new hepatitis B cases and 260,000 HIV infection cases. This descriptive observational survey was conducted to determine the level of adherence to universal precaution for safe injection practices in the hospital. The study units were selected using a simple random sampling of injection services provider/phlebotomist in 27 units/wards of the hospital. The study instruments were observation checklist and interviewer administered questionnaires. EPI info (version 3.5.2) software was used for data entry and generation of descriptive statistics was done with units of analysis (units/wards) on injection safety practices of health workers, availability of logistics and supplies, and disposal methods. Only 33.3% of the units (95% CI, 16-54) had non-sharps infectious healthcare waste of any type inside containers specific for non-sharps infectious waste and 17 (77.3%) of the observed therapeutic injections were prepared on a clean, dedicated table or tray, where contamination of the equipment with blood, body fluids, or dirty swabs was unlikely. Absence of recapping of needles was observed in 11 (50.0%) units giving therapeutic injections. Only 7.4% of units surveyed had separate waste containers for infectious non-sharps. This study depicts poor knowledge and a practice of injection safety, inadequate injection safety supplies, and non-compliance to injection safety policy and guidelines.

  11. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  12. Awareness and practice of road safety measures among undergraduate medical students in a South Indian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vaman; Kanchan, Tanuj; Palanivel, C; Papanna, M K; Kumar, Nithin; Unnikrishnan, B

    2013-05-01

    The UN general assembly has declared 2011-2020 as the "Decade of Action for Road Safety". The declaration holds significance because road traffic accidents (RTAs) have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the adults and middle aged individuals who constitute economically most productive age groups of society. The importance of knowledge and practice of road safety measures needs to be emphasized in the prevention of RTAs. The present study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of road safety measures among the students of a medical college in coastal, South India. A total of 260 medical students were included in this cross-sectional study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the relevant information from the participants. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Out of the 260 participants, 149 (57.3%) were females and 111 (42.7%) were males. The overall awareness on road safety measures was slightly higher among females (20.6%) than males (19.9%). The participants had significantly low awareness with regard to alcohol and driving (4.2%), use of seat belts (20%) and use of mobile phones without hands free device (6.1%). The participants had a better knowledge about traffic signs and more than half of them identified all the signs correctly. With regard to the road safety practices, 25% were involved in drunken driving in the past one year. The practice of using mobile phones with hands free devices while driving was admitted by 20% of them. Nearly two-third participants (68%) admitted to have crossed speed limits on multiple occasions. Observations of the study emphasize on the need to generate awareness among medical students through training and IEC activities to curb the epidemic of RTAs.

  13. Baseline Practices for the Application of Genomic Data Supporting Regulatory Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dominic; Pightling, Arthur; Griffiths, Emma; Van Domselaar, Gary; Evans, Peter; Berthelet, Sharon; Craig, Duncan; Chandry, P Scott; Stones, Robert; Brinkman, Fiona; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Kreysa, Joachim; Tong, Weida; Blais, Burton

    2017-01-19

    The application of new data streams generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been demonstrated for food microbiology, pathogen identification, and illness outbreak detection. The establishment of best practices for data integrity, reproducibility, and traceability will ensure reliable, auditable, and transparent processes underlying food microbiology risk management decisions. We outline general principles to guide the use of NGS data in support of microbiological food safety. Regulatory authorities across intra- and international jurisdictions can leverage this effort to promote the reliability, consistency, and transparency of processes used in the derivation of genomic information for regulatory food safety purposes, and to facilitate interactions and the transfer of information in the interest of public health.

  14. Rating child passenger safety laws relative to best practice recommendations for occupant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Benedetti, Marco; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A

    2017-05-19

    State laws regarding child passenger protection vary substantially. The objective of this study was to develop a scoring system to rate child passenger safety laws relative to best practice recommendations for each age of child. State child passenger safety and seat belt laws were retrieved from the LexisNexis database for the years 2002-2015. Text of the laws was reviewed and compared to current best practice recommendations for child occupant protection for each age of child. A 0-4 scale was developed to rate the strength of the state law relative to current best practice recommendations. A rating of 3 corresponds to a law that requires a restraint that is sufficient to meet best practice, and a rating of 4 is given to a law that specifies several options that would meet best practice. Scores of 0, 1, or 2 are given to laws requiring less than best practice to different degrees. The same scale is used for each age of child despite different restraint recommendations for each age. Legislation that receives a score of 3 requires rear-facing child restraints for children under age 2, forward-facing harnessed child restraints for children aged 2 to 4, booster seats for children 5 to 10, and primary enforcement of seat belt use in all positions for children aged 11-13. Legislation requiring use of a "child restraint system according to instructions" would receive a score of 1 for children under age 2 and a 2 for children aged 2-4 because it would allow premature use of a booster for children weighing more than 13.6 kg (30 lb). The scoring system developed in this study can be used in mathematical models to predict how child passenger safety legislation affects child restraint practices.

  15. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  16. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-11-03

    To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Ethnographic case study. Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as "exceptions" by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge. Clinicians were often unaware of this input and it did not feature in policy

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  18. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yangho; Park, Jungsun; Park, Mijin

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21(st) century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1) how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2) the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  19. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangho Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a positive safety culture in the workplace. The characteristics of work in the 21st century have given rise to new issues related to workers' health, such as new types of work-related disorders, noncommunicable diseases, and inequality in the availability of occupational health services. Overcoming these new and emerging issues requires a culture of prevention at the national level. The present paper addresses: (1 how to change safety cultures in both theory and practice at the level of the workplace; and (2 the role of prevention culture at the national level.

  20. There is more to risk and safety planning than dramatic risks: Mental health nurses' risk assessment and safety-management practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Agnes; Doyle, Louise; Downes, Carmel; Morrissey, Jean; Costello, Paul; Brennan, Michael; Nash, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Risk assessment and safety planning are considered a cornerstone of mental health practice, yet limited research exists into how mental health nurses conceptualize 'risk' and how they engage with risk assessment and safety planning. The aim of the present study was to explore mental health nurses' practices and confidence in risk assessment and safety planning. A self-completed survey was administered to 381 mental health nurses in Ireland. The findings indicate that nurses focus on risk to self and risk to others, with the risk of suicide, self-harm, substance abuse, and violence being most frequently assessed. Risk from others and 'iatrogenic' risk were less frequently considered. Overall, there was limited evidence of recovery-oriented practice in relation to risk. The results demonstrate a lack of meaningful engagement with respect to collaborative safety planning, the identification and inclusion of protective factors, and the inclusion of positive risk-taking opportunities. In addition, respondents report a lack of confidence working with positive risk taking and involving family/carers in the risk-assessment and safety-planning process. Gaps in knowledge about risk-assessment and safety-planning practice, which could be addressed through education, are identified, as are the implications of the findings for practice and research. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. The use of a basic safety investment model in a practical risk management context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aven, Terje, E-mail: terje.aven@uis.no [University of Stavanger (Norway); Hiriart, Yolande [University of Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2011-11-15

    We consider a basic model in economic safety analysis: a firm is willing to invest an amount x in safety measures to avoid an accident A, which in the case of occurrence, leads to a loss of size L. The probability of an accident is a function of x. The optimal value of x is determined by minimizing the expected costs. In the paper, we re-examine this model by adopting a practical risk/safety management perspective. We question how this model can be used for guiding the firm and regulators in determining the proper level of investment in safety. Attention is given to issues like how to determine the probability of an accident and how to take into account uncertainties that extend beyond the expected value. It is concluded that the model, with suitable extensions and if properly implemented, provides a valuable decision support tool. By focusing on investment levels and stimulating thereby the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures, the model is considered particularly useful in risk reduction (ALARP) processes. - Highlights: > It is shown how to use a basic investment model in a practical risk management setting. > The model may be a valuable decision support tool if properly implemented. > It guides decision makers on risk reduction and how to determine what is ALARP. > The model stimulates the generation of alternative risk-reducing measures.

  2. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of mothers: findings from focus group studies in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba Rao, G M; Sudershan, R V; Rao, Pratima; Vishnu Vardhana Rao, M; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2007-09-01

    In India, most of the diarrhoeal deaths among children (food and water contamination. Mothers are usually the final line of defence against food borne illnesses. Thus, the role of mothers in ensuring food safety at homes is well accepted. There are hardly any studies in India to understand their knowledge, attitudes and practices on food safety. The present study was an attempt in this direction. A total of 32 Focus Group Discussions were carried out with mothers of children food safety awareness and practices are good among mothers perhaps due to the Indian food ethos passed on to them through generations. Home cooked foods are considered to be safer than prepared foods bought from outside. Many mothers were aware of the common food adulterants but do not bother to complain or take action. There is a need to create enabling environment with improved access to potable water, sanitation and cooking fuel. Spreading awareness about checking food labels and reporting to the health authorities in case of food poisoning or adulteration is also the need of the hour. The Anganwadi Centres can be the focal points for imparting food safety education to the mothers.

  3. Breast milk sharing via the internet: the practice and health and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; McNamara, Kelly A; Jayadeva, Chenali M; Braun, Ashlea C; Dillon, Chelsea E; Geraghty, Sheela R

    2014-08-01

    To characterize the practice of breast milk sharing via the internet in the US and examine factors associated with participants' communication regarding potential health and safety risks. This cross-sectional study examined all original postings (n = 254) placed during 1 week in 2011 on four websites to facilitate the sharing of breast milk. Postings were characterized for intent and health and safety topics (i.e., selling vs. donating milk, hygiene/handling practices, infectious disease screening, diet/exercise habits, substance and pharmaceutical use, milk quality claims, price) communicated between milk providers and recipients. Approximately 69% of postings were providing milk and 31% were seeking milk; 47% included identifiers. Few provider postings reflected measures to potentially reduce risks to recipients: 20% mentioned using a healthy handling/hygiene practice, 11% offered specifics about infectious disease screening, 51% mentioned limiting/abstaining from 1+ substances. The presence of indications about handling/hygiene, diet/exercise, and abstaining from substances were strongly positively associated with each other (ORs 7.42-13.80), with the odds of selling (ORs 6.03-∞), and with making quality claims (ORs 3.14-13.54), but not with disease screening. One-fifth of recipients sought milk for a child with a medical condition or poor birth outcome. Most recipients (90%) did not specify any health and safety practices of a provider in their posting. Health behaviors and screening for diseases that may affect milk safety are not prominent topics in postings seeking to share milk. This lack of communication may exacerbate the health risks to recipient infants, especially infants at increased risk due to pre-existing health conditions.

  4. [Implementation of good quality and safety practices. Descriptive study in a occupational mutual health centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanera, R; Plana, M; Moya, D; Ortner, J; Mira, J J

    2016-01-01

    To describe the level of implementation of quality and safety good practice elements in a Mutual Society health centre. A Cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of implementation of good practices using a questionnaire. Some quality dimensions were also assessed (scale 0 to 10) by a set of 87 quality coordinators of health centres and a random sample of 54 healthcare professionals working in small centres. Seventy quality coordinators and 27 professionals replied (response rates 80% and 50%, respectively. There were no differences in the assessment of quality attributes between both groups. They identified as areas for improvement: use of practice guidelines (7.6/10), scientific and technical skills (7.5/10), and patient satisfaction (7.7/10). Availability and accessibility to clinical reports, informed consent, availability of hydro-alcoholic solution, and to record allergies, were considered of high importance to be implemented, with training and research, improvements in equipment and technology plans, adherence to clinical practice guidelines and the preparation of risk maps, being of less importance. The good practices related to equipment and resources have a higher likelihood to be implemented, meanwhile those related to quality and safety attitudes have more barriers before being implemented. The mutual has a similar behaviour than other healthcare institutions. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety: A Farm and Research Team Participatory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Kit; Krenz, Jen; Harrington, Marcy; Palmández, Pablo; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Development of the Practical Solutions for Pesticide Safety guide used participatory research strategies to identify and evaluate solutions that reduce pesticide exposures for workers and their families and to disseminate these solutions. Project principles were (1) workplace chemicals belong in the workplace, and (2) pesticide handlers and farm managers are experts, with direct knowledge of production practices. The project's participatory methods were grounded in self-determination theory. Practical solutions were identified and evaluated based on five criteria: practicality, adaptability, health and safety, novelty, and regulatory compliance. Research activities that had more personal contact provided better outcomes. The Expert Working Group, composed of farm managers and pesticide handlers, was key to the identification of solutions, as were farm site visits. Audience participation, hands-on testing, and orchard field trials were particularly effective in the evaluation of potential solutions. Small work groups in a Regional Advisory Committee provided the best direction and guidance for a "user-friendly" translational document that provided evidence-based practical solutions. The "farmer to farmer" format of the guide was endorsed by both the Expert Working Group and the Regional Advisory Committee. Managers and pesticide handlers wanted to share their solutions in order to "help others stay safe," and they appreciated attribution in the guide. The guide is now being used in educational programs across the region. The fundamental concept that farmers and farmworkers are innovators and experts in agricultural production was affirmed by this study. The success of this process demonstrates the value of participatory industrial hygiene in agriculture.

  6. Work Health and Safety in Cotton Ginning Industry: A Survey of Practices in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorullah Soomro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This survey focuses on the WH&S (Work Health and Safety practices in Australia and relates them with those in Pakistan. It also highlights the planned areas of work required on WH&S in cotton ginning industry of Pakistan. This article is one a series of research studies that will inform a broader approach development. The aim of the survey was to design a standardized health and safety Act for cotton ginning industry of Pakistan and to help ginners meet their due industry obligations under the model WH&S Act. The first component of the research study survey was to review the relevant Australian work and safety model as this provides a framework to protect the health, safety and welfare of all employees at work and of other people who might be affected by the job. The second aspect of the research study survey concerned site visits to cotton gins with the support of Australian Centre for Agricultural Health & Safety, Moree, NSW. During these visits the existing ginning process in terms of WH&S were reviewed. Informal interviews were also conducted with Gin Managers and Ginning Experts regarding WH&S in the Australian cotton ginning industry.

  7. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  8. Reviewing methodologically disparate data: a practical guide for the patient safety research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina F; Long, Susannah J; Athanasiou, Thanos; Vincent, Charles A; Kroll, J Simon; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    This article addresses key questions frequently asked by researchers conducting systematic reviews in patient safety. This discipline is relatively young, and asks complex questions about complex aspects of health care delivery and experience, therefore its studies are typically methodologically heterogeneous, non-randomized and complex; but content rich and highly relevant to practice. Systematic reviews are increasingly necessary to drive forward practice and research in this area, but the data do not always lend themselves to 'standard' review methodologies. This accessible 'how-to' article demonstrates that data diversity need not preclude high-quality systematic reviews. It draws together information from published guidelines and experience within our multidisciplinary patient safety research group to provide entry-level advice for the clinician-researcher new to systematic reviewing, to non-biomedical research data or to both. It offers entry-level advice, illustrated with detailed practical examples, on defining a research question, creating a comprehensive search strategy, selecting articles for inclusion, assessing study quality, extracting data, synthesizing data and evaluating the impact of your review. The article concludes with a comment on the vital role of robust systematic reviews in the continuing advancement of the patient safety field. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  10. Examining variations in prescribing safety in UK general practice: cross sectional study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Akbarov, Artur; Rodgers, Sarah; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing in general practice in the United Kingdom, and what is the variation between practices? Methods A cross sectional study included all adult patients potentially at risk of a prescribing or monitoring error defined by a combination of diagnoses and prescriptions in 526 general practices contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) up to 1 April 2013. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of potentially hazardous prescriptions of anticoagulants, anti-platelets, NSAIDs, β blockers, glitazones, metformin, digoxin, antipsychotics, combined hormonal contraceptives, and oestrogens and monitoring by blood test less frequently than recommended for patients with repeated prescriptions of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and loop diuretics, amiodarone, methotrexate, lithium, or warfarin. Study answer and limitations 49 927 of 949 552 patients at risk triggered at least one prescribing indicator (5.26%, 95% confidence interval 5.21% to 5.30%) and 21 501 of 182 721 (11.8%, 11.6% to 11.9%) triggered at least one monitoring indicator. The prevalence of different types of potentially hazardous prescribing ranged from almost zero to 10.2%, and for inadequate monitoring ranged from 10.4% to 41.9%. Older patients and those prescribed multiple repeat medications had significantly higher risks of triggering a prescribing indicator whereas younger patients with fewer repeat prescriptions had significantly higher risk of triggering a monitoring indicator. There was high variation between practices for some indicators. Though prescribing safety indicators describe prescribing patterns that can increase the risk of harm to the patient and should generally be avoided, there will always be exceptions where the indicator is clinically justified. Furthermore there is the possibility that some information is not captured by CPRD for some practices—for example, INR results in

  11. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices. The purpose of the research reported here was to explore food handling behaviors of minority racial-ethnic consumers through in-depth discussions in focus group settings. In this way, we hoped to identify potential unique, previously unidentified food handling practices among these consumers. Nine focus groups were held in Philadelphia, PA. Three focus groups were conducted with African American consumers, three with Hispanic consumers, and three with Asian consumers. In all, 56 consumers participated. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for unique and potentially unsafe food handling behaviors. Potentially unsafe food handling practices identified among all three groups included extended time to transport food from retail to home and washing of raw poultry. Culturally unique behaviors within groups included (i) using hot water (Asian, Hispanic) or acidic solutions (African American, Hispanic) to clean raw poultry, (ii) purchasing live poultry (Asian, Hispanic), (iii) cooking poultry overnight (African American), and (iv) preparing bite-size pieces of meat prior to cooking (Asian, Hispanic). To have focus groups include a limited number of participants and nonrandom sampling means that these themes and trends cannot be extrapolated to represent food mishandling among these populations in general. Results presented here allow modification of an existing food safety survey to identify the prevalence of these food handling practices among consumers of different demographics.

  12. Patient Safety Culture in Nephrology Nurse Practice Settings: Results by Primary Work Unit, Organizational Work Setting, and Primary Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beth; Kear, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety culture is critical to the achievement of patient safety. In 2014, a landmark national study was conducted to investigate patient safety culture in nephrology nurse practice settings. In this secondary analysis of data from that study, we report the status of patient safety culture by primary work unit (chronic hemodialysis unit, acute hemodialysis unit, peritoneal dialysis unit) and organizational work setting (for-profit organization, not-for-profit organization), and compare the perceptions of direct care nurses and managers/administrators on components of patient safety culture.

  13. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  14. Health Status, Occupational Hygiene & Safety Practices among Female Workers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbulKashem Obidul HUQ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the rising of baking industries in Bangladesh, more female workers are surprisingly engaged compared to male workers. The major aim of this study was to observe the working conditions, available safety facilities and hygiene maintained by the female workers.Methods: A cross sectional survey was carried out among the randomly selected 384 female workers from different baking industries located at Dhaka and Tangail regions in Bangladesh by a well-designed semi-structured questionnaire.Results: About 33% of all respondents opined the machine room was congested, 27% narrow packaging and sealing room while 37% unhealthy storage areas. Two industries did not have proper accident prevention facilities. Although all the industries had monitoring personnel hygiene practices, about 40% of the workers were found not strictly maintaining some basic personal hygiene criteria. Socio-demographic result showed that the workers education level and monthly family income were poor. About 59.1% of all workers were suffering from various degrees of Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED. It was also observed that nutritional status of the workers significantly related to their expenditure of the foods and working loads (χ2 Value < 0.05.Conclusion: The survey revealed that the occupational hygiene and safety practices were not at satisfactory level in some selected food industries in Bangladesh. The currently available food safety tools and system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP should be adapted by the industries and concurrently ensure the sufficient wages for workers. Keywords: Industrial female workers, Occupational hygiene, Safety practices, Chronic Energy Deficiencies (CED 

  15. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  16. Maximising harm reduction in early specialty training for general practice: validation of a safety checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowie Paul

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Making health care safer is a key policy priority worldwide. In specialty training, medical educators may unintentionally impact on patient safety e.g. through failures of supervision; providing limited feedback on performance; and letting poorly developed behaviours continue unchecked. Doctors-in-training are also known to be susceptible to medical error. Ensuring that all essential educational issues are addressed during training is problematic given the scale of the tasks to be undertaken. Human error and the reliability of local systems may increase the risk of safety-critical topics being inadequately covered. However adherence to a checklist reminder may improve the reliability of task delivery and maximise harm reduction. We aimed to prioritise the most safety-critical issues to be addressed in the first 12-weeks of specialty training in the general practice environment and validate a related checklist reminder. Methods We used mixed methods with different groups of GP educators (n = 127 and specialty trainees (n = 9 in two Scottish regions to prioritise, develop and validate checklist content. Generation and refinement of checklist themes and items were undertaken on an iterative basis using a range of methods including small group work in dedicated workshops; a modified-Delphi process; and telephone interviews. The relevance of potential checklist items was rated using a 4-point scale content validity index to inform final inclusion. Results 14 themes (e.g. prescribing safely; dealing with medical emergency; implications of poor record keeping; and effective & safe communication and 47 related items (e.g. how to safety-net face-to-face or over the telephone; knowledge of practice systems for results handling; recognition of harm in children were judged to be essential safety-critical educational issues to be covered. The mean content validity index ratio was 0.98. Conclusion A checklist was developed and

  17. Effects of organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on PPE usage, engineering controls, and adverse events involving liquid antineoplastic drugs among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M; Smith, Todd D; Woldu, Henok; Dyal, Mari-Amanda; Steege, Andrea L; Boiano, James M

    2017-07-01

    Antineoplastic drugs pose risks to the healthcare workers who handle them. This fact notwithstanding, adherence to safe handling guidelines remains inconsistent and often poor. This study examined the effects of pertinent organizational safety practices and perceived safety climate on the use of personal protective equipment, engineering controls, and adverse events (spill/leak or skin contact) involving liquid antineoplastic drugs. Data for this study came from the 2011 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers which included a sample of approximately 1,800 nurses who had administered liquid antineoplastic drugs during the past seven days. Regression modeling was used to examine predictors of personal protective equipment use, engineering controls, and adverse events involving antineoplastic drugs. Approximately 14% of nurses reported experiencing an adverse event while administering antineoplastic drugs during the previous week. Usage of recommended engineering controls and personal protective equipment was quite variable. Usage of both was better in non-profit and government settings, when workers were more familiar with safe handling guidelines, and when perceived management commitment to safety was higher. Usage was poorer in the absence of specific safety handling procedures. The odds of adverse events increased with number of antineoplastic drugs treatments and when antineoplastic drugs were administered more days of the week. The odds of such events were significantly lower when the use of engineering controls and personal protective equipment was greater and when more precautionary measures were in place. Greater levels of management commitment to safety and perceived risk were also related to lower odds of adverse events. These results point to the value of implementing a comprehensive health and safety program that utilizes available hazard controls and effectively communicates

  18. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  19. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  20. Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabanda, Fortune; Hlortsi, Eli Hope; Owusu-Kwarteng, James

    2017-01-06

    In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235) institutional food-handlers. The questionnaire was peer-reviewed and pilot tested in three institutions in the Upper East Region of Ghana, before the final version was distributed to food-handlers. The questionnaire was structured into five distinctive parts to collect information on (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) employees' work satisfaction, (iii) knowledge on food safety, (iv) attitudes towards food safety and (v) food hygiene practices. Majority of the food-handlers were between 41-50 years (39.1%). Female respondents were (76.6%). In our study, the food-handlers were knowledgeable about hygienic practices, cleaning and sanitation procedures. Almost all of the food-handlers were aware of the critical role of general sanitary practices in the work place, such as hand washing (98.7% correct answers), using gloves (77.9%), proper cleaning of the instruments/utensils (86.4%) and detergent use (72.8%). On disease transmission, the results indicates that 76.2% of the food- handlers did not know that Salmonella is a food borne pathogens and 70.6% did not know that hepatitis A is a food borne pathogen. However, 81.7% handlers agreed that typhoid fever is transmitted by food and 87.7% agreed that bloody diarrhea is transmitted by food. Logistic regression analysis testing four models showed statistically significant differences

  1. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen Haileselassie; Habtamu Taddele; Kelali Adhana; Shewit Kalayou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assesse...

  2. Best Practices for Chemotherapy Administration in Pediatric Oncology: Quality and Safety Process Improvements (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looper, Karen; Winchester, Kari; Robinson, Deborah; Price, Andrea; Langley, Rachel; Martin, Gina; Jones, Sally; Holloway, Jodi; Rosenberg, Susanne; Flake, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The administration of chemotherapy to children with cancer is a high-risk process that must be performed in a safe and consistent manner with high reliability. Clinical trials play a major role in the treatment of children with cancer; conformance to chemotherapy protocol requirements and accurate documentation in the medical record are critical. Inconsistencies in the administration and documentation of chemotherapy were identified as opportunities for errors to occur. A major process improvement was initiated to establish best practices for nurses who administer chemotherapy to children. An interdisciplinary team was formed to evaluate the current process and to develop best practices based on current evidence, protocol requirements, available resources, and safety requirements. The process improvement focused on the establishment of standardized and safe administration techniques, exact administration times, and consistent electronic documentation that could easily be retrieved in medical record audits. Quality improvement tools including SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation), process mapping, PDSA (Plan, Do. Study, Act) cycles, and quality metrics were used with this process improvement. The team established best practices in chemotherapy administration to children that have proven to be safe and reliable. Follow-up data have demonstrated that the project was highly successful and improved accuracy, patient and nurse safety, and effectiveness of chemotherapy administration.

  3. Customer Relationship Management System in Occupational Safety & Health Companies: Research on Practice and Preliminary Design Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fabac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent contemporary trends in formation of companies is the approach to development of a customer-oriented company. In this matter, various versions related to the intensity of this orientation are differentiated. Customer relationship management (CRM system is a well-known concept, and its practice is being studied and improved in connection to various sectors. Companies providing services of occupational safety and health (OHS mainly cooperate with a large number of customers and the quality of this cooperation largely affects the occupational safety and health of employees. Therefore, it is of both scientific and wider social interest to study and improve the relationship of these companies with their customers. This paper investigates the practice of applying CRM in Croatian OHS companies. It identifies the existing conditions and suggests possible improvements in the practice of CRM, based on experts’ assessments using analytic hierarchy process evaluation. Universal preliminary design was created as a framework concept for the formation of a typical customer-oriented OHS services company. Preliminary design includes a structural view, which provides more details through system diagrams, and an illustration of main cooperation processes of a company with its customer.

  4. Adherence of backcountry winter recreationists to avalanche prevention and safety practices in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, E; Strapazzon, G; Dal Cappello, T; Castlunger, L; Staffler, H P; Brugger, H

    2014-10-01

    Backcountry recreationists account for a high percentage of avalanche fatalities, but the total number of recreationists and relative percentage of different recreation types are unknown. The aim of this study was to collect the first comprehensive survey of backcountry skiers and snowshoers in a region in the European Alps to quantify adherence to basic prevention and safety practices. Over a 1-week period in February 2011 in South Tyrol, Italy, 5576 individuals (77.7% skiers, 22.3% snowshoers) in 1927 groups were surveyed. Significantly more skiers than snowshoers could report the avalanche danger level (52.5% vs 28.0% of groups) and carried standard rescue equipment (transceiver, probe, and shovel) (80.6% vs 13.7% of individuals). Complete adherence to minimum advisable practices (i.e., an individual being in a group with one member correctly informed about the danger level and carrying personal standard rescue equipment) was 41.5%, but was significantly higher in skiers (51.1% vs 8.7% snowshoers) and in individuals who were younger, reported more tours per season, traveled in larger groups, and started earlier. A transnational survey over a complete winter season would be required to obtain total participation prevalence, detect regional differences, and assess the influence of prevention and safety practices on relative reduction in mortality.

  5. A review of health and safety leadership and managerial practices on modern dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagevoort, G Robert; Douphrate, David I; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    As modern dairy operations around the world expand, farmers are increasingly reliant on greater automation and larger numbers of hired labor to milk cows and perform other essential farm tasks. Dairy farming is among the most dangerous occupations, with high rates of injury, illness, and employee turnover. Lower education levels, illiteracy, and limited language proficiency increase the possibility of injury or death associated with higher risk occupations such as dairy. Sustaining a healthy, productive workforce is a critical component of risk management; however, many owners and managers have not received formal training in employee management or occupational health and safety. Optimal dairy farming management should address milk production that is sustainable and responsible from the animal welfare, social, economic, and environmental perspectives. Each of these aspects is interdependent with each other and with a sustainable, healthy, productive workforce. Very few studies address the effectiveness of risk management in the dairy industry. Studies suggest that labor management practices are a potential competitive advantage for dairy farms, but the connection with efficiency, productivity, and profitability has not been clearly demonstrated. Transformational leadership has been associated with improved safety climate and reduced incidence of injury, whereas passive leadership styles have opposite effects. There is a need to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of safety-specific transformational leadership among dairy owners and managers. A systematic approach to risk management should address worker health and safety as an integral component of production, food safety, and animal welfare. A successful program must address the cultural and linguistic barriers associated with immigrant workers.

  6. Codifying knowledge to improve patient safety: a qualitative study of practice-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Simon; Higginson, Juliet; Oborne, C Alice; Thomas, Rebecca E; Ramsay, Angus I G; Fulop, Naomi J

    2014-07-01

    Although it is well established that health care professionals use tacit and codified knowledge to provide front-line care, less is known about how these two forms of knowledge can be combined to support improvement related to patient safety. Patient safety interventions involving the codification of knowledge were co-designed by university and hospital-based staff in two English National Health Service (NHS) hospitals to support the governance of medication safety and mortality and morbidity (M&M) meetings. At hospital A, a structured mortality review process was introduced into three clinical specialities from January to December 2010. A qualitative approach of observing M&M meetings (n = 30) and conducting interviews (n = 40) was used to examine the impact on meetings and on front-line clinicians and hospital managers. At hospital B, a medication safety 'scorecard' was administered on a general medicine and elderly care ward from September to November 2011. Weekly feedback meetings were observed (n = 18) and interviews with front-line staff conducted (n = 10) to examine how knowledge codification influenced behaviour. Codification was shown to support learning related to patient safety at the micro (front-line service) level by structuring the sharing of tacit knowledge, but the presence of professional and managerial boundaries at the organisational level affected the codification initiatives' implementation. The findings suggest that codifying knowledge to support improvement presents distinct challenges at the group and organisational level; translating knowledge across these levels is contingent on the presence of enabling organisational factors, including the alignment of learning from clinical practice with its governance.

  7. Eye tracking as a debriefing mechanism in the simulated setting improves patient safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Elizabeth A; Cunningham, Helene; Fisher, Donald L; Plotkin, Karen; Nathanson, Brian H; Roche, Joan P; Marquard, Jenna L; Reilly, Cheryl A; Henneman, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    Human patient simulation has been widely adopted in healthcare education despite little research supporting its efficacy. The debriefing process is central to simulation education, yet alternative evaluation methods to support providing optimal feedback to students have not been well explored. Eye tracking technology is an innovative method for providing objective evaluative feedback to students after a simulation experience. The purpose of this study was to compare 3 forms of simulation-based student feedback (verbal debrief only, eye tracking only, and combined verbal debrief and eye tracking) to determine the most effective method for improving student knowledge and performance. An experimental study using a pretest-posttest design was used to compare the effectiveness of 3 types of feedback. The subjects were senior baccalaureate nursing students in their final semester enrolled at a large university in the northeast United States. Students were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 intervention groups. All groups performed better in the posttest evaluation than in the pretest. Certain safety practices improved significantly in the eye tracking-only group. These criteria were those that required an auditory and visual comparison of 2 artifacts such as "Compares patient stated name with name on ID band." Eye tracking offers a unique opportunity to provide students with objective data about their behaviors during simulation experiences, particularly related to safety practices that involve the comparison of patient stated data to an artifact such as an ID band. Despite the limitations of current eye tracking technology, there is significant potential for the use of this technology as a method for the study and evaluation of patient safety practices.

  8. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  9. Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piermarco Aroldi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.

  10. Use of Safety Pin on Garments in Pregnancy: A Belief and Cultural Practice with Potential Harmful Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kola M Owonikoko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Culture has been known to influence practices and beliefs of people world over. Several cultural practices have been noted among pregnant women who were passed from one generation to the next with its potential harmful and beneficial effect. The use of safety pin in is one of such cultural practices that are widely practiced by many pregnant Nigerian women. Objective: We sought to gain a deeper understanding of the source of knowledge and motivation behind the use of safety pin on garments during pregnancy as well as explore potential harmful side effects of this cultural practice. Methodology: A total of 419 pregnant women completed questionnaires for a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Safety pin knowledge and motivation for use on garments were assessed using a pre-tested 16 item questionnaire. Consenting women either completed a self-administered structured questionnaire or utilized the help of trained research assistants. Chi-square tests were used to assess relationships between safety pin use on garments and predictor variables. Analysis was done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results: Of 419 participants, over half (n = 227 reported safety pin use on garments in pregnancy. About two-thirds (n = 177 of women who use safety pin reported older female relatives as their source of information. The mean age of the participants was 29.1 ± 5.74 (range 16–45 years. Traditional religion worshippers were more likely (81.2% and Christians were least likely to use safety pin (50.7% during pregnancy. Pregnant women with a tertiary education (50.4% were least likely to use safety pin compared with women with no or less than a tertiary level of education. Protection of pregnancy against demons/witchcrafts was the reason given by 129 (56.8% of participants using safety pin in pregnancy. Conclusion: The use of safety pin on garments during pregnancy is a common cultural practice in southwest Nigeria. Our

  11. Investigating the experiences of New Zealand MRI technologists: Exploring intra-orbital metallic foreign body safety practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Philippa K [River Radiology, Victoria Clinic, 750 Victoria Street, Hamilton, Waikato (New Zealand); Henwood, Suzanne [Unitec - Medical Imaging, Unitec Ratanui Street Henderson, Auckland (New Zealand); River Radiology, Victoria Clinic, 750 Victoria Street, Hamilton, Waikato (New Zealand)

    2013-12-15

    Qualitative research is lacking regarding the experiences of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists and their involvement in workplace safety practices. This article provides a gateway to explore, describe and document experiences of MRI technologists in New Zealand (NZ) pertaining to intra-orbital metallic foreign body (IMFB) safety practices. This phenomenological study describes the experiences of seven MRI technologists all with a minimum of 5 years' NZ work experience in MRI. The MRI technologists were interviewed face-to-face regarding their professional IMFB workplace experiences in order to explore historical, current and potential issues. Findings demonstrated that aspects of organization and administration are fundamentally important to MRI technologists. Varying levels of education and knowledge, as well as experience and skills gained, have significantly impacted on MRI technologists’ level of confidence and control in IMFB practices. Participants’ descriptions of their experiences in practice regarding decision-making capabilities further highlight the complexity of these themes. A model was developed to demonstrate the interrelated nature of the themes and the complexity of the situation in totality. Findings of this study have provided insight into the experiences of MRI technologists pertaining to IMFB safety practices and highlighted inconsistencies. It is hoped that these findings will contribute to and improve the level of understanding of MRI technologists and the practices and protocols involved in IMFB safety screening. The scarcity of available literature regarding IMFB safety practices highlights that more research is required to investigate additional aspects that could improve MRI technologists’ experiences.

  12. Factors Influencing Knowledge, Food Safety Practices and Food Preferences During Warm Weather of Salmonella and Campylobacter Cases in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Adriana; Giles, Lynne C; Zhang, Ying; Koehler, Ann P; Hiller, Janet E; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-01

    To assess food safety practices, food shopping preferences, and eating behaviors of people diagnosed with Salmonella or Campylobacter infection in the warm seasons, and to identify socioeconomic factors associated with behavior and practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Salmonella and Campylobacter cases with onset of illness from January 1 to March 31, 2013. Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined relationships between socioeconomic position and food safety knowledge and practices, shopping and food preferences, and preferences, perceptions, and knowledge about food safety information on warm days. Respondents in our study engaged in unsafe personal and food hygiene practices. They also carried out unsafe food preparation practices, and had poor knowledge of foods associated with an increased risk of foodborne illness. Socioeconomic position did not influence food safety practices. We found that people's reported eating behaviors and food preferences were influenced by warm weather. Our study has explored preferences and practices related to food safety in the warm season months. This is important given that warmer ambient temperatures are projected to rise, both globally and in Australia, and will have a substantial effect on the burden of infectious gastroenteritis including foodborne disease. Our results provide information about modifiable behaviors for the prevention of foodborne illness in the household in the warm weather and the need for information to be disseminated across the general population. An understanding of the knowledge and factors associated with human behavior during warmer weather is critical for public health interventions on foodborne prevention.

  13. Knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isara, A R; Isah, E C

    2009-09-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among food handlers in fast food restaurants in Benin City, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 350 respondents who were selected by means of a systematic sampling method and interviewed using a semi-structured researcher-administered questionnaire. An observational checklist was thereafter used to inspect their personal hygiene status. The mean age of the food handlers was 26.4 +/- 6.1 years. Two hundred and twenty eight (65.1%) were females while 34.9% were males. A majority (98%) of the respondents had formal education. There was good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety among the respondents. Knowledge was significantly influenced by previous training in food hygiene and safety (p = 0.002). Food handlers who had worked for longer years in the fast food restaurants had better practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.036). The level of education of respondents did not significantly influenced their practice of food hygiene and safety (p = 0.084). Although, 299 (85.4%) food handlers were generally clean, skin lesions was seen in 4 (7.3%) of them. This study showed good knowledge and practice of food hygiene and safety by food handlers in the fast food restaurants in Benin City, but there is need for improvement through training and retraining of food handlers by the management of the restaurants and the local government authorities.

  14. A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children.

  15. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  16. Helping Gulf shrimpers adopt safety measures: importance of partnerships and research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Carruth, Ann; Wickman, Amanda; Shepherd, Sara; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Commercial fishing continues to be a dangerous line of work. There are many hazards and the work is complex, even on a small scale. Along the United States Gulf Coast, the make-up of the commercial fishing population is diverse, with many Vietnamese shrimpers. Cultural barriers can interfere with critical communication and with receptivity to necessary safety training. In the course of studying these factors, it became apparent that language was a significant barrier among Vietnamese shrimp fishermen learning sound signals and making Mayday calls, potentially contributing to adverse events. This article is a qualitative description of a pilot project in response to this observation and aimed at the development of a model simulating the bridge of a commercial fishing vessel (including horn blast and radio). The model is used to improve knowledge and skills of the fishermen by providing instruction in Vietnamese. As a Mayday call must be made in English, instructional aids are provided to assist fishermen in the exercise. This example of research to practice (r2p) demonstrates how research findings may enhance acquisition of safety knowledge and skills through development of these types of models as well sustainable instructional tools like the multi-lingual interactive CD described here. It further illustrates the importance of partnerships in the design and delivery of workplace safety training interventions. The model, instructional aids, and CD are timely as they coincide with new regulation which mandates certification of these competencies or skills.

  17. Risk Assessment in the UK Health and Safety System: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Russ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, a person or organisation that creates risk is required to manage and control that risk so that it is reduced 'So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable' (SFAIRP. How the risk is managed is to be determined by those who create the risk. They have a duty to demonstrate that they have taken action to ensure all risk is reduced SFAIRP and must have documentary evidence, for example a risk assessment or safety case, to prove that they manage the risks their activities create. The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE does not tell organisations how to manage the risks they create but does inspect the quality of risk identification and management. This paper gives a brief overview of where responsibility for occupational health and safety lies in the UK, and how risk should be managed through risk assessment. The focus of the paper is three recent major UK incidents, all involving fatalities, and all of which were wholly avoidable if risks had been properly assessed and managed. The paper concludes with an analysis of the common failings of risk assessments and key actions for improvement.

  18. [Qualitative evaluation of employer requirements associated with occupational health and safety as good practice in small-scale enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Naomi; Miyashita, Nana; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Kayashima, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Takada, Mikio; Nagata, Tomohisa; Yamataki, Hajime; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Kan, Hirohiko; Morita, Tetsuya; Ito, Akiyoshi; Mori, Koji

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what motivates employers to promote good occupational health and safety practices in small-scale enterprises. Previous studies have shown that small-scale enterprises generally pay insufficient attention to issues of occupational health and safety. These findings were mainly derived from questionnaire based surveys. Nevertheless, some small-scale enterprises in which employers exercise good leadership do take a progressive approach to occupational health and safety. Although good practices can be identified in small-scale enterprises, it remains unclear what motivates employers in small-scale enterprises to actively implement occupational health and safety practices. We speculated that identifying employer motivations in promoting occupational health would help to spread good practices among small-scale enterprises. Using a qualitative approach based on the KJ methods, we interviewed ten employers who actively promote occupational health and safety in the workplace. The employers were asked to discuss their views of occupational health and safety in their own words. A semi-structured interview format was used, and transcripts were made of the interviews. Each transcript was independently coded by two or more researchers. These transcripts and codes were integrated and then the research group members discussed the heading titles and structural relationships between them according to the KJ method. Qualitative analysis revealed that all the employers expressed a strong interest in a "good company" and "good management". They emphasized four elements of "good management", namely "securing human resources", "trust of business partners", "social responsibility" and "employer's health condition itself", and considered that addressing occupational health and safety was essential to the achievement of these four elements. Consistent with previous findings, the results showed that implementation of occupational health and safety

  19. Preclinical safety evaluations supporting pediatric drug development with biopharmaceuticals: strategy, challenges, current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, LaRonda L; Bowman, Christopher J; Blanset, Diann L; Bøgh, Ingrid B; Chellman, Gary J; Halpern, Wendy G; Weinbauer, Gerhard F; Coogan, Timothy P

    2011-08-01

    Evaluation of pharmaceutical agents in children is now conducted earlier in the drug development process. An important consideration for this pediatric use is how to assess and support its safety. This article is a collaborative effort of industry toxicologists to review strategies, challenges, and current practice regarding preclinical safety evaluations supporting pediatric drug development with biopharmaceuticals. Biopharmaceuticals include a diverse group of molecular, cell-based or gene therapeutics derived from biological sources or complex biotechnological processes. The principles of preclinical support of pediatric drug development for biopharmaceuticals are similar to those for small molecule pharmaceuticals and in general follow the same regulatory guidances outlined by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. However, many biopharmaceuticals are also inherently different, with limited species specificity or immunogenic potential which may impact the approach taken. This article discusses several key areas to aid in the support of pediatric clinical use, study design considerations for juvenile toxicity studies when they are needed, and current practices to support pediatric drug development based on surveys specifically targeting biopharmaceutical development. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. 75 FR 24799 - Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races Practice Sessions, Columbia River, Kennewick...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Tri-City Water Follies Hydroplane Races..., Washington for hydroplane race practice sessions being held in preparation for the Tri-City Water Follies... associated with the hydroplane practice sessions could lead to severe injury, fatalities, and/or...

  1. Trainers and Learners Constructing a Community of Practice: Masculine Work Cultures and Learning Safety in the Mining Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Margaret; Abrahamsson, Lena

    2003-01-01

    Interviews and observations involving 20 coal miners and 7 trainers found the group constructed a community of practice that reinforced the culture of masculinity. Miners learned safety measures through experience and from coworkers. Trainers viewed their work as simulated environments and codified practices, which implicitly devalue experiential…

  2. Medication Safety in Clinical Trials: Role of the Pharmacist in Optimizing Practice, Collaboration, and Education to Reduce Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie N; Britnell, Sara R; Stivers, Andrew P; Cruz, Jennifer L

    2017-03-01

    Standardized safety practices for investigational drugs in clinical research protocols are limited and the vast majority of research pharmacists have concerns regarding its safety. Identified areas for medication safety risks include protocol complexity, medication ordering, and the processes for packaging, storage, and dispensing investigational medications. Inclusion of a pharmacist creates multiple mechanisms to promote safety and improve the quality of clinical research. This is accomplished through collaborating in the development of a research protocol, reviewing as a member of an advisory committee, developing mechanisms that contribute to safety, and assuring compliance with local and national regulations and standards. Ultimately, the profession of pharmacy has foundational responsibility for assuring the safe and effective use of medications, including investigational drugs in clinical research. It is through multidisciplinary collaboration that a research study will attain the highest standards for safety and maximize the quality and effectiveness of the data obtained in the clinical trial.

  3. Medication Safety in Clinical Trials: Role of the Pharmacist in Optimizing Practice, Collaboration, and Education to Reduce Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie N.; Britnell, Sara R.; Stivers, Andrew P.; Cruz, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Standardized safety practices for investigational drugs in clinical research protocols are limited and the vast majority of research pharmacists have concerns regarding its safety. Identified areas for medication safety risks include protocol complexity, medication ordering, and the processes for packaging, storage, and dispensing investigational medications. Inclusion of a pharmacist creates multiple mechanisms to promote safety and improve the quality of clinical research. This is accomplished through collaborating in the development of a research protocol, reviewing as a member of an advisory committee, developing mechanisms that contribute to safety, and assuring compliance with local and national regulations and standards. Ultimately, the profession of pharmacy has foundational responsibility for assuring the safe and effective use of medications, including investigational drugs in clinical research. It is through multidisciplinary collaboration that a research study will attain the highest standards for safety and maximize the quality and effectiveness of the data obtained in the clinical trial. PMID:28356900

  4. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  5. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  6. Occupational health and safety management practices and musculoskeletal disorders in aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Bartram, Timothy

    2017-05-15

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether occupational health and safety (OHS) management used to manage musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the aged care sector reflects contemporary research evidence of best practice to reduce the incidence of these disorders. Design/methodology/approach In total, 58 interviews were conducted with managers and supervisors in the aged care sector across four organisations in Australia. Policies and procedures relating to MSDs were reviewed for each organisation. Findings Policies and procedures for managing MSDs do not reflect contemporary evidence, which supports a complex aetiology, related to a range of physical and psychosocial workplace factors. Despite strong evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to MSD development, these were not included in the policies and procedures reviewed. Findings from the interviews management practices including leadership and various components of HRM were functioning well but fragmentation was evident due to the challenging nature of the aged care sector. Practical implications To address the significant burden of MSDs in the aged care sector, policies and procedures need to include coverage of psychosocial and physical workplace factors. The development of systematic and integrated OHS management at the workplace level may play an important role in the effective management of MSDs. Originality/value This study offers insights into the previously unexplored area of MSD risk management and the role of management practices such as HRM in the aged care sector.

  7. Occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers from Alto Tietê region (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marcela G; Colasso, Camilla G; Monteiro, Paula P; Pedreira Filho, Walter R; Yonamine, Maurício

    2012-02-01

    In this preliminary study the occupational safety and health practices among flower greenhouses workers were evaluated. The study was carried out in the alto Tietê region, located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Inadequate welfare facilities; poor pesticide storage, use and disposal conditions; use of highly toxic pesticides; lack of adequate data regarding pesticide use; and incorrect use and maintenance of PPE were observed in most of the visited greenhouses. These results suggest that, in greenhouses, workers may be at higher risk of pesticide exposure, due to many factors that can intensify the exposure such as the lack of control on reentry intervals after pesticide application. Specific regulations are needed to ensure better OSH practices on pesticide use and to improve working conditions in greenhouses, in order to deal with the peculiarities of greenhouse working environment. Some of the special requirements for greenhouses workers' protection are the establishment of ventilation criteria for restricted entry interval; clear reentry restrictions; and EPI for workers other than applicators that need to enter the greenhouse before expiring REI interval. Another important way to improve OSH practices among workers includes the distribution of simple guidelines on the dos and don'ts regarding OSH practices in greenhouses and extensively training interventions to change the perception of hazards and the behavior towards risk.

  8. Intravenous bisphosphonates for postmenopausal osteoporosis: safety profiles of zoledronic acid and ibandronate in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Patricia; Lardelli, Patrizia; Kraenzlin, Claude A; Kraenzlin, Marius E; Meier, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Intravenous bisphosphonates are widely used for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. They are associated with transient influenza-like symptoms, predominantly after the first zoledronic acid (up to 32 %) or ibandronate (up to 5 %) administration. The experience in clinical practice suggests that the incidence of post-dose symptoms is higher than has been reported in clinical trials. We assessed the safety of annual infusions of zoledronic acid and 3-monthly injections of ibandronate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this retrospective study we analysed safety data from 272 postmenopausal women treated with zoledronic acid (n = 127; mean age 68.6 ± 9.4 years) or intravenous (IV) ibandronate (n = 145; mean age 69.1 ± 9.0 years). Safety data (including occurrence of acute-phase reactions and osteonecrosis of the jaw) were gathered in phone call interviews by using a standardized questionnaire. The number of patients with adverse events was significantly higher in zoledronic acid as compared to ibandronate-treated patients, primarily because of a larger number of post-dose symptoms after bisphosphonate administrations (54.3 % vs. 33.1 %, p 3 days in approximately 50 % of patients. The incidence of symptoms decreased after subsequent infusions. The rate of influenza-like symptoms was more frequent after zoledronic acid than after IV ibandronate in bisphosphonate-naïve patients but comparable in patients pretreated with oral bisphosphonates. There were no spontaneous reports of osteonecrosis of the jaw, arrhythmia or delayed fracture healing. Although IV bisphosphonates are generally safe, the occurrence of transient influenza-like symptoms after IV bisphosphonates seems to be more frequent in clinical practice than has been reported in clinical trials.

  9. Rivaroxaban real-world evidence: Validating safety and effectiveness in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Tamayo, Sally

    2016-09-28

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard of clinical research as they use rigorous methodologies, detailed protocols, pre-specified statistical analyses and well-defined patient cohorts. However, RCTs do not take into account the complexity of real-world clinical decision-making. To tackle this, real-world data are being increasingly used to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of a given therapy in routine clinical practice and in patients who may not be represented in RCTs, addressing key clinical questions that may remain. Real-world evidence plays a substantial role in supporting the use of non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in clinical practice. By providing data on patient profiles and the use of anticoagulation therapies in routine clinical practice, real-world evidence expands the current awareness of NOACs, helping to ensure that clinicians are well-informed on their use to implement patient-tailored clinical decisions. There are various issues with current anticoagulation strategies, including under- or overtreatment and frequent monitoring with VKAs. Real-world studies have demonstrated that NOAC use is increasing (Dresden NOAC registry and Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-AF [GARFIELD-AF]), as well as reaffirming the safety and effectiveness of rivaroxaban previously observed in RCTs (XArelto on preveNtion of sTroke and non-central nervoUS system systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation [XANTUS] and IMS Disease Analyzer). This article will describe the latest updates in real-world evidence across a variety of methodologies, such as non-interventional studies (NIS), registries and database analyses studies. It is anticipated that these studies will provide valuable clinical insights into the management of thromboembolism, and enhance the current knowledge on anticoagulant use and outcomes for patients.

  10. Supporting transvisibility and gender diversity in nursing practice and education: embracing cultural safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Peter; Fitton, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    Many nursing education programs deserve a failing grade with respect to supporting gender diversity in their interactions with their students and in terms of the curricular content directed toward engaging in the safe and supportive nursing care of transgender clients. This situation contributes to transinvisibility in the nursing profession and lays a foundation for nursing practice that does not recognize the role that gender identity plays in the health and well-being of trans-clients and trans-nurses. This article seeks to raise readers' awareness about the problems inherent to transinvisibility and to propose several curricular and structural-level interventions that may serve to gradually increase the recognition of gender diversity in the planning and delivery of nursing education and practice. Contextualized in gender and intersectionality theory, cultural safety is presented as a viable and appropriate framework for engaging in these upstream approaches to addressing gender diversity in nursing education and practice. Among the structural interventions proposed are as follows: inclusive information systems, creation of gender neutral and safe spaces, lobbying for inclusion of competencies that address care of trans-persons in accreditation standards and licensure examinations and engaging in nursing research in this area. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal safety precautions in class IV employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megha, Khobragade; Daksha, Pandit

    2013-01-01

    Norms and guidelines are formed for safe disposal of hospital waste but question is whether these guidelines are being followed and if so, to what extent. Hence, this study was conducted with objective to study the knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal safety precautions in class IV employee and to study its relationship with education, occupation and training. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Mumbai using semi-structured questionnaire in which Class IV employee were included. Questionnaire was filled by face to face interview. Data were analyzed using SPSS. 48.7% Class IV employee were not trained. More than 40% were following correct practices about disinfection of infectious waste. None of the respondents were using protective footwear while handling hospital waste. Only 25.5% were vaccinated for hepatitis B. 16% had done HIV testing due to contact with blood, body fluid, needle stick injury. Knowledge and practices about hospital waste disposal and universal precaution were statistically significant in trained respondents. Training of employees should be given top priority; those already in service should be given on the job training at the earliest.

  12. Treatment of paediatric scalp psoriasis with calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation: effectiveness, safety and influence on children's quality of life in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, A.M.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Donders, A.R.T.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Seyger, M.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on efficacy and safety of topical treatments for paediatric scalp psoriasis is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation for paediatric scalp psoriasis in daily clinical practice.

  13. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge, Attitude, Self-Reported Practices, and Microbiological Hand Hygiene of Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui Key; Abdul Halim, Hishamuddin; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2017-01-01

    Institutional foodborne illness outbreaks continue to hit the headlines in the country, indicating the failure of food handlers to adhere to safe practices during food preparation. Thus, this study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices (KAP) of food safety assessment and microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands as an indicator of hygiene practices in food premises. This study involved 85 food handlers working in a university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The food safety KAP among food handlers (n = 67) was assessed using a questionnaire; while the hand swabs (n = 85) were tested for the total aerobic count, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The food handlers had moderate levels of food safety knowledge (61.7%) with good attitude (51.9/60) and self-reported practices (53.2/60). It is noteworthy that the good self-reported practices were not reflected in the microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands, in which 65% of the food handlers examined had a total aerobic count ≥20 CFU/cm2 and Salmonella was detected on 48% of the food handlers’ hands. In conclusion, the suggestion of this study was that the food handlers had adequate food safety knowledge, but perceived knowledge failed to be translated into practices at work.

  14. Trichinella diagnostics and control: Mandatory and best practices for ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Pozio, E.; Gamble, H. R.

    2009-01-01

    in all aspects of a Trichinella diagnostic system is emphasized. It includes the use of international quality standards, test validation and standardization, critical control points, laboratory accreditation, certification of analysts and proficiency testing. Also described, are the roles and locations......Because of its role in human disease, there are increasing global requirements for reliable diagnostic and control methods for Trichinella in food animals to ensure meat safety and to facilitate trade. Consequently, there is a need for standardization of methods, programs, and best practices used...... in various porcine and equine pre- and post-slaughter programs, including farm or herd certification programs is also discussed. A brief review of the effectiveness of meat processing methods, such as freezing, cooking and preserving is provided. The importance of proper quality assurance and its application...

  15. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  16. From optimal to practical safety standards for dike-ring areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijgenraam, C J J

    2007-01-01

    After the flood disaster in 1953 in the southwestern part of the Netherlands, Van Dantzig tried to solve the economic decision problem concerning the optimal height of dikes. His solution has a fixed probability of flooding after each investment. However, when there is economic growth, not the probability of flooding but the expected yearly loss by flooding is the key variable in the real optimal safety strategy. Under some conditions, it is optimal to keep this expected loss within a constant interval. Therefore, when the potential damage increases by economic growth, the flooding probability has to decline in the course of time in order to keep the expected loss between the fixed boundaries. The purpose of the paper is to show the implications of the optimal solution in case there are differences between costs and benefits among dike-ring areas. Further, the paper focuses on the translation of the theoretical results into new legal standards that can work well in practice.

  17. Health Care providers and Teen Driving Safety: Topics Discussed and Educational Resources Used in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Ann M; West, Bethany A

    2015-11-01

    Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Health care providers have an opportunity to address what works to keep teens safe on the road during the patient visit. An online survey was conducted of 1088 health care providers who saw patients at or near driving age. The survey assessed which road safety topics were discussed and which types of educational products were used most often. Family and general practice physicians represented 44.3% of the sample, followed by pediatricians (22.5%), nurse practitioners (17.6%), and internists (15.5%). Nearly all respondents (92.9%) reported addressing one or more driving safety factors (seat belt use, nighttime driving, fatigue, teen passengers, alcohol/drug use, speeding/reckless driving, and cell phone use/texting) with adolescent patients and/or their parents. Seat belt use was reported more often (83.7%) than other topics. The use of parent-teen driving agreements, a known effective intervention, was reported by less than 10% of respondents. Since health care providers expressed interest in receiving written resource materials, distribution of parent-teen driving agreements to health care providers might encourage greater uptake and use of this effective intervention.

  18. From the Harvard Medical Practice Study to the Luxembourg Declaration. Changes in the approach to patient safety. Closing remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Damiani

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Harvard Medical Practice Study was published in 1991 the growing mass of international literature has demonstrated that medical adverse events can cause iatrogenic illnesses, prolonged hospitalisations and increased costs. In 1999-2001, reports made by the Institute of Medicine (IOM in the USA, the Department of Health (DoH in the UK and the Australian Patient Safety Foundation (APSF stressed the necessity for creating a safer environment and a reporting culture throughout healthcare systems. They also emphasized the need for researchers to investigate means of turning policies into practice. Since their publication a lot of effort has gone into collecting data on adverse events and near misses. As a result, in 2001, the AHRQ published a Health Technology Assessment report on best practices for patient safety. While in Australia national meetings have been dedicated to address important issues across the whole spectrum of healthcare. In the UK the Audit Commission has published a report that is also focused on medication safety: “A spoonful of sugar”. In 2004 the World Health Organisation promoted a Patient Safety Alliance; while in April 2005the Standing Committee of European Doctors organised a Conference in Luxembourg called “Patient safety - Making it happen!”. The issue of patient safety is therefore seen as a priority by EU institutional bodies and by many European health stakeholders.

  19. Implementation of a risk assessment tool based on a probabilistic safety assessment developed for radiotherapy practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, A.; Godinez, V.; Lopez, R., E-mail: abpaz@cnsns.gob.m [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    The present work describes the implementation process and main results of the risk assessment to the radiotherapy practices with Linear Accelerators (Linac), with cobalt 60, and with brachytherapy. These evaluations were made throughout the risk assessment tool for radiotherapy practices SEVRRA (risk evaluation system for radiotherapy), developed at the Mexican National Commission in Nuclear Safety and Safeguards derived from the outcome obtained with the Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed at the Ibero-American Regulators Forum for these radiotherapy facilities. The methodology used is supported by risk matrices method, a mathematical tool that estimates the risk to the patient, radiation workers and public from mechanical failures, mis calibration of the devices, human mistakes, and so. The initiating events are defined as those undesirable events that, together with other failures, can produce a delivery of an over-dose or an under-dose of the medical prescribed dose, to the planned target volume, or a significant dose to non prescribed human organs. Initiating events frequency and reducer of its frequency (actions intended to avoid the accident) are estimated as well as robustness of barriers to those actions, such as mechanical switches, which detect and prevent the accident from occurring. The spectrum of the consequences is parameterized, and the actions performed to reduce the consequences are identified. Based on this analysis, a software tool was developed in order to simplify the evaluations to radiotherapy installations and it has been applied as a first step forward to some Mexican installations, as part of a national implementation process, the final goal is evaluation of all Mexican facilities in the near future. The main target and benefits of the SEVRRA implementation are presented in this paper. (Author)

  20. Home Fire Safety Practices and Smoke Detector Program Awareness in an Urban Pediatric Emergency Department Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rachel Lynn; Teach, Stephen J; Rucker, Alexandra; Lall, Ambika; Chamberlain, James M; Ryan, Leticia Manning

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for residential fire death (young age, minority race/ethnicity, and low socioeconomic status) are common among urban pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Community-based resources are available in our region to provide free smoke detector installation. The objective of our study was to describe awareness of these resources and home fire safety practices in this vulnerable population. In this cross-sectional study, a brief survey was administered to a convenience sample of caregivers accompanying patients 19 years of age or younger in an urban pediatric ED in Washington, DC. Survey contents focused on participant knowledge of available community-based resources and risk factors for residential fire injury. Five hundred eleven eligible caregivers were approached, and 401 (78.5%) agreed to participate. Patients accompanying the caregivers were 48% male, 77% African American, and had a mean (SD) age of 6.5 (5.9) years. Of study participants, 256 (63.8%) lived with children younger than 5 years. When asked about available community-based resources for smoke detectors, 240 (59.9%) were unaware of these programs, 319 (79.6%) were interested in participating, and 221 (55.1%) enrolled. Presence of a home smoke detector was reported by 396 respondents (98.7%); however, 346 (86.3%) reported testing these less often than monthly. Two hundred fifty-six 256 (63.8%) lacked a carbon monoxide detector, and 202 (50.4%) had no fire escape plan. Sixty-five (16%) reported indoor smoking, and 92 (22.9%) reported space heater use. In this urban pediatric ED population, there is limited awareness of community-based resources but high rates of interest in participating once informed. Whereas the self-reported prevalence of home smoke detectors is high in our study population, other fire safety practices are suboptimal.

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  2. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  3. Renal unit practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding the safety of unfractionated heparin for chronic haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Ockhuis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic haemodialysis for adult patients with end-stage kidney failure requires a patent extracorporeal circuit, maintained by anticoagulants such as unfractionated heparin (UFH. Incorrect administration of UFH has safety implications for patients.Objectives: Firstly, to describe renal practitioners’ self-reported knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP regarding the safe use of UFH and its effects; secondly, to determine an association between KAP and selected independent variables.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey by self-administered questionnaire and non-probability convenience sampling was conducted in two tertiary hospital dialysis units and five private dialysis units in 2013.Results: The mean age of 74/77 respondents (96.1%, was 41.1 years. Most (41/77, 53.2% had 0–5 years of renal experience. The odds of enrolled nurses having poorer knowledge of UFH than registered nurses were 18.7 times higher at a 95% Confidence Interval (CI (1.9–187.4 and statistically significant (P = 0.013. The odds of delivering poor practice having ≤ five years of experience and no in-service education were 4.6 times higher at a 95% CI (1.4–15.6, than for respondents who had ≥ six years of experience (P = 0.014 and 4.3 times higher (95% CI 1.1–16.5 than for respondents who received in-service education (P = 0.032, the difference reaching statistical significance in both cases.Conclusion: Results suggest that the category of the professional influences knowledge and, thus, safe use of UFH, and that there is a direct relationship between years of experience and quality of haemodialysis practice and between having in-service education and quality of practice.

  4. A Study on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice of Laboratory Safety Measures Among Paramedical Staff of Laboratory Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structured self-administered questionnaire to survey knowledge, attitude and practice of paramedical staff. The KAP study enrolled 81 respondents. Results: Regarding knowledge- the majority knew the very important issues related with laboratory safety like Post Exposure Prophylaxis (96.55% & discarding of blood samples (93.10% etc. In regard to attitude towards the scientific process, all are very much aware about importance of protective devices (i.e. Wearing Gloves and Biomedical waste management. In regard to the practice in laboratory, the entire study subject group (100% replied “YES” in each question that shows the good quality work of the laboratory. Conclusion: The induction training on Laboratory safety is very important and motivating exercise for improving the laboratory safety measures.

  5. Thinking in three's: Changing surgical patient safety practices in the complex modern operating room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Verna C Gibbs

    2012-01-01

    The three surgical patient safety events,wrong site surgery,retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study.The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined.Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse.These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won't ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do.Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes,which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices.These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions.Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions.More often than not,even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate.This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent.Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment.This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery,RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists,surgeons and nurses.A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to bring these team

  6. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice: a cluster randomised trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, N.J.; Langelaan, M.; Verheij, T.J.M.; Wagner, C.; Zwart, D.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting A three-arm cluster randomised trial was

  7. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  8. Overcoming practical challenges in intervention research in occupational health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, A D; Needleman, C

    1996-04-01

    In addition to more familiar research issues, intervention research projects in naturalistic settings present the investigator with a number of practical challenges including gaining access to potentially resistant populations, maximizing participation rates in the face of weak incentives for cooperation, getting valid answers to sensitive questions, and meeting ethical obligations when health or legal problems are discovered in the course of study. Generalizable approaches to these challenges are addressed in the context of a retrospective evaluation of the implementation of OSHA's 1984 ethylene oxide standard in Massachusetts hospitals. In the evaluation study, enthusiastic cooperation was secured, a 96% participation rate was realized, sensitive questions were posed successfully, and worker health risks discovered in the course of study received attention without having to wait for the write-up of the study results. Key elements in the study population's receptivity appear to have been (I) the investigator's familiarity with the hazard, its setting, respondent concerns and needs, and (2) reciprocity in the form of providing follow-up consulting services as an integral part of the research process, delivered to each hospital at the conclusion of data collection. Specific techniques used in the study are presented in the hopes of aiding other investigators facing similar practical challenges in occupational health and safety intervention research.

  9. Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2015-11-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reprint of "Persuasive appeals in road safety communication campaigns: Theoretical frameworks and practical implications from the analysis of a decade of road safety campaign materials".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Nurit

    2016-12-01

    Communication campaigns are employed as an important tool to promote road safety practices. Researchers maintain road safety communication campaigns are more effective when their persuasive appeals, which are central to their communicative strategy, are based on explicit theoretical frameworks. This study's main objectives were to develop a detailed categorization of persuasive appeals used in road safety communication campaigns that differentiate between appeals that appear to be similar but differ conceptually, and to indicate the advantages, limitations and ethical issues associated with each type, drawing on behavior change theories. Materials from over 300 campaigns were obtained from 41 countries, mainly using road safety organizations' websites. Drawing on the literature, five types of main approaches were identified, and the analysis yielded a more detailed categorizations of appeals within these general categories. The analysis points to advantages, limitations, ethical issues and challenges in using different types of appeals. The discussion summarizes challenges in designing persuasive-appeals for road safety communication campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practices for design for safety: A study on civil & structural engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yang Miang; Chua, Sijie

    2016-08-01

    Design for safety (DfS) (also known as prevention through design, safe design and Construction (Design and Management)) promotes early consideration of safety and health hazards during the design phase of a construction project. With early intervention, hazards can be more effectively eliminated or controlled leading to safer worksites and construction processes. DfS is practiced in many countries, including Australia, the UK, and Singapore. In Singapore, the Manpower Ministry enacted the DfS Regulations in July 2015, which will be enforced from August 2016 onwards. Due to the critical role of civil and structural (C&S) engineers during design and construction, the DfS knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of C&S engineers have significant impact on the successful implementation of DfS. Thus, this study aims to explore the DfS KAP of C&S engineers so as to guide further research in measuring and improving DfS KAP of designers. During the study, it was found that there is a lack of KAP studies in construction management. Therefore, this study also aims to provide useful lessons for future applications of the KAP framework in construction management research. A questionnaire was developed to assess the DfS KAP of C&S engineers. The responses provided by 43 C&S engineers were analyzed. In addition, interviews with experienced construction professionals were carried out to further understand perceptions of DfS and related issues. The results suggest that C&S engineers are supportive of DfS, but the level of DfS knowledge and practices need to be improved. More DfS guidelines and training should be made available to the engineers. To ensure that DfS can be implemented successfully, there is a need to study the contractual arrangements between clients and designers and the effectiveness of different implementation approaches for the DfS process. The questionnaire and findings in this study provided the foundation for a baseline survey with larger sample size, which is

  12. Comparison of Design and Practices for Radiation Safety among Five Synchrotron Radiation Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.; /SLAC; Asano, Yoshihiro; /JAERI-RIKEN, Hyogo; Casey, William R.; /Brookhaven; Donahue, Richard J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2005-06-29

    There are more and more third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facilities in the world that utilize low emittance electron (or positron) beam circulating in a storage ring to generate synchrotron light for various types of experiments. A storage ring based SR facility consists of an injector, a storage ring, and many SR beamlines. When compared to other types of accelerator facilities, the design and practices for radiation safety of storage ring and SR beamlines are unique to SR facilities. Unlike many other accelerator facilities, the storage ring and beamlines of a SR facility are generally above ground with users and workers occupying the experimental floor frequently. The users are generally non-radiation workers and do not wear dosimeters, though basic facility safety training is required. Thus, the shielding design typically aims for an annual dose limit of 100 mrem over 2000 h without the need for administrative control for radiation hazards. On the other hand, for operational and cost considerations, the concrete ring wall (both lateral and ratchet walls) is often desired to be no more than a few feet thick (with an even thinner roof). Most SR facilities have similar operation modes and beam parameters (both injection and stored) for storage ring and SR beamlines. The facility typically operates almost full year with one-month start-up period, 10-month science program for experiments (with short accelerator physics studies and routine maintenance during the period of science program), and a month-long shutdown period. A typical operational mode for science program consists of long periods of circulating stored beam (which decays with a lifetime in tens of hours), interposed with short injection events (in minutes) to fill the stored current. The stored beam energy ranges from a few hundreds MeV to 10 GeV with a low injection beam power (generally less than 10 watts). The injection beam energy can be the same as, or lower than, the stored beam energy

  13. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  14. Safety of bevacizumab in clinical practice for recurrent ovarian cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLE, FRÉDÉRIC; EMILE, GEORGE; PAUTIER, PATRICIA; ASMANE, IRÈNE; SOARES, DANIELE G.; KHALIL, AHMED; ALEXANDRE, JEROME; LHOMMÉ, CATHERINE; RAY-COQUARD, ISABELLE; LOTZ, JEAN-PIERRE; GOLDWASSER, FRANÇOIS; TAZI, YOUSSEF; HEUDEL, PIERRE; PUJADE-LAURAINE, ERIC; GOUY, SÉBASTIEN; TREDAN, OLIVIER; BARBAZA, MARIE O.; ADY-VAGO, NORA; DUBOT, CORALINE

    2016-01-01

    The poor outcome of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer constitutes a continuous challenge for decision-making in clinical practice. In this setting, molecular targets have recently been identified, and novel compounds are now available. Bevacizumab has been introduced for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer and is, to date, the most extensively investigated targeted therapy in this setting. However, potential toxicities are associated with the use of this monoclonal antibody. These toxicities have been reported in clinical trials, and can also be observed outside of trials. As limited data is currently available regarding the safety of bevacizumab treatment in daily clinical practice, the current retrospective study was designed to evaluate this. Data from 156 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who had received bevacizumab treatment between January 2006 and June 2009 were retrospectively identified from the institutional records of five French centers. In contrast to clinical trials, the patients in the present study were not selected and had a heterogeneous profile according to their prior medical history, lines of treatment prior to bevacizumab introduction and number of relapses. The results first confirm the effect of heavy pretreatment on the occurrence of serious and fatal adverse events in clinical practice, as previously reported for clinical trials and for other retrospective cohort studies. Importantly, the data also demonstrates, for the first time, that medical history of hypertension is an independent predictive risk factor for the development of high-grade hypertension during bevacizumab treatment. These results thus suggest that treating physicians must consider all risk factors for managing bevacizumab toxicity prior to its introduction. Such risk factors include the time of bevacizumab introduction, a patient's history of hypertension and a low incidence of pre-existing obstructive disease. PMID:26998090

  15. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  16. Pediatric melanoma, moles, and sun safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Elena B; Liang, Marilyn G

    2014-04-01

    Although pediatric melanoma is a rare disease, diagnosis and management of pigmented lesions in the pediatric population, particularly dysplastic nevi and Spitz nevi, can be challenging. In this article, we provide an overview of pigmented lesions in children, including melanoma and management of melanoma risk factors and melanocytic nevi in the pediatric population. Congenital melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, dysplastic and acquired nevi, and changes over time are reviewed. We discuss considerations for excision and management of pigmented lesions in children.

  17. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  18. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  19. Development and testing of Baylor Scott & White Health's “Attitudes and Practices of Patient Safety Survey”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Jan; Saldaña, Margaret; Tecson, Kristen M.; Hastings, Chizuko; Kennerly, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of patient care requires a culture attuned to safety. We describe the development, implementation, and psychometric evaluation of the Attitudes and Practices of Patient Safety Survey (APPSS) within the Baylor Scott & White Health system. The APPSS was designed to enable safety culture data to be collected and aggregated at the unit level to identify high-priority needs. The survey, with 27 Likert-scale core questions divided into 4 concept domains and 2 open-ended questions, was administered electronically to employees with direct patient care responsibilities (n = 16,950). The 2015 response rate was 50.4%. The Cronbach's α values for the four domains ranged from 0.78 to 0.90, indicating strong internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis results were mixed but were comparable to those of established safety culture surveys. Over the years, the adaptability of the APPSS has proven helpful to administrative and clinical leaders alike, and the survey responses have led to the creation of programs to improve the organization's patient safety culture. In conclusion, the APPSS provides a reliable measure of patient safety culture and may be useful to other health care organizations seeking to improve the quality and safety of the care they provide. PMID:27695163

  20. Nurse practitioner perceptions of the impact of physician oversight on quality and safety of nurse practitioner practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Bobby; Scott, Elaine; Swanson, Mel

    2016-08-01

    Nurse practitioner (NP) regulation and physician oversight (PO) of NP practice are inextricably intertwined. A flexible, well-prepared workforce is needed to meet consumer healthcare needs. All outcome studies have revealed that NPs provide safe, effective, quality care with outcomes equal to or better than that of physicians or physician assistants. Variability in state regulation of NP practice limits the full deployment of these proven healthcare providers, threatens the quality and safety of NP-delivered care, and limits consumer choice in healthcare access. The purpose of this study was to document NP perceptions of the impact of PO on the safety and quality of NP practice. A total of 1139 NP respondents completed an exploratory survey, Impact of Regulatory Requirements for Physician Oversight on Nurse Practitioner Practice. Participants were asked their perceptions of the impact of PO on patient care and NP practice. Descriptive statistics on the state of residence regulatory requirements and personal demographics were also collected. NP perceptions of the impact of PO on the safety and quality of NP practice were predicted by NP experience and state regulatory environment ranking. The results of this study have implications for educators, policy makers, and nursing advocacy groups seeking to increase access to care in U.S. Study participants perceived that requirements for PO impacted their practice and may jeopardize patient safety. An understanding of the impact of influences on regulatory processes is critical to ensuring full deployment of NPs as interprofessional leaders to meet current and future healthcare access. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Advance Care Planning Documentation Practices and Accessibility in the Electronic Health Record: Implications for Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Evan; McMahan, Ryan; Barnes, Deborah; Katen, Mary; Lamas, Daniela; Sudore, Rebecca

    2017-09-21

    Documenting patients' advance care planning wishes is essential to providing value-aligned care, as is having this documentation readily accessible. Little is known about advance care planning documentation practices in the electronic health record. Describe advance care planning documentation practices and the accessibility of documented discussions in the electronic health record. Participants were primary care patients at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, were ≥60 years old, and had ≥2 chronic/serious health conditions. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the prevalence of advance care planning documentation, including any legal forms/orders and discussions in the prior five years. We also determined accessibility of discussions (i.e., accessible centralized posting vs. inaccessible free-text in progress notes). The mean age of 414 participants was 71 years (SD ±8), 9% were women, 43% were non-white, and 51% had documented advance care planning including 149 (36%) with forms/orders and 138 (33%) with discussions. Seventy-four participants (50%) with forms/orders lacked accompanying explanatory documentation. Most (55%) discussions were not easily accessible, including 70% of those documenting changes in treatment preferences from prior forms/orders. Half of chronically ill, older participants had documented advance care planning, including one third with documented discussions. However, half of the patients with completed legal forms/orders had no accompanying documented explanatory discussions, and the majority of documented discussions were not easily accessible, even when wishes had changed. Ensuring that patients' preferences are documented and easily accessible is an important patient safety and quality improvement target to ensure patients' wishes are honored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices.

  3. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  4. Hands-on defibrillation: theoretical and practical aspects of patient and rescuer safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Graham W; Cotton, Angela M; Deakin, Charles D

    2012-05-01

    Defibrillators are used to treat many thousands of people each year using very high voltages, but, despite this, reported injuries to rescuers are rare. Although even a small number of reported injuries is not ideal, the safety record of the defibrillator using the current protocol is widely regarded as being acceptable. There is increasing evidence that clinical outcome is significantly improved with continuous chest compressions, but defibrillation is a common cause of interruptions; even short interruptions, such as those associated with defibrillation, may detrimentally affect the outcome. This has led to discussions regarding the possibility of continuing chest compressions during defibrillation; a process involving a rescuer working in close proximity to voltages of up to 5000 V. Not only do voltages of this magnitude have significant implications for the rescuer performing chest compressions, but there are also risks to other rescuers in the proximity, the patient and other bystanders. Clearly any deviation from accepted practice should only be undertaken following careful consideration of the risks and benefits to the patient, rescuers and others. This review summarises the physical principles of electrical risk and identifies ways in which these could be managed. In doing so, it is hoped that in future it may be possible to deliver continuous and safe manual chest compressions during defibrillator discharge in order to improve patient outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forklift safety a practical guide to preventing powered industrial truck incidents and injuries

    CERN Document Server

    Swartz, George

    1999-01-01

    Written for the more than 1.5 million powered industrial truck operators and supervisors in general industry, as well as those in the construction and marine industries, this Second Edition provides an updated guide to training operators in safety and complying with OSHA's 1999 forklift standard. This edition of Forklift Safety includes a new chapter devoted to the new OSHA 1910.178 standard and new information regarding dock safety, narrow aisle trucks, off-dock incidents, tip-over safety, pallet safety, and carbon monoxide.

  6. Food safety knowledge and practices of abattoir and butchery shops and the microbial profile of meat in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mekonnen Haileselassie; Habtamu Taddele; Kelali Adhana; Shewit Kalayou

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the food safety knowledge and practices in meat handling, and to determine microbial load and pathogenic organisms in meat at Mekelle city. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used to answer questions concerning the current status of food hygiene and sanitation practiced in the abattoir and butcher shops. Workers from the abattoir and butcher shops were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to assess their food safety knowledge. Bacterial load was assessed by serial dilution method and the major bacterial pathogens were isolated by using standard procedures. Results: 15.4% of the abattoir workers had no health certificate and there was no hot water, sterilizer and cooling facility in the abattoir. 11.3% of the butchers didn't use protective clothes. There was a food safety knowledge gap within the abattoir and butcher shop workers. The mean values of bacterial load of abattoir meat, butcher shops and street meat sale was found to be 1.1×105, 5.6×105 and 4.3×106 cfu/g, respectively. The major bacterial pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions: The study revealed that there is a reasonable gap on food safety knowledge by abattoir and butcher shop workers. The microbial profile was also higher compared to standards set by World Health Organization. Due attention should be given by the government to improve the food safety knowledge and the quality standard of meat sold in the city.

  7. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  8. Frontline experiences of a practice redesign to improve self-management of obesity in safety net clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuYoung, Mona; Duru, O Kenrik; Ponce, Ninez A; Mangione, Carol M; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-01-01

    Teamlets of physicians and medical assistants may help improve obesity management in primary care settings. We aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators of implementing a teamlet approach to managing obesity in 3 safety net clinics. Key stakeholder interviews (n = 21) were conducted both during early implementation of practice change and 6 months later. Patient surveys (n = 393) examined obese patient activation and health status. Insufficient program resources and limited patient engagement due to external factors were implementation barriers despite fairly high patient activation. Staff members need time and resources to execute new responsibilities to support obesity management in safety net settings. Because of high turnover, multiple supporters may improve sustainability.

  9. Safety and efficacy of a raltegravir-based dual antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Cenderello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: HAART has revolutionized HIV disease management and increased life expectancy for most HIV-infected individuals on treatment. A nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase (NRTI inhibitor backbone is a recommended component of standard first-line HAART. Nevertheless, NRTI-sparing alternatives are warranted in order to reduce long-term toxicities in many patients (pts. Aim of the study was to evaluate safety of raltegravir-based dual antiretroviral therapy (DUAL in a clinical practice setting. Methods: All pts on DUAL regimen followed at our outpatient HIV service on May 31st 2012 were recruited. Their clinical files were retrospectively studied. Collected data included: demographics, CDC staging, reason to DUAL switching, cholesterol (total and HDL, creatinine, CK, CD4+ count and HIV RNA were recorded at switch and every six months after for the first year. Change in CD4 count after the switch was evaluated by Student t-test. Results: The cohort included 55 pts (27 M; mean age was 54 years (38–72. HIV infection was acquired through: injective drug abuse (25, unprotected homosexual (24 and heterosexual (16 intercourse. CDC staging was: A=16, B=26, C=13. Mean previous treatment regimens were 4. At time of study pts had been on DUAL regimen for 23 months. They had been switched to DUAL therapy for: drug resistance (14; 25.5% (DRR or drug toxicity (41; 74.5%. The most frequently associated drug was darunavir/rtv (19; 34.5%, followed by atazanavir (13; 23.6%; 5 were unboosted; lopinavir/rtv (12; 21.8%, and NVP (11; 20%. DRR pts presented at baseline a mean viral load of 40,153 copies of HIV-RNA/ml; after at 12 months all but 3 showed undetectable (<40 copies viral load and a mean CD4 gain of 142 cells/ml. Pts switched to DUAL for toxicity presented persistent undetectable viral load and a mean CD4+gain of 94 cells/ml. The observed CD4+ increase in both groups (DRR and toxicity presented a statistical significance (p<0.01. Total and HDL

  10. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  11. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  12. Improving the effectiveness of road safety campaigns: Current and new practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Hoekstra

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of campaigns aimed at improving road safety is still the exception rather than the rule. Because of this, ineffective campaigns and campaign techniques are allowed to continue to be utilised without question, while new methods of behaviour modification are often ignored. Therefore, the necessity and advantages of formally evaluating road safety campaign efforts are discussed. This article also describes the pros and cons of some of the more common campaign strategies and introduces a number of new methods that show a great deal of promise for the purpose of road safety campaigns. In order to infuse the field of road safety campaigning with such new insights into road user behaviour and behavioural modification, one should look beyond the confines of road safety campaign standards and learn from the knowledge gained in other disciplines such as economics and social psychology. These new insights are discussed in terms of their implications for the future of road safety campaigns.

  13. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  14. Evaluation of Project Students are Sun Safe (SASS): A University Student-Delivered Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raeann; Loescher, Lois J; Rogers, Jillian; Spartonos, Denise; Snyder, Aimee; Koch, Stephanie; Harris, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the USA and is increasing in children and young adults. Adolescents are an important target population for sun-safety interventions with ultraviolet radiation as the strongest risk factor for developing skin cancer. Schools are an ideal setting to intervene with adolescents. A novel Arizona skin cancer prevention in-class education-activity program, Project 'Students are Sun Safe' (SASS), was designed to be delivered by university students for middle school and high school students. Participant students completed the pre- and post-program tests and a satisfaction questionnaire; teachers completed reviews. The evaluation examined the program's influence on participants' sun-safety knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors; satisfaction with the program; and intent to change. After exposure to Project SASS, participants were more likely to perceive a high risk of skin cancer, report negative attitudes toward tanned skin, and answer knowledge-based questions correctly. There were minimal differences in self-reported sun-safety behaviors, though participants did report intent to change. Both participants and teachers were satisfied with the program. Project SASS appears to be an effective sun-safety program for middle school and high school students for knowledge and perceptions, and the results confirm that appropriately tailoring program components to the target population has strong potential to impact adolescent perceived susceptibility, knowledge, and behavioral intent. The strengths and weaknesses of Project SASS have many implications for public health practice, and Project SASS may hold promise to be a model for skin cancer prevention in adolescents.

  15. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  16. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  17. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  18. The Armstrong Institute: An Academic Institute for Patient Safety and Quality Improvement, Research, Training, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronovost, Peter J; Holzmueller, Christine G; Molello, Nancy E; Paine, Lori; Winner, Laura; Marsteller, Jill A; Berenholtz, Sean M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Demski, Renee; Armstrong, C Michael

    2015-10-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) could advance the science of health care delivery, improve patient safety and quality improvement, and enhance value, but many centers have fragmented efforts with little accountability. Johns Hopkins Medicine, the AMC under which the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the Johns Hopkins Health System are organized, experienced similar challenges, with operational patient safety and quality leadership separate from safety and quality-related research efforts. To unite efforts and establish accountability, the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality was created in 2011.The authors describe the development, purpose, governance, function, and challenges of the institute to help other AMCs replicate it and accelerate safety and quality improvement. The purpose is to partner with patients, their loved ones, and all interested parties to end preventable harm, continuously improve patient outcomes and experience, and eliminate waste in health care. A governance structure was created, with care mapped into seven categories, to oversee the quality and safety of all patients treated at a Johns Hopkins Medicine entity. The governance has a Patient Safety and Quality Board Committee that sets strategic goals, and the institute communicates these goals throughout the health system and supports personnel in meeting these goals. The institute is organized into 13 functional councils reflecting their behaviors and purpose. The institute works daily to build the capacity of clinicians trained in safety and quality through established programs, advance improvement science, and implement and evaluate interventions to improve the quality of care and safety of patients.

  19. Trench Safety-Using a Qualitative Approach to Understand Barriers and Develop Strategies to Improve Trenching Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael A; Sampson, Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Despite efforts to ensure workplace safety and health, injuries and fatalities related to trenching and excavation remain alarmingly high in the construction industry. Because properly installed trenching protective systems can potentially reduce the significant number of trenching fatalities, there is clearly a need to identify the barriers to the use of these systems and to develop strategies to ensure these systems are utilized consistently. The current study reports on the results of focus groups with construction workers and safety management personnel to better understand these barriers and to identify solutions. The results suggest several factors, from poor planning to pressures from experienced workers and supervisors, which present barriers to safe trenching practices. Based on the results, it is recommended that safety trainings incorporate unique messages for new workers, experienced workers and management in an effort to motivate each group to work safely as well as provide them with solutions to overcome the identified barriers.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONAL SAFETY IN A COMPANY OF OIL AND GAS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Coentrão Marques

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Operational safety is a worrying factor within any company, especially in the oil and gas sector. The objective of this work was to analyze the application of technical regulation of the management system for operational safety on marine installations for drilling and production of oil and natural gas from the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels in manuals of a company in the oil and gas sector. The methodology was based on documentary analysis. It was observed that the company management can achieve the technical factors of work, building design and integration as operational safety in each of the management practices. Concluded that the format and information of manuals are placed as potential to eliminate the risks for the company and the environment.

  1. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  2. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  3. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  4. Impact of Safety-Related Regulatory Action on Clinical Practice A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Vries, Jonie T. N.; van der Elst, Menno E.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Straus, Sabine M. J. M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: After market approval, new serious safety issues are regularly identified for drugs that lead to regulatory action to inform healthcare professionals. However, the effectiveness of these safety-related regulatory actions is under question. We currently lack a comprehensive overview of th

  5. Safety of treatment with biologics for psoriasis in daily practice: 5-year data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumig, P.P.M. van; Driessen, R.J.B.; Berends, M.A.M.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cumulative exposition to biologics is increasing with prolonged treatment with a certain biologic or consecutive biological treatment. However, long-term safety data are limited available. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the 5-year safety of biological

  6. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  7. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  8. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  9. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  10. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  11. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  12. Food Safety Practices in the U.S. Meat Slaughter and Processing Industry: Changes from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Catherine L; Cates, Sheryl C; Karns, Shawn A; Muth, Mary K

    2017-08-01

    Meat slaughter establishments use a multipronged approach to ensure beef and pork products are safe for human consumption. To determine the approaches most commonly used, we conducted a national survey of federally inspected meat slaughter and processing establishments (376 completed surveys, 66% response rate) in 2015. We compared the results with a survey that was conducted in 2005, albeit of potentially different establishments, by using a similar questionnaire and similar data collection methods, thus allowing for an evaluation of trends in food safety practices over time. The use of some food safety practices has increased over the 10-yr time period, whereas others remained the same or decreased. For example, the use of chemical sanitizers or hot water for food contact surfaces and tools increased from 51 to 93%. As another example, microbiological testing of raw meat after fabrication, in addition to that required by regulation, increased from 50 to 72%. However, the use of organic acid rinse on carcasses in the slaughter area remained the same, at 66% of establishments. Written policies and procedures to control the use of hazardous chemicals decreased from 75 to 65% of establishments. The survey findings can be used to characterize food safety practices and technologies in the meat slaughter and processing industry and identify areas for improvement.

  13. Role of courtyard counselling meeting in improving household food safety knowledge and practices in Munshiganj district of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Baizid Khoorshid; Alim, Md Abdul; Islam, Anm Shamsul; Amin, Km Bayzid; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hasan, Khaled; Ashad-Uz-Zaman, Md Noor; Selim, Shahjada; Quaiyum, Salman; Haque, Emdadul; Monir Hossain, Shah; Ryder, John; Khanam, Rokeya

    2016-12-01

    Unsafe food is linked to the deaths of an estimated two million people annually. Food containing harmful agents is responsible for more than 200 diseases ranging from diarrhoea to cancers. A one-sample pilot intervention study was conducted to evaluate the role of courtyard counselling meetings as the means of intervention for improving food safety knowledge and practices among household food handlers in a district of Bangladesh. The study was conducted in three phases: a baseline survey, the intervention and an end-line survey between April and November 2015 where 194 food handlers took part. Data were collected through observations and face-to-face interviews. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 (±12.4) years, all of whom were females. Hand washing before eating, and washing utensils with soap were significantly improved at the end-line in comparison to the baseline (57% vs. 40% and 83% vs. 69%, respectively). Hand washing with soap was increased by 4%. The mean score of food handling practices was significantly increased after the intervention (20.5 vs. 22.1; Pfood and the necessity of thorough cooking were significantly increased after the intervention (88% from 64% and 34% from 21%, respectively). Mean scores of knowledge and practice on food safety were significantly increased by 1.9 and 1.6, respectively after the one month intervention. Thus this food safety education in rural communities should be scaled up and, indeed, strengthened using the courtyard counselling meetings in Bangladesh.

  14. Healthcare quality and safety: a review of policy, practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Allen, Davina; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Sandall, Jane

    2016-02-01

    Over the last two decades healthcare quality and safety have risen to the fore of health policy and research. This has largely been informed by theoretical and empirical ideas found in the fields of ergonomics and human factors. These have enabled significant advances in our understanding and management of quality and safety. However, a parallel and at time neglected sociological literature on clinical quality and safety is presented as offering additional, complementary, and at times critical insights on the problems of quality and safety. This review explores the development and contributions of both the mainstream and more sociological approaches to safety. It shows that where mainstream approaches often focus on the influence of human and local environment factors in shaping quality, a sociological perspective can deepen knowledge of the wider social, cultural and political factors that contextualise the clinical micro-system. It suggests these different perspectives can easily complement one another, offering a more developed and layered understanding of quality and safety. It also suggests that the sociological literature can bring to light important questions about the limits of the more mainstream approaches and ask critical questions about the role of social inequality, power and control in the framing of quality and safety. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  16. Juggling confidentiality and safety: a qualitative study of how general practice clinicians document domestic violence in families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Jessica; Stanley, Nicky; Szilassy, Eszter; Larkins, Cath; Hester, Marianne; Feder, Gene

    2017-06-01

    Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) and child safeguarding are interlinked problems, impacting on all family members. Documenting in electronic patient records (EPRs) is an important part of managing these families. Current evidence and guidance, however, treats DVA and child safeguarding separately. This does not reflect the complexity clinicians face when documenting both issues in one family. To explore how and why general practice clinicians document DVA in families with children. A qualitative interview study using vignettes with GPs and practice nurses (PNs) in England. Semi-structured telephone interviews with 54 clinicians (42 GPs and 12 PNs) were conducted across six sites in England. Data were analysed thematically using a coding frame incorporating concepts from the literature and emerging themes. Most clinicians recognised DVA and its impact on child safeguarding, but struggled to work out the best way to document it. They described tensions among the different roles of the EPR: a legal document; providing continuity of care; information sharing to improve safety; and a patient-owned record. This led to strategies to hide information, so that it was only available to other clinicians. Managing DVA in families with children is complex and challenging for general practice clinicians. National integrated guidance is urgently needed regarding how clinicians should manage the competing roles of the EPR, while maintaining safety of the whole family, especially in the context of online EPRs and patient access. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  17. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  18. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha'u Shu'aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir

  19. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  20. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  1. Road Safety Audit RSA : best practice guidelines, qualification for auditors and 'programming'. Deliverable D4 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Weber, R. Huber, C.A. Hruby, Z. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, E. Vaneerdewegh, P. Strnad, B. Cardoso, J. Schermers, G. & Elvik, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains 'best practice' guidelines for road safety audits (RSA) and summarises practices which have been successfully applied in European countries or abroad. The goals of this report are to inform the reader on the reasons why carrying out audits is beneficial and how to successfully c

  2. Road Safety Audit RSA : best practice guidelines, qualification for auditors and 'programming'. Deliverable D4 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Weber, R. Huber, C.A. Hruby, Z. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, E. Vaneerdewegh, P. Strnad, B. Cardoso, J. Schermers, G. & Elvik, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains 'best practice' guidelines for road safety audits (RSA) and summarises practices which have been successfully applied in European countries or abroad. The goals of this report are to inform the reader on the reasons why carrying out audits is beneficial and how to successfully

  3. Road Safety Audit RSA : best practice guidelines, qualification for auditors and 'programming'. Deliverable D4 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Weber, R. Huber, C.A. Hruby, Z. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, E. Vaneerdewegh, P. Strnad, B. Cardoso, J. Schermers, G. & Elvik, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains 'best practice' guidelines for road safety audits (RSA) and summarises practices which have been successfully applied in European countries or abroad. The goals of this report are to inform the reader on the reasons why carrying out audits is beneficial and how to successfully c

  4. Mind the Gap. A systematic review to identify usability and safety challenges and practices during electronic health record implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj; Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew

    2016-11-16

    Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders' perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders' perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical workflow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation.

  5. Observation and measurement of hand hygiene and patient identification improve compliance with patient safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Tom; Erbeznik, Mary; Padilla, Tony; Zaroda, Teresa; Nguyen, Daniel H; Rodriguez, Marcela

    2009-12-01

    Measurement, a crucial step in any quality improvement activity, is difficult in two important patient safety processes: hand hygiene and patient identification. This study describes a program at the UCLA Medical Center, called Measure to Achieve Patient Safety (MAPS), which uses undergraduate student volunteers to carry out observations in the hospital. This program has been an important part of UCLA's efforts for quality improvement in patient safety efforts. Since 2004, approximately 20 students per year plus two student leaders have been selected to participate in the MAPS program. They were trained in techniques of measuring and observation and in professional behavior. They participated in weekly and monthly meetings with program leadership, received continuing education from the UCLA patient safety staff, and were trained in observational measurement. The students' observational results have been systematically reported to clinicians and departmental and hospital leadership. Handwashing increased from 50% to 93%, and nurses' checking of two identifiers at the time of medication administration increased from 50% to 95%. Compliance with proper patient identification at the time of nurse-to-transporter handoffs of patients for procedures increased to >90%. This unique program has made a significant contribution to UCLA's quality, safety, and service programs. MAPS has been widely accepted by the clinical staff and has also been valuable to the student volunteers. Such an approach is easily adaptable to other academic medical centers.

  6. Curbing the urge to care : A Bourdieusian analysis of the effect of the caring disposition on nurse middle managers’ clinical leadership in patient safety practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalleman, P. C B; Smid, G. A C; Lagerwey, M. D.; Shortridge-Baggett, L. M.; Schuurmans, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurse managers play an important role in implementing patient safety practices in hospitals. However, the influence of their professional background on their clinical leadership behaviour remains unclear. Research has demonstrated that concepts of Bourdieu (dispositions of habitus,

  7. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  8. Navigating safety necessary compromises and trade-offs : theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Amalberti, René

    2013-01-01

    Managing safety in a professional environment requires constant negotiation with other competitive dimensions of risk management (finances, market and political drivers, manpower and social crisis). This is obvious, although generally not said in safety manuals. The book provides a unique vision of how to best find these compromises, starting with lessons learnt from natural risk management by individuals, then applying them to the craftsman industry, complex industrial systems (civil aviation, nuclear energy) and public services (like transportation and medicine). It offers a unique, illustrated, easy to read and scientifically based set of original concepts and pragmatic methods to revisit safety management and adopt a successful system vision. As such, and with illustrations coming from many various fields (aviation, fishing, nuclear, oil, medicine), it potentially covers a broad readership.

  9. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Theodor; Endo, Akihito; Gueimonde, Miguel; Vinderola, Gabriel; Kneifel, Wolfgang; de Vos, Willem M; Salminen, Seppo; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU) regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available), publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  10. Safety of Novel Microbes for Human Consumption: Practical Examples of Assessment in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor Brodmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel microbes are either newly isolated genera and species from natural sources or bacterial strains derived from existing bacteria. Novel microbes are gaining increasing attention for the general aims to preserve and modify foods and to modulate gut microbiota. The use of novel microbes to improve health outcomes is of particular interest because growing evidence points to the importance of gut microbiota in human health. As well, some recently isolated microorganisms have promise for use as probiotics, although in-depth assessment of their safety is necessary. Recent examples of microorganisms calling for more detailed evaluation include Bacteroides xylanisolvens, Akkermansia muciniphila, fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. This paper discusses each candidate's safety evaluation for novel food or novel food ingredient approval according to European Union (EU regulations. The factors evaluated include their beneficial properties, antibiotic resistance profiling, history of safe use (if available, publication of the genomic sequence, toxicological studies in agreement with novel food regulations, and the qualified presumptions of safety. Sufficient evidences have made possible to support and authorize the use of heat-inactivated B. xylanisolvens in the European Union. In the case of A. muciniphila, the discussion focuses on earlier safety studies and the strain's suitability. FLAB are also subjected to standard safety assessments, which, along with their proximity to lactic acid bacteria generally considered to be safe, may lead to novel food authorization in the future. Further research with F. prausnitzii will increase knowledge about its safety and probiotic properties and may lead to its future use as novel food. Upcoming changes in EUU Regulation 2015/2283 on novel food will facilitate the authorization of future novel products and might increase the presence of novel microbes in the food market.

  11. Ethnic and gender differences in farm tasks and safety practices among rural California farm youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Stephen A; Kwan, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous and is common among rural youth, especially those living on farms or ranches. Previous work has shown differences in farm work and injury patterns between boys and girls, but little data exist addressing ethnic differences. This study examined ethnic and gender differences in farm tasks, safety attitudes, and use of protective measures among rural California youth working on farms or ranches. The University of California, Davis Youth Agricultural Injury Study is a longitudinal study focusing on agricultural work experience among youth enrolled in an agricultural sciences curriculum in 10 public high schools in California's Central Valley during the 2001-2005 school years. Using cross-sectional data from the initial entrance survey, we studied 946 participants who reported farm work in the previous year. Median annual hours of farm work varied significantly between boys and girls (p hr; Hispanic girls: 189 hr; White/Other boys: 832 hr; White/Other girls: 468 hr). Girls and Hispanic students were less likely than boys and White/Other students, respectively, to perform hazardous tasks involving tractors, machinery, and chemicals. Median age for initiating work on selected hazardous tasks was up to 3 years later for Hispanic students. Use of task-appropriate safety measures was low in all groups for most hazardous tasks. Boys were more likely than girls to use task-appropriate safety measures, with the exception of seatbelt use when in a car or truck. Hispanic students were more likely than White/Other students to employ safety measures. Girls and Hispanic youth worked fewer farm hours and had reduced exposure to selected hazardous tasks. Use of task-appropriate safety measures was low for all groups but increased for Hispanic students. Further study should explore reasons for low use of safety measures and develop educational efforts to bring about social norm changes promoting their use.

  12. Medical Physics Practice Guideline 4.a: Development, implementation, use and maintenance of safety checklists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong de Los Santos, Luis E; Evans, Suzanne; Ford, Eric C; Gaiser, James E; Hayden, Sandra E; Huffman, Kristina E; Johnson, Jennifer L; Mechalakos, James G; Stern, Robin L; Terezakis, Stephanie; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Pronovost, Peter J; Fairobent, Lynne A

    2015-05-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a nonprofit professional society whose primary purposes are to advance the science, education and professional practice of medical physics. The AAPM has more than 8,000 members and is the principal organization of medical physicists in the United States.The AAPM will periodically define new practice guidelines for medical physics practice to help advance the science of medical physics and to improve the quality of service to patients throughout the United States. Existing medical physics practice guidelines will be reviewed for the purpose of revision or renewal, as appropriate, on their fifth anniversary or sooner.Each medical physics practice guideline represents a policy statement by the AAPM, has undergone a thorough consensus process in which it has been subjected to extensive review, and requires the approval of the Professional Council. The medical physics practice guidelines recognize that the safe and effective use of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology requires specific training, skills, and techniques, as described in each document. Reproduction or modification of the published practice guidelines and technical standards by those entities not providing these services is not authorized.The following terms are used in the AAPM practice guidelines:Must and Must Not: Used to indicate that adherence to the recommendation is considered necessary to conform to this practice guideline.Should and Should Not: Used to indicate a prudent practice to which exceptions may occasionally be made in appropriate circumstances.

  13. Keeping our children safe in motor vehicles: knowledge, attitudes and practice among parents in Kuwait regarding child car safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Sudha R; Landry, Michel D; Ottensmeyer, C Andrea; Jacob, Susan; Hamdan, Elham; Bouhaimed, Manal

    2013-01-01

    Child safety restraints can reduce risk of death and decrease injury severity from road traffic crashes; however, knowledge about restraints and their use in Kuwait is limited. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey about child car safety was used among a convenience sample of parents of children aged 18 years or younger at five Kuwaiti university campuses. Of 552 respondents, over 44% have seated a child in the front seat and 41.5% have seated a child in their lap while driving. Few parents are aware of and fewer report using the appropriate child restraint; e.g., 36% of parents of infants recognised an infant seat and 26% reported using one. Over 70% reported wearing seat belts either "all of the time" (33%) or "most of the time" (41%). This new information about parents' knowledge and practice regarding child car seat use in Kuwait can inform interventions to prevent child occupant injury and death.

  14. Mainstreaming Health and Safety in Schools: Practical Insights from the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Garcia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from a study funded by the Directorate General of Occupational Health and Safety, an institutional body that pertains to the Employment Council of the Regional Government of Andalusia (Spain) and Ministry of Employment and Labour (Spain). The analysis "focuses" mainly on the teachers who work in…

  15. New Media and the Coproduction of Safety : An Empirical Analysis of Dutch Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The new media have been argued to strengthen the coproduction of safety by reducing the costs of interactions between government and citizens and providing new communicative potential. Does that lead to relevant additional input from citizens in police work? Or are preexisting interactions reproduce

  16. A Smartphone App to Communicate Child Passenger Safety: An Application of Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, A. C.; McDonald, E. M.; Omaki, E.; Shields, W.; Case, J.; Aitken, M.

    2015-01-01

    Child passenger safety remains an important public health problem because motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children, and the majority of children ride improperly restrained. Using a mobile app to communicate with parents about injury prevention offers promise but little information is available on how to create such a tool.…

  17. Adjustment planning of safety systems in practice. Part 1; Instelplan in de praktijk. Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rombouts, S.P.J. [Afdeling Technologie, PNEM Netwerk, Den Bosch (Netherlands); Meeuwsen, J.J. [Faculteit Informatietechnologie en Systemen, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-05-01

    The adjustment of safety systems in grids is a laborious, time-consuming and routine task. The Dutch public utility PNEM and the Delft University of Technology developed a computer program that can be applied in different electricity networks. The computer program is based on a series of short current calculations. 1 fig., 7 tabs., 3 refs.

  18. Adjustment planning of safety systems in practice; Instelplan in de praktijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rombouts, S.P.J. [Afdeling Technologie, PNEM Netwerk, Den Bosch (Netherlands); Meeuwsen, J.J. [Faculteit Informatietechnologie en Systemen, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    1998-06-01

    The adjustment of safety systems in grids is a laborious, time-consuming and routine task. The Dutch public utility PNEM and the Delft University of Technology developed a computer program that can be applied in different electricity networks. The computer program is based on a series of short current calculations. 1 fig., 7 tabs., 3 refs.

  19. A review of significant events analysed in general practice: implications for the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant event analysis (SEA is promoted as a team-based approach to enhancing patient safety through reflective learning. Evidence of SEA participation is required for appraisal and contractual purposes in UK general practice. A voluntary educational model in the west of Scotland enables general practitioners (GPs and doctors-in-training to submit SEA reports for feedback from trained peers. We reviewed reports to identify the range of safety issues analysed, learning needs raised and actions taken by GP teams. Method Content analysis of SEA reports submitted in an 18 month period between 2005 and 2007. Results 191 SEA reports were reviewed. 48 described patient harm (25.1%. A further 109 reports (57.1% outlined circumstances that had the potential to cause patient harm. Individual 'error' was cited as the most common reason for event occurrence (32.5%. Learning opportunities were identified in 182 reports (95.3% but were often non-specific professional issues not shared with the wider practice team. 154 SEA reports (80.1% described actions taken to improve practice systems or professional behaviour. However, non-medical staff were less likely to be involved in the changes resulting from event analyses describing patient harm (p Conclusion The study provides some evidence of the potential of SEA to improve healthcare quality and safety. If applied rigorously, GP teams and doctors in training can use the technique to investigate and learn from a wide variety of quality issues including those resulting in patient harm. This leads to reported change but it is unclear if such improvement is sustained.

  20. Retraction RETRACTION of "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant", by L.-H. Cao, P.-L. Zhao, Z.-M. Liu, S.-C. Sun, D.-B. Xu, J.-D. Zhang and Z.-H. Shao - Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L-H; Zhao, P-L; Liu, Z-M; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Zhang, J-D; Shao, Z-H

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR. There are parts copied from "Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogs on blocking father-to-infant vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus", by Li-Hau Cao, Pei-Li Zhao, Zhi-Min Liu, Shao-Chun Sun, et al. Exp. Ther. Med. 9 (6): 2251-2256 (2015) - DOI: 10.3892/etm.2015.2379. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  1. Assessment of knowledge and practices on injection safety among service providers in east Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Garapati

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the Knowledge and Practices among service providers regarding injection safety and its safe disposal in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Cross-Sectional study conducted in one year from March 2010 to February 2011 among health care providers at all levels that is Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levels of public sector selected randomly in the five revenue divisions of East Godavari District with sample size based on 4PQ/L2 formula found to be 300; Representing 30% doctors (90, 30% staff nurses (90, 30% MPHW (F (90 and 10% Lab-Technicians(30 and data is obtained by semi- structured questionnaire; Analyzed by using SPSS software version16.0.at p<0.05 significance level. Results: In the present study knowledge of various service providers was enquired into and practices were also observed in various aspects of injection safety. Knowledge on washing hands before giving injection was 45.6% but when it comes to practice it was observed only among 18.2%; Similarly knowledge on use of hub-cutter after giving injection was found to be 33.9% but when practice of using hub-cutter was observed, it was only 20.5%; Knowledge on safe disposal of used syringes was 53.8% but the practice was found to be poor (21.7%. Similarly Knowledge on use of color coded bags according to guidelines was 65.8% but when practice was observed it is poor (20.6%. All these differences were statistically significant with p<0.05.  Conclusion: In the present study Patient preference is the main indication for injection; Knowledge of universal precautions, use of needle destroyer after giving injection and correct method for final disposal of sharps was less; whereas Knowledge of complications of unsafe injections, diseases transmitted through needle stick injuries, importance of hepatitis B immunization and Post Exposure Prophylaxis was good. Unsafe practices like not washing hands, not wearing gloves, not cleaning the site of

  2. Sun Yat-sen's Reflections on Land and Its Practical Significance to the Estate Market%孙中山土地思想及对当前房地产市场的借鉴意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云华; 宋剑奇

    2012-01-01

    土地国有、有偿使用、征收单一地价税是孙中山土地思想的主要内容。在允许土地自由流转的基础上实行双轨制,即所有权归国家,使用权归私人,通过核定地价、照价征税、按价赎回三个步骤来完成国有化,目的是为了防止地价上涨引起贫富差距而带来系列社会问题。虽然孙中山的土地思想仍具有土地并非完全国有、实践困难、易造成腐败等局限性,但他土地思想的精髓对当前房地产市场的乱局治理具有一定的借鉴意义。%Sun Yat-sen's thoughts on land can be briefly summarized as the following: land owned by the State,paid use of land,a land value tax levied.To be more specific,the land is owned by the State and land use right belongs to individuals,which is based on the premise that land is allowed to buy and sell freely.Three steps are needed in the process: estimating the price of a particular land,levying a tax and redeeming it accordingly.By doing so,it will curb the price of land soaring up which will cause the widening gap between the rich and the poor,thus avoiding a series of social issues.Sun Yat-sen's reflections on land has its limitations for land can not completely owned by the State,it's difficult to put his proposals into practice and easy to bring about corruption problems.However,his core ideas on land can give us some enlightenment on the present situation of property speculation,soaring house prices,the constant regulation of the property market by the State.

  3. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  4. Creating a Culture of Prevention in Occupational Safety and Health Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Yangho Kim; Jungsun Park; Mijin Park

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of occupational injuries and diseases associated with industrialization has declined markedly following developments in science and technology, such as engineering controls, protective equipment, safer machinery and processes, and greater adherence to regulations and labor inspections. Although the introduction of health and safety management systems has further decreased the incidence of occupational injuries and diseases, these systems are not effective unless accompanied by a...

  5. Communication practices in engineering, manufacturing, and research for food and water safety

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates some of the ways in which communication and developing technologies can improve global food and water safety by providing a historical background on outbreaks and public resistance, as well as generating interest in youth and potential professionals in the field : History of muckraking in the food industry ; Case study on groundwater regulation ; Interviews with members of the beef industry and livestock market owners.

  6. Safety of tattoos and permanent make-up State of play and trends in tattoo practices

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission launched the 18-month project "Tattoos and Permanent Make-up" with the aim of collecting data about the use, the ingredients, the EU market and possible health problems associated to tattoo and permanent make-up (PMU) inks. The report on work package 1 (2015, Piccinini P. et al.) is available at http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/safety-of-tattoos-and-permanent-make-up-compilation-of-information-on-legislative-framework-and-analytical-methods-pbLBNA27394/ The present ...

  7. Propranolol Dosing Practices in Adult Burn Patients: Implications for Safety and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David A; Gibbons, Janet; Honari, Shari; Klein, Matthew B; Pham, Tam N; Gibran, Nicole S

    2016-01-01

    Studies in children with burn injuries have demonstrated that propranolol improves metabolism and reduces muscle protein wasting. However, safety and efficacy in adults are less well established than in children. The purpose of this study was to determine safety of propranolol use in adult patients with burn injuries. Medical records were reviewed for burn-injured adults receiving propranolol. Patients between 18 and 65 years old and with ≥20% TBSA burn were included. Fifty-four patients met the criteria with mean age of 37 years and mean burn size of 38% TBSA. Propranolol dosages ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 mg/kg/day, with an average maximum dosage of 0.61 mg/kg/day. Mean heart rate decreased by 25% during 4 weeks. Seventy-two percent of patients experienced at least one episode of hypotension and 15% experienced bradycardia. Propranolol doses were most frequently held for low blood pressure; 32% of patients had at least one dose held for hypotension. This retrospective analysis suggests that modest dosing of propranolol results in frequent episodes of hypotension or bradycardia. Our data suggest that adults do not tolerate the higher doses reported in a pediatric population. Despite potential beneficial anti-catabolic effects of propranolol, burn care providers must recognize potential iatrogenic hemodynamic effects of this intervention. Our data support the need for prospective multicenter studies to delineate the safety and efficacy of propranolol in adult burn-injured patients.

  8. A practical application combining wireless sensor networks and Internet of Things: Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dexing; Lv, Hongqiang; Han, Jiuqiang; Wei, Quanrui

    2014-07-30

    The so-called Internet of Things (IoT) has attracted increasing attention in the field of computer and information science. In this paper, a specific application of IoT, named Safety Management System for Tower Crane Groups (SMS-TC), is proposed for use in the construction industry field. The operating status of each tower crane was detected by a set of customized sensors, including horizontal and vertical position sensors for the trolley, angle sensors for the jib and load, tilt and wind speed sensors for the tower body. The sensor data is collected and processed by the Tower Crane Safety Terminal Equipment (TC-STE) installed in the driver's operating room. Wireless communication between each TC-STE and the Local Monitoring Terminal (LMT) at the ground worksite were fulfilled through a Zigbee wireless network. LMT can share the status information of the whole group with each TC-STE, while the LMT records the real-time data and reports it to the Remote Supervision Platform (RSP) through General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Based on the global status data of the whole group, an anti-collision algorithm was executed in each TC-STE to ensure the safety of each tower crane during construction. Remote supervision can be fulfilled using our client software installed on a personal computer (PC) or smartphone. SMS-TC could be considered as a promising practical application that combines a Wireless Sensor Network with the Internet of Things.

  9. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  10. Factors Affecting the Perception of Importance and Practice of Patient Safety Management among Hospital Employees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sook; Park, MiJeong; Park, Mi-Young; Yoo, Hana; Choi, Jihea

    2013-03-01

    The study was undertaken to identify factors affecting perception of the importance and practice of patient safety management (PSM) among hospital employees in Korea. This study was conducted using a descriptive design and a self-report questionnaire. Two hundred and eighty employees were recruited from three hospitals using a convenience sampling method. Measures were perception of the importance, practice, and characteristics of PSM. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation analysis, and multiple regression. Factors affecting perception of the importance of PSM were whether hospital employees were in contact with patients while on duty, weekly working hours, education on PSM, and perceived adequacy of PSM system construction. Factors affecting the practice of PSM were perceived adequacy of work load, perceived adequacy of PSM system construction and perception of its importance. The findings of this study indicate a need for developing strategies to improve perception of the importance and practice of PSM among all hospital employees, and provide a reference for future experimental studies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  12. The role of informal dimensions of safety in high-volume organisational routines: an ethnographic study of test results handling in UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne; Checkland, Katherine; Bowie, Paul; Guthrie, Bruce

    2017-04-27

    The handling of laboratory, imaging and other test results in UK general practice is a high-volume organisational routine that is both complex and high risk. Previous research in this area has focused on errors and harm, but a complementary approach is to better understand how safety is achieved in everyday practice. This paper ethnographically examines the role of informal dimensions of test results handling routines in the achievement of safety in UK general practice and how these findings can best be developed for wider application by policymakers and practitioners. Non-participant observation was conducted of high-volume organisational routines across eight UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics. Sixty-two semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the key practice staff alongside the analysis of relevant documents. While formal results handling routines were described similarly across the eight study practices, the everyday structure of how the routine should be enacted in practice was informally understood. Results handling safety took a range of local forms depending on how different aspects of safety were prioritised, with practices varying in terms of how they balanced thoroughness (i.e. ensuring the high-quality management of results by the most appropriate clinician) and efficiency (i.e. timely management of results) depending on a range of factors (e.g. practice history, team composition). Each approach adopted created its own potential risks, with demands for thoroughness reducing productivity and demands for efficiency reducing handling quality. Irrespective of the practice-level approach adopted, staff also regularly varied what they did for individual patients depending on the specific context (e.g. type of result, patient circumstances). General practices variably prioritised a legitimate range of results handling safety processes and outcomes, each with differing strengths and trade-offs. Future safety

  13. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  14. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  15. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  16. Practices, attitudes and perceptions toward road safety in yerevan, republic of armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekijian, Sharon Anoush; Truzyan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    : To determine knowledge and attitudes regarding traffic safety devices, measures, and legislation in the general population in Yerevan, Republic of Armenia. : We conducted a baseline random digit dial fixed line telephone verbal survey of Yerevan households in April 2009 with a follow-up survey in May 2010. Survey domains included restraint use, motor vehicle crash experiences, and attitudes regarding traffic safety. : In the initial survey, of 2137 numbers dialed, 436 persons were reached and 390 (90%) agreed to participate. Of survey respondents, 90% percent of household cars had seatbelts, while 47% had airbags. Twenty-four percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, 21% wore a belt as a passenger. 39% were unaware of child restraints. Of the 61% who were aware of child restraints, only 32% had ever used one. A follow-up survey was conducted one year later after enforcement efforts were increased. In the follow-up survey, 81% percent always or usually wore a seatbelt when driving, and 69% wore a belt as a passenger. There was no significant increase of awareness or use of child restraints in the follow-up survey. : Although cars in Yerevan have seat belts, the majority of drivers and passengers prior to the intervention did not use them. Knowledge and use of child restraints was poor. The follow-up survey conducted after an enforcement campaign was underway in Yerevan showed that improved enforcement greatly increased awareness and compliance with current legislation. This study provides vital baseline information for the formulation of future policy. It also highlights the need for a multi-dimensional road traffic safety initiative through public educational campaigns, enforcement of current laws, and development of novel prevention policies and regulations.

  17. Occupational health and safety in the biotechnology industry--a survey of practicing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S B; Ryan, L J

    1996-04-01

    A survey was created to gauge how health and safety (H&S) resources are allocated in the biotechnology industry and to help understand the concerns of industry H&S professionals. A questionnaire was distributed to "the person most responsible for health and safety" at 34 companies; 12 commercial firms responded. Nearly 68% of the work force monitored did not fall into any biohazard classification. Almost 80% of work involving biohazards was considered "exempt" or "BL-1" under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification system, indicating that most work was performed involving organisms of low pathogenic potential. H&S program development and administration is mature; 100% of respondents report having written programs for chemical, biological, and physical hazards. Chemical safety programs occupied, on average, the greatest percentage of the H&S professionals' time (46%), followed by biosafety (29.6%) and physical hazards (16.4%). The person most responsible for H&S averaged 65% of work time on H&S issues, while only 25% described their full-time responsibilities as H&S related. Staffing levels for companies with more than about 100 technical workers approximated 1.0-1.5 full-time H&S staff equivalents per 100 technical workers. This figure compares favorably with levels reported in a benchmarking survey of hospitals. Investigation into accident rates as a measure of H&S program effectiveness suggests that the biotechnology industry is a relatively safe one. Lost time injury and illness rates were significantly lower for the 12 participating companies than the accident frequency rates in the Standard Industrial Classification codes selected for comparison.

  18. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  19. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  20. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  1. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Auwalu Abdullahi,1–3 Azmi Hassan,1 Norizhar Kadarman,2 Ahmadu Saleh,4 Yusha’u Shu’aibu Baraya,5 Pei Lin Lua,61Institute for Community Development and Quality of Life  (i-CODE, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Kota, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Audu Bako College of Agriculture, Dambatta, Kano, Nigeria; 4School of Animal Science, Faculty of Bio-resources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Terengganu, Malaysia; 5Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM, Malaysia; 6Community Health Research Cluster, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia Purpose: Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty

  2. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  3. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  4. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J

    2012-01-01

    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  5. Project Practice of Sun Moon Light Centre Underground Complex in Shanghai%上海日月光中心地下综合体工程实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炯; 贾坚; 杨科

    2012-01-01

    上海地区结合轨道交通车站开发的地下综合体是一种能充分利用轨道交通资源的地下空间开发模式.在系统分析城市地下综合体开发的经济效益、社会效益和环境效益的基础上,结合地铁车站、隧道与地块开发建筑共建的上海日月光中心这一地下综合体工程的成功实践,对软土地区建造大型地下综合体所面临的岩土工程问题及工程技术对策进行了分析总结,可为软土地基中结合轨道交通建设大力发展城市地下空间开发的区域综合工程提供工程借鉴和交流.%In Shanghai, the development of underground complex combined with rail transit station is an underground space development mode which can make full use of rail transit resources. To promote the application of this development mode, this paper discussed economic, social and environmental benefits of the urban underground complex firstly. And then, some geotechnical engineering problems and engineering technical countermeasures faced for large underground complex construction, were analysed combined with underground complex engineering practice, the project Sun Moon Light Centre in Luwan district, Shanghai. The success of the project, subway station, tunnel and high-building built altogether, can provide engineering reference for integrated regional project of the urban underground space development combined with orbit transportation in soft soil area.

  6. Human eye and the sun hot and cold light

    CERN Document Server

    Vavilov, S I

    1965-01-01

    The Human Eye and the Sun, """"Hot"""" and """"Cold"""" Light is a translation from the Russian language and is a reproduction of texts from Volume IV of S.I. Vavilov, president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The book deals with theoretical and practical developments in lighting techniques. The text gives a brief introduction on the relationship of the human eye and the sun, describing the properties of light, of the sun, and of the human eye. The book describes hot (incandescence) and cold light (luminescence) as coming from different sources. These two types of light are compared. The

  7. How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.

    2011-01-01

    This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),

  8. Expressing best practices in (risk) analysis and testing of safety-critical systems using patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzner, Wolfgang; Sieverding, Sven; Kacimi, Omar

    2014-01-01

    use. This paper introduces workflow patterns to describe such best practices in a systematic way that efficiently represents this know¬ledge, and also provides a way to relate different patterns, making them easier to identify and use, and cover as wide a range of experiences as possible. The value...

  9. How to create economic incentives in occupational safety and health: A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsler, D.; Heyer, A.; Kuhl, K.; Eeckelaert, L.; Chatzigiannoglou, C.; Maier, A.; Cuervo, M.; Elsler, D.; Frusteri, L.; Charalambous, A.; Molinaro, R.; Steiger, O.; Brummer, E.; Penttila, M.; Petrisic, N.; Vanadzins, I.; Benedetti, F.; Karadeniz, O.; Treutlein, D.; Tompa, E.; Kohstall, T.; Nicot, A.M.; Tynkkynen, M.; Kruger, H.; Wittig, K.; Stadnik, M.; Jones, C.; Epegui, H.; Lunde-Jensen, P.; Ottati, M.; Pecillo-Pacek, M.; Greef, M.de; Mierlo, M. van; Maya Rubio, M.I.; Kahr, J.; Sapir, M.

    2011-01-01

    This Guide on Economic Incentives Schemes is intended to serve as a practical and user-friendly guide to help incentive providers to create or optimise their own economic incentive schemes. Incentives schemes should not only reward past results of good OSH management (such as low accident numbers),

  10. Evaluation of community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nare

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data collection process. The participants were divided into “sessions” of 45 people each. Each session was divided into 3 groups of 15 people each and each group was then given an assignment to work on and write the findings on flipcharts. Each group then presented at a plenary and the research assistants recorded the findings. The second part was based on the findings from the first part of the study. One major finding was that the communities relied on the physical appearance of water to decide whether the water is safe or not for domestic use. Therefore, the second study aimed at determining the point at which the communities would stop using water for various domestic uses based on the turbidity of the water. Samples of the water with predetermined turbidity values were shown to 1000 participants and each of the participants was asked to indicate where he or she would use the water for various domestic uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing and washing utensils. Although the communities had a wealth of knowledge and practices relating to water quality and safety, their perception of safety using turbidity as an indicator did not tally with scientifically accepted guidelines. Some participants were willing to accept water with turbidity values as high as 39 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU for drinking which is above the recommended maximum turbidity levels in water for domestic use in South African National Standards (SANS 241 of 5 NTU. The communities in

  11. Fire safety practices in the Shuttle and the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-02-01

    The Shuttle reinforces its policy of fire-preventive measures with onboard smoke detectors and Halon 1301 fire extinguishers. The forthcoming Space Station Freedom will have expanded fire protection with photoelectric smoke detectors, radiation flame detectors, and both fixed and portable carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. Many design and operational issues remain to be resolved for Freedom. In particular, the fire-suppression designs must consider the problems of gas leakage in toxic concentrations, alternative systems for single-failure redundancy, and commonality with the corresponding systems of the Freedom international partners. While physical and engineering requirements remain the primary driving forces for spacecraft fire-safety technology, there are, nevertheless, needs and opportunities for the application of microgravity combustion knowledge to improve and optimize the fire-protective systems.

  12. Review of naloxone safety for opioid overdose: practical considerations for new technology and expanded public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermeling, Daniel P

    2015-02-01

    Opioid overdose and mortality have increased at an alarming rate prompting new public health initiatives to reduce drug poisoning. One initiative is to expand access to the opioid antidote naloxone. Naloxone has a long history of safe and effective use by organized healthcare systems and providers in the treatment of opioid overdose by paramedics/emergency medicine technicians, emergency medicine physicians and anesthesiologists. The safety of naloxone in a prehospital setting administered by nonhealthcare professionals has not been formally established but will likely parallel medically supervised experiences. Naloxone dose and route of administration can produce variable intensity of potential adverse reactions and opioid withdrawal symptoms: intravenous administration and higher doses produce more adverse events and more severe withdrawal symptoms in those individuals who are opioid dependent. More serious adverse reactions after naloxone administration occur rarely and may be confounded by the effects of other co-intoxicants and the effects of prolonged hypoxia. One component of the new opioid harm reduction initiative is to expand naloxone access to high-risk individuals (addicts, abusers, or patients taking high-dose or extended-release opioids for pain) and their close family or household contacts. Patients or their close contacts receive a naloxone prescription to have the medication on their person or in the home for use during an emergency. Contacts are trained on overdose recognition, rescue breathing and administration of naloxone by intramuscular injection or nasal spraying of the injection prior to the arrival of emergency medical personnel. The safety profile of naloxone in traditional medical use must be considered in this new context of outpatient prescribing, dispensing and treatment of overdose prior to paramedic arrival. New naloxone delivery products are being developed for this prehospital application of naloxone in treatment of opioid

  13. Practice-based evidence: profiling the safety of cilostazol by text-mining of clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Nicholas J; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Lependu, Paea; Olson, Cliff; Shah, Nigam H

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a growing problem with few available therapies. Cilostazol is the only FDA-approved medication with a class I indication for intermittent claudication, but carries a black box warning due to concerns for increased cardiovascular mortality. To assess the validity of this black box warning, we employed a novel text-analytics pipeline to quantify the adverse events associated with Cilostazol use in a clinical setting, including patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We analyzed the electronic medical records of 1.8 million subjects from the Stanford clinical data warehouse spanning 18 years using a novel text-mining/statistical analytics pipeline. We identified 232 PAD patients taking Cilostazol and created a control group of 1,160 PAD patients not taking this drug using 1:5 propensity-score matching. Over a mean follow up of 4.2 years, we observed no association between Cilostazol use and any major adverse cardiovascular event including stroke (OR = 1.13, CI [0.82, 1.55]), myocardial infarction (OR = 1.00, CI [0.71, 1.39]), or death (OR = 0.86, CI [0.63, 1.18]). Cilostazol was not associated with an increase in any arrhythmic complication. We also identified a subset of CHF patients who were prescribed Cilostazol despite its black box warning, and found that it did not increase mortality in this high-risk group of patients. This proof of principle study shows the potential of text-analytics to mine clinical data warehouses to uncover 'natural experiments' such as the use of Cilostazol in CHF patients. We envision this method will have broad applications for examining difficult to test clinical hypotheses and to aid in post-marketing drug safety surveillance. Moreover, our observations argue for a prospective study to examine the validity of a drug safety warning that may be unnecessarily limiting the use of an efficacious therapy.

  14. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  15. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  16. SunSmart: Evaluation of a Pilot School-Based Sun Protection Intervention in Hispanic Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. A.; Langholz, B. M.; Ly, T.; Harris, S. C.; Richardson, J. L.; Peng, D. H.; Cockburn, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rising among Hispanic populations in the United States. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot sun safety educational intervention conducted from 2006 to 2012 on Hispanic early adolescents in a high ultraviolet environment. Nineteen schools with high Hispanic enrollment were recruited from urban…

  17. Use of the self-controlled case-series method in vaccine safety studies: review and recommendations for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Y G; Whitaker, H J; Farrington, C P

    2011-12-01

    The self-controlled case-series method was originally developed to investigate potential associations between vaccines and adverse events, and is now commonly used for this purpose. This study reviews applications of the method to vaccine safety investigations in the period 1995-2010. In total, 40 studies were reviewed. The application of the self-controlled case-series method in these studies is critically examined, with particular reference to the definition of observation and risk periods, control of confounders, assumptions and potential biases, methodological and presentation issues, power and sample size, and software. Comparisons with other study designs undertaken in the papers reviewed are also highlighted. Some recommendations are presented, with the emphasis on promoting good practice.

  18. Who is in charge of patient safety? Work practice, work processes and utopian views of automatic drug dispensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balka, Ellen; Kahnamoui, Nicki; Nutland, Kelsey

    2007-06-01

    In June 2003, a large, Canadian tertiary care facility introduced automatic drug dispensing machines on all units when it opened up a new building. In this paper, we provide an overview of the automatic drug dispensing system (ADS) implementation at the hospital. Our findings, based on daily field observations and interviews during and after implementation, with regular follow-up visits to the field site illustrate how the introduction of the ADS brought to light work practices that sometimes compromised patient safety. We suggest that utopian views of automatic drug dispensing machines obfuscate the challenges inherent to implementing such systems, and deter stakeholders from performing rigorous evaluation of the costs (both social and economic) and benefits of investing in such systems. Our work contributes to debates about the socio-technical efficacy of automating medication dispensing and delivery, and suggests that the balance of power in the patient safety equation lies in the work context and implementation issues, and not just the technology. For technology implementations to be successful considering that technologies frequently cross over jurisdictional boundaries, planning and implementation have to be conducted at a system wide level.

  19. Practice-based evidence: profiling the safety of cilostazol by text-mining of clinical notes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Leeper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a growing problem with few available therapies. Cilostazol is the only FDA-approved medication with a class I indication for intermittent claudication, but carries a black box warning due to concerns for increased cardiovascular mortality. To assess the validity of this black box warning, we employed a novel text-analytics pipeline to quantify the adverse events associated with Cilostazol use in a clinical setting, including patients with congestive heart failure (CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the electronic medical records of 1.8 million subjects from the Stanford clinical data warehouse spanning 18 years using a novel text-mining/statistical analytics pipeline. We identified 232 PAD patients taking Cilostazol and created a control group of 1,160 PAD patients not taking this drug using 1:5 propensity-score matching. Over a mean follow up of 4.2 years, we observed no association between Cilostazol use and any major adverse cardiovascular event including stroke (OR = 1.13, CI [0.82, 1.55], myocardial infarction (OR = 1.00, CI [0.71, 1.39], or death (OR = 0.86, CI [0.63, 1.18]. Cilostazol was not associated with an increase in any arrhythmic complication. We also identified a subset of CHF patients who were prescribed Cilostazol despite its black box warning, and found that it did not increase mortality in this high-risk group of patients. CONCLUSIONS: This proof of principle study shows the potential of text-analytics to mine clinical data warehouses to uncover 'natural experiments' such as the use of Cilostazol in CHF patients. We envision this method will have broad applications for examining difficult to test clinical hypotheses and to aid in post-marketing drug safety surveillance. Moreover, our observations argue for a prospective study to examine the validity of a drug safety warning that may be unnecessarily limiting the use of an efficacious therapy.

  20. Analysis of effectiveness, safety and optimization of tocilizumab in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Vázquez, Natalia; Manrique-Arija, Sara; Rojas-Giménez, Marta; Ureña-Garnica, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Núñez, Francisco G; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical practice, establishing the optimized regimen and switching from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous (SC) therapy. Retrospective observational study. We included 53 RA patients treated with TCZ. The main outcome was TCZ effectiveness at week 24. Secondary outcome variables included effectiveness at week 52, therapeutic maintenance, physical function and safety. The effectiveness of optimization and the switch from IV to SC was evaluated at 3 and 6 months. The efficacy was measured with the Disease Activity Score. Paired t-tests or Wilcoxon were used to evaluate effectiveness and survival time using Kaplan-Meier. The proportion of patients who achieved remission or low disease activity at weeks 24 and 52 was 75.5% and 87.3%, respectively. The mean retention time (95% confidence interval [95% CI] was 81.7 months [76.6-86.7]). Twenty-one of 53 patients (39.6%) optimized the TCZ dose and 35 patients switched from IV TCZ to SC, with no changes in effectiveness. The adverse event rate was 13.6 events/100 patient-years. Tocilizumab appears to be effective and safe in RA in clinical practice. The optimized regimen appears to be effective in most patients in remission, even when they change from IV to SC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  2. Association between Workplace and Housing Conditions and Use of Pesticide Safety Practices and Personal Protective Equipment among North Carolina Farmworkers in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are inconsistencies about the effects of farmworker housing and workplace conditions and use of self-protective behavior practices and personal protective equipment (PPE. Objective: To investigate the association between workplace and housing conditions and farmworker use of pesticide safety practices and PPE. Methods: This study was conducted in 4 counties in North Carolina, USA, from July to October, 2010, during the agricultural growing season. Farmworkers working in agriculture aged 18 to 62 (n=187 were administered a structured questionnaire to collect self-reported measures on housing and workplace conditions. Use of pesticide safety and PPE were examined by asking questions about wearing gloves, wearing socks, and wearing a hat. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results: Farmworkers reporting availability of enough hot and cold water for bathing and doing laundry were 13.6 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 13.6, 95% CI: 1.4–135.4, whereas, those who reported that soap for handwashing was always or usually available while doing agricultural work were 7.8 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.3–18.5. Farmworkers that reported access to water to wash their hands with while performing agricultural work were more likely to use PPE (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3–9.2. Conclusions: Some migrant farmworker labor camps are not supplying acceptable housing conditions such as 1 handwashing sink per 6 people (n=10, 5.4%. Use of pesticide safety practices and PPE is greater when farmers provide decontamination supplies. Improvement of housing and workplace conditions are crucial to increase use of pesticide safety practices and PPE.

  3. Rate of Corneal Collagen Crosslinking Redo in Private Practice: Risk Factors and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Antoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report the rate of progression of keratectasia after primary crosslinking (CXL and evaluate the safety and efficiency of CXL redo. Materials and Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the patients who underwent CXL between 2010 and 2013 at the Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Lebanon. Progression of keratectasia was based on the presence of an increase in maximum keratometry of 1.00 D, a change in the map difference between two consecutive topographies of 1.00 D, a deterioration of visual acuity, or any change in the refraction. Primary and redo CXL were done using the same protocol. Results. Among the 221 eyes of 130 patients who underwent CXL, 7 eyes (3.17% of five patients met the criteria of progression. All patients reported a history of allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing and progressed within 9 to 48 months. No complications were noted and all patients were stable 1 year after CXL redo. Conclusion. Allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing were the only risk factors associated with keratoconus progression after CXL. A close followup is thus mandatory, even years after the procedure. CXL redo seems to be a safe and efficient technique to halt the progression after a primary CXL.

  4. Safety in Numbers: Progressive Implementation of a Robotics Program in an Academic Surgical Oncology Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan C; Zeh, Herbert J; Zureikat, Amer H; Celebrezze, James; Holtzman, Matthew P; Stang, Michael L; Tsung, Allan; Bartlett, David L; Hogg, Melissa E

    2016-08-01

    Background Robotic-assisted surgery has potential benefits over laparoscopy yet little has been published on the integration of this platform into complex surgical oncology. We describe the outcomes associated with integration of robotics into a large surgical oncology program, focusing on metrics of safety and efficiency. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of robotic procedures from July 2009 to October 2014 identifying trends in volume, operative time, complications, conversion to open, and 90-day mortality. Results Fourteen surgeons performed 1236 cases during the study period: thyroid (246), pancreas/duodenum (458), liver (157), stomach (56), colorectal (129), adrenal (38), cholecystectomy (102), and other (48). There were 38 conversions to open (3.1%), 230 complications (18.6%), and 13 mortalities (1.1%). From 2009 to 2014, operative volume increased (7 cases/month vs 24 cases/month; P robotic surgical oncology program utilizing multiple surgeons is safe and feasible. As operative volume increased, operative time, complications, and conversions to open decreased and plateaued at approximately 3 years. No unanticipated adverse events attributable to the introduction of this platform were observed.

  5. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid for High Grade Glioma in Usual Clinical Practice: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Teixidor

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA has been steadily increasing in neurosurgery. The study's main objectives were to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 5-ALA when used in clinical practice setting on high-grade gliomas' patients.National, multicenter and prospective observational study.authorized conditions of use of 5-ALA.contraindication to 5-ALA, inoperable or partial resected tumors, pregnancy and children. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and safety data were collected. Effectiveness was assessed using complete resection of the tumor, and progression-free and overall survival probabilities.Between May 2010 and September 2014, 85 patients treated with 5-ALA were included, and 77 were suitable for the effectiveness analysis. Complete resection was achieved in 41 patients (54%. Surgeons considered suboptimal the fluorescence of 5-ALA in 40% of the patients assessed. The median duration of follow-up was 12.3 months. The progression-free survival probability at 6 months was 58%. The median duration overall survival was 14.2 months. Progression tumor risk factors were grade of glioma, age and resection degree; and death risk factors were grade of glioma and gender. No severe adverse effects were reported. At one month after surgery, new or increased neurological morbidity was 6.5%. Hepatic enzymes were frequently increased within the first month after surgery; however, they subsequently normalized, and this was found to have no clinical significance.In clinical practice, the 5-ALA showed a good safety profile, but the benefits related to 5-ALA have not been yet clearly shown. The improved differentiation expected by fluorescence between normal and tumor cerebral tissue was suboptimal in a relevant number of patients; in addition, the expected higher degree of resection was lower than in clinical trials as well as incomplete resection was not identified as a prognostic factor

  7. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  8. Effects of patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting in general practice : A cluster randomised trial a cluster randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbakel, Natasha J.; Langelaan, Maaike; Verheij, Theo J M; Wagner, Cordula; Zwart, Dorien L M

    2015-01-01

    Background: A constructive safety culture is essential for the successful implementation of patient safety improvements. Aim: To assess the effect of two patient safety culture interventions on incident reporting as a proxy of safety culture. Design and setting: A three-arm cluster randomised trial

  9. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  10. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  11. Safety and effectiveness of a fixed-dose combination of olmesartan, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Peter; Fronk, Eva-Maria; Wolf, Wolf-Peter; Smolnik, Rüdiger; Sutton, Gemma; Schmieder, Roland E

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials indicate that the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) is associated with a higher level of treatment adherence and prolonged blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to document the safety and effectiveness of the FDC olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in patients with essential hypertension in clinical practice. This multicenter, prospective, 24-week, noninterventional study enrolled 5,831 patients from primary care offices in Germany and Austria. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of essential hypertension and newly initiated treatment with the FDC. The mean age of patients was 63.5 years, almost 50% of patients had a time since diagnosis of essential hypertension of over 5 years, and approximately 70% of patients had at least one cardiovascular risk factor, including 29.4% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Following approximately 24 weeks of treatment, the mean reduction in systolic/diastolic BP was 29.0/14.0 mmHg, a BP response was observed by 94.2% of patients, and a target BP of risk (low/high), and concomitant medication (no/yes). This study demonstrates that in clinical practice, treatment with the three-drug combination as an FDC tablet resulted in a very high proportion of patients with a BP response and control, accompanied by a very low rate of ADRs.

  12. The role of market forces and food safety institutions in the adoption of sustainable farming practices: The case of the fresh tomato export sector in Morocco and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Codron, Jean Marie; Adanacioglu, Hakan; Aubert, Magali; Bouhsina, Zouhair; El Mekki, Abdelkader Ait; Rousset, Sylvain; Tozanli, Selma; Yercan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Fresh produce growers are the main source of food contamination by chemical pesticides. In their choice of farming practices, producers are influenced by market forces as well as public and private safety regulations – or “macro-drivers” – as opposed to farm-level micro-drivers. Growers respond to their business and regulatory environment by implementing integrated pest management (IPM) and other good agricultural practices (GAP), where profitable through certification schemes. Our paper atte...

  13. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  14. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  15. The milestones in patient safety -The Harvard Medical Practice Study I , Study II and Study III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe La Torre

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Over the past decade there has been a steady increase in the number of malpractice claims brought against healthcare providers [1,2] and in the monetary damages awarded to plaintiffs [1,3]. This increase has precipitated numerous state programs designed to moderate the number of claims and encourage providers to develop quality of care initiatives [4,5].

    It is important to develop more reliable estimates of the incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients.An adverse event is defined as an injury caused by medical management (rather than the underlying disease that prolongs the hospitalization and results in disability at the time of discharge, or both. Negligence is defined as care that has fallen below the standard expected of physicians in their community.

    The Harvard Medical Practice Study (HMPS was first published in 1991 and was based on 1984 case records of more than 30,000 randomly selected records from 51 randomly selected acute care, nonpsychiatric hospitals.The study attempts to measure the extent of medical malpractice in hospitals in the state of New York, and compare the resulting patterns with the negligence claims actually filed [6-8]. The HMPS reviews randomly selected records with disability injuries caused by medical treatment.To establish that an adverse event or negligence has occurred, it uses as a criterion an average confidence score of four or more (on a six point scale. Data identified are age, sex, and primary discharge diagnosis. The significance of the differences in rates of adverse events and negligence according to sex and age were tested.

  16. Safety of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective cohort study in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mennillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the treatment duration with MTX monotherapy or in association with DMARDs or anti TNFa inhibitors and the incidence and typology of adverse events (AE occurred in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Methods. A retrospective large cohort study of RA outpatients, consecutively seen from January 2000 to June 2005 was performed. Study group were RA patients classified according to the 1984 ACR criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. The patients were divided in 3 groups according to the treatment regimen: MTX monotherapy, MTX in combination with DMARD or with anti TNFa agents. We analyzed 348 therapeutic cycles, 177 of whom using MTX monotherapy. Results. The 224 RA patients accumulated 800 person-years of follow up. Follow up for each of the groups was: MTX monotherapy 479.4 person-years, MTX in combination with DMARDs 244.5, or with anti TNFa inhibitors, 75.7 person- years. From the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probability of patients remaining on treatment 5 years was 58.5 after starting MTX. The incidence of any AE was 8.87 per 100 person-years. From all, 69 (97.2% AE were no severe. Among those, more frequently were observed at gastrointestinal tract (31%, liver (19.7%, skin (15.5%. Incidence of severe AE (lung adenocarcinoma, 1 case; pancreatitis, 1 case was 0.25 per 100 person-years, occurring in patients taking MTX monotherapy or MTX in combination with DMARDs, respectively. Conclusions. These data confirm that methotrexate is well tolerated in clinical practice in the medium-long term. Nevertheless, the occurrence of severe AE require an accurate vigilance for methotrexate toxicity.

  17. TU-A-304-03: Quality Assurance, Safety, and Other Practical Aspects of SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, S. [UC Davis Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Increased use of SBRT and hypo fractionation in radiation oncology practice has posted a number of challenges to medical physicist, ranging from planning, image-guided patient setup and on-treatment monitoring, to quality assurance (QA) and dose delivery. This symposium is designed to provide updated knowledge necessary for the safe and efficient implementation of SBRT in various linac platforms, including the emerging digital linacs equipped with high dose rate FFF beams. Issues related to 4D CT, PET and MRI simulations, 3D/4D CBCT guided patient setup, real-time image guidance during SBRT dose delivery using gated/un-gated VMAT or IMRT, and technical advancements in QA of SBRT (in particular, strategies dealing with high dose rate FFF beams) will be addressed. The symposium will help the attendees to gain a comprehensive understanding of the SBRT workflow and facilitate their clinical implementation of the state-of-art imaging and planning techniques. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of SBRT, describe essential requirements for safe implementation of SBRT, and discuss issues specific to SBRT treatment planning and QA. Update on the use of multi-dimensional (3D and 4D) and multi-modality (CT, beam-level X-ray imaging, pre- and on-treatment 3D/4D MRI, PET, robotic ultrasound, etc.) for reliable guidance of SBRT. Provide a comprehensive overview of emerging digital linacs and summarize the key geometric and dosimetric features of the new generation of linacs for substantially improved SBRT. Discuss treatment planning and quality assurance issues specific to SBRT. Research grant from Varian Medical Systems.

  18. Body, Control and Resistance: Lack-of-Safety and Fear-Related Practices in a District of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García García, Sergio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author draws on his fieldwork findings concerning discourses on safety —or lack thereof— and fear-related practices in Carabanchel, a district of Madrid, to reflect on the body as the realm that discourses coming from the places of power ignore. Increasingly popular among experts, the discourse on the citizens’ lack of safety pretends to represent contemporary subjective insecurities while actually producing subjects in the process that can be represented. It hides the story living in the bodies, including the story of experienced fears, and returns a narrative —that of lack of safety— portrayed as a solution for protection. Notwithstanding that these discourses are incorporated and acted out by the inhabitants of a neighbourhood considered dangerous, the observer can obtain oral re-significations with which to mitigate the effect of control strategies.

    A partir de los avances en la investigación etnográfica sobre los discursos de la (inseguridad y las prácticas relacionadas con el miedo en un distrito de Madrid (Carabanchel, el autor trata de repensar la corporalidad como el ámbito excluido por los discursos procedentes de los lugares de poder. El discurso de la inseguridad ciudadana, que ha ido ganando espacio en ciertos ámbitos expertos, simula representar a las subjetividades inseguras contemporáneas, pero en su intento no hace sino producir sujetos representables. Se oculta la historia que habita en los cuerpos, incluida la de los miedos vividos, y se devuelve un discurso, el de la inseguridad, que se erige en solución de protección. Pese a que estos discursos se incorporan y se actúan performativamente por parte de los habitantes de un barrio señalado como peligroso, se producen resignificaciones en el ámbito de la oralidad, capaces de atenuar el impacto de las estrategias de control.

  19. A Practical Monitoring System for the Structural Safety of Mega-Trusses Using Wireless Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technologies have been actively employed in structural health monitoring (SHM to evaluate structural safety. To provide stable and real-time monitoring, a practical wireless sensor network system (WSNS based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs is proposed and applied to a building under construction. In this WSNS, the data measured from each VWSG are transmitted to the sensor node via a signal line and then transmitted to the master node through a short-range wireless communication module (operating on the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM band. The master node also employs a long-range wireless communication module (Code Division Multiple Access—CDMA to transmit the received data from the sensor node to a server located in a remote area, which enables a manager to examine the measured data in real time without any time or location restrictions. In this study, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to measure long-term strain variations of mega-trusses in an irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a 16-month period, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and to conduct a comparison with numerical simulation results. The effect of temperature stress on the structural elements was also analyzed. From these observations, the feasibility of a long-term WSNS based on VWSGs to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was confirmed.

  20. Liver safety assessment: required data elements and best practices for data collection and standardization in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigan, Mark I; Bjornsson, Einar S; Pasanen, Markku; Cooper, Charles; Andrade, Raul J; Watkins, Paul B; Lewis, James H; Merz, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials. In a breakout session, workshop attendees discussed necessary data elements and standards for the accurate measurement of DILI risk associated with new therapeutic agents in clinical trials. There was agreement that in order to achieve this goal the systematic acquisition of protocol-specified clinical measures and lab specimens from all study subjects is crucial. In addition, standard DILI terms that address the diverse clinical and pathologic signatures of DILI were considered essential. There was a strong consensus that clinical and lab analyses necessary for the evaluation of cases of acute liver injury should be consistent with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on pre-marketing risk assessment of DILI in clinical trials issued in 2009. A recommendation that liver injury case review and management be guided by clinicians with hepatologic expertise was made. Of note, there was agreement that emerging DILI signals should prompt the systematic collection of candidate pharmacogenomic, proteomic and/or metabonomic biomarkers from all study subjects. The use of emerging standardized clinical terminology, CRFs and graphic tools for data review to enable harmonization across clinical trials was strongly encouraged. Many of the recommendations made in the breakout session are in alignment with those made in the other parallel sessions on methodology to assess clinical liver safety data, causality assessment for suspected DILI, and liver safety assessment in special populations (hepatitis B, C, and oncology trials). Nonetheless, a few outstanding issues remain for future consideration.

  1. School Meal Programs: Few Instances of Foodborne Outbreaks Reported, but Opportunities Exist To Enhance Outbreak Data and Food Safety Practices. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyckman, Lawrence J.

    This report details a study by the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) of food safety in public schools. The study examined: (1) the frequency and causes of reported food-borne illness outbreaks associated with the federal school-meal programs; and (2) the practices that federal, state, and local governments, as well as other food…

  2. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine health professional students' behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety and collaborative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkin, Samuel; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor

    2015-08-01

    Safe medication practices depend upon, not only on individual responsibilities, but also effective communication and collaboration between members of the medication team. However, measurement of these skills is fraught with conceptual and practical difficulties. The aims of this study were to explore the utility of a Theory of Planned Behaviour-based questionnaire to predict health professional students' behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety and collaborative practice; and to determine the contribution of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control to behavioural intentions. A descriptive cross-sectional survey based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour was designed and tested. A convenience sample of 65 undergraduate pharmacy, nursing and medicine students from one semi-metropolitan Australian university were recruited for the study. Participants' behavioural intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control to behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety were measured using an online version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour Medication Safety Questionnaire. The Questionnaire had good internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.844. The three predictor variables of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control accounted for between 30 and 46% of the variance in behavioural intention; this is a strong prediction in comparison to previous studies using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Data analysis also indicated that attitude was the most significant predictor of participants' intention to collaborate with other team members to improve medication safety. The results from this study provide preliminary support for the Theory of Planned Behaviour-Medication Safety Questionnaire as a valid instrument for examining health professional students' behavioural intentions in relation to medication safety and collaborative practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Practice of OHSMS into Safety Standardization in Guixi Smelter%贵冶安全标准化植入OHSMS的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹民福

    2015-01-01

    基于安全标准化和职业健康安全管理体系(OccupationHealthSafetyManagementSystem.英文简写为"OHSMS",以下部分简称"OHSMS")是现阶段企业安全管理的两种必不可少、相辅相成的管理手段,两种管理体系的相互融合是当前很多企业面临的一个实际问题.分析了两者的区别和联系,阐述了贵溪冶炼厂安全标准化植入OHSMS的必要性、可行性,并就贵冶安全标准化植入OHSMS的实践进行了描述.%Based on the standardization of Safety and occupational Health and Safety Management System (Occupation Health Safety Management System, English abbreviated as "OHSMS", the following section "OHSMS" for short) are two essential and complementary management means for safety management of present enterprise. The two kinds of mutual integration management System is a real problem which current enterprises faced. In this article, the difference and connection are analyzed, the necessity and feasibility of OHSMS implanted into safety standardization in Guixi smelter are expounded, and the practice of OHSMS in GuiYe safety standardization is described.

  4. Curbing the urge to care: A Bourdieusian analysis of the effect of the caring disposition on nurse middle managers' clinical leadership in patient safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalleman, P C B; Smid, G A C; Lagerwey, M D; Shortridge-Baggett, L M; Schuurmans, M J

    2016-11-01

    Nurse managers play an important role in implementing patient safety practices in hospitals. However, the influence of their professional background on their clinical leadership behaviour remains unclear. Research has demonstrated that concepts of Bourdieu (dispositions of habitus, capital and field) help to describe this influence. It revealed various configurations of dispositions of the habitus in which a caring disposition plays a crucial role. We explore how the caring disposition of nurse middle managers' habitus influences their clinical leadership behaviour in patient safety practices. Our paper reports the findings of a Bourdieusian, multi-site, ethnographic case study. Two Dutch and two American acute care, mid-sized, non-profit hospitals. A total of 16 nurse middle managers of adult care units. Observations were made over 560h of shadowing nurse middle managers, semi-structured interviews and member check meetings with the participants. We observed three distinct configurations of dispositions of the habitus which influenced the clinical leadership of nurse middle managers in patient safety practices; they all include a caring disposition: (1) a configuration with a dominant caring disposition that was helpful (via solving urgent matters) and hindering (via ad hoc and reactive actions, leading to quick fixes and 'compensatory modes'); (2) a configuration with an interaction of caring and collegial dispositions that led to an absence of clinical involvement and discouraged patient safety practices; and (3) a configuration with a dominant scientific disposition showing an investigative, non-judging, analytic stance, a focus on evidence-based practice that curbs the ad hoc repertoire of the caring disposition. The dispositions of the nurse middle managers' habitus influenced their clinical leadership in patient safety practices. A dominance of the caring disposition, which meant 'always' answering calls for help and reactive and ad hoc reactions, did not

  5. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  6. Antiretroviral simplification with darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy in routine clinical practice: safety, effectiveness, and impact on lipid profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simplification of antiretroviral treatment (ART with darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r monotherapy has achieved sustained suppression of plasma viral load (pVL in clinical trials; however, its effectiveness and safety profile has not been evaluated in routine clinical practice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-1-infected patients who initiated DRV/r monotherapy once daily with a pVL 50 copies/mL at week 48, and time to VF. Other causes of treatment discontinuation and changes in lipid profile were evaluated up to week 48. Ninety-two patients were followed for a median (IQR of 73 (57-92 weeks. The median baseline and nadir CD4+ T-cell counts were 604 (433-837 and 238 (150-376 cells/mm3, respectively. Patients had previously received a median of 5 (3-9 ART lines and maintained a pVL<50 copies/mL for a median of 76 (32-176 weeks before initiating DRV/r monotherapy. Nine (9.8% patients developed VF at week 48; time to VF was 47.1 (IQR: 36.1-47.8 weeks among patients with VF. Other reasons for changing ART were gastrointestinal disturbances (n = 3, rash (n = 1, and impaired CD4 recovery (n = 2. Median low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased from 116.1 mg/dL at baseline to 137.3 mg/dL at 48 weeks (p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment simplification with DRV/r monotherapy seems safe and effective in routine clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the effect of DRV/r monotherapy on cholesterol levels.

  7. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  8. Identifying Key Risk Behaviors Regarding Personal Hygiene and Food Safety Practices of Food Handlers Working in Eating Establishments Located Within a Hospital Campus in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prianka Mukhopadhyay*, Gautam Kr. Joardar, Kanad Bag, Amrita Samanta, Sonali Sain and Sesadri Koley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital canteens cater to a large population group and personal hygiene and food safety practices of food handlers assume immense importance to prevent food borne disease outbreaks. Objectives: To assess the self-reported behaviour of food handlers on personal hygiene and food safety practices and to find out their morbidity profile. Methods: An observational study was conducted by interviewing 67 consenting food handlers working in different eateries inside a hospital campus, using a pretested, predesigned schedule. Results: Majority (46.3% of food handlers were educated upto primary level. Only 14.9% foodhandlers received preplacement training and 10.5%, preplacement medical checkup. Though practices of hand washing after going to toilet (95.5% and before preparing food (79.1% was reported to be quite high but for most other practices, hygiene was found to be low. Cuts/injuries on hands was reported as the most common morbidity in 44.8% but 11.9% continued work without any treatment. Conclusion: Preplacement training and in-service education on personal / food hygiene should be provided to all food handlers. Periodic medical checkups and routine sanitary inspection can improve their adherence to personal hygiene and food safety practices and prevent outbreak of food borne illnesses

  9. Sociodemographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses sociodemographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, and ERIC databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers’ sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families’ expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  10. Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an

  11. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  12. Perspectives of Safe Work Practices: Improving Personal Electrical Safety of Low-Voltage Systems from Electrical Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mobarak,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A person’s understanding of a safety hazard has a dramatic effect on his or her behavior. An in-depth understanding of a hazard usually results in a healthy respect for what can happen. People who know the most about a specific hazard tend to rely more heavily on procedures and plans to guide their actions. Personal protective equipment selection and use are influenced by increased understanding of a hazard. Training and training programs are influenced by the depth of knowledge held by all members of the line organization. Recent work has focused attention on the thermal effects of arc flashes. However, when electrical energy is converted into thermal energy in an arcing fault, still another energy conversion is taking place. Applications are on record that suggest that a considerable amount of force is created during an arcing fault. Concrete block walls can be destroyed by the increased pressure that is created during an arcing fault. This study is present about preventing injuries to people. We will study about injuries and then develop some understanding about electrical hazards. Also, we will present about safe work practices, responsible, and then about what makes us act as we do.

  13. What do children aged 5 to 11 years old know about the sun and skin cancer? The practical difficulties of international collaborative research when analysis of language is involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton Bishop, J A; Collins, M; Hughes, B R; Altman, D G; Bergman, W; Breitbart, E W; de Stavola, B; Elvers, H; Gylling, F; Koopman, M; Marks, R; Martin, M; Martin, M; Murphy, G; Osterlind, A; Wetton, N

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of primary school children about sun exposure and skin cancer, and the language they use about these issues, as a basis for the design of health promotional materials. In all, 2857 children in five European countries took part in the study and were compared with 641 Australian children participating in a similar study, since the latter have been exposed to more intensive health education about the sun. The 'draw and write' technique was used. In Europe the level of awareness about the risks of excessive sun exposure and the need to protect the skin was considerably lower than in Australia, although there was some variation within northern Europe. Amongst the European children acknowledging a need to protect the skin, the principal means of protection quoted was the use of suncreams, with inadequate awareness of the value of clothing, hats and shade. European children expressed greater approval of suntans than did the Australian children. Some methodological problems were encountered as a result of nuances in the languages involved, emphasizing difficulties in international research of this type.

  14. Safety and effectiveness of a fixed-dose combination of olmesartan, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Peter Bramlage,1 Eva-Maria Fronk,2 Wolf-Peter Wolf,3 Rüdiger Smolnik,3 Gemma Sutton,1 Roland E Schmieder4 1Institut für Pharmakologie und präventive Medizin, Mahlow, Germany; 2Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH, Munich, Germany; 3Daiichi Sankyo Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany; 4Abteilung für Nephrologie und Hypertensiologie, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany Background: Clinical trials indicate that the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs is associated with a higher level of treatment adherence and prolonged blood pressure (BP control. The aim of this study was to document the safety and effectiveness of the FDC olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in patients with essential hypertension in clinical practice. Methods: This multicenter, prospective, 24-week, noninterventional study enrolled 5,831 patients from primary care offices in Germany and Austria. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of essential hypertension and newly initiated treatment with the FDC. Results: The mean age of patients was 63.5 years, almost 50% of patients had a time since diagnosis of essential hypertension of over 5 years, and approximately 70% of patients had at least one cardiovascular risk factor, including 29.4% of patients with diabetes mellitus. Following approximately 24 weeks of treatment, the mean reduction in systolic/diastolic BP was 29.0/14.0 mmHg, a BP response was observed by 94.2% of patients, and a target BP of <140/90 mmHg was attained in 67.5% of patients. At least one adverse drug reaction (ADR was experienced by 1.2% of patients, with the most common being peripheral edema. Subanalyses demonstrated that the following factors did not have a significant influence on the ADR rate: age (<65 years versus ≥65 years, diabetes mellitus (no/yes, cardiovascular risk (low/high, and concomitant medication (no/yes. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that in clinical practice, treatment with the three-drug combination as an FDC tablet

  15. Food safety in hospital: knowledge, attitudes and practices of nursing staff of two hospitals in Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Guardia Maurizio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently

  16. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  17. Demographic characteristics of patients and their assessment of selected hygienic practices of hospital personnel in the context of safety climate of hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is a key factor in hospital infection prevention and patient safety. The objectives of this article were to examine patients' observations concerning compliance with selected procedures for hospital hygiene among medical personnel and assess the correlation between patients' key demographic characteristics and their awareness and sense of safety associated with hospitalization. The study was conducted in January 2012 on a sample of 491 subjects by means of a standardized 10-minute computer-assisted telephone interview survey. There was a statistically significant correlation between the sense of safety associated with hospitalization declared by patients and their observation of HH practices among health care personnel. A positive correlation was also found between the respondents experiencing personal complications in the form of health care-associated infections themselves or among their family members and the sense of safety associated with hospital treatment. Performing HH among hospital staff is one of the factors affecting patients' increased sense of safety during their hospitalization; therefore, HH contributes to the perception of good quality of service provided. Knowledge of the risk of HH does not affect the patients' sense of safety, in contrast with their real-life experiences. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  19. Warning Statements and Safety Practices among Manufacturers and Distributors of Electronic Cigarette Liquids in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Guy, Mignonne C; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Trinidad, Dennis R; Cassel, Kevin; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Felicitas-Perkins, Jamie Q; Palafox, Sherilyn; Hamamura, Faith; Maloney, Sarah; Degree, Kaylah; Sterling, Kymberle; Moolchan, Eric; Clanton, Mark S; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2017-05-18

    Prior to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation of electronic cigarettes and warning statements related to nicotine addiction, there was no critical examination of manufacturer/distributor voluntary practices that could potentially inform FDA actions aimed to protect consumers. This study examined the content of warning statements and safety characteristics of electronic cigarette liquid bottles using a national sample. Research staff randomly selected four electronic cigarette liquid manufacturers/distributors from four U.S. geographic regions. Staff documented the characteristics of product packaging and content of warning statements on 147 electronic cigarette liquids (0-30 mg/ml of nicotine) purchased online from 16 manufacturers/distributors in April of 2016. Data showed that 97.9% of the electronic cigarette liquid bottles included a warning statement, most of which focused on nicotine exposure rather than health. Only 22.4% of bottles used a warning statement that indicated the product "contained nicotine". Of bottles that advertised a nicotine-based concentration of 12 mg/ml, 26% had a warning statements stated that the product "contains nicotine". None of the statements that indicated that the product "contained nicotine" stated that nicotine was "addictive". All bottles had a safety cap and 12% were in plastic shrink-wrap. Fifty-six percent of the websites had a minimum age requirement barrier that prevented under-aged persons from entering. Most manufacturers/distributors printed a warning statement on electronic cigarette liquid bottles, but avoided warning consumers about the presence and the addictiveness of nicotine. Studies are needed to examine manufacturer/distributor modifications to product packaging and how packaging affects consumer behaviors. These data can inform future FDA requirements related to the packaging and advertising of e-cigarette liquids; regulation related to the content of warning statements, including exposure

  20. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  1. Practicing Fireworks Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  2. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Health Communication in the Office of Communication, Education, and Radiation Programs. "It offers useful information for health care facility staff." Rachlin says the guidance, along with other educational products from FDA and the HBSW, have improved ...

  3. 食品质量与安全专业实践教学体系的构建与实践%Establishment and Practice of Practical Teaching System of Food Quality and Safety Specialty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫师杰; 刘金福; 张平平; 何新益

    2013-01-01

      围绕食品质量与安全专业人才培养目标,阐述了构建食品质量与安全专业实践教学的目标体系,并详细论述了实践教学体系的内容,即认知实习实践、基本专业技能实践和综合创新技能实践,并介绍了实践教学体系实践和运行情况。%Focusing on the talent training goal of food quality and safety professional, the target system of practical teaching about food quality and safety specialty were expounded, the content of practice teaching system, namely, cognitive practice, basic professional skills practice, comprehensive and innovative skills practice were discussed in detail. At last, the practice and operation of practical teaching system were introduced in this paper.

  4. IRQN award paper: Operational rounds: a practical administrative process to improve safety and clinical services in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Lane F; Dickerson, Julie M; Lehkamp, Todd W; Gessner, Kevin E; Moskovitz, Jay; Hutchinson, Sally

    2008-11-01

    As part of a patient safety program in the authors' department of radiology, operational rounds have been instituted. This process consists of radiology leaders' visiting imaging divisions at the site of imaging and discussing frontline employees' concerns about patient safety, the quality of care, and patient and family satisfaction. Operational rounds are executed at a time to optimize the number of attendees. Minutes that describe the issues identified, persons responsible for improvement, and updated improvement plan status are available to employees online. Via this process, multiple patient safety and other issues have been identified and remedied. The authors believe that the process has improved patient safety, the quality of care, and the efficiency of operations. Since the inception of the safety program, the mean number of days between serious safety events involving radiology has doubled. The authors review the background around such walk rounds, describe their particular program, and give multiple illustrative examples of issues identified and improvement plans put in place.

  5. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  6. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  7. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  8. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  9. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  10. Food Safety Education Using an Interactive Multimedia Kiosk in a WIC Setting: Correlates of Client Satisfaction and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L.; Huffman, Fatma G.; Dixon, Zisca

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess acceptability of food safety education delivered by interactive multimedia (IMM) in a Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) clinic. Methods: Female clients or caregivers (n = 176) completed the food-handling survey; then an IMM food safety education program on a computer kiosk.…

  11. Long-term safety of icatibant treatment of patients with angioedema in real-world clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanichelli, A; Maurer, M; Aberer, W

    2017-01-01

    The Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) is an observational study monitoring safety and effectiveness of icatibant in the real-world setting. We analyzed safety data from 3025 icatibant-treated attacks in 557 patients (enrolled between July 2009 and February 2015). Icatibant was generally well tolerat...

  12. Food Safety Education Using an Interactive Multimedia Kiosk in a WIC Setting: Correlates of Client Satisfaction and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L.; Huffman, Fatma G.; Dixon, Zisca

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess acceptability of food safety education delivered by interactive multimedia (IMM) in a Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children Program (WIC) clinic. Methods: Female clients or caregivers (n = 176) completed the food-handling survey; then an IMM food safety education program on a computer kiosk.…

  13. Safety: Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

  14. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    OpenAIRE

    Junli Shi; Yonggao Xia; Zhizhang Yuan; Huasheng Hu; Xianfeng Li; Huamin Zhang; Zhaoping Liu

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural chara...

  15. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  17. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  18. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  19. Water safety and drowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR Never swim alone Never dive into water unless ...

  20. Study of status of safe injection practice and knowledge regarding injection safety among primary health care workers in Baglung district, western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyawali Sudesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe injection practices and injection overuse are widespread in developing countries harming the patient and inviting risks to the health care workers. In Nepal, there is a dearth of documented information about injection practices so the present study was carried out: a to determine whether the selected government health facilities satisfy the conditions for safe injections in terms of staff training, availability of sterile injectable equipment and their proper disposal after use and b to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in these health care facilities with regard to injection safety. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional mixed type (qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out from 18th May to 16th June 2012. In-depth interviews with the in-charges were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observation of the health facilities using a structured observation tool was done. The data were analysed manually by summarizing, tabulating and presenting in various formats. Results The in-charges (eight males, two females who participated in the study ranged in age from 30 to 50 years with a mean age of 37.8 years. Severe infection followed by pain was the most important cause for injection use with injection Gentamicin being most commonly prescribed. New single use (disposable injections and auto-disable syringes were used to inject curative drugs and vaccines respectively. Sufficient safety boxes were also supplied to dispose the used syringe. All health care workers had received full course of Hepatitis B vaccine and were knowledgeable about at least one pathogen transmitted through unsafe injection practices. Injection safety management policy and waste disposal guideline was not available for viewing in any of the facilities. The office staff who disposed the bio-medical wastes did so without taking any safety measures. Moreover, none of these staff had received any formal

  1. EVALUATION OF SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF HYLAN GF-20 IN PATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS IN REAL LIFE PRACTICE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kuropatkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined conservative treatment of osteoarthritis includes intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid. The paper presents the interim results of a prospective observational multicenter non-comparative study conducted in accordance with routine clinical practice to assess the safety and effectiveness of Hylan GF-20 in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The primary objective of the study is to assess walking and rest pain severity by WOMAC VA3.1 scale after 26 weeks and 52 weeks compared to the baseline. To date, 42 patients completed the study (71.43% women, 28.57% men, patients mean age is 59.79 years. After intraarticular injection of Hylan GF-20 patients were examined after 3, 6 and 12 months. After 3 months a positive clinical response was observed: pain severity decreased by 51.31% (p<0,001 on WOMAC A, joint stiffness decreased by 51.02% (p<0,001 on WOMAC B, daily life difficulties decreased by 42.03% (p<0,001 on WOMAC C. The same tendency was observed in the following periods. By week 52 pain severity reduced by 53.25% (p<0,001 on WOMAC A, joint stiffness by 41.63% (p<0,001 on WOMAC B, daily life difficulties -by 47.55% (p<0.001 on WOMAC C. Level of clinical response didn't correlate with the osteoarthritis stage. Therapy resulted in improvement of life quality of patients with knee osteoarthritis by 36% (p<0,001 according to the questionnaire EQ-5D. The general patients status according to physicians improved by 33.96% (p<0,001 on VAS, and by 45.91% (p<0,001 according to patients response on VAS. By week 52 of follow-up 11,90% of patients demonstrated a decrease in required concomitant therapy of osteoarthritis. Given the chronic nature of the osteoarthritis it's the most important that the therapeutic effect of Hylan GF-20 maintains until week 52. The above results confirm the efficiency of intraar-ticular injection of hyaluronic acid in patients with knee osteoarthritis especially in early disease stage.

  2. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  3. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  4. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  5. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  6. Risk Factors in the Pediatric Ward Recognized by Students Before Pediatric Nursing Practice -Basic Data for Medical Safety Education Based on Student's Learning Readiness-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirowatari, Kanako; Nakamura, Emi

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract the risk factors recognized by students before pediatric nursing practice in order to conduct medical safety education based on student's learning readiness. Third-year nursing students of A nursing college used the P-mSHELL model to find the risk factors in a simulated pediatric hospital room, and the researchers analyzed the contents. The students recognized four categories of risk factors: "burden on the family", "characteristics of the infant", "characteristics of children with disease", and "the family's cognition and understanding". There were three categories of risk factors related to "the environment": "environment that can cause a dangerous action", "unsafe environment", and "sickroom as a living space". There were four categories of risk factors related to "the student": "students' own physical/mental condition", "anxiety caused by pediatric nursing practice", "learning process in nursing practice" and "students' understanding of pediatric nursing". The students recognized that there were various risk factors in the child, the family, and the environment, and, by the P-mSHELL model, they recognized that they themselves could become a risk factor. Based on the risk factors that students extracted, teachers should think about what kind of preparation is necessary for students in pediatric nursing practice, and it is important to conduct medical safety education.

  7. Examining young recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun-protective behavior: the role of group and image norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Natalie G; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examined the sun-protective intentions and behavior of young, Caucasian, Australian sportswomen aged between 17 and 35 years (N = 100). The study adopted a 2 x 2 experimental design, comparing group norms (supportive vs. non-supportive) and image norms (tanned vs. pale) related to sun protection and taking into account group identification with friends and peers in the sport. While no significant findings emerged involving image norms, regression analyses revealed a significant two-way interaction for group norm x identification on recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun protection in the next fortnight. Participants identifying strongly with their group had stronger intentions to engage in sun protection when exposed to a norm reflecting fellow recreational sportswomen engaging in sun-protective actions in comparison to those exposed to a non-supportive group. In addition, while prior intentions to engage in sun protection were not significantly related to sun-protection behavior, post-manipulation intentions after exposure to the sun-protective information that was provided were significantly related to follow-up behavior. Overall, the findings supported the importance of group-based social influences, rather than tanned media images, on sun-protective decisions among young recreational sportswomen and provided a targeted source for intervention strategies encouraging sun safety among this at-risk group for repeated sun exposure.

  8. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  9. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  10. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  11. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  12. [Occupational medicine: practice and ethical requirements of the new law on health and safety in the workplace (legislative decree 81/2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Giuliano; Mora, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Decisions in occupational health may involve ethical conflicts arising from conflicts between stakeholders' interests. Codes of ethics can provide a practical guide to solve dilemmas. The new law on health and safety in the workplace in Italy (decree 81/2008) states that occupational health practice must comply with the code of ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice, which are the basis of the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, inspired this code. Although the code is not a systematic textbook of occupational health ethics and does not cover all possible aspects arising from the practice, making decisions based on it will assure their effectiveness and compliance with ethical principles, besides the formal respect of the law.

  13. Quality and safety in graduate nursing education: Cross-mapping QSEN graduate competencies with NONPF's NP core and practice doctorate competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Joanne M; Savrin, Carol; Fiandt, Kathryn; Beauchesne, Michelle; Drayton-Brooks, Shirlee; Scheibmeir, Monica; Brackley, Margaret; Werner, Kathryn E

    2009-01-01

    To ensure that nurse practitioners are prepared to deliver safe, high-quality health care, the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) publishes documents that outline the expected competencies for nurse practitioner (NP) practice (Domains and Core Competencies of Nurse Practitioner Practice and Practice Doctorate Nurse Practitioner Entry-Level Competencies). Having participated in the development of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies for graduate education, NONPF convened a task force to compare NONPF competencies with QSEN competencies for graduate education. This paper reports the first step of that cross-mapping process, comparing NONPF competencies with the QSEN knowledge objectives. Overall findings indicate close congruence across the 2 sets of competencies; however there are areas in which gaps are noted or for which clarification is required.

  14. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  15. Practices and exploration on competition of molecular biological detection technology among students in food quality and safety major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-07-08

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula of Food quality and safety Majors. This paper introduced a project "competition of molecular biological detection technology for food safety among undergraduate sophomore students in food quality and safety major", students participating in this project needed to learn the fundamental molecular biology experimental techniques such as the principles of molecular biology experiments and genome extraction, PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, and then design the experiments in groups to identify the meat species in pork and beef products using molecular biological methods. The students should complete the experimental report after basic experiments, write essays and make a presentation after the end of the designed experiments. This project aims to provide another way for food quality and safety majors to improve their knowledge of molecular biology, especially experimental technology, and enhances them to understand the scientific research activities as well as give them a chance to learn how to write a professional thesis. In addition, in line with the principle of an open laboratory, the project is also open to students in other majors in East China University of Science and Technology, in order to enhance students in other majors to understand the fields of molecular biology and food safety. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):343-350, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Beyond safety accountability

    CERN Document Server

    Geller, E Scott

    2001-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-read conversational tone, Beyond Safety Accountability explains how to develop an organizational culture that encourages people to be accountable for their work practices and to embrace a higher sense of personal responsibility. The author begins by thoroughly explaining the difference between safety accountability and safety responsibility. He then examines the need of organizations to improve safety performance, discusses why such performance improvement can be achieved through a continuous safety process, as distinguished from a safety program, and provides the practic

  17. Challenges in ethics, safety, best practices, and oversight regarding HIT vendors, their customers, and patients: a report of an AMIA special task force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Eta S; Dente, Mark A; Kaplan, Bonnie; Koppel, Ross; Rucker, Donald; Sands, Daniel Z; Winkelstein, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The current commercial health information technology (HIT) arena encompasses a number of competing firms that provide electronic health applications to hospitals, clinical practices, and other healthcare-related entities. Such applications collect, store, and analyze patient information. Some vendors incorporate contract language whereby purchasers of HIT systems, such as hospitals and clinics, must indemnify vendors for malpractice or personal injury claims, even if those events are not caused or fostered by the purchasers. Some vendors require contract clauses that force HIT system purchasers to adopt vendor-defined policies that prevent the disclosure of errors, bugs, design flaws, and other HIT-software-related hazards. To address this issue, the AMIA Board of Directors appointed a Task Force to provide an analysis and insights. Task Force findings and recommendations include: patient safety should trump all other values; corporate concerns about liability and intellectual property ownership may be valid but should not over-ride all other considerations; transparency and a commitment to patient safety should govern vendor contracts; institutions are duty-bound to provide ethics education to purchasers and users, and should commit publicly to standards of corporate conduct; and vendors, system purchasers, and users should encourage and assist in each others' efforts to adopt best practices. Finally, the HIT community should re-examine whether and how regulation of electronic health applications could foster improved care, public health, and patient safety. PMID:21075789

  18. The fetal heart rate collaborative practice project: situational awareness in electronic fetal monitoring-a Kaiser Permanente Perinatal Patient Safety Program Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachin, S Rachel; Lopez, Connie M; Powell, Kimberly J; Corbett, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring has historically been interpreted with wide variation between and within disciplines on the obstetric healthcare team. This leads to inconsistent decision making in response to tracing interpretation. To implement a multidisciplinary electronic fetal monitoring training program, utilizing the best evidence available, enabling standardization of fetal heart rate interpretation to promote patient safety. Local multidisciplinary expertise along with an outside consultant collaborated over a series of meetings to create a multimedia instructional electronic fetal monitoring training program. After production was complete, a series of conferences attended by nurses, certified nurse midwives, and physician champions, from each hospital, attended to learn how to facilitate training at their own perinatal units. All healthcare personnel across the Kaiser Permanente perinatal program were trained in NICHD nomenclature, emergency response, interpretation guidelines, and how to create local collaborative practice agreements. Metrics for program effectiveness were measured through program evaluations from attendees, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Program evaluations rendered very positive scores from both physicians and clinicians. Comparing baseline to 4 years later, the perception of safety from the staff has increased over 10% in 5 out of the 6 factors analyzed. Active participation from all disciplines in this training series has highlighted the importance of teamwork and communication. The Fetal Heart Rate Collaborative Practice Project continues to evolve utilizing other educational modalities, such as online EFM education and unit-based interdisciplinary tracing reviews.

  19. Non-clinical studies in the process of new drug development - Part II: Good laboratory practice, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, safety and dose translation to clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E L; Bento, A F; Cavalli, J; Oliveira, S K; Schwanke, R C; Siqueira, J M; Freitas, C S; Marcon, R; Calixto, J B

    2016-12-12

    The process of drug development involves non-clinical and clinical studies. Non-clinical studies are conducted using different protocols including animal studies, which mostly follow the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. During the early pre-clinical development process, also known as Go/No-Go decision, a drug candidate needs to pass through several steps, such as determination of drug availability (studies on pharmacokinetics), absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) and preliminary studies that aim to investigate the candidate safety including genotoxicity, mutagenicity, safety pharmacology and general toxicology. These preliminary studies generally do not need to comply with GLP regulations. These studies aim at investigating the drug safety to obtain the first information about its tolerability in different systems that are relevant for further decisions. There are, however, other studies that should be performed according to GLP standards and are mandatory for the safe exposure to humans, such as repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and safety pharmacology. These studies must be conducted before the Investigational New Drug (IND) application. The package of non-clinical studies should cover all information needed for the safe transposition of drugs from animals to humans, generally based on the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from general toxicity studies. After IND approval, other GLP experiments for the evaluation of chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, are carried out during the clinical phase of development. However, the necessity of performing such studies depends on the new drug clinical application purpose.

  20. Non-clinical studies in the process of new drug development - Part II: Good laboratory practice, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, safety and dose translation to clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Andrade

    Full Text Available The process of drug development involves non-clinical and clinical studies. Non-clinical studies are conducted using different protocols including animal studies, which mostly follow the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP regulations. During the early pre-clinical development process, also known as Go/No-Go decision, a drug candidate needs to pass through several steps, such as determination of drug availability (studies on pharmacokinetics, absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME and preliminary studies that aim to investigate the candidate safety including genotoxicity, mutagenicity, safety pharmacology and general toxicology. These preliminary studies generally do not need to comply with GLP regulations. These studies aim at investigating the drug safety to obtain the first information about its tolerability in different systems that are relevant for further decisions. There are, however, other studies that should be performed according to GLP standards and are mandatory for the safe exposure to humans, such as repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and safety pharmacology. These studies must be conducted before the Investigational New Drug (IND application. The package of non-clinical studies should cover all information needed for the safe transposition of drugs from animals to humans, generally based on the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL obtained from general toxicity studies. After IND approval, other GLP experiments for the evaluation of chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, are carried out during the clinical phase of development. However, the necessity of performing such studies depends on the new drug clinical application purpose.

  1. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) status of Asian countries and its implementation in non-clinical safety studies in pharmaceutical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Madoka; Hinotsu, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2009-10-01

    Non-clinical animal studies to assess the safety of compounds under development have to comply with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has established the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) system in OECD member countries for the mutual acceptance of non-clinical safety study data. Since 1997 non-OECD-member countries have also been able to participate in the MAD system, if the country meets the level of standardized compliance with OECD GLP. Thus, several Asian non-OECD countries are trying to develop their GLP standards in order to become official members of the MAD system. Pharmaceutical companies face significant expense in the drug-development process, including the cost of non-clinical safety studies; in response, companies in Asian countries are seeking to establish GLP facilities to provide cost-effective services for drug development. To assess the quality and cost of GLP performance in Asian countries, in this study we approached GLP facilities in a number of Asian countries to obtain price and quality information on a 'virtual compound' to be assessed in non-clinical safety studies. Also, the development status of GLP in Asian countries in terms of policy and infrastructure was analyzed. We found that, among Asian countries, India and Singapore may be candidates for participation in te MAD system in terms of their compliance with GLP, language, and costs. These findings will be beneficial to pharmaceutical companies planning GLP studies in Asian countries.

  2. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  3. The effect of learning via module versus lecture teaching methods on the knowledge and practice of oncology nurses about safety standards with cytotoxic drugs in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbasi, Khadijeh; Hazrati, Maryam; Mohamadi, Nasrin Pourali; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, the effect of teacher-centered (lecture) and student-centered (module) teaching methods in relation to safety standards with cytotoxic drugs on the knowledge and practice of oncology nurses was compared...

  4. The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project: a successful and practical U.S.-Mexico border initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Cox, Susan C; Mangadu, Thenral; Jacquez, Benjamín; Fullerton, Lynne

    2010-05-01

    The Environmental Health/Home Safety Education Project (Proyecto de Salud Ambiental y Seguridad en el Hogar) has been developed in response to a wide array of severe and often preventable environmental health issues occurring in and around homes on the U.S.-Mexico border. Utilizing well-trained community members, called promotoras , homes are visited and assessed for potential environmental hazards, including home fire and food safety issues. Data analyzed from project years 2002 to 2005 shows a significant impact in knowledge levels and initial behavior change among targeted participants as it relates to fire and food safety issues. Since the initiation of the project in 1999, hundreds of participants have improved their quality of life by making their homes safer. The project has proven to be sustainable, replicable, flexible, and attractive to funders.

  5. Investigation on knowledge, attitude and practice about food safety among students in Qingdao%青岛市学生食品安全知信行调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建新; 孙健平; 高汝钦; 逄增昌; 靳晓梅; 孔东池

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解青岛市学生食品安全知识、态度、行为,为进一步在学生中开展健康教育和行为干预提供理论依据.方法 整群随机抽取青岛市12所学校的915名学生进行问卷调查.结果 学生食品安全知识平均得分为(10.21±3.63)分,小学生得分最低(9.05±3.27),大学生最高(11.53±3.20),不同文化程度间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);食品安全行为平均得分为(4.75±1.48)分,小学生得分最高(5.31±1.31),大学生最低(3.88±1.47),不同文化程度间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).41.0%的学生认为我国食品安全现状较差.电视新闻(81.2%)、报纸杂志(53.7%)和网络(47.7%)是学生获取食品安全知识的主要途径.结论 青岛市学生的食品安全知识知晓率和行为形成率较低,应大力开展食品安全健康教育.%Objective To investigate knowledge, attitude and practice about food safety among students in Qingdao, and to provide scientific information for further health education and practice intervention to students. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among 915 students drawn from 12 schools in Qingdao by cluster random sampling. Their knowledge about food safety, attitude and practice were investigated. Results The average score of food safety among these students was ( 10. 21 ±3.63), the score of pupils was the lowest (9. 05 ± 3. 27) and it of college students was the highest (11.53 ±3. 20) , higher grade students got higher scores, difference had statistics significance( P < 0.05 ). The average score of health behavior was (4. 75 ± 1. 48 ) , the score of pupils was the highest (5.31 ±1.31) and it of college students was the highest(3. 88 ± 1.47) , higher grade students got lower scores, difference had statistics significance( P <0. 05 ). About 41. 0% of the students considered that food safety situation in China was poor and worried about it. Students acquired food safety knowledge mainly through television ( 81. 2

  6. Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation: A Path to Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation is an ancient and sacred yogic technique of India for expressing gratitude to the Sun. Surya Namaskar is a set of 12 Asanas (postures, It is done preferably in the morning while facing the rising sun. There are numerous health benefits of Surya Namaskar for different system of the body specially musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous system, respiratory and endocrinal. The heart, liver, intestine, stomach, chest, throat, legs and backbone are main benefited organs. By practicing Surya Namaskar each and every cell of body get revitalize and regenerated, therefore it is highly recommended by all yoga experts for healthy routine life. The regular practice of Surya Namaskar improves blood circulation throughout the body, maintains health and makes the body disease-free. Regular practice of Surya Namaskar gives strength, flexibility and vitality to the body. Sun Salutation asanas help to burn extra body fat on belly, buttocks and back by modulating endocrinal system. It also helps to regulate menstrual cycles among women and also facilitate an easy childbirth. Apart from these benefits of Surya Namaskar also help to keep the mind stress free, calm and illuminated. Thus, a regular practice of Surya Namaskar is highly recommended to keep the body and mind healthy. Though the Surya Namaskar steps are very scientific and practical science ancient time but still it needs advance modern scientific justification to spread it globally, keeping this thing into the mind the present review has been framed to revalidate sacred steps of Surya Namaskar on the basis of available evidence based studies.

  7. Planning for a brighter future: a review of sun protection and barriers to behavioral change in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlani, Chicky; Orlow, Seth J

    2008-09-15

    Skin cancer is one of the most preventable groups of malignancies; however, skin cancer incidence continues to rise in the United States. The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet (UV) radiation is well known. Many interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to UV radiation have been employed throughout the United States. Studies show an increase in knowledge and awareness regarding sun exposure and skin cancer. Unfortunately, sun protection interventions are slow at effecting behavioral change. In this review, we examine current barriers facing youth today in regards to sun protection practices, appropriate age groups to target for intervention, proposed methods of sun protection, the influence of role models in changing sun protective behavior, the stages of behavioral change, and characteristics and techniques of sun protection programs that can not only increase knowledge but actually elicit changes in sun protection behavior.

  8. Treatment of paediatric scalp psoriasis with calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation: effectiveness, safety and influence on children's quality of life in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostveen, A M; de Jong, E M G J; Donders, A R T; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Seyger, M M B

    2015-06-01

    Evidence on efficacy and safety of topical treatments for paediatric scalp psoriasis is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation for paediatric scalp psoriasis in daily clinical practice. The influence of this formulation on the quality of life (QoL) was assessed as well. Data of children treated with the scalp formulation were extracted from a prospective observational daily clinical practice registry of children with psoriasis, called Child-Continuous Assessment of Psoriasis Treatment Use Registry. Severity was expressed by Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI) and the impact on the QoL was reflected by the validated Children's Scalpdex in Psoriasis (CSP). Eighty-four treatment episodes were analysed. Significant improvements of PSSI score (18.7 ± 11.8 to 12.7 ± 9.4) were demonstrated in the first 12 weeks and this result was well maintained during 48 weeks of follow-up. Three patients (4.1%) developed striae of the skin (arms, trunk and legs), which are possibly related to the scalp formulation. CSP scores (79.0-46.3) declined significantly after 3 months. In a daily clinical practice cohort of children with scalp psoriasis, calcipotriene/betamethasone dipropionate scalp formulation was effective with a 32.1% improvement of PSSI at week 12 and a maintenance of this effect until 48 weeks of follow-up, in combination with improvement of QoL. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  10. 临床用药护理安全管理的做法与效果%practice and effects of drug safety management in clinical nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷泽秋; 何方; 周宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the practice and effects of drug safety management in clinical nursing. Methods The management measures included setting up a drug safety management group,finding out clinical drug safety problems,designing and making drug administration cards,standardizing the use of various types of drug labels,perfecting the nursing work system and establishing continuous training system of clinical safe nursing medication. Results Hie incidence of medication errors and defects declined, and the incidence of drug overtime declined, the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01 or P <0.05 ). Conclusion The implementation of drug safety management can ensure the safety of drugs for clinical nursing.%目的 探讨临床用药护理安全管理的做法与效果.方法 成立临床用药护理安全管理小组;查找临床护理用药安全隐患;设计并制作专门的药品管理卡;规范各类药品标识的使用;完善护理工作制度;建立临床用药护理安全持续培训制度.结果 用药差错及缺陷发生率、药物过期发生率均下降,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 实施临床用药护理安全管理可以使临床用药护理安全得到有效保障.

  11. Granulocyte-monocyte adsorptive apheresis in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: results, practical issues, safety, and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruuska, T; Wewer, V; Lindgren, F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to collect data on granulocyte-monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) for the treatment of corticosteroid-dependent (SD) or corticosteroid-resistant (SR) inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children from 3 Nordic countries to evaluate its efficacy and safety...

  12. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  13. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  14. Chemistry, sun, energy and environment; Chimie, soleil, energie et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchy, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques (ENSIC), 54 - Villers-les-Nancy (France); Enea, O. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France); Flamant, G. [IMP-Odeillo-CNRS (France)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This document provides the 35 papers presented at the 'Chemistry, Sun, Energy and Environment' meeting, held February 3-4, 2000 in Saint-Avold, France. The main studied topic was the use of solar radiation for water treatment, volatile organic compounds decomposition and in some thermochemical processes. These research subjects are tackled in a fundamental and practical point of view. (O.M.)

  15. Creation and Practices on Safety Culture of Huaibei Coal Mining Group%淮北矿业集团安全文化的创新与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚光

    2012-01-01

    结合煤矿实际,从安全宣传教育、安全文化、安全生产体系3个方面,论述了淮北矿业集团在安全文化建设上的系统谋划、理论创新与具体实践。%In combination with the coal mine actual conditions,from the safety propaganda and education,safety culture and safety production system,the paper stated the systematic scheme,theoretical creation and practices on the safety cultural building in Huaibei Coal Mining Group.

  16. Car seat inspection among children older than 3 years: Using data to drive practice in child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M; Teddy, Amy J; Macy, Michelle L

    2015-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children 4 years to 12 years of age in the United States. Despite the high risk of injury from motor vehicle crashes in this age group, parental awareness and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables were included if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. χ statistics were used to compare change in restraint use on arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of the total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected (rear-facing carrier [40.3%], rear-facing convertible [10.2%], and forward-facing [19.3%] car seats). Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children 4 years and older were found to be in a suboptimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Booster Age Child. Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level III.

  17. Car Seat Inspection Among Children Older Than Three: Using Data to Drive Practice in Child Passenger Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Amber M.; Teddy, Amy J.; Macy, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of unintentional death and disability among children ages 4-12 in the United States. Despite this high risk of injury from MVCs in this age group, parental awareness, and child passenger safety programs in particular may lack focus on this age group. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of child passenger safety seat checklist forms from two Safe Kids coalitions in Michigan (2013) to identify restraint type upon arrival to car seat inspections. Other variables included, if the coalition provided a new child safety seat and if the child had a sibling who underwent a car seat inspection. Chi-square statistics were used to compare change in restraint use upon arrival and at departure, the proportion of children attending a car seat inspection event by age, the age category of children by site, the proportion of children with siblings also undergoing a car seat inspection by age, and the distribution of a new child safety seat by age. Results Data were available from 1,316 Safe Kids Huron Valley and 3,215 Safe Kids Greater Grand Rapids car seat inspections. Just 10.8% of total seats inspected were booster seats. Child safety seats for infant and young children were more commonly inspected [rear-facing carrier (40.3%), rear-facing convertible (10.2%), and forward-facing (19.3%) car seats]. Few children at inspections used a seat belt only (5.4%) or had no restraint (13.8%). Children age 4 and above were found to be in a sub-optimal restraint at least 30% of the time. Conclusion Low proportions of parents use car seat inspections for children in the booster seat age group. The proportion of children departing the inspection in a more protective restraint increased with increasing age. This highlights an area of weakness in child passenger safety programs and signals an opportunity to strengthen efforts on The Forgotten Child. Level of Evidence Level III PMID:26308122

  18. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  19. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  20. Do doctors benefit from their profession?--A survey of medical practitioners' health promotion and health safety practices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, M

    1998-12-01

    Three hundred Irish Medical Organisation members were surveyed on health promotion and health and safety issues. 64.7% responded (65.3 males; 33.7% < thirty-five years). Over half (54.9%) were aware of the safety legislation and very few reported available occupational health services. A majority wanted more such services. Nearly all believed health promotion was important yet only 35.2% always availed of opportunities to give such advice. 36.3% were often stressed, particularly at work. Alcohol was sometimes or frequently used to cope by around half of respondents. Although less than half (47.7%) used whole milk, one third usually or always added salt to their food. 15.5% took no weekly aerobic exercise but 42.0% claimed to do so three times weekly. 11.4 were current smokers. A third of women had never had a cervical smear. We conclude doctors require adequate occupational health services.

  1. Application of new control strategy for sun tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, F.R.; Ortega, M.G.; Gordillo, F.; Lopez-Martinez, M. [Depto. Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The application of high concentration solar cells technology allows a significant increase in the amount of energy collected by solar arrays per unit area. However, to make it possible, more severe specifications on the sun pointing error are required. In fact, the performance of solar cells with concentrators decreases drastically if this error is greater than a small value. These specifications are not fulfilled by simple tracking systems due to different sources of errors (e.g., small misalignments of the structure with respect to geographical north) that appear in practice in low cost, domestic applications. This paper presents a control application of a sun tracker that is able to follow the sun with high accuracy without the necessity of either a precise procedure of installation or recalibration. A hybrid tracking system that consists of a combination of open loop tracking strategies based on solar movement models and closed loop strategies using a dynamic feedback controller is presented. Energy saving factors are taken into account, which implies that, among other factors, the sun is not constantly tracked with the same accuracy, to prevent energy overconsumption by the motors. Simulation and experimental results with a low cost two axes solar tracker are exposed, including a comparison between a classical open loop tracking strategy and the proposed hybrid one. (author)

  2. Factors Affecting the Perception of Importance and Practice of Patient Safety Management among Hospital Employees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Kim, RN, PhD

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate a need for developing strategies to improve perception of the importance and practice of PSM among all hospital employees, and provide a reference for future experimental studies.

  3. Results of a survey among GP practices on how they manage patient safety aspects related to point-of-care testing in every day practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, C. de; Doggen, C.J.M.; Hilbers, E.; Verheij, R.; IJzerman, M.; Geertsma, R.; Kusters, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Point-of-care (POC) tests are devices or test strips that can be used near or at the site where care is delivered to patients, enabling a relatively fast diagnosis. Although many general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands are using POC tests in their practice, little i

  4. Results of a survey among GP practices on how they manage patient safety aspects related to point-of-care testing in every day practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Claudette; Doggen, Carine; Hilbers, Ellen; Verheij, Robert; IJzerman, Maarten; Geertsma, Robert; Kusters, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Point-of-care (POC) tests are devices or test strips that can be used near or at the site where care is delivered to patients, enabling a relatively fast diagnosis. Although many general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands are using POC tests in their practice, little is known on how t

  5. Results of a survey among GP practices on how they manage patient safety aspects related to point-of-care testing in every day practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Claudette; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Hilbers, Ellen; Verheij, Robert; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Geertsma, Robert; Kusters, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Point-of-care (POC) tests are devices or test strips that can be used near or at the site where care is delivered to patients, enabling a relatively fast diagnosis. Although many general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands are using POC tests in their practice, little is known on how

  6. TRIGONOMETRIC SU(N) GAUDIN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model based on the quasi-classical limit of the trigonometric SU(N) chain with the periodic boundary condition.By using the quantum inverse scattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generating function of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model.

  7. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  8. Sun awareness in Maltese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, S; Gauci, A Amato; Ellul, M; Scerri, L

    2004-11-01

    Studies indicate that reducing exposure to ultraviolet light during childhood and adolescence decreases the risk of skin cancer. From a young age, children need to be educated about the sun's harmful effects on the skin and how best to protect themselves. To help in the design of school-based interventions to raise sun awareness, a school survey was carried out to identify students' stereotypes and misconceptions. A total of 965 students attending Maltese secondary schools in forms 1, 2 and 3 were surveyed in May 2002, using a structured questionnaire designed to examine students' sun-related attitudes and knowledge. A high level of sun awareness among students was demonstrated, with high scores on knowledge of the effects of the sun on the skin, knowledge of skin cancer and knowledge of sun protection. Girls were clearly more knowledgeable than boys. However, of all the students surveyed, 55% thought that a suntan made them look better and 70% thought that their friends would desire a tan. These views were commoner among the older students. Skin type and hair or eye colour had no bearing on attitudes towards tanning or sun-related knowledge. The commonest misconceptions were that 'the sun is bad for your skin only when you get sunburnt' and that 'you cannot get too much sun on a cloudy day'. Deliberate suntanning was more frequently reported by girls than by boys and by students in the higher forms. Attitude change lags behind knowledge. Future school sun awareness interventions need to take into account gender and age differences in students' attitudes and perspectives. They should aim at motivating attitude change and preventive behaviour through consistent and repeated sun-education messages that are supported by a sun-conscious school environment.

  9. Sun Jingxia Devotes Herself to Nursing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "I really didn’t expect that at my advanced age, I would be awarded the highest honor in international nursing circles," said Mme. Sun Jingxia, 81, who had just returned from Beijing where she received the Nightingale Medal. Wearing a light yellow suit, with a collar bordered in red, Sun is inhigh spirits, reminding people of the beauty of the setting sun. It is clear that Sun Jingxia has deep feelings as she looks at the medal which shows a relief of Florence Nightingale’s head. She spoke in her usual soft voice but with some excitement, "President Jiang

  10. Changes in Practice Patterns of Clopidogrel in Combination with Proton Pump Inhibitors after an FDA Safety Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Annie; Mody, Reema; Carter, Valerie; Ayas, Charles; Patel, Haridarshan; Lasch, Karen; Wu, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In 2009, the FDA issued a warning that omeprazole–a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)–reduces the antithrombotic effect of clopidogrel by almost half when taken concomitantly. This study aims to analyze the impact of the FDA Safety Communications on prescribing clopidogrel together with PPIs. Methods This retrospective study identified clopidogrel users from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Databases (01/2006–12/2012). Rates of clopidogrel-PPI combination therapy were estimated in 6-month intervals for patients with ≥1 clopidogrel prescription fill, then were analyzed pre- and post-safety communication (11/17/2009). Analyses were also conducted by grouping PPIs into CYP2C19 inhibitors (omeprazole and esomeprazole) and CYP2C19 non-inhibitors (pantoprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, and rabeprazole). Results Overall, 483,074 patients met the selection criteria; of these, 157,248 used a clopidogrel-PPI combination. On average, 30.5% of patients in the pre- and 19.9% in the post-communication period used a clopidogrel-PPI combination therapy. Among clopidogrel users, the probability of using clopidogrel-PPI combinations fell by over 40% in the post-communication period (OR = 0.57; pomeprazole fell from 10.1% to 6.3%. Among combination therapy users, the probability of patients using a combination with a CYP2C19 inhibitor decreased by 53% (OR = 0.47; p<0.001); however, 31.5% of patients were still prescribed a clopidogrel-PPI combination therapy. Trends were similar for all and newly treated patients, regardless of clopidogrel indication and physician specialty. Conclusions The FDA Safety Communication resulted in a reduction in the number of patients undergoing combination therapy; however approximately one-third of patients still used combination therapy post-communication. PMID:26727382

  11. Effectiveness and safety of apixaban versus warfarin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients in "real-world" clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Deitelzweig, Steve; Keshishian, Allison

    2017-01-01

    ) of NVAF patients newly initiating apixaban or warfarin from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2015. After 1:1 warfarin-apixaban propensity score matching (PSM) within each database, the resulting patient records were pooled. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate...... to warfarin treatment. This is the largest "real-world" study on apixaban effectiveness and safety to date, showing that apixaban initiation was associated with significant risk reductions in stroke/SE and major bleeding compared to warfarin initiation after PSM. These benefits were consistent across various...

  12. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients attending dermatology clinics at four hospitals in Lima, Peru Exposição solar e conhecimento, atitudes e práticas de fotoproteção em pacientes de unidades ambulatoriais de dermatologia em quatro hospitais de Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas-Gavelan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To establish the knowledge, about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients treated at the dermatology clinics in four hospitals in Lima, Peru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 364 patients selected using a systematic random sampling process in the four participating hospitals. The selected patients were interviewed to determine their knowledge, behavior and practices in relation to sun exposure and photoprotection. The chi-square test was used to identify any significant differences between knowledge and practices. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this sample was 45.1 ± 21.4 years. Of the 364 patients, 55.9% were women and 54.8% had skin phototype IV. The principal risks related to sun exposure were skin cancer (80.5% and sunburn (77.8%. Knowledge regarding sun protection was more evident in individuals with university/college education (pFUNDAMENTOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o conhecimento, sobre a exposição solar e fotoproteção em pacientes ambulatoriais tratados nas unidades de dermatologia de quatro hospitais em Lima, Peru. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal. A amostra foi formada por 364 pacientes originários dos quatro hospitais participantes. Os pacientes foram selecionados através de um processo de amostragem aleatória sistemática. Uma vez selecionados, os pacientes foram entrevistados para determinação do conhecimento, atitudes e práticas em relação à exposição ao sol e à fotoproteção. O teste do qui-quadrado foi usado para determinar diferenças significativas entre conhecimento e práticas. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes tinham em média 45,1±21,4 anos de idade, 55,9% eram mulheres e 54,8% tinham pele fototipo IV. Os principais riscos relacionados à exposição solar foram câncer de pele (80,5% e queimaduras solares (77,8%. Participantes com nível universitário apresentaram maior conhecimento sobre prote

  14. Conocimiento sobre melanoma y prácticas de protección frente al sol en pacientes del Hospital Cullen de Santa Fe, Argentina Knowledge of melanoma and sun-protective practices in patients at José M. Cullen Hospital of Santa Fe, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Loza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Melanoma es un cáncer de piel de mortalidad alta, cuya incidencia ha aumentado mundialmente en los últimos años. El siguiente estudio está destinado a detectar el conocimiento de la población sobre melanoma y las medidas de protección frente a la radiación UV (RUV, considerando que las dos terceras partes de los casos de melanoma se asocian al sol. Objetivo general. Detectar el conocimiento sobre melanoma y las prácticas de protección solar, en pacientes que consultan en el Servicio de Dermatología e internados en Clínica Médica del Hospital José M. Cullen. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional, prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo. La población abarcó 275 pacientes, entre 16 y 85 años, voluntarios del consultorio de Dermatología e internados en Clínica Médica del Hospital José M. Cullen. Mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0, se realizó un análisis descriptivo y la prueba de Chi cuadrado, para determinar asociación estadística, entre variables cualitativas con significancia de pBackground. Melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer, showing an increasing incidence worldwide over the past years. The aim of this study was to assess people's knowledge about melanoma, and their protective measures against UV radiation, considering that two-thirds of melanoma cases are associated to sun exposure. General objective. To assess the knowledge about melanoma and the sun protective practices in patients who attended the Department of Dermatology and in those admitted to the General Internal Medicine Unit of José M. Cullen Hospital. Material and methods. It was an observational, prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study. A sample of 275 participants aged between 16-85 years was included, composed of voluntary patients from the Department of Dermatology and inpatients from the General Internal Medicine Unit of José M. Cullen Hospital. The Statistical Package for

  15. Practical Implementation of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis for Safety and Efficiency in Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younge, Kelly Cooper, E-mail: kyounge@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang, Yizhen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Thompson, John; Giovinazzo, Julia; Finlay, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Trillium Health Partners - Credit Valley Hospital Site, Mississauga Halton/Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Sankreacha, Raxa [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and efficiency of a new stereotactic radiosurgery program with the application of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) performed by a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals. Methods and Materials: Representatives included physicists, therapists, dosimetrists, oncologists, and administrators. A detailed process tree was created from an initial high-level process tree to facilitate the identification of possible failure modes. Group members were asked to determine failure modes that they considered to be the highest risk before scoring failure modes. Risk priority numbers (RPNs) were determined by each group member individually and then averaged. Results: A total of 99 failure modes were identified. The 5 failure modes with an RPN above 150 were further analyzed to attempt to reduce these RPNs. Only 1 of the initial items that the group presumed to be high-risk (magnetic resonance imaging laterality reversed) was ranked in these top 5 items. New process controls were put in place to reduce the severity, occurrence, and detectability scores for all of the top 5 failure modes. Conclusions: FMEA is a valuable team activity that can assist in the creation or restructuring of a quality assurance program with the aim of improved safety, quality, and efficiency. Performing the FMEA helped group members to see how they fit into the bigger picture of the program, and it served to reduce biases and preconceived notions about which elements of the program were the riskiest.

  16. Sun Tzu’s Principles Of War Art And Today’s Competition Strategies: A Relative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzet Kilinc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to associate with the principles of Sun Tzu's art of war and the basic features of the competitive strategies, and to reveal the similarities between Sun Tzu's war strategies and competitive strategies, to generate a different point of view for business and literature.  ualitative research method was used. Sun Tzu's art of war book was examined aspects of competition, and theoretical and practical secondary sources were evaluated. As a result, the Principles of Sun Tzu's art of war have been adapted to the business competitiveness, related to competitive strategies and created a conceptual framework

  17. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  18. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  19. Regina vs Hubbs: Determining the Sun's Position

    CERN Document Server

    Samra, Raminder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Here I determined the Sun's position as an expert witness for crown counsel. From my calculations I found the Sun's location in the sky was such that it could not impede the driver's vision, as a result it could not have been the reason for the accused to be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Trifluridine/Tipiracil Monotherapy in Clinical Practice for Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Experience at a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Daisuke; Shitara, Kohei; Kawazoe, Akihito; Fukuoka, Shota; Kuboki, Yasutoshi; Bando, Hideaki; Okamoto, Wataru; Kojima, Takashi; Doi, Toshihiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Yoshino, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    The combination drug TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent containing trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride, which prevents the degradation of trifluridine. The global phase III RECOURSE trial (Study of TAS-102 in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Refractory to Standard Chemotherapies) demonstrated that TAS-102 prolonged the survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) whose disease progressed after standard therapies. TAS-102 was first approved in Japan in March 2014, and little is known about its safety and efficacy in clinical practice, especially for mCRC patients with previous regorafenib treatment. We investigated the safety and efficacy of TAS-102 monotherapy in clinical practice for patients with mCRC refractory to standard therapies who were treated from May 2014 to January 2015. A total of 55 patients received TAS-102. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0, 1, and 2 in 41.8%, 47.3%, and 10.9% of patients. Of the 55 patients, 32 (58.2%) had been treated with regorafenib before receiving TAS-102. The median progression-free survival and overall survival was 2.0 months and 5.3 months, respectively. Emergency hospitalization was required for 23.6% of the patients during TAS-102 treatment, although most of the events (76.9%) were disease-related. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were neutropenia (41.8%), leukopenia (27.2%), anemia (23.6%), febrile neutropenia (5.5%), and fatigue (3.6%). The frequency of grade ≥ 3 events was not significantly increased among the patients who had compared with those who had not received regorafenib. The progression-free survival (median 2.1 vs. 2.0 months) and overall survival (median 6.2 vs. 4.7 months) were similar for the 2 subgroups. The safety and efficacy of TAS-102 monotherapy in clinical practice were maintained, irrespective of previous regorafenib treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  2. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Patla, Bijunath

    2007-01-01

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

  3. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  4. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  5. [Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Colon Cancer--Drug Selection, Tolerability, and Safety in Clinical Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kazutake; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Saito, Gota; Tanaka, Akira; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    In the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, oxaliplatin (L-OHP)-based chemotherapeutic regimens, including 5-fluorouracil, Leucovorin (LV), and L-OHP (FOLFOX); capecitabine and L-OHP (CapeOX); and 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, and L-OHP (FLOX) are designated as category 1 recommendations for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage III colon cancer, followed by capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil plus LV as category 2A recommendations. We studied the selection of drugs for adjuvant chemotherapy and assessed the tolerability and safety of CapeOX and tegafur-uracil (UFT) plus LV (UFT/LV) in patients with Stage III colon cancer. The study group included 104 consecutive patients with Stage III colon cancer who underwent curative surgery. One patient changed hospitals immediately after surgery. Among the remaining 103 patients, 82 (80%) received adjuvant chemotherapy and 21 (20%) did not. CapeOX was administered to 32 patients (31%), UFT/LV to 49 patients (48%), and capecitabine to 1 patient (1%). In 59 patients, the treatment choice was determined according to the patient's preference; 32 patients (54%) selected CapeOX, 26 (44%) selected UFT/LV, and 1 (2%) selected no chemotherapy. The treatment completion rate was 80% for CapeOX and 84% for UFT/LV. Among patients who completed chemotherapy, dose reduction and drug withdrawal were not required in 22% of patients who received CapeOX and 80% of those who received UFT/LV. Neither CapeOX nor UFT/LV was associated with any serious adverse events. The tolerability and safety of CapeOX and UFT/LV were acceptable. However, CapeOX dose had to be carefully adjusted according to each patient's condition.

  6. [French Society of Vascular Medicine good medical practice guidelines on safety and environment in vascular medicine: Treatment of varicose veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordana, P; Miserey, G

    2014-12-01

    These guidelines proposed by the French Society of Vascular Medicine define the optimal environment for vascular medicine practice: outpatient clinic; equipment, layout and maintenance of the care center; infection risk prevention (hand hygiene, individual protective measures, exposure to blood, ultrasound apparatus, etc.); common interventions and techniques (liquid and foam sclerotherapy, endovenous thermal treatments). These guidelines do not include phlebectomy and use of ultrasound contrast agents.

  7. Health and safety matters! Associations between organizational practices and personal support workers' life and work stress in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Isik U; Denton, Margaret; Brookman, Catherine; Davies, Sharon; Sayin, Firat K

    2017-06-21

    The home and community care sector is one of the fastest growing sectors globally and most prominently in mature industrialized countries. Personal support workers (PSWs) are the largest occupational group in the sector. This paper focuses on the emotional health of PSWs working in the home and community care sector in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence on the associations between PSWs' life and work stress and organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and PSWs' perceptions of support at work and preference for hours. Data come from our 2015 survey of 1543 PSWs. Dependent variables are life and work stress. Independent variables are: objective organizational practices of full-time and guaranteed hours, and subjective organizational practices of perceived support at work, and preferred hours of work. Descriptive statistics, correlations and ordinary least square regression analyses with collinearity tests are conducted. Organizational practices of employing PSWs in full-time or guaranteed hours are not associated with their life and work stress. However, those who perceive support from their organizations are also the ones reporting lower life and work stress. In addition, those PSWs perceiving support from their supervisor report lower work stress. PSWs would like to work in their preferred hours, and those who prefer to work more hours report lower life and work stress, and conversely, those who prefer to work less hours report life and work stress. For PSWs in home and community care, perceived support from their organizations and supervisors, and employment in preferred hours are important factors related to their life and work stress.

  8. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, Exploration, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation a review of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on microelectronic systems and human health and safety is given. The methods used to evaluate and mitigate unwanted cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments are also reviewed. However not all GCR effects are undesirable. We will also briefly review how observation and analysis of GCR interactions with planetary atmospheres and surfaces and reveal important compositional and geophysical data on earth and elsewhere. About 1000 GCR particles enter every square meter of Earth’s upper atmosphere every second, roughly the same number striking every square meter of the International Space Station (ISS) and every other low- Earth orbit spacecraft. GCR particles are high energy ionized atomic nuclei (90% protons, 9% alpha particles, 1% heavier nuclei) traveling very close to the speed of light. The GCR particle flux is even higher in interplanetary space because the geomagnetic field provides some limited magnetic shielding. Collisions of GCR particles with atomic nuclei in planetary atmospheres and/or regolith as well as spacecraft materials produce nuclear reactions and energetic/highly penetrating secondary particle showers. Three twentieth century technology developments have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems and assess effects on human health and safety effects. The key technology developments are: 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems. Space and geophysical exploration needs drove the development of the instruments and analytical tools needed to recover compositional and structural data from GCR induced nuclear reactions and secondary particle showers. Finally, the

  9. Efficacy and safety of entecavir treatment in a heterogeneous CHB population from a ‘real-world’ clinical practice setting in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J-L; Jia, J-D; Wei, L; Zhao, W; Wang, Y M; Cheng, M; Tang, X; Tan, D-M; Ren, H; Tang, H; Cohen, D; Llamoso, C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B infection is an important cause of liver-related mortality in China. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of entecavir in a heterogeneous patient population from a ‘real-world’ clinical practice setting in China. This prospective, observational cohort provides 48-week data on 2600 patients from 50 sites in China who received entecavir (0.5 or 1.0 mg) and were assessed for virologic, serologic and biochemical responses. Patients were nucleos(t)ide-na€ıve or -experienced and had compensated or decompensated liver function. At Week 48, 1545/2424 (64%) patients with compensated liver disease and 30/44 (68%) patients with decompensated liver disease achieved HBV DNAworld’ setting, entecavir was efficacious and well tolerated throughout 48 weeks in a heterogeneous Chinese CHB population.

  10. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-02-05

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator.

  11. Porous membrane with high curvature, three-dimensional heat-resistance skeleton: a new and practical separator candidate for high safety lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Yuan, Zhizhang; Hu, Huasheng; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Separators with high reliability and security are in urgent demand for the advancement of high performance lithium ion batteries. Here, we present a new and practical porous membrane with three-dimension (3D) heat-resistant skeleton and high curvature pore structure as a promising separator candidate to facilitate advances in battery safety and performances beyond those obtained from the conventional separators. The unique material properties combining with the well-developed structural characteristics enable the 3D porous skeleton to own several favorable properties, including superior thermal stability, good wettability with liquid electrolyte, high ion conductivity and internal short-circuit protection function, etc. which give rise to acceptable battery performances. Considering the simply and cost-effective preparation process, the porous membrane is deemed to be an interesting direction for the future lithium ion battery separator. PMID:25653104

  12. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  13. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  14. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  15. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) GN and C Technical Discipline Team (TDT): Its Purpose, Practices and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper will briefly define the vision, mission, and purpose of the NESC organization. The role of the GN&C TDT will then be described in detail along with an overview of how this team operates and engages in its objective engineering and safety assessments of critical NASA projects. This paper will then describe key issues and findings from several of the recent GN&C-related independent assessments and consultations performed and/or supported by the NESC GN&C TDT. Among the examples of the GN&C TDT s work that will be addressed in this paper are the following: the Space Shuttle Orbiter Repair Maneuver (ORM) assessment, the ISS CMG failure root cause assessment, the Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technologies (DART) spacecraft mishap consultation, the Phoenix Mars lander thruster-based controllability consultation, the NASA in-house Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Smart Buyer assessment and the assessment of key engineering considerations for the Design, Development, Test & Evaluation (DDT&E) of robust and reliable GN&C systems for human-rated spacecraft.

  16. Identifying Subgroups of Adult Superutilizers in an Urban Safety-Net System Using Latent Class Analysis: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Deborah J; Oronce, Carlos; Durfee, Michael J; Ranby, Krista W; Batal, Holly A; Hanratty, Rebecca; Vogel, Jody; Johnson, Tracy L

    2016-09-14

    Patients with repeated hospitalizations represent a group with potentially avoidable utilization. Recent publications have begun to highlight the heterogeneity of this group. Latent class analysis provides a novel methodological approach to utilizing administrative data to identify clinically meaningful subgroups of patients to inform tailored intervention efforts. The objective of the study was to identify clinically distinct subgroups of adult superutilizers. Retrospective cohort analysis. Adult patients who had an admission at an urban safety-net hospital in 2014 and 2 or more admissions within the preceding 12 months. Patient-level medical, mental health (MH) and substance use diagnoses, social characteristics, demographics, utilization and charges were obtained from administrative data. Latent class analyses were used to determine the number and characteristics of latent subgroups that best represented these data. In this cohort (N=1515), a 5-class model was preferred based on model fit indices, clinical interpretability and class size: class 1 (16%) characterized by alcohol use disorder and homelessness; class 2 (14%) characterized by medical conditions, MH/substance use disorders and homelessness; class 3 (25%) characterized primarily by medical conditions; class 4 (13%) characterized by more serious MH disorders, drug use disorder and homelessness; and class 5 (32%) characterized by medical conditions with some MH and substance use. Patient demographics, utilization, charges and mortality also varied by class. The overall cohort had high rates of multiple chronic medical conditions, MH, substance use disorders, and homelessness. However, the patterns of these conditions were different between subgroups, providing important information for tailoring interventions.

  17. Implications of advanced warning messages on eliminating sun glare disturbances at signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to sun glare disturbances, drivers encounter fatal threats on roadways, particularly at signalized intersections. Many studies have attempted to develop applicable solutions, such as avoiding sun positions, applying road geometric re-directions, and wearing anti-glare glasses. None of these strategies have fully solved the problem. As one of the “Connected Vehicle” practices proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, advanced warning messages (AWMs are capable of providing wireless information about traffic controls. AWM acts as a supplement to conventional signs and signals, which can be blocked by obstacles or natural disturbances, such as sun glare. The drivers' smart advisory system (DSAS can provide drivers with AWM. Using a driving simulator this research explores the effects of DSAS messages on driving behaviors under sun glare disturbance. Statistical analyses were applied to assess (1 the negative impacts of sun glare, (2 the compensation of the DSAS AWM to sun glare effects, and (3 the improvement in driving performance due to DSAS AWM. Four performance indexes were measured, including (1 half kinetic energy speed, (2 mean approach speed, (3 brake response time, and (4 braking distance. The effects of the socio-demographic factors, such as gender, age, educational background, and driving experience were also studied. The analytical results illustrate that the DSAS can compensate for reduced visibility due to sun glare and improve driving performance to a normal visual situation, particularly for left turn and through movement.

  18. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  19. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  20. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.