WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun river area

  1. Removing sun glint from optical remote sensing images of shallow rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Brandon T.; Legleiter, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Sun glint is the specular reflection of light from the water surface, which often causes unusually bright pixel values that can dominate fluvial remote sensing imagery and obscure the water-leaving radiance signal of interest for mapping bathymetry, bottom type, or water column optical characteristics. Although sun glint is ubiquitous in fluvial remote sensing imagery, river-specific methods for removing sun glint are not yet available. We show that existing sun glint-removal methods developed for multispectral images of marine shallow water environments over-correct shallow portions of fluvial remote sensing imagery resulting in regions of unreliable data along channel margins. We build on existing marine glint-removal methods to develop a river-specific technique that removes sun glint from shallow areas of the channel without overcorrection by accounting for non-negligible water-leaving near-infrared radiance. This new sun glint-removal method can improve the accuracy of spectrally-based depth retrieval in cases where sun glint dominates the at-sensor radiance. For an example image of the gravel-bed Snake River, Wyoming, USA, observed-vs.-predicted R2 values for depth retrieval improved from 0.66 to 0.76 following sun glint removal. The methodology presented here is straightforward to implement and could be incorporated into image processing workflows for multispectral images that include a near-infrared band.

  2. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  3. Dead calm areas in the very quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    González, M J Martínez; Ramos, A Asensio; Hijano, E

    2012-01-01

    We analyze two regions of the quiet Sun (35.6 x 35.6 Mm^2) observed at high spatial resolution (~100 km) in polarized light by the IMaX spectropolarimeter onboard the Sunrise balloon. We identify 497 small-scale (~400 km) magnetic loops, appearing at an effective rate of 0.25 loop h^{-1} arcsec^{-2}; further, we argue that this number and rate are underestimated by ~30%. However, we find that these small dipoles do not appear uniformly on the solar surface: their spatial distribution is rather filamentary and clumpy, creating dead calm areas, characterized by a very low magnetic signal and a lack of organized loop-like structures at the detection level of our instruments, that cannot be explained as just statistical fluctuations of a Poisson spatial process. We argue that this is an intrinsic characteristic of the mechanism that generates the magnetic fields in the very quiet Sun. The spatio-temporal coherences and the clumpy structure of the phenomenon suggest a recurrent, intermittent mechanism for the gene...

  4. Geology of the Johnson River Area Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation, topography, and geology of the Johnson River area are representative of the entire eastern interior region of Alaska. This area has a vegetational...

  5. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  6. Columbia River ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Wildlife Refuges, National Forests, and State Parks for the Columbia River area. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. The traditional symbolism of the Sun Dance Lodge among the Wind River Shoshoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Hultkrantz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Of all the North American Indian religious ceremonies no one is as spectacular and as well-known as the Sun Dance of the Plains Indians. The information collected on the subject since the turn of the century is quite extensive. However, while there is a mass of materials on the outer features of the Dance, on behavioural and ritual aspects, there is very little information on its religious aspects, in particular the meaning of the ritual.The following account is an attempt to view the religious symbolism of the Wind River Shoshoni Sun Dance lodge in a "meaningful" perspective. Attention is paid not only to the ideology of the Dance as such but also and foremost to the concrete elements of the Sun Dance structure which together throw further light on this ideology. A particular place in the analysis will be devoted to a new scholarly interpretation according to which the Shoshoni Sun Dance serves as a revitalization cult.

  8. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in the Poiqu/Bhote Koshi/Sun Koshi River Basin in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Raj Khanal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas have experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and the risk of GLOFs is now increasing in the context of global warming. Poiqu watershed in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, also known as the Bhote Koshi and Sun Koshi downstream in Nepal, has been identified as highly prone to GLOFs. This study explored the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes, past GLOFs and the resulting losses, risk from potential future GLOFs, and risk reduction initiatives within the watershed. A relationship was established between lake area and volume of lake water based on data from 33 lakes surveyed within the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, and the maximum possible discharge was estimated using this and other previously developed empirical equations. We recommend different strategies to reduce GLOF risk and highlight the need for a glacial lake monitoring and early-warning system. We also recommend strong regional cooperation, especially on issues related to transboundary rivers.

  9. 76 FR 58105 - Regulated Navigation Area; Saugus River, Lynn, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Saugus River, Lynn, MA AGENCY... River in Lynn, MA. Establishing this temporary rule will allow the necessary stabilization work to be... on the Energy Systems Pipeline Bridge on the Saugus River in Lynn, MA. The regulated area...

  10. Land protection plan : Bear River Watershed Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is establishing a conservation area for the Bear River watershed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. The Bear River Watershed...

  11. Microbial Water Pollution of Drin River in Scutary Area, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINDITA BUSHATI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Drin River joining White Drin and some other small rivers form the longest river of Albania, Drin River, 335 Km long. Drin has two distributaries, one of which empties directly into Adriatic Sea and the other one into Buna river, in Scutary (Shkoder. The Drin area is beautiful and very important for the Albanian economy, for the electricity and has a large agriculture activity as well. Unfortunately mismanagement of agricultural practices and the discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the river are causing a high pollution. River conservation is threatened by pollution. Drin river water is used by people for fishing, swimming and irrigation of plants and the pollution of this river is a problematic issue in environment and human health. We monitored microbial and chemical water pollution of Scutary area of Drin, where Drin goes into Bojana, during 2012-2013 and a high water pollution level was recorded.

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 4m Sun Illuminated Bathymetry for Red Snapper Research Areas in the South Atlantic Bight, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains unified Sun Illuminated Bathymetry GeoTiffs with 4x4 meter cell resolution describing the topography of 15 areas along the shelf edge off the...

  13. 1989 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Open River 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  14. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma on the Pubic Area: Report of a Case and Review of 19 Korean Cases of BCC from Non-sun-exposed Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin; Cho, Yong-Sun; Song, Ki-Hun; Lee, Jong-Sun; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2011-08-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignant skin tumors and develops characteristically on sun-exposed areas, such as the head and neck. Ultraviolet light exposure is an important etiologic factor in BCCs, and BCCs arising from non-sun- exposed areas are, therefore, very rare. In particular, the axilla, nipple, the genital and perianal areas are not likely to be exposed to ultraviolet light; thus, if BCC develops in these areas, other predisposing factors should be considered. Herein, we report a case of BCC arising on the pubic area in a 70-year-old man. We also performed a survey of the literature and discussed the 19 cases of BCC from non-sun-exposed areas reported to date in Korea.

  16. ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

  17. Constructing river stage-discharge rating curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2016-09-01

    Remote sensing from satellites and airborne platforms provides valuable data for monitoring and gauging river discharge. One effective approach first estimates river stage from satellite-measured inundation area based on the inundation area-river stage relationship (IARSR), and then the estimated river stage is used to compute river discharge based on the stage-discharge rating (SDR) curve. However, this approach is difficult to implement because of a lack of data for constructing the SDR curves. This study proposes a new method to construct the SDR curves using remotely sensed river cross-sectional inundation areas and river bathymetry. The proposed method was tested over a river reach between two USGS gauging stations, i.e., Kingston Mines (KM) and Copperas Creek (CC) along the Illinois River. First a polygon over each of two cross sections was defined. A complete IARSR curve was constructed inside each polygon using digital elevation model (DEM) and river bathymetric data. The constructed IARSR curves were then used to estimate 47 river water surface elevations at each cross section based on 47 river inundation areas estimated from Landsat TM images collected during 1994-2002. The estimated water surface elevations were substituted into an objective function formed by the Bernoulli equation of gradually varied open channel flow. A nonlinear global optimization scheme was applied to solve the Manning's coefficient through minimizing the objective function value. Finally the SDR curve was constructed at the KM site using the solved Manning's coefficient, channel cross sectional geometry and the Manning's equation, and employed to estimate river discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the estimated river discharges against the USGS measured river discharges is 112.4 m3/s. To consider the variation of the Manning's coefficient in the vertical direction, this study also suggested a power-law function to describe the vertical decline of the Manning

  18. Development west coast Taiwan: Redesign coastal area between Da’an River and Dajia River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, B.; Eelkema, M.; Smith, M.; Van To, P.

    2006-01-01

    Master project report. In the year 2004 there was a flooding in an area between Da'an River and Dajia River in Taichung County, Taiwan. The flooding was caused by outlets which were clogged up, thus lacking the capacity to discharge the amount of rainwater that the typhoon caused into the sea. A

  19. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Interstate 95) Construction AGENCY... area which will be needed during construction of the new Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, and which could...) entitled Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT;...

  20. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  1. Colorado River Wildlife Management Area (Green River Easements) [Land Status Map: Sheet 1 of 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Colorado River Wildlife Management Area. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  2. Research on the conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wenke; KONG; Jinling; DUAN; Lei; WANG; Yanlin; MA; Xi

    2004-01-01

    Conversion relationships between the river and groundwater in the Yellow River drainage area are studied in this paper based on the geologic and physiognomy conditions and the data of the groundwater regime, isotope, groundwater flow field and field survey. Then eight recharge and discharge modes on the relationships are put forward and the hydraulic characteristics of the modes are analysed, which provides a scientific basis for quantitatively simulating and assessing the conversion relationships,maintenance mechanism of the Yellow River and the regeneration ability of the groundwater in the area.

  3. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  4. Systematization of river valleys in different morphostructural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekunova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our research was to identify the features of development of river valleys within the south of Eastern Siberia. One of the objectives to achieve this aim was the typing of river valleys, which was based on the principle of the location of a river valley or its part within different morphostructural areas, determining the morphology and individual (general or specific) development features that make it possible to specify the pattern of development of river valleys at different topological levels. Within the study area the following major morphostructures are distinguished: Altai-Sayan and Baikal mountain-folded regions, the Baikal rift zone, and the Siberian platform, within which morphostructures of the lower order are identified. Thus, a large variability in types of interaction and interpenetration of different areas provides for the development of various types of river valleys, depending on their location in the morphostructural areas. This approach was the basis for the typing of river valleys, i.e. idenifying their typological characteristics, depending on their location within a particular morphostructural area, geological and geomorphological conditions, and the history of development. The basic principles for the typing of river valleys are: 1) their location with respect to morphostructural areas, and 2) a set of characteristics of valleys of different morphostructural areas. Based on the above mentioned approach, and using GIS (MapInfo software), a map of river valleys typing was compiled, which included the database of the hydrographic network with space-time characteristics, tabulated for each streamflow. The procedure for determining the types of river valleys within each morphostructure was as follows. Boundaries of morphostructures of different orders were identified according to cartographic and literature data and allocated in the GIS space (MapInfo software). In the database, each distinguished morphostructure has the following

  5. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; YU Zhiming; SONG Xiuxian; CAO Xihua

    2012-01-01

    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area.Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer,biological fixation by leguminous and other crops,wet/dry atmospheric deposition,excreta from humans and animals,and crop residues.The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg,of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies.Of the total N transported into waterbodies,the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%),followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%),synthetic fertilizer N (17%),N in sewage wastes (17%),N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%).We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins,from upstream to downstream:the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD,the headwater drainage area,138 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD,347 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities,approx.3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD,520 500 km2,large-scale human disturbance,about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary);and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD,699 900 km2,large-scale human disturbance,approx.620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary).The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3,7.3,24.1,and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD,JSD,PYD,and YDD sub-basins,respectively,suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  6. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  7. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  8. Port Areas and Approach Channels Sinoimeri by Rivers Sediment Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin N. Makarov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When designing ports, one important task is to predict sinoimeri port areas and approach channels sandy or pebbly silt. On the basis of this forecast are determined by the methods of protection from sinoimeri, as well as the frequency and volume of maintenance dredging works. Out at sea the river flow becomes turbulent inertial jet. Friction on the bottom and the interaction with sea water leads to an overall reduction of jet velocity and its spreading. An important regularity is also spreading muddy river flow on the surface of the denser seawater. This creates conditions for rapid deposition of large fractions of the sediment on the bottom. The bulk of the sediment particles larger than 5 mm is deposited on the surface of the river bar and further transported along the shore wave energy currents. Outside of the bar shall be made only fine-grained material. The particle size of sediment deposited on the bottom outside of the bar decreases sharply with depth. Thus, sinoimeri of harbors and access channels is mainly suspended river sediments. To calculate the distribution of the river flow, in the coastal zone in the presence of long chore currents developed a special method that implements the theory of turbulent planar jet in a drifting thread. The solid portion of the jet flow that enters the waters of the port or channel as a result of increasing depth and, consequently, reduce turbidity settles, causing shoaling waters. The example of calculation of sinoimeri berth 1a in the port of Tuapse by solid flow of Tuapse river.

  9. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  10. Satellite mapping of areas evaporating river and groundwater flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Guerschman, Juan Pablo; Warren, Garth A.

    2010-05-01

    The 500m resolution CSIRO MODIS reflectance scaling evapotranspiration product (CMRSET) was combined with a gridded rainfall product to determine where in the landscape evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall over longer time periods, and by implication, where lateral inflows of river or groundwater are received and evaporated. This procedure produces valuable information for hydrological applications, including the spatial distribution of water use, the temporal distribution, and the absolute magnitude of (net) evaporation across the landscape. Practical uses that have been tested in Australia include evaluating the realism of simulated water use components in river models, attributing apparent losses from river reaches to processes and spatial locations, and identifying river and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Satellite observed inundation patterns have been used to separate surface water from groundwater use. Higher resolution Landsat imagery has been used for image enhancement, allowing smaller irrigation and wetland areas to be detected. Satellite-based land use classification helps to separate agricultural from environmental water use. The information produced is used in the Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system under development by CSIRO and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology to underpin operational delivery of water resources information.

  11. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana...

  12. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek...

  13. Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Data, Styx River Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, A.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.; Burns, L.; Emond, A.

    2014-12-01

    A joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) aims to add value to public domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, collected in Alaska, through the application of newly developed advanced inversion methods to produce resistivity depth sections along flight lines. Derivative products are new geophysical data maps, interpretative profiles and displays. An important task of the new processing is to facilitate calibration or leveling between adjacent surveys flown with different systems in different years. The new approach will facilitate integration of the geophysical data in the interpretation and construction of geologic framework, resource evaluations and to geotechnical studies. Four helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been flown in the Styx River area by the DGGS; Styx River, Middle Styx, East Styx, and Farewell. The Styx River flown in 2008 and Middle Styx in flown 2013, cover an area of 2300 square kilometers. These data consist of frequency-domain DIGHEM V surveys which have been numerically processed and interpreted to yield a three-dimensional model of electrical resistivity. We describe the numerical interpretation methodology (inversion) in detail, from quality assessment to interpretation. We show two methods of inversion used in these datasets, deterministic and stochastic, and describe how we use these results to define calibration parameters and assess the quality of the datasets. We also describe the difficulties and procedures for combining datasets acquired at different times.

  14. The demarcation of permanent preservation areas along rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Deus Medeiros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the new Brazilian Forest Code (Law 4,771/65 legislative reform, this paper shows the evolution of legal protection to the riparian system (marginal strips, defined as vegetation strings along rivers and other water bodies, which vary according to the water body width. The demarcation of permanent preservation areas along rivers is a complex process which has led to doubts and conflicts. Riparian systems are spaces aimed at the agricultural expansion and, thus, they’re under pressure. The analysis showed that the limitation posed by the new rule agrees with the principle of reasonableness. The new Brazilian Forest Code review, which is currently included in the National Congress agenda, will be able to positively contribute to achieve the possible and desired balance between respect to the natural environment and expansion of land uses.

  15. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 2. Illinois River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    FOREST 50.2 MADISON STREET RIVER FOREST 50.5 IL PT 56 RIVER FOREST 51.0 C & NW RR RIVER FOREST 51.1 LAKE STREET RIVER FOREST 51.6 CHICAGO AVENUE RIVER ... FOREST 51.9 SILVER CREEK R RIVER FOREST 53.9 DAM S35v40NoRI2E RIVER FOREST 54.2 NORTH PUEBLO AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1 GRAND AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1...USGS GAGE 05530600 AT RIVER GROVE 451 415546 O75040 RIVER

  16. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  17. The Structure and Properties of Solar Active Regions and Quiet Sun Areas Observed With SERTS and YOHKOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Davila, J. M.; Thomas, R. J.; Hara, H.

    1996-05-01

    We observed solar active regions, quiet sun areas, and a coronal hole simultaneously with Goddard Space Flight Center's Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS), and with the Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) on 1993 August 17. SERTS provided spatially resolved active region and quiet sun spectra in the 280 to 420 Angstroms wavelength range, and images in the lines of He II 304 Angstroms, Mg IX 368 Angstroms, Fe XV 284 Angstroms, and Fe XVI 335 Angstroms and 360 Angstroms. The SERTS waveband is accessible to CDS, SUMER, and EIT on SOHO. SXT provided images through multiple broadband filters. The SERTS images in Fe XV (T=2 MK) and XVI (T=2.5 MK) exhibit remarkable morphological similarity to the SXT images. Whereas the Fe XV and XVI images outline the loop structures seen with SXT, the cooler He II (T=0.1 MK) and Mg IX (T=1 MK) images seem to outline loop footpoints. From the spatially resolved spectra, we obtained emission line profiles for lines of Fe X (1 MK) through Fe XVI, and Mg IX and Ni XVIII (3.2 MK) for each spatial position. Based upon the spatial variations of the line intensities, the active region systematically narrows as it is viewed with successively hotter lines. The active region appears narrowest in the X-ray emission, which is consistent with our understanding that Yohkoh is most sensitive to the hottest plasma in its line of sight. EUV emission from Fe XVII (T=5 MK) is weak but detectable in the active region core. The most intense, central core straddles the magnetic neutral line. Temperature maps obtained with SERTS image ratios and with SXT filter ratios are compared. Line intensity ratios indicate that the active region temperature is greatest in the central core, but that the density varies very little across the region. Significant Doppler shifts are not detected in the EUV lines.

  18. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River. Drilling or blasting is expected to occur within the Passing Lane & Anchorage Basin, Big Island, and the Northeast Cape Fear River... Lighted Buoy 27 (LL 30550/39945)). (3) Big Island. The work area includes: Part of Keg Island...

  19. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended solids an

  20. Hydrologic Properties of Aquifers in the Central Savannah River Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, D.S.; Benson, S.M.; Price Jr., Van; Temples, T.J.

    1996-01-02

    The hydrologic properties of selected aquifer systems underlying the Milhaven and Girard sites in Georgia were determined through a series of aquifer performance tests performed from October, 1994 to January, 1995. At the Milhaven site, the systems under investigation consisted of the upper, middle and lower components of the Upper Floridan, the lower Dublin, and the lower Midville aquifers. At the Dublin site, only the lower Dublin and lower Midville aquifers were tested. In addition, the hydrologic properties of the lower Midville aquifer underlying the P, B and D Areas at the Savannah River Site were determined by a series of aquifer tests conducted in 1993 and 1994. The tests generally consisted of collecting water level and atmospheric data for 24 hours followed by a 72 hour pump test and a subsequent 72 hour recovery period. These tests were designed to determine the aquifer properties over a large area, to determine whether any hydrologic boundaries existed in the area, and to find out if leakance could be induced through the confining units which separated the aquifer units.

  1. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  2. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  4. Engineering geology of the Great Bear River area, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savigny, K.W. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    This report represents the results of an engineering geology study of the Great Bear River valley in the Northwest Territories. For most of its length, the river has a steep gradient and is deeply incised in a narrow valley. These topographic characteristics combined with the enormous reservoir capacity of Great Bear Lake make the valley attractive for hydroelectric development. Topographic characteristics and geographic location also make it an obstacle to linear facilities following the Mackenzie Transportation Corridor, such as pipelines, railroads and roads. The valley is incised up to 50 m below the levels of Mackenzie and Great Bear plains. Quaternary sediments are exposed intermittently along the valley slopes. Rocks of Tertiary age are exposed more or less continuously along the lower reach of Great Bear River, and Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks are exposed where the river crosses McConnell Range at St. Charles Rapids. A single Laurentide till is present and is assumed to represent the Late Wisconsin ice advance. The till generally rests on bedrock, but locally it overlies older alluvial and deltaic sediments. This advance was followed by a lacustrine phase over Mackenzie Plain. The lacustrine phase appears to have ended abruptly with progradation of a deltaic facies. Permafrost is widespread except beneath large lakes, streams and rivers. Postglacial entrenchment by Great Bear River appears to have begun on Mackenzie Plain about 10,000 years ago and approached its present level by approximately 2670 years ago. 38 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  7. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  8. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  9. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Siderius, C.; Verheul, M.; Pomarius, H.

    2012-01-01

    Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain

  10. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... adequate information as to the identity and quality of the product. The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade... of the Russian River watershed. Finally, the petitioner included a Russian River Valley area tourism... and climate for Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. (``Diverse Geology/Soils Impact Wine Quality,'' by Terry...

  11. 62 FR 6265 - Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-11

    ... Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area AGENCY: Vale District, Bureau of Land... Main Owyhee River as established in the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and... part of the implementation of the 1993 Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and...

  12. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  13. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... restrictions with the Kiewit and Weeks Marine contractors, and with Hudson River and Sandy Hook Pilots... transfer of the bridge span from shore to the barges has been scheduled on a weekday when it is expected to... Overtaking zones are established in areas identified by Weeks Marine, Hudson River and Sandy Hook Pilots as...

  14. Estimating the global surface area of rivers and streams using satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, George; Pavelsky, Tamlin

    2017-04-01

    Global observational assessments of river and stream systems are based largely on gauge station data, which are fragmented and often limited to country-level statistics. This limitation severely impedes our understanding of global-scale hydrologic, geomorphic, and biogeochemical fluvial processes. In contrast, satellite remote sensing data provide a globally-consistent and spatially-continuous tool for studying rivers. Here we present a novel method estimate the total surface area of all rivers and stream globally using measurements from the recently-developed Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database and field surveys. The surface area of rivers and streams is a key model parameter in global evaluations of greenhouse gas emissions from inland waters. Preliminary analysis suggests that rivers occupy a total area of 80 thousand square kilometers, or 0.58% of Earth's land surface. This result is 30% greater than the previous best estimate that is based on digital elevation models and gauge station measurements. Compared to previous regional assessments, we find that rivers and streams occupy a greater proportion of the land surface in the arctic and in the tropics, and a lower proportion of land surface in the United States and in Europe. Our results suggest that current estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from inland waters should be revised upwards to account for the greater abundance of river and stream surface area.

  15. Analysis and Application of River Surface Line in Hilly Area based on Hec-ras Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Congshan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For example—Cixian Fuyang River Regulation Project. Due to the character that Fuyang River is located in hilly areas of Cixian, we use the Hex-ras software to calculate the status of the river water surface line for the goal of determining the final treatment plan. We maintain the present situation of the river channel design as principle, select the most appropriate pushed water level and roughnessas the basic, and we combine the classification calculation of crossing structures of backwater and the encryption calculation section to get the more accurate result. We compare the water level elevation and the calculation of cross strait, analyze the design parameters, calculate repeated the water line section, analyze the rationality of the design plan, and then finally determine the applicability of Hex-rac software in the large continuous variation of cross section of embankment of river river surface line.

  16. Isotopic compositions of strontium in river water of Guizhou karst areas, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩贵琳; 刘丛强

    2001-01-01

    We have carried out a study on the variation of strontium isotope composition of river waters, Wujiang and Yuangjiang River, in karst areas of Guizhou Province, China. The results obtained permit us to characterize the geochemistry of the river draining karst terrain and obtain a better understanding of main controls of catchment geology, chemical weathering of different rocks, and evaluate impact of human activities on the environment. The isotopic ratios of dissolved Sr in all rivers are between 87Sr/86Sr =0.7077 and 0.7110, totally lower than the weighted average of 87Sr/86Sr =0.7119 for the world large rivers. The Wujiang River waters have Sr concentrations from 1.0 to 6.1 μmol/L, while the Yuanjiang River waters have much lower Sr concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 1.3 μmol/L. Most of the river waters from the Wujiang river are characterized by low Ca/Sr and Mg/Sr, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios, in which a majority of river waters are of 87Sr/86Sr ratios lower than the average Sr isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr

  17. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  19. 33 CFR 165.811 - Atchafalaya River, Berwick Bay, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... navigation area: the waters of the Atchafalaya River in Berwick Bay bounded on the northside from 2,000 yards... length. Note: The variation in the draft and the beam of the barges in a multi-barge tow should...

  20. Bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie Rivers, Yukon and Northwest Territories, Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on bryophytes from the area drained by the Peel and Mackenzie rivers in the Yukon territory of Canada. The distribution and general ecology of 263...

  1. Spatial variation in river runoff into a coastal area — An ecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C.; Máguas, C.; Cabral, H. N.; Costa, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to investigate spatial variation in terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) input to a coastal area off the Tagus river estuary. Isotopic variation in higher trophic level organisms was also examined, along the coast. This study was carried out in late summer, after a period of 3 months of low river flow. The overall aim was to determine if under such conditions the coastal area is enriched by the river plume and, particularly, if lower secondary productivity should be expected in some areas. Spatial variation was detected as a gradient of decreasing terrestrial input with increasing distance from the river. It was concluded that terrestrial carbon input was also incorporated into higher trophic levels and that organisms with lower mobility are more sensitive to the gradient in terrestrial input. Even in low flow conditions the whole fishing area remained under the influence of the river plume, which still accounted for 24% of the total POM 30 km from the river mouth. Additionally, δ 15N values indicated pollution input from the river Tagus.

  2. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  3. Detection of Area Changes in River Mouthbars at the Mekong River Delta using ALOS/PALSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Uehara, K.; Tamura, T.; Saito, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Projected sea-level rise by the year 2100 would be ~1m recently and its negative impact on the coastal zone has been pointed out, particularly for mega-deltas in Asia by the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). The relative sea-level rise varies with specific conditions and processes over broad spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, long-term monitoring of geomorphological changes in coastal areas over wide areas is of highly interest and importance for coastal management. However, due to limited data availability and accessibility in developing countries, there is not enough systematic coastal monitoring. The Mekong River Delta is one of typical mega-deltas in Asia, which has a low-lying wide delta-plain located in Cambodia to South Vietnam. Sediment and water discharges of the Mekong River are controlled by the monsoon with high and low discharge in summer (wet season) and winter (dry season), respectively. Therefore, technologies such as SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. In this study, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired over a period from December 2006 to January 2011 are analyzed to investigate the relation between the sea level and the shape of mouthbars in the Mekong River. Level-1.0 PALSAR data were processed, coregistered, and geocoded to make SAR backscatter intensity images. River mouthbars with strong backscatter, which is surrounded by the water with weak backscatter, are successfully extracted using a histogram thresholding algorithm. Estimated areas of river mouthbars, which are located at the central part of the delta and openly faced to the South China Sea, gradually increase on an annual time scale. These river mouthbars are growing to the seaward. Besides this overall increasing trend, seasonal variations of areas are observed; these correlate with

  4. 75 FR 10814 - Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Conservation Area Forum in Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Glenn, Colusa, Yolo, and Sutter Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and... application for an Enhancement of Survival Permit from the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum (applicant... Conservation Area Forum under the Act (16 U.S.C 1531 et seq.). The permit application includes a proposed Safe...

  5. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  6. Effects of human activities on rivers located in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.

  7. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozemeijer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain a spatial image of the diverted river water propagation into a hydrologically complex polder area, the polder Quarles van Ufford in The Netherlands. We used anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd-anomaly as a tracer for river water that was diverted into the polder. A clear reduction in the river water contribution was found between very dry conditions on 5 August 2010 and very wet conditions on 22 October. Despite the large river water impact on 5 August, the diverted river water did not propagate up into the small agricultural headwater ditches. Gadolinium proved to be an effective tracer for diverted river water in a polder system. We applied our results to upgrade the interpretation of water quality monitoring data and to validate an integrated nutrient transport model.

  8. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-31

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area, and to follow that U down river to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low-level of Hanford derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to < 1 percent of natural background U, 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern, or are insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  9. 76 FR 36515 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River and Oglala Geographic Areas, Pine Ridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Forest Service Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River and Oglala Geographic Areas... Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West Geographic Area of the Fall River Ranger District and... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the management of rangeland vegetation resources...

  10. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Predicting precipitation on nonpoint source pollutant exports in the source area of the Liao River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Bian, J M; Wang, S N; Nie, S Y

    The source area of the Liao River is an important grain growing area in China which experiences serious problems with agricultural nonpoint source pollution (NPS) which is impacting the regional economy and society. In order to address the water quality issues it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of NPS in the Liao River source area. This issue has been investigated by coupling a wavelet artificial neural network (WA-ANN) precipitation model with a soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) model to assess the export of nonpoint source pollutants from the Liao River source area. The calibration and validation of these models are outlined. The WA-ANN models and the SWAT model were run to generate the spatial distribution of nonpoint source nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) exports in the source area of the Liao River. It was found that the SWAT model identified the sub-catchments which not only receive high rainfall but are also densely populated with high agricultural production from dry fields and paddy fields, which are large users of pesticides and chemical fertilizer, as the primary source areas for nutrient exports. It is also concluded that the coupled WA-ANN models and the SWAT model provide a tool which will inform the identification of NPS issues and will facilitate the identification of management practices to improve the water environments in the source area of the Liao River.

  12. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  13. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  14. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  15. Hydrological assessment of freshwater resource areas in the Zambezi River Basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 Hydrological assessment of freshwater resource areas in the Zambezi River Basin J MWENGE KAHINDA AND E KAPANGAZIWIRI CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Email: jmwengekahinda@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The Zambezi River Basin (ZRB... of the hydrological assessment of FRAs of the ZRB. It forms part of a scoping study with the objective to ensure that environmental flows are applied in the Zambezi River system. MATERIALS AND METHODS The hydrological identification of key FRAs required a...

  16. Characteristics of soil salinity in the typical area of Yellow River Delta and its control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Pang, Xiaoke; Liu, Hui; Wang, Qun

    2017-05-01

    The Yellow River Delta is one of important ecological areas in eastern China, however sustainable development of the Yellow River Delta is seriously restricted because of severe soil salinization. The main sources of soil salinity are chloride, sodium and sulfate ions. The distribution of soil salinity in soil profiles showed that surface accumulation of soil salt was significant in the Yellow River Delta. Some control measures including soil improvement and regulation, reasonable combination of salt-fresh water irrigation in farmland, land cover and effective drainage were put forward for soil salinity control.

  17. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  18. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  19. Tows Matrix Analysis on Developing Urban Agriculture in the Pearl River Delta Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the profile of Pearl River Delta area, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of developing urban agricultural in Pearl River Delta area are analyzed by using the SWOT analysis. The strengths are analyzed from three aspects, covering natural resources, geographic advantages and technological advantages; the weaknesses are analyzed from the terms of land resources, labor cost, industrial scale and quality of personnel involved; opportunities are analyzed from the aspects of potential clients, favorable policies and markets; the threats are analyzed from two aspects, including concept factor and income gap between urban and rural areas. on the basis of the above analyses, the countermeasures and suggestions on the development of urban agriculture in the Pearl River Delta area are put forward.

  20. Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.

  1. Savannah River Plant, Project 8980: Engineering and design history of No. 400 Area. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1957-01-01

    The description and development, selection and descriptions of processes, design, and specialized design problems are presented for the 400-D Area at the Savannah River Plant. These facilities were used for the production of high purity heavy water for use as a moderator and coolant in the 100 Areas. Also, deuterium gas and hydrogen sulfide were produced here.

  2. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area andvolume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L−1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and ...

  3. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560...

  4. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins; effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Lundekvam, H.; Behrendt, H.; Rubaek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Syversen, N.; Andersen, H.E.; Hoffmann, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river basins and demonstrate the importance of P pathways, linking agricultural source areas to surface water at different scales. Agricultural P losses are increasingly im

  5. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  6. Nutrient dynamics in mangrove areas of the Red River Estuary in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wösten, J. H. M.; de Willigen, P.; Tri, N. H.; Lien, T. V.; Smith, S. V.

    2003-05-01

    Nutrient dynamics of mangrove in the 107 km 2 large estuary of the Red River Delta in Vietnam are studied using the existing LOICZ-CABARET budget model. The methodology and assumptions underlying this model are described. Input data for evaporation, rainfall, river discharge, and concentrations of salt, phosphorus and nitrogen are obtained during measurement campaigns in Vietnam. The calculated P-balance of the estuary together with measured data on the C/P ratio of mangroves yield a calculated mangrove biomass growth rate of 80 kg dry matter ha -1 d -1. Direct measurements of mangrove growth show a rate of 31 kg dry matter ha -1 d -1. Considering the uncertainties involved in this study where nutrient exchange with mineral particles is ignored, the nutrient budget model established for the Red River Estuary proves to give acceptable results. The model demonstrates that the mangroves in the estuary act as clear sinks of nutrients and sequester some 26 000 kg N d -1 and some 3100 kg P d -1 for their biomass production. Next the model is used in an explorative way to investigate effects of realistic future scenarios. Increasing river discharge in combination with constant or proportionally increasing river nutrient concentration results in increasing nutrient concentrations in the estuary. Increasing river discharge in combination with decreasing river nutrient concentration results in decreasing nutrient concentrations in the estuary. Constant river discharge in combination with increasing river nutrient concentration results in increasing nutrient concentrations in the estuary. The scenario analysis helps to understand the different interactions in the nutrient dynamics of the Red River mangrove area.

  7. Studies of aerosol optical depth with the use of Microtops II sun photometers and MODIS detectors in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Olga; Makuch, Przemysław; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Ulevičius, Vidmantas; Strzałkowska, Agata; Rozwadowska, Anna; Gutowska, Dorota

    2014-04-01

    In this paper we describe the results of a research campaign dedicated to the studies of aerosol optical properties in different regions of both the open Baltic Sea and its coastal areas. During the campaign we carried out simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth at 4 stations with the use of the hand-held Microtops II sun photometers. The studies were complemented with aerosol data provided by the MODIS. In order to obtain the full picture of aerosol situation over the study area, we added to our analyses the air mass back-trajectories at various altitudes as well as wind fields. Such complex information facilitated proper conclusions regarding aerosol optical depth and Ångström exponent for the four locations and discussion of the changes of aerosol properties with distance and with changes of meteorological factors. We also show that the Microtops II sun photometers are reliable instruments for field campaigns. They are easy to operate and provide good quality results.

  8. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  9. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  10. Gravity Investigation in Area East of River Nile (Khartoum State)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the subsurface geology of the area. For quantitative interpretation of the resulting Bouguer anomalies, borehole data are explored. This is done along several profiles obtained from software program G. model C version 2. 2 No. 175. This program is based on two -dimensional mass distribution. The interpretation reveals two basinal features filling depressions in the basement complex named as Abu Harira basin and Kabbashi basin. They are structurally related to Khartoum basin. As a result, a geological/structural map of the area in east of the Nile is produced. The basinal features in the study area are considered as parts of the central Sudan (Khartoum basin) that had been subjected to several tectonic events that resulted in the formation of several fracture systems associated with block subsidence and formation of these basins.

  11. Ichthyofauna species of the upper Kaniv reservoir and mouth area of the Desna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Sytnik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the fish species of the upper part of Kaniv reservoir (Kyiv water area and the mouth area of the Desna River. The found and preceding data of ichthyological research were compared. The changes in the fish population were analyzed. Two new invasive alien fish species were discovered in the Kaniv reservoir and Desna River: Amur sleeper (Perccotus glenii and Stone moroco (Pseudorasdora parva. Generally the ichthyofauna composition of these water bodies was supplemented with seven unmarketable and dirt species.

  12. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  13. A study of ecological red-line area partitioning in the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. F.; An, Y. L.

    2016-08-01

    Maintaining ecosystem balance and realizing the strategic goal of sustainable development are key objectives in the field of environmental sciences. Accordingly, drawing ecological red lines in sensitive and vulnerable environmental areas and important ecological function areas, determining the distribution range of ecological red-line areas, providing scientific guidance for developmental activities, and effectively managing the ecological environment are significant work tasks supported by policy guidance from the State Council and from knowledge gained in educational circles. Taking the Chishui River Basin in Guizhou as the study object, this research selected water and soil loss sensitivity, as well as assessments of karst rocky desertification sensitivity as background assessments of the eco-environment. Furthermore, the functions of soil conservation, water conservation, and biodiversity protection were integrated with exploitation-prohibited areas, and an organic combination of ecological needs and social service functions was created. Spatial comprehensive overlay analysis and processing revealed that the combination marked nine major ecological red-line areas in a total area of 5,030.58 km2, which occupied 44.16% of the total basin area. By combining the current eco-environmental situation of the Chishui River Basin with the marked out red-line areas, this research proposed corresponding ecological red-line area management suggestions. These suggestions are expected to provide a scientific foundation for eco-environmental protection and subsequent scientific research in Chishui River Basin.

  14. Impact of rehabilitation of Assiut barrage, Nile River, on groundwater rise in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoud, Mohamed A.; El Arabi, Nahed E.; Khater, Ahmed R.; van Wonderen, Jan

    2006-08-01

    To make optimum use of the most vital natural resource of Egypt, the River Nile water, a number of regulating structures (in the form of dams and barrages) for control and diversion of the river flow have been constructed in this river since the start of the 20th century. One of these barrages is the Assiut barrage which will require considerable repairs in the near future. The design of the rehabilitation of the barrage includes a headpond with water levels maintained at a level approximately 0.60 m higher than the highest water level in the headpond of the present barrage. This development will cause an increase of the seepage flow from the river towards the adjacent agricultural lands, Assiut Town and villages. The increased head pond level might cause a rise of the groundwater levels and impedance of drainage outflows. The drainage conditions may therefore be adversely affected in the so-called impacted areas which comprise floodplains on both sides of the Nile for about 70 km upstream of the future barrage. A rise in the groundwater table, particularly when high river levels impede drainage, may result in waterlogging and secondary salinization of the soil profile in agricultural areas and increase of groundwater into cellars beneath buildings in the urban areas. In addition, a rise in the groundwater table could have negative impact on existing sanitation facilities, in particular in the areas which are served with septic tanks. The impacts of increasing the headpond level were assessed using a three-dimensional groundwater model. The mechanisms of interactions between the Nile River and the underlying Quaternary aquifer system as they affect the recharge/discharge processes are comprehensively outlined. The model has been calibrated for steady state and transient conditions against historical data from observation wells. The mitigation measures for the groundwater rise in the urban areas have been tested using the calibrated mode.

  15. Modelling runoff dynamics from information on river network and shape of catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaugen, T.

    2009-12-01

    In a new approach, the dynamics of discharge is derived from the distribution of distances to the nearest river reach within a natural catchment. The river network and the shape of catchment provide a unique distribution function for each catchment which can be determined from a GIS. The distribution can be considered as a detailed description of the drainage density, where the location of the river relative to the catchment is taken into account. Within a fixed time interval, water flows through the catchment a certain distance which defines a fractional area. This fraction is estimated as an area enveloping the river network, whose width, perpendicular to the river network, is determined for the time interval of interest by the flow velocity. For a constant flow velocity, the time steps define adjacent areas which , for a sufficient number of time intervals, cover the entire catchment. For different flow velocities, we have different horizontal layers and the total discharge is the sum of discharge from each of the layers for each time step. The proposed principle for modelling the dynamics of discharge is implemented in the Swedish HBV model. The new model, named 3D (distance distribution dynamics), has the same precision as the HBV model but requires fewer parameters and represents thus a step in the right direction for meeting the challenge of predictions in ungauged basins.

  16. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Bronx River Project Area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendell, B.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Antrim, L.D.; Pinza, M.R.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the Bronx River project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Bronx River project area in Bronx, New York, to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Bronx River was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers-New York District (USAGE-NYD) requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and to evaluate for dredging and disposal. Sediment samples were submitted for physical and chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation studies. Fifteen individual sediment core samples collected from the Bronx River project area were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One composite sediment sample, representing the entire reach of the area proposed for dredging, was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water, which was prepared from the suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Bronx River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBS.

  17. Effect of the river discharge implementation in an operational model for the West Iberia coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Francisco; Brito, David; Juliano, Manuela; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Neves, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, most of the largest rivers discharge on the Atlantic coast draining almost two thirds of the territory. It is an important source of nutrients and sediments to these coastal areas. Rivers discharges in the Atlantic area when compared with the ones in the Mediterranean side present the particularity that their water before is released into the ocean is previously mixed in their estuaries in a different ratio depending of the estuarine residence time and the discharged flow. In order to evaluate the relative importance of the inland waters in the circulation patterns of Western Iberia, the rivers discharges were implemented in the PCOMS model application (Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System). To reproduce the water continuum including the different spatial and temporal scales, a methodology consisting in a system of integrated models using the Mohid model was designed. At the watershed level, the Mohid Land model calculated operationally water flow and properties, including nutrients, for the main river catchments of Western Iberian with a 2 km horizontal resolution. Downstream, several operational hydrodynamic and biological estuarine applications used those outcomes as model inputs, filling the gaps in the observation network. From the estuarine models, the tidally modulated water and properties fluxes to the coast were obtained. These fluxes were finally imposed in the Portuguese Coast Operational Modelling System (PCOMS), a fully 3D baroclinic hydrodynamic and ecological regional model that covers the Iberian Atlantic front. The fate of the rivers discharges were analysed by integrating model results in boxes, comparing the climatologies obtained with and without rivers and the rivers area of influence was obtained by lagrangian tracers simulations.

  18. Nutrient flows and related impacts between a Mediterranean river and the associated coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markogianni, Vassiliki; Varkitzi, Ioanna; Pagou, Kalliopi; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Taking into consideration the Water Framework Directive's requirements, water samples were collected monthly and/or bimonthly between 2014 and 2015 from Spercheios River, its estuary and the adjacent Maliakos Gulf in order to assess the quality of these water bodies. A study on dissolved nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations was carried out, to investigate the impact between the river and the associated coastal area and assess the nutrient loads based on water flows from Spercheios River into the marine system.Furthermore a seasonal distribution of nutrient concentrations have been studied, dividing the sampling period into dry and wet season according to the river's discharges. Correlation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis among the available chemical data were conducted in order to enhance the detection of the two systems' interaction. Nutrients' concentrations increased from upstream to downstream sampling stations, particularly in areas where human-induced activities are detected. Marine samples were characterized by lower nutrient concentrations than the river ones, and the ecological quality of Maliakos Gulf, based on chlorophyll-a values, is characterized as moderate, except for the stations close to the river, which constantly presented poor quality. Chemical analyses and statistical analysis indicated high nutrient flows and a strong impact between the freshwater and marine systems, accompanied by the profound effect of the adjacent aquafarming areas and the wastewater treatment plant of Lamia city. The highest nutrients' and chlorophyll-a values of the coastal stations were detected close to the river mouth and they were decreasing towards the outer Maliakos Gulf.

  19. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  20. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P.; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K.

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  1. The inflow of polonium (210)Po from Vistula river catchments area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, Bogdan; Jahnz, Anna

    2007-12-01

    The activities of polonium (210)Po in Vistula unfiltered water samples, collected from November 2002 to November 2003, were measured using the alpha spectrometry. In winter, the highest concentration of (210)Po was in Vistula river water from Torun (2.72 +/- 0.04 Bq x m(-3)) and from the Wieprz river (5.46 +/- 0.07 Bq x m(-3) [Bequerel per cubic metre]), and the lowest was in water from Nida river (0.59 +/- 0.02 Bq x m(-3)). During spring, the highest concentration of (210)Po was observed in Vistula water collected in Deblin (5.98 +/- 0.03 Bq x m(-3)) and the lowest in water from the Narew river (1.20 +/- 0.12 Bq x m(-3)). In summer, the highest concentration of (210)Po was in Nogat river water collected in Malbork (3.18 +/- 0.04 Bq x m(-3)) and the Bzura river (5.30 +/- 0.02 Bq x m(-3)), the lowest in Wieprz river (0.49 +/- 0.09 Bq x m(-3)) and Vistula river water from Kraków (1.44 +/- 0.05 Bq x m(-3)). In autumn, the highest (210)Po concentration was in Bzura river (8.93 +/- 0.03 Bq x m(-3)), the lowest in Vistula water from Grudziadz (1.51 +/- 0.04 Bq x m(-3)), and Toruń (1.89 +/- 0.05 Bq x m(-3)). The highest quantity of (210)Po was transported from Vistula catchments area to the Baltic Sea in spring and the lowest in summer. Annually, the southern Baltic Sea is enriched by about 73.7 GBq (210)Po (with Leniwka and Nogat rivers), with 71.6 GBq going to Gdańsk Bay and 2.1 GBq to Vistula Lagoon. The highest surface (210)Po runoff was observed in spring (to 1370 kBq x km(-2) x quarter(-1) for Dunajec catchment's area), the lowest in summer (for Nida catchment's area to 100 kBq x km(-2) x quarter(-1)).

  2. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  3. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Hackensack River Project Area, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of the Hackensack River Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material with current ammonia reduction protocols. Hackensack River was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were re-collected from the Hackensack River Project area in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Hackensack River project area consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Hackensack River project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, were used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all three Hackensack River composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. Statistically significant mortality 10% over reference sediment was observed in the M. bahia static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Electromagnetic Delineation and Confirmation of Areas of Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction in a Large River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, J.; Dawe, M. R.; Butler, K. E.; Macquarrie, K. T.

    2004-05-01

    Riverbank filtration systems are typically located in heterogeneous alluvial river valley deposits. Delineation of riverbed areas where there is downward river water infiltration is important for determining the fluxes, quality, and travel time of water supplied to production wells. Efficient methods of delineation are especially required in large rivers that may also have relatively large water depths. A portion of the City of Fredericton well field recharge zone lies beneath the adjacent Saint John River, where a discontinuity in the clay/silt aquitard may allow hydraulic connection between the esker-like aquifer and the river. In this project we have investigated the potential for using electromagnetic methods to delineate zones of low electrical conductivity. Such zones, in a fresh water environment, suggest the absence of clay/silt materials. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, a total of 120 km of electromagnetic data were acquired using the Geonics EM31 and EM34 ground conductivity meters. The survey was carried out using an outboard-motor-powered canoe and raft with onboard DGPS system. Both electromagnetic instruments were operated in the vertical dipole mode, thereby providing maximum depths of exploration of approximately 30 meters. The water depths in the survey area fall in the range where the EM31 and EM34 results are very sensitive to the conductivity structure. We applied a novel bathymetry correction approach to compensate for water depth effects. Contouring of the apparent conductivity data revealed a conductivity low with an approximate area of 6 hectares. The absence of the clay/silt aquitard was confirmed by high resolution seismic profiling and drilling and sampling of riverbed sediments. Further confirmation of river water infiltration has been provided by hydraulic data from mini-piezometers and temperature time series collected beneath the riverbed. Apparent conductivity mapping proved to be a sensitive and efficient method for delineating

  5. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  6. 60 FR 4921 - Notice of Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area; Correction AGENCY: Vale District, Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: In...

  7. 210Pb mass accumulation rates in the depositional area of the Magra River (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbono, I.; Barsanti, M.; Schirone, A.; Conte, F.; Delfanti, R.

    2016-08-01

    Nine sediment cores were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the inner continental shelf (Mediterranean Sea, Italy) mainly influenced by the Magra River, at water depths ranging from 11 to 64 m. Mass Accumulation Rates (MARs) were calculated through 210Pb analysed by Gamma spectrometry. Three different dating models (single and two-layer CF-CS, CRS) were applied to clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles and 137Cs was used to validate the 210Pb geochronology. The maximum MAR values (>2 g cm-2 yr-1) were found in the region adjacent to the Magra River mouth and outside the Gulf of La Spezia (0.9±0.1 g cm-2 yr-1 at St. 3-C6 and 4-C4). Results from 137Cs/210Pbxs ratios calculated in Surface Mixed Layers (SMLs) evidenced the coastal boundaries of the Magra River depositional area, which is very limited towards south. Differently, in the north-west sector, fine sediments are generally driven by the Ligurian Current and move towards north-west: at the deepest and most distant station from the River mouth, the MAR value is the lowest one in the study area. Few major Magra River floods occurred during the sediment core sampling period. By using the short-lived radioisotope 7Be as a tracer of river floods, a clear 7Be signature of 2009 flood is present at St. 1-SA1C. Finally, by analyzing the clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles, a decrease of its activity dating the years 1999 and 2000 is observed in four cores, corresponding to two major Magra River floods occurring in those years.

  8. Shallow Groundwater Movement in the Skagit River Delta Area, Skagit County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, Mark E.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.

    2009-01-01

    Shallow groundwater movement in an area between the lower Skagit River and Puget Sound was characterized by the U.S. Geological Survey to assist Skagit County and the Washington State Department of Ecology with the identification of areas where water withdrawals from existing and new wells could adversely affect streamflow in the Skagit River. The shallow groundwater system consists of alluvial, lahar runout, and recessional outwash deposits composed of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. Upland areas are underlain by glacial till and outwash deposits that show evidence of terrestrial and shallow marine depositional environments. Bedrock exposures are limited to a few upland outcrops in the southwestern part of the study area, and consist of metamorphic, sedimentary, and igneous rocks. Water levels were measured in 47 wells on a quarterly basis (August 2007, November 2007, February 2008, and May 2008). Measurements from 34 wells completed in the shallow groundwater system were used to construct groundwater-level and flow-direction maps and perform a linear-regression analysis to estimate the overall, time averaged shallow groundwater-flow direction and gradient. Groundwater flow in the shallow groundwater system generally moves in a southwestward direction away from the Skagit River and toward the Swinomish Channel and Skagit Bay. Local groundwater flow towards the river was inferred during February 2008 in areas west and southwest of Mount Vernon. Water-level altitudes varied seasonally, however, and generally ranged from less than 3 feet (August 2007) in the west to about 15 feet (May 2008) in the east. The time-averaged, shallow groundwater-flow direction derived from regression analysis, 8.5 deg south of west, was similar to flow directions depicted on the quarterly water-level maps. Seasonal changes in groundwater levels in most wells in the Skagit River Delta follow a typical pattern for shallow wells in western Washington. Water

  9. Loess-like deposits in the Pearl River delta area, southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Guoneng; Peng, Zhuolun; Grapes, Rodney

    2015-12-01

    A layer of yellow silt is widely distributed in the late Quaternary succession of the Pearl River delta, southeast China. A representative section at Xi Lingang was analyzed using particle size analysis, scanning electron microscope observation, geochemical analysis and OSL dating to determine the characteristics and genesis of the yellow silt. Grain size composition of the yellow silt is homogeneous and comparable to typical north China loess (10-50 μm as "basic grain size group", Pearl River delta area is also derived from a northwest China provenance.

  10. Measurement of Specific Surface Area of Ceramisite Made from River Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gui-yun; XI Dan-li

    2002-01-01

    Principle and method of measuring Specific Surface Area (SSA) of ceramisite made from dredged river sediment,sewage sludge and adherent materials are discussed.Brunauer-Fmmett- Teller Procedure tests SSA of the ceramisite. Influences of sewage sludge content,adherent content and sintering point on the SSA of ceramisite made of river sediment are also analyzed.Results show that with the right sewage sludge content,adherent content and sintering point, the ceramisite can have the highest SSA value and be widely used.

  11. 33 CFR 334.150 - Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Engineering Laboratory. (a) The restricted area. The waters of Severn River shoreward of a line... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Severn River at Annapolis, Md.; experimental test area, U.S. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 334.150 Section 334.150 Navigation...

  12. Morphology analysis in middle-downstream area of Progo River due to the debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriadin, Ahmad Azmi; Ikhsan, Jaza'ul; Harsanto, Puji

    2017-06-01

    One of the problems that occur in Progo River is the formation of sediment in the downstream section. The sediment material in the upstream becomes the source of sediment at the downstream area. Excess sediment supply from the upstream causes morphological changes in a relatively short time. The morphological changes in riverbed will affect hydraulics conditions. Hydraulic has an important role in the process of aggradation and degradation in the riverbed. Furthermore, the process of erosion and sedimentation will affect the stability of the construction in the water. In Progo River, there are some buildings of infrastructure such as revetment, bridge, irrigation intake, groundsill, and weir. Based on the results of a numerical model of the hydraulic analysis system, there was approximately 87,000,000 m3 of sediment on Progo River in 2015. In fact, aggradation and degradation occurred very intensively in the middle-downstream area of Progo River. Sediment movement simulation also showed that the sediment supply of lava could prevent excessive bed degradation. Nevertheless, the absence of sediment supply will lead to bed degradation process. It indicates that the management of the sediment supply in the upstream area must be managed properly.

  13. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  14. Biogeography of Amazon birds: rivers limit species composition, but not areas of endemism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Vasconcelos, Marcelo F; Santos, Adalberto J

    2017-06-07

    Amazonian rivers are usually suggested as dispersal barriers, limiting biogeographic units. This is evident in a widely accepted Areas of Endemism (AoEs) hypothesis proposed for Amazonian birds. We empirically test this hypothesis based on quantitative analyses of species distribution. We compiled a database of bird species and subspecies distribution records, and used this dataset to identify AoEs through three different methods. Our results show that the currently accepted Amazonian AoEs are not consistent with areas identified, which were generally congruent among datasets and methods. Some Amazonian rivers represent limits of AoEs, but these areas are not congruent with those previously proposed. However, spatial variation in species composition is correlated with largest Amazonian rivers. Overall, the previously proposed Amazonian AoEs are not consistent with the evidence from bird distribution. However, the fact that major rivers coincide with breaks in species composition suggest they can act as dispersal barriers, though not necessarily for all bird taxa. This scenario indicates a more complex picture of the Amazonian bird distribution than previously imagined.

  15. Runoff Simulation of Three Gorges Area in the Upper Yangtze River during 1998 Flood Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jian; Gabor BALINT; Balazs GAUZER

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of areal precipitation of the catchment from Cuntan to Yichang (Three Gorges area)to eight flood peaks of the Upper Yangtze River (the upper reaches of the Yangtze River) is diagnosed for 1998 flood season. A rainfall-runoff model is employed to simulate runoffs of this catchment. Comparison of observed and simulated runoffs shows that the rainfall-runoff model has a good capability to simulate the runoff over a large-scale river and the results describe the eight flood peaks very well Forecast results are closely associated with the sensitivity of the model to rainfall and the calibration processes. Other reasons leading to simulation errors are further discussed.

  16. Extraction of potential areas of river dust emissions using SPOT imageries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu-Fen, Tsai; Chao-Yuan, Lin

    2017-04-01

    During the winter, an increase of exposed bare riverbed at the estuary of Jhuoshuei River in Taiwan often causes river dust episodes which harm the health of nearby residents. This study selected the river section from bridge Ziqiang to bridge Xibin as study area. The SPOT satellite imageries, within 15 days of the aeolian dust event during 2005 - 2014, were obtained to classify the land cover and discuss the relationship of bare land change and aeolian dust emission. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) derived from SPOT imageries can display the spatial distribution of moisture content and particle size in the surface of soil layers. The bare land can be categorized into coarse, medium and fine particles using K-mean cluster analysis, and then combined with the meteorological factors from a nearby air quality monitoring station to explore the contribution to aeolian dust emission. The results show that the bare land with fine particle has a positive correlation with daily average PM10. Therefore, the bare land with fine particle could be the potential zones of river dust emissions. Monitoring the changes of bare riverbed using remote sensing technology is an effective way for river dust episodes prediction.

  17. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  18. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 1. Illinois Except Illinois River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    ROHINSON Ck R SHELRYVILLE I1Q.2 AREA ABOVE ROBINSON CR 1064 392107 OR88045 SHELRYVILLE 192.h COPELAND BRIDGE SHELkYVILLE 197.1 ’JEW YORK CENTRAL Wk...S22tT IN.R 1W CENTRALIA w 3.2 POAI, $23:T INR IW CFNTRALIA W 3.4 ROAri S23,T IN.R IW CENTRALIA W 4.0 POAi, S24.T IN.R 1w CENTRALIA W 4.7 WESTON AVE

  19. Species composition of the vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jamtsho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the riparian vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan was conducted from April to December 2015 to explore the plant communities in terms of species composition. A total number of 18 plots were placed within the remnant patches of the vegetation on either side of the river. In total, 172 species of vascular plant has been recorded. The cluster analysis suggested four types of plant communities in the study area viz., the MallotusDesmodium-Rhus shrubland and the Syzygium venosum woodland communities, which are located in V-shaped valleys and the Albizia-Flueggea woodland and Quercus glauca woodland communities located in U-shaped valleys. In broad-spectrum, the topographic features and environmental variables i.e. litter accumulation and flooding condition might also have some impact on the species composition of the plant communities of this vegetation.

  20. Valuing nature-based recreation in public natural areas of the Apalachicola River region, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ram K; Stein, Taylor V; Clark, Julie

    2007-12-01

    As more people visit natural areas for tourism and recreation purposes, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the value they place on these natural resources. Specifically, tourists to Florida have been increasingly interested in visiting natural areas, forests, parks, and preserves-highlighting the importance of this new and growing phenomenon. We analyze visitors' demand for nature-based recreation in the Apalachicola River region of Florida using the travel cost method. The results from a count data regression model reveal that on average visitors would pay 74.18 dollars per visit-day for nature-based recreation resulting in a total economic value of 484.56 million dollars attributable to nature-based recreation in the Apalachicola River region. Results of this study provide useful information for natural resources management in the region and a rationale to preserve Florida's unique ecosystems.

  1. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  2. Archaeological Investigations at the Grant River Public Use Area. Volume 1. Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    This ;.- ~ ~ ~ *.’ - "/.-:’.-. *- " *- - ..*i- .’.’i;’ .KC.Z. " .’.. --:...< .:. .--3..;.; ; ’-. ., .q -? .. ’ ’’" ; - - 68 - banded textural B horizon...Notched, Matanzas , Raddatz, and Godar styles have been recovered from .- surface and sub-surface contexts at the Grant River Recrea- tion Area. In...Missouri: The Turner Site, 23 Bu 21a. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan Anthropological Papers No. 68 . Ann Arbor. BOCKHEIM, J.G. 1980

  3. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  4. Sarmatian Monuments in the Forest-Steppe Interfluve Area Between the Don and the Volga Rivers (Zoning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berestnev Roman Sergeevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the zoning of Sarmatian antiquities in the forest-steppe interfluve area between the Don and the Volga rivers. On the basis of the analysis, the authors allocate four areas of burial monuments in the Northern periphery of the Asian Sarmatia (the river in Voronezh, the Middle Don, the Upper Don, the area between the Khoper and the Volga rivers. The stages of the forest-steppe area development by the Sarmatians in the Don River, the Khoper river and the right bank of the Volga river were also studied. The first stage is characterized by the general description of Sarmatian monuments located in the forest-steppe area between the Volga and the Khoper. The authors carry out the detailed review of the distinctive features of the funeral rites and some peculiar details: stratigraphy, structures beneath barrows, forms of burial pits, postures of the deceased, orientation, use of fire, imported and domestic utensils, weapons and ornaments. Archaeological materials are compared with the data of ancient sources (Claudius Ptolemy. The result of the study consists in the comparative analysis of the binding of specific ethnic groups in the allocated areas. The authors attribute the Sarmatians on the Voronezh river with the Gippofagi ancient authors; the Aseyes and the Sakata – with the area of monuments in the forest between the Volga and the Khoper.

  5. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  6. Unconformity-related uranium deposits, Athabasca area, Saskatchewan, and East Alligator Rivers area, Northern Territory, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, L.A.; Burrill, G.H.R. (Saskatchewan Mining Development Corp., Saskatoon (Canada))

    1981-07-01

    Most unconformity-type uranium deposits in Saskatchewan occur within a few tens of metres above and/or below the basal unconformity of the 1.45 b.y. Athabasca Sandstone. Graphitic basement rocks coincident with post-Athabasca faulting or brecciation at or near the unconformity are important in localizing uranium deposits which form as tabular, ribbon-like bodies with grades averaging over 2 percent uranium and containing up to 50,000 tonnes U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Some of these deposits have similar contents of nickel and arsenic. In the genetic model used to explain these deposits, traces of uranium were leached from the sandstone and basement rocks by oxidized formation waters. A thick clay regolith absorbed uranium from the solution, and the fixed uranium was reduced through an indirect reaction with graphite. The clay mineral surfaces were thus continuously cleared to allow further adsorption. Fluid convection was induced by topographic relief and/or crustal heating from radioactive decay, and would continue uranium deposition until all permeability was plugged by minerals. The East Alligator Rivers uranium deposits in Northern Territory, Australia occur within Middle Proterozoic quartz-chlorite and quartz-muscovite schists overlain by sandstone. Highest grades occur in silicified breccias where carbonate beds were leached out. Mineralization ages are both pre- and post-Kombolgie Sandstone, but, to date, no significant uranium mineralization has been found in the sandstone. There are many similarities with Saskatchewan deposits, but also important differences.

  7. HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ŁOSOSINA RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE AREA OF TYMBARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Policht-Latawiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of waters requires not only determining the amount, but primarily the quality of the available water resources and developing a long-term programme of their protection. The analysis of the Łososina river water in the area of Tymbark city was presented in the paper. The water was tested in a view of the requirements as the natural fish habitat and its potential use for people supply in potable water. The river water samples were taken in 2014 at randomly selected dates, once a month in 5 measurement points. 21 physicochemical indices were assessed in the samples. The assessment of the Łososina river water quality was made on the basis of the results of both: on site and laboratory testing, which were compared with the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 23 October 2014. The utility values were assessed on the basis of the Regulations of the Minister of Environment of 27 November and 04 October 2014. The analysis of the results demonstrated that the Łososina river water met the requirements of quality class I water in points 1, 2 and 3. Below Tymbark the Łososina river water was polluted, so due to high BOD5 in points 4 and 5, and phosphate concentrations in point 4, it was classified as class II, i.e. good state. Pollution coefficients computed according to Burchard and Dubaniewicz classify the Łososina river water as clean along the whole investigated stretch. Below Tymbark city (points 4 and 5 the Łososina river water cannot be used for drinking water supply because of high BOD5 and iron concentrations. In the other points it could be used for water supply following appropriate physical and chemical treatment. The water does not meet the requirements for salmonid or cyprinid fish along the whole stretch because of high nitrite concentrations, except point 3, where the Łososina river water provided a proper natural habitat for carp.

  8. Evaluation and assessment of water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, R. C. G.; Sajidu, S. M. I.; Mwatseteza, J. F.; Masamba, W. R. L.

    Likangala is one of the perennial rivers in Malawi that flow into a closed Lake Chilwa, a designated wetland ratified by Ramsar Convention in 1997. Earlier work conducted on this river revealed considerable social-economic activities at riverbanks resulting in indiscriminate disposal of wastes. This study intended to evaluate water quality in Likangala River and its catchment area. Water samples were collected thrice (dry, early rainy and mid rainy seasons) and tested for major physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The EC, pH, and selected ions ( NO3-, PO43-, Na +, K +, Mg 2+, and Ca 2+) were analysed in soil samples obtained in crop fields along the river banks. Elevated EC levels (>1035.00 μS/cm) were measured during mid rainy season at site S15 (Zomba Sewage Works), near and in the lake. Most of the water samples (86%, n = 28) registered phosphate levels above 1.50 mg/L during mid rainy season with a maximum value (10.70 ± 0.01 mg/L) at site S15. Lower amounts (control of water, land use and waste management in order to prevent escalation of the effects.

  9. Water Environmental Degradation of the Source Area of the Yellow River on Northeast Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Shanzhong; Luo Fang; Xiao Honglang

    2005-01-01

    The issue on water environmental degradation in the source area of the Yellow River has been one of very serious ecological and socially economic problems. The temporal-spatial changes of water environment led to the decreasing of land capacity and river disconnecting. The status of water environmental degradation in this paper was analyzed based on the data and field investigation. The results indicated that the surface water area in the region has obviously decreased owing to the climate changes and human irrational use of water resources and the continuous lowering of the regional groundwater table and the steadily decreasing tendency of the flow rate in the source areas of the Yellow River.

  10. FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION MODES ALONG THE CHANGJIANG RIVER MAIN LINE AND ITS DELTA AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-yu; XIAO Han-liang

    2003-01-01

    The Changjiang River (Yangtze) is one of the fastest growth areas of container transportation in Chi-na. Rail, road and water transportation have competed against each other for container transportation in the Chang-jiang River main line and its delta area. It is of significance to assess these different transportation modes scientifi-cally in order to organize container transportation efficiently in this area and make decision for integral plan and construction of transportation system in this area. This paper outlines application of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to appraise different modes of typical direction of containers. Twelve assessment indexes were decided. Membership functions were formulated. Evaluation results indicated that road transportation was optimal mode in the Changjiang River delta area, however water transportation was the primary way in the Changjiang River main line.

  11. A microbiological assessment of the surface water quality in the Bodva river drainage area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Maťašová

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the surface water quality assessment in the partial drainage area of the Bodva river and its tributaries. The water quality in the sampled areas ranged between polluted and strongly polluted. The main cause of the pollution is the increased abundance of coliform and thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci. The reason the increase in their abundance is the dumping of the household waste water containing excrements and animal remains, and the unsatisfactorily treated water from the water treatment stations.

  12. Identifying the breeding areas of locusts in the Yellow River estuary using Landsat ETM+ imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsheng; Liu, Gaohuan; Yang, Yuzhen; Liu, Peng; Huang, Jianjie

    2006-03-01

    The Yellow River Estuary became an important plague region of locusts because of its special geographic location. Many years' survey data showed that the environment was the chief factor that influenced locust pest occurring. In the recent years, because the amount of water from the Yellow River and precipitation reduced and distributed asymmetrically, and soil salinization became serious much more, and many farmlands went out of cultivation, which improved the habitats for locusts, the plague of locusts happened frequently under condign climate. The field survey data from 1991 to 2000 showed that the plague of locust became more aggravating year after year. Therefore, it is important to monitor and control the plague of locusts. According to many years' investigation data analysis, got the condign habitat conditions for Locusta Migratoria Manilensis (Meyen) in the Yellow River Estuary. So the breeding areas of locusts monitoring with remote sensing imagery was to identify those regions according to the condign habitat conditions. Landsat ETM+ imagery (2000-05-02) data was chosen to identify the breeding areas of locusts in the Yellow River Estuary. Firstly classified Landsat TM imagery (2000-5-2) and extract reed lands and lawn lands and slightly salinized soils. Secondly made mask images through transforming these three raster classes into vector layers, then calculated a anti-atmospheric visible light vegetation index VARIg = (B2-B3)/(B2+B3-B1). According to field investigation data of vegetation fractional cover in 2000, got the relationship between vegetation fractional cover and VARIg values, 70% to 3.0, 50% to 2.3. As a result, the infrequent areas were where VARIg values were great than 3.0, and the moderate areas were where VARIg values were between 2.3 and 3.0, and frequent areas were where VARIg values were under 2.3. According to statistical analysis, the infrequent areas were percent 10 of the lands that have the condign soil salt content for locust

  13. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... status of a portion of Eagle River within the boundaries of Fort Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the restricted area is to include...

  14. Distribution and relative abundance of fishes in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir, Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Dena M.; Venditti, David A.; Robinson, T. Craig; Beeman, John W.; Maule, Alec G.

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed fish assemblages in littoral areas of Chief Joseph Reservoir of the upper Columbia River to aid in understanding this ecosystem. Fish distributions and abundances were examined during April-July 1999 in relation to environmental conditions in the reservoir. We also compared the fish assemblages in Chief Joseph reservoir in 1999 to a past study conducted during 1974-1975, and to assemblages in other areas of the Columbia River. During 67 hr of electrofishing and 78 beach seine hauls in Chief Joseph Reservoir, 7460 fishes representing 8 families were collected. The majority of the catch was native – northern pikeminnow; redside shiners; longnose, bridgelip, and largescale suckers; and sculpins. The most abundant introduced species was walleye, and one species, rainbow trout, was mostly of net-pen origin. Larger sizes of suckers and northern pikeminnow were most abundant in the upper reservoir, likely due to upstream spawning migrations. The lower reservoir contained greater abundances of smaller fishes, and this area had lower flows, smaller substrates, and more complex shorelines that offered these fishes refugia. Only adult suckers displayed significant differences in abundances related to substrate. The relative abundances of species appeared to have changed since the 1970s, when the dominant fishes were northern pikeminnow, peamouth, largescale suckers, and walleye. Fish assemblage differences between Chief Joseph Reservoir and lower Columbia River reservoirs were also evident due to the morphology of the reservoir, its more northerly location, and the lack of fish passage facilities at Chief Joseph Dam. Our study is one of the few descriptions of fishes in the upper Columbia Rivers.

  15. Investigation of seasonal river-aquifer interactions in a tropical coastal area controlled by tidal sand ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, H.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2014-08-01

    Water exchanges between streams and aquifers influence the quantity and quality of water in both domains. Seasonal river-aquifer interactions were investigated in a tropical coastal area where tidal sand ridges control river discharge to the sea. The study site is located in southwestern Nicaragua, dominated by humid tropical hydro-climatic conditions. The aquifer provides water to the rural town of Ostional. Connectivity between the river and the aquifer influences water quality and water availability for humans and for the downstream estuarine ecosystem. The effect of stream stage fluctuations on river-aquifer flows and pressure propagation in the adjacent aquifer was investigated analyzing high temporal resolution hydraulic head data and applying a numerical model (HYDRUS 2-D). Tidal sand ridges at the river outlet control the flow direction between the river and the aquifer. Surface water accumulation caused by these features induces aquifer recharge from the river. Simulations show groundwater recharge up to 0.2 m3 h-1 per unit length of river cross section. Rupture of the sand ridges due to overtopping river flows causes a sudden shift in the direction of flow between the river and the aquifer. Groundwater exfiltration reached 0.08 m3 h-1 immediately after the rupture of the sand ridges. Simulated bank storage flows are between 0.004-0.06 m3 h-1. These estimates are also supported by the narrow hysteresis loops between hydraulic heads and river stage. The aquifer behaves as confined, rapidly transmitting pressure changes caused by the river stage fluctuations. However, the pressure wave is attenuated with increasing distance from the river. Therefore, we concluded that a dynamic pressure wave is the mechanism responsible for the observed aquifer responses. Pressure variation observations and numerical groundwater modeling are useful to examine river-aquifer interactions and should be coupled in the future with chemical data to improve process understanding.

  16. Transfer of cadmium from soil to vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihua; Chen, Junjian; Zhu, Li; Yang, Guoyi; Li, Dingqiang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd) concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd) from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg(-1)) compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg(-1)). 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg(-1)). The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (y = ax(b)), and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils.

  17. Transfer of cadmium from soil to vegetable in the Pearl River Delta area, South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Zhang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the regional Cadmium (Cd concentration levels in soils and in leaf vegetables across the Pearl River Delta (PRD area; and reveal the transfer characteristics of Cadmium (Cd from soils to leaf vegetable species on a regional scale. 170 paired vegetables and corresponding surface soil samples in the study area were collected for calculating the transfer factors of Cadmium (Cd from soils to vegetables. This investigation revealed that in the study area Cd concentration in soils was lower (mean value 0.158 mg kg(-1 compared with other countries or regions. The Cd-contaminated areas are mainly located in west areas of the Pearl River Delta. Cd concentrations in all vegetables were lower than the national standard of Safe vegetables (0.2 mg kg(-1. 88% of vegetable samples met the standard of No-Polluted vegetables (0.05 mg kg(-1. The Cd concentration in vegetables was mainly influenced by the interactions of total Cd concentration in soils, soil pH and vegetable species. The fit lines of soil-to-plant transfer factors and total Cd concentration in soils for various vegetable species were best described by the exponential equation (y = ax(b, and these fit lines can be divided into two parts, including the sharply decrease part with a large error range, and the slowly decrease part with a low error range, according to the gradual increasing of total Cd concentrations in soils.

  18. Rn-222 concentrations in private well water and in river water around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Eiji [Okayama, Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The Ningyo-Toge Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have started the pilot plant for uranium refining and conversion in 1984 and thereafter been producing 6-uranium fluoride, which is a raw material for an uranium concentration plant. The operation of prototype reactor has started since 1989. In this study, radioactive contamination around the works under these circumstances has been monitored in the respects of Rn concentrations in well water and river one for more than 10 years. The radioactivities of well water sampled at 4 points in this area were in a range of 0.6-82.9 Bq/l. The differences in the activities seemed to be depending on petrological properties. For the river water, the Rn concentration was determined at 13 points in the area. Seasonal changes in the Rn concentrations were not significant (p<0.05) but there were significant changes among years during 1985-1995. Further, the radioactive levels of soils collected from riverbed at 5 points were significantly different both for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, but the ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra were consistent. Furthermore, there was no correlation between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the river water. (M.N.)

  19. The change of characteristics of tidal wave in the Changjiang River mouth area since the post-glacial transgression maximum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉荣

    2001-01-01

    During the period of the post-glacial transgression maximum (PGTM), there was a huge trumpet estuary in the modern Changjiang River Delta area. The location and the shape of the Paleo-Changjiang River Estuary (PCRE) were much different from those of the present Chang-Jiang River Estuary. The study on the change of characteristics of tidal wave in the Changjiang River mouth area since the PGTM can help to understand better the dynamic development of the Changjiang River Delta. The course curves of tidal level and tidal current velocity during a single tidal cycle for 35 points are calculated, and characteristics of tidal waves in the PCRE and its adjacent area are compared with those of tidal waves in the modern Changjiang River mouth area. The results show that the tidal waves within the PCRE and in its adjacent area during the period of the PGTM belonged to standing wave or a mixture of standing wave and progressive wave. Since then, the tidal wave in the Changjiang River mouth become gradually to be pr

  20. Vertical Electrical Sounding Investigation in East River Nile Area (Khartoum State),Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eldawi M G; Farwa A G; Liu Tianyou

    2003-01-01

    Vertical electrical sounding (VES) was carried out in the east of the River Nile. The main objectives of the resistivity survey are to determine the types and thicknesses of sedimentary units in the area, to defime the contact separating the sediments from the crystalline basement complex, and to determine the structural features of the subsurface formations. Several local depressions, whose maximum depth to the basement surface is about 160 m, are revealed as an outcome of the VES method, and suggested to have been infilled with undifferentiated units of the Nubian Group in particular Omdurman Formation. Thus, a depth to the basement complex is calculated and the associated structural map of the east of the River Nile is drawn. The map is useful for the groundwater drilling, as far as the presence or absence of the aquifer is concerned.

  1. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas that are painted white. DO ... protect the ears or sides of the face. Special clothing that protects the skin by absorbing UV ...

  2. Land Use and the Agrarian Economy in the Roman Dutch River Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Groot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct agrarian land use for a rural community in the Roman frontier zone in the Netherlands. The Dutch River Area was characterised by a dynamic landscape. Rivers regularly flooded the surrounding low-lying land. Only the higher streamridges provided suitable places for habitation and arable agriculture. The limitations of the landscape dictated to a large extent both the types and quantities of crops and animals that could be produced. An interactive map of the micro-region of Tiel-Passewaaij shows how the land was used for agrarian production and sourced for other products. These symbols link to short texts that discuss the archaeological evidence for aspects such as growing cereals, raising livestock and the exploitation of wood and wild animals. The complex and dynamic geological situation of the Dutch River Area is also explained, and the consequences for agriculture discussed. We address three main research questions. How were the different elements of the riverine landscape used by rural inhabitants? How were arable agriculture and animal husbandry organised spatially, both within the settlement and in its immediate surroundings? Which natural resources were used and managed? Our research is mainly based on one large and well-excavated settlement complex (Tiel-Passewaaij, but we will use complementary data from several other settlements in the region. Our results show that the river landscape offered plenty of opportunities for agriculture. The interaction between arable and pastoral farming was essential, with livestock providing manure and agricultural labour, and the fields offering fodder and additional grazing (after harvest or during fallow years. The location of large enclosure ditches suggest that even minor differences in height, caused by older streamridges, may have made arable farming possible in the flood basin.

  3. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  4. River slopes on basalts: Slope-area trends and lithologic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Adalto Gonçalves; Flores, Diego Moraes

    2017-07-01

    River incisions in continental basalts are distinct and heterogeneous. Knickpoints and the predominance of erosion by plucking contribute to that distinction, whereas significant differences in the vesicularity and jointing of basaltic flows are suggested as controls on the heterogeneities of incisions. We investigated 11 small river channels (<80 km long) installed on continental basalts of the Paraná Volcanic Province, South Brazil, using slope-area analysis (S = ksA-θ), to explore the possible relationships of steepness (ks) and concavity (θ) indices with characteristics of flow basalts. Channels were chosen that did not present signs of significant tectonic interference on a longitudinal profile, i.e., convex reaches and prominent knickpoints. The data were extracted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment from digital topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000. Basaltic flow zones and morphologies, jointing styles, as well as river bed morphologies and erosion processes were surveyed in the field. The longitudinal profiles of the rivers are stepped, and the lower slope reaches are associated predominantly with vesicular basalts and basaltic breccias. Knickpoints are generated by contrasts in the erodibility of the substrate due to vesicular-massive differences and the partial insertion of channels in tectonically fractured zones (lineaments). The normalized steepness index (ksn) is positively correlated (R2 = 0.8) with the knickzone index (the ratio between the number of knickzones and the channel length). Rivers occurring in simple basaltic flows have distinct upper and lower limits of the steepness index (ks), which are represented by massive and vesicular basalts, respectively. The average concavity index (θ) is 0.56 ± 0.16, and its range is from 0.34 to 0.82. The range in θ is inversely related to the rate of downstream variation in the drainage area (discharge). However, the greatest control is exerted by the proportion of basalts that are

  5. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. 334.500 Section 334.500 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE... areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. (a) The areas. (1) The St. Johns River...

  6. 75 FR 11511 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Forest Service Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest; Mt. Ashland Ski Area Expansion, Jackson County, OR...-03004-PA, to conditionally authorize expansion of the Mt. Ashland Ski Area. SUMMARY: In September 2004, the Forest Service issued a Record of Decision (ROD) for the Mt. Ashland Ski Area (MASA)...

  7. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  8. Bajocian ammonoids from Pumani River area (Ayacucho, Peru): Palaeobiogeographical and palaeoenvironmental implications for the Arequipa Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Sixto; Carlotto, Victor; Giraldo, Edwin; Chacaltana, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Deposits of the Socosani Formation in the Pucayacu and Pumani sections (Ayacucho Department, Peru), along several kilometres, have yielded Upper Bajocian ammonoid fossil-assemblages characterized by the occurrence of juvenile individuals belonging to endemic or pandemic genera, such as Megasphaeroceras and Spiroceras respectively. In addition, certain Bajocian genera relatively common in the Mediterranean-Caucasian Subrealm, but very scarce in the Eastern Pacific Subrealm, such as the strigoceratid Cadomoceras and the phylloceratid Adabofoloceras, occur in this area. According to the taphonomic, palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical evidence from the Pumani River area, the maximum deepening, relative sea-level rise and oceanic accessibility of a Bajocian-Bathonian, second-order, transgressive/regressive facies cycle in the marine Arequipa Basin were reached during the Late Bajocian Niortense Biochron. However, synsedimentary regional tectonics in the Pumani River area disturbed this general deepening/shallowing cycle of the Arequipa Basin, particularly during the Late Bajocian post-Niortense time-interval of the Garantiana and Parkinsoni biochrons.

  9. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  10. Soil classification of the Piauitinga river basin spring areas, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of regeneration and maintenance of spring areas is fundamentally important for the conservation of water resources. Considering the need for restoration of the surrounding areas of the springs of the sub-basin of the Piauitinga River, in Lagarto-Sergipe, this study aimed to characterize the soils in their local environment which will serve as a benchmark for future comparisons between areas of springs already degraded and in the recovering process. The springs were classified according to their origin and their stage of preservation. For the study of the local soil, reforested areas of each spring were selected and grouped according to their position in the landscape. The soil classification of the study sites was performed based on local landscape observation, description of opened micro-trenches and analyses of soil samples. The soils were described and classified morphologically. It was observed that from 22 analyzed spring areas, only two (9% were considered according to their origin as diffuse and the remaining twenty (91% as punctual. Considering the preservation stage five spring areas (22% were identified as disturbed and the other ones as degraded (88%. The sites around the springs’ headwaters of the upper course of the Piauitinga river basin are located in erosion spots, depressions and a single case in the foothills coastal tablelands. The most striking characteristics of local soils are the strong hydromorphic (Gleissolos and gleic Cambisols and, or, the low level of development (Cambisols and Plinthosols, both with much skeletal material, many of them in eroded phase.

  11. The characteristics of Quaternary activity of faults in the sea area near the Yangtze River mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章振铨; 火恩杰; 刘昌森; 王锋

    2004-01-01

    By shallow seismic prospecting, it is showed that the faults in the sea area near the Yangtze River mouth are mainly the NE and NW-trending faults. The main activity time of fault is Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, and the latest activity is up to Middle Pleistocene. The maximum of fault is generally several tens meters with the throw decreased upward. The dislocation near the bottom of Middle Pleistocene is 12~13 m. The average vertical displacement rate is on a level of 10-3 mm/a.

  12. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  13. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  14. [Cytogenetic studies on submerged plants from the Yenisei river area in the zone of radioactive contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, E N; Goriachkina, O V; Kornilova, M G; Pimenov, A V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies on three species of submerged plants from different parts of the Yenisei river area subjected to radioactive impact of the Krasnoyarsk Mining-and-Chemical Plant and the Electrochemical Factory have been conducted. A high level of irregularities in anatelophase and metaphase of mitoses has been revealed in test samples compared to the control: agglutination and fragmentation of chromosomes, lagging chromosomes, bridges, fragments, misdivisions, and others. The natuie of the disorders indicates that they are related in part to the direct damage to the chromosome structure and in part to damage to the spindle.

  15. 77 FR 47331 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Interstate 95) Construction AGENCY... Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, and which could be needed at other times as well. This proposed revision... (but is not limited to) the navigation safety situation created by reconstruction of the Pearl...

  16. Real-time flood forecasting of Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhijia; Bao Hongjun; Xue Cangsheng; Hu Yuzhong; Fang Hong

    2008-01-01

    A combination of the rainfall-runoff module of the Xin'anjiang model, the Muskingum routing method, the water stage simulating hydrologic method, the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method, and the real-time error correction method is applied to the real-time flood forecasting and regulation of the Huai River with flood diversion and retarding areas. The Xin'anjiang model is used to forecast the flood discharge hydrograph of the upstream and tributary. The flood routing of the main channel and flood diversion areas is based on the Muskingum method. The water stage of the downstream boundary condition is calculated with the water stage simulating hydrologic method and the water stages of each cross section are calculated from downstream to upstream with the diffusion wave nonlinear water stage method. The input flood discharge hydrograph from the main channel to the flood diversion area is estimated with the fixed split ratio of the main channel discharge. The flood flow inside the flood retarding area is calculated as a reservoir with the water balance method. The faded-memory forgetting factor least square of error series is used as the real-time error correction method for forecasting discharge and water stage. As an example, the combined models were applied to flood forecasting and regulation of the upper reaches of the Huai River above Lutaizi during the 2007 flood season. The forecast achieves a high accuracy and the results show that the combined models provide a scientific way of flood forecasting and regulation for a complex watershed with flood diversion and retarding areas.

  17. Monitoring of Land-Cover Dynamic Change in Lancangjiang River Cascaded Hydropower Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hongjiang; XIE Hongzhong; CHEN Lihui; GAN Shu; ZHANG Jun; WEI Fangqiang

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the 3 stages' (1988,1996,2000) variation of landcover is performed according to Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhancement Thematic Mapper(ETM) satellite image by combining ground GIS database with GPS field collected data in the area of Xiaowan-Dachaoshan Reservoirs of Lancangjiang River cascaded Hydropower Area. Consequently, the land-cover is divided into five subclasses, namely water, paddy field and wetland, bare dryland and sparse shrub, secondary forest and density forest. The result showed that the areas of bare land, upland and secondary forest decreased in 1988-1996, whereas from 1996 to 2000, water body and density forest keep invariability while the areas of paddy field and wetland, bare dryland and sparse scrub increasing and the area of secondary forest decrease; Features of reciprocal transformation between density forest and other type of land-cover had two points, i.e. secondary forest, bare dryland and sparse shrub converted to density forest; and density forest converted to secondary forest and paddy field and wetland. It reflects the dynamic variation of density forest; the area which slope less than 8° and greater than 15° shows bigger variation, however, less change in 8°-15°.

  18. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR_breach: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight different...

  19. Surfactants and Sterols Concentrations in the Surface Microlayer of the Estuarine Areas of Selangor River, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M. T.; Alsalahi, M. A.; Ali, M. M.; Dominick, D.; Khan, M. F.; Wahid, N. B. A.; Mustaffa, N. I. H.

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to determine the concentration of surfactant and sterols as biomarkers in the surface microlayer (SML) in estuarine areas of the Selangor River, Malaysia. SML samples were collected during different seasons using a rotation drum method. The compositions of surfactants were determined as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) as anionic and cationic surfactants respectively. The concentration of sterols was determined using a gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results show that the concentrations of surfactants around the estuarine area were dominated by anionic surfactants (MBAS) with average concentrations of 0.39 µmol L-1. .The concentrations of total sterols in the SML ranged from 107.06 to 505.55 ng L-1. The surfactants and total sterol concentrations were found to be higher in the wet season compare to dry season. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterols component in the SML of the Selangor River. The diagnostic ratios of sterols show the influence of natural sources and waste on the contribution of sterols in the SML. Further analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct inputs of sterols derived from human activity (40.58%), terrigenous and plant inputs (22.59%) as well as phytoplankton and marine inputs (17.35%).

  20. Uniform Transnational Assessment of the Environmental Indices from the Romanian Catchment Area of the Tisa River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU-FLORIN FONOGEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform transnational assessment of the environmental indices in the catchment area of the Tisa river aims at rehabilitating, protecting and conserving the environmental systems, as well as creating a commonly strategic demarche concerning a sustainable spatial development, based on integrated intersectorial approaches of environmental issues, viewed in their territorial dimension. The information necessary in underlining the current situation in the Romanian catchment area of the Tisa has been structured according to the following categories of analysed indices: sources of surface waters, resources of drinkable water and water supply resources, the risk of not reaching the environmental objectives, significant sources of water pollution (punctual sources of pollution, diffuse sources of pollution, significant hydromorphic pressure, the quality of water, significant sources of air pollution, soils affected by agricultural and industrial activities, nature protection and waste management.

  1. Incidence of human dental fluorosis in the Raft River geothermal area in southern Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shupe, J.L.; Olson, A.E.; Peterson, H.B.

    1978-09-01

    A total of 270 school aged individuals representing 151 families living in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal area of Idaho were examined for evidence of dental fluorosis. Of these 132 had some dental anomaly. Fifty-two individuals from 45 families had lesions classified as typical dental fluorosis. Eleven of these, some of which had severe dental fluorosis recently moved into the area from other locations. Samples of the drinking waters that were likely consumed by the individuals with dental fluorosis were collected for analyses. In most instances the fluoride content of the waters were low and would not account for the tooth lesions. Possible reasons for lack of correlation are changing of the composition of the water, other sources of fluoride in the diet, and possibly analytical errors.

  2. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  3. 33 CFR 334.180 - Patuxent River, Md.; restricted areas, U.S. Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels and the civilian craft shall proceed at a speed not greater than five knots when within 1,000... River between Town Point and Hog Point shoreward of a line described as follows: Beginning at a point on...

  4. Investigation on Sinipercine Fishes in the National Aquatic Germplasm Resources Protection Area in Jinjiang River of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu; Zhen; Ran; Hui; Fan; Junde; Mei; Jie

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The paper was to provide a scientific basis for protection and utilization of sinipercine fish resources in Jinjiang River,the national resources protection area. [Method]A total of 171 specimens of sinipercine were collected from Jinjiang River and its branches,identified and statistically counted.[Result]There were three species of wild sinipercine,including Siniperca scherzeri,Coreoperca whiteheadi and Siniperca kneri,with occurrence frequencies of100%,66. 7% and 50%,respectively. They were common species in the river,and S. scherzeri was dominant. The total allowable catch(TAC) of the three species was not big,and the individuals captured were generally small,and with rare mature individuals. [Conclusion]The resources of sinipercine had a preliminary recovery in the region after the foundation of the national resources protection area for aquatic resources in Jinjiang River in 2009.

  5. Groundwater renewable resources in karst areas, the case of the Kleśnica River basin (Sudety Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Otrębski, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The karst-fractured medium constitutes a considerable groundwater capacity, as shown on the example of the Kleśnica River basin. The paleozoic crystalline limestones in the research area are good collectors of the groundwater. The Kleśnica River basin, one of the largest crystalline limestone lens, is situated in the Sudety Mountains. Groundwater renewable resources were distinguished with the use of hydrological methods, on the basis of hydrometric measurements of the flow discharge of the Kleśnica River during the low-flow period (2009-2010). The mean module of the groundwater runoff equals 20.79 dm3/s*km2, and includes the study of the river catchments areas with extremely high groundwater runoff. The groundwater renewable resources in the Kleśnica River basin are almost twice higher than in the neighbouring river basins (the Kamienica and Morawka River basins), in which there are no significant outcrops of carbonate rocks. These considerable renewable resources also provide a high runoff in the spring, 7.98 dm3/s*km2. The high values of the runoffs indicate, that the groundwater is coming from the regional circulation system and, on a smaller scale, from the local system. The groundwater from both systems flows into the fractured system through the karst of carbonate massif rocks and their weathering fringes.

  6. Hydrologically sensitive areas: theory and application to Barigui river watershed, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani dos Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of hydrologically sensitive area (HSA is discussed and applied to Barigui river watershed (58.5 km², located in Almirante Tamandaré city, Parana State, Brazil. The HSA is considered as the area of the watershed with a higher probability of reaching a soil saturation condition, and is, therefore, defined as the area that remains saturated for more than 30% of the time. The Topmodel was used to simulate the saturated zone dynamics in the watershed. The model assumes that the saturated zone dynamics can be obtained by hydrological similarity given by the spatial distribution of topographic index, based on the construction of the soil saturation probability in the watershed. The Topmodel showed good results in observed flow data, confirming a high performance in the meso-scale watersheds, with humid climate and smooth relief. The HSA's in the watershed totaling 17.1 km² or 27% of the total area. Considering the HSAs as those of interest for environmental preservation, an increase of 13.2 km² of the permanent preservation areas in the watershed was found according to the Forest Code (Law n° 4.771 / 69. It makes a total of 44% of the whole watershed environmentally important.

  7. Basic data from five core holes in the Raft River geothermal area, Cassia County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosthwaite, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    Studies of the geothermal aspect-of the Bridge area of the Raft River basin in south-central Idaho (fig. 1) by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1972 when Young and Mitchell (1973) made a geochemical and geologic reconnaissance of selected thermal waters in Idaho. The Bridge area had been designated the Frazier known geothermal resource area (Frazier KGRA) by the U.S. Geological Survey (Godwin and others-, 1971) . Since 1972, several units of the Geological Survey have studied the area to provide data for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, which proposes to ascertain whether the geothermal resource can be developed for power generation and other uses. The studies include geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, water sampling, test drilling, and studies of all available drill- hole data. A list of reports already prepared on the area is included with this report. Core drilling of five holes began in August 1974 and was completed in March 1975. These holes are referred to as intermediate-depth core holes, principally because in the spring of 1974, 35 auger holes 25 to 98 feet (7.6 to 30

  8. Tucannon River Temperature Study, Prepared for : Watershed Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HDR Engineering.

    2006-06-30

    This report presents the results of a temperature analysis of the Tucannon River completed for the WRIA 35 Planning Unit. The Tucannon River is located in southeastern Washington and flows approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) from the Blue Mountains to the Snake River. High water temperature in the Tucannon River has been identified as a limiting factor for salmonid fish habitat (Columbia Conservation District, 2004). Several segments of the Tucannon River are included on Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) 303(d) list of impaired waterbodies due to temperature. Ecology is currently conducting scoping for a temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study of the Tucannon River. The WRIA 35 Planning Unit retained HDR Engineering to evaluate water temperature in the Tucannon River. The project objectives are: (1) Review recent and historic data and studies to characterize temperature conditions in the river; (2) Perform field studies and analyses to identify and quantify heating and cooling processes in the river; (3) Develop and calibrate a computer temperature model to determine the sources of heat to the Tucannon River and to predict the temperature of the river that would occur with increased natural riparian shading assuming the current river morphology; (4) Evaluate differences in river temperatures between current and improved riparian shading during the 'critical' period - low river flows and high temperatures; and (5) Determine the potential benefits of riparian shading as a mechanism to decrease river temperature.

  9. [The routes of helminth egg appearance on the territory of recreational areas and sites of the lower Don River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromenkova, E P

    1993-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitologic problems of recreation use of water bodies and coast lines are still to be studied. The author has examined the routes of invasion at recreation areas by the lower Don river. The river bed depositions and water as well as coastline soil were found contaminated with helminthic eggs. These eggs were brought by sewage water, feces, and surface flow. Effective ecologically justified measures should be developed to prevent it.

  10. Construction area expansion in relation to economic-demographic development and land resource in the Pearl River Delta of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zhijia; Huang, Heqing; Werners, Saskia E.; Yan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1979, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China has experienced rapid socioeconomic development along with a fast expansion of construction area. Affected by both natural and human factors, a complex interdependency is found among the regional changes in construction area, GDP and population. A

  11. 78 FR 59231 - Regulated Navigation Area-Tappan Zee Bridge Construction Project, Hudson River; South Nyack and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--Tappan Zee Bridge... area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River surrounding the Tappan Zee Bridge. This... situation created by the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge. The Coast Guard has discussed this...

  12. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  13. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri C. Coetzee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the status of artisanal fisheries in the lower Phongolo River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used that included the development of a questionnaire and a systematic survey among the five villages bordering the Ndumo Game Reserve. Data were collected over a 5-day period by a group of 16 fieldworkers and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. The results revealed that fish was the third most consumed protein in the area, that people consumed fish on average twice a week, that at least six fish species (and one recently introduced crayfish species were consumed regularly, and that most fish were obtained from local vendors, who in turn bought it from local fishermen and -women. Fishing activities also appeared to occur predominantly along the river system and targeted mainly red-breasted tilapia (Tilapia rendalli and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and, to a slightly lesser extent, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus and brown squeaker (Synodontis zambezensis.Conservation implications: Given that Ndumo residents predominantly catch fish by means of non-commercial methods, that they do so for reasons of personal consumption and subsistence, and that they mostly target rivers and dams rather than the ecologically sensitive pans in the region, it would seem likely that fishing in the region might be sustainable for the moment. However, it is recommended that studies on the local fish populations and their reproductive rates be conducted so that the actual impact on local fish populations can be determined more accurately. This study serves to provide the necessary baseline data on fish utilisation in the region, which would enable the impact of artisanal fishing on fish reserves in the Ndumo region to be determined once population studies have been completed.

  14. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  15. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  16. Karst groundwater protection in the Kupa River catchment area and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondić, B.; Biondić, R.; Kapelj, S.

    2006-03-01

    One of the most significant water resources in the Republic of Croatia is the catchment area of the Kupa River, located in the region bordering the Republic of Slovenia. About 88% of the total amount of water in this catchment originates in Croatia and just 12% from Slovenia; therefore, the largest part of the catchment area (about 1000 km2) is on the Croatian side of the border. It is a typical karst area of the Dinarides with aquifers characterized by a relatively rapid water exchange, high groundwater flow velocities and aquifers open to human impact from the surface. Consequently, the aquifers are highly vulnerable and at risk. Due to the availability of large quantities of high-quality spring water (about 6 m3/s), the entire area has a strategic importance within the context of any future development strategy pertaining to the western part of Croatia. The catchment area on the Croatian side was investigated using a wide range of research methods that included a classical hydrogeological approach, the detailed hydrologic calculation of water balance to the hydrogeochemical analyses and modelling. The objective was to determine protection zones and protection measures for the whole area. The difficulties are increased due to the fact that the karst catchment area is crossed by major traffic corridors, oil pipelines and a railway and that many settlements and a highly developed wood industry are present. The combination of protecting water resources with adequate prevention measures and necessary remedial activities that should satisfy the very strict requirements necessary for the protection of the karst aquifers while still allowing for present and future human activities is difficult but not impossible to achieve. One good example is the present highway with a closed dewatering system and waste water treatment before the water passes into the karst underground system.

  17. Variability of rainfall over Lake Kariba catchment area in the Zambezi river basin, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchuru, Shepherd; Botai, Joel O.; Botai, Christina M.; Landman, Willem A.; Adeola, Abiodun M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, average monthly and annual rainfall totals recorded for the period 1970 to 2010 from a network of 13 stations across the Lake Kariba catchment area of the Zambezi river basin were analyzed in order to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of rainfall across the catchment area. In the analysis, the data were subjected to intervention and homogeneity analysis using the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) technique and step change analysis using rank-sum test. Furthermore, rainfall variability was characterized by trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistic. Additionally, the rainfall series were decomposed and the spectral characteristics derived using Cross Wavelet Transform (CWT) and Wavelet Coherence (WC) analysis. The advantage of using the wavelet-based parameters is that they vary in time and can therefore be used to quantitatively detect time-scale-dependent correlations and phase shifts between rainfall time series at various localized time-frequency scales. The annual and seasonal rainfall series were homogeneous and demonstrated no apparent significant shifts. According to the inhomogeneity classification, the rainfall series recorded across the Lake Kariba catchment area belonged to category A (useful) and B (doubtful), i.e., there were zero to one and two absolute tests rejecting the null hypothesis (at 5 % significance level), respectively. Lastly, the long-term variability of the rainfall series across the Lake Kariba catchment area exhibited non-significant positive and negative trends with coherent oscillatory modes that are constantly locked in phase in the Morlet wavelet space.

  18. A global framework for future costs and benefits of river-flood protection in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip J.; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Bates, Paul D.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kind, Jarl M.; Kwadijk, Jaap; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.

    2017-09-01

    Floods cause billions of dollars of damage each year, and flood risks are expected to increase due to socio-economic development, subsidence, and climate change. Implementing additional flood risk management measures can limit losses, protecting people and livelihoods. Whilst several models have been developed to assess global-scale river-flood risk, methods for evaluating flood risk management investments globally are lacking. Here, we present a framework for assessing costs and benefits of structural flood protection measures in urban areas around the world. We demonstrate its use under different assumptions of current and future climate change and socio-economic development. Under these assumptions, investments in dykes may be economically attractive for reducing risk in large parts of the world, but not everywhere. In some regions, economically efficient investments could reduce future flood risk below today’s levels, in spite of climate change and economic growth. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of the results to different assumptions and parameters. The framework can be used to identify regions where river-flood protection investments should be prioritized, or where other risk-reducing strategies should be emphasized.

  19. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Brian

    2004-02-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  20. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  1. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  2. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  3. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  4. Fouling in offshore areas southeast of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River Delta, the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Tao; Yan Wenxia; Dong Yu; Liang Guanhe; Yan Yan; Wang Huajie

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the type and extent of marine fouling in offshore areas southeast of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River delta, within the period form May 1986 to June 1987, two biological buoys were deployed at water depths of 95 m and 113 m located in 114 km and 160 km off the coast of Hong Kong, respectively. Moreover, the fouling community of a Marex hydrological buoy located in 115 m depth water 172 km off Hong Kong was also surveyed. The results show that a total of 78 species were collected and identified. The panels exposed for 3 months were mainly dominated by stalked barnacles Conchoderma hunteri and Lepas anatifera and hydroids Orthopyxis sp. As for the buoys, including the subsurface buoy, and their mooring systems exposed for 6 and 12 months, respectively, some hard foulers such as common oysters, pearl oysters, acorn barnacles and bryozoans were also found. The compositions of fouling communities also varied greatly with depth.

  5. Light Particle Tracking Model for Simulating Bed Sediment Transport Load in River Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel E. Herrera-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a fast computational particles tracer model is developed based on Particle-In-Cell method to estimate the sediment transport in the access zone of a river port area. To apply the particles tracer method, first it is necessary to calculate the hydrodynamic fields of the study zone to determine the velocity fields in the three directions. The particle transport is governed mainly by the velocity fields and the turbulent dispersion. The mechanisms of dispersion and resuspension of particles are based in stochastic models, which describes the movement through a probability function. The developed code was validated using two well known cases with a discrete transformation obtaining a max relative error around 4.8% in both cases. The simulations were carried out with 350,000 particles allowing us to determine under certain circumstances different hydrodynamic scenarios where the zones are susceptible to present erosion and siltation at the entrance of the port.

  6. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  7. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  8. Seasonal variability of suspended sediment transport in the Seine river catchment area (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Christine; Baati, Selma; Ayrault, Sophie; Bonte, Philippe; Evrard, Olivier; Kissel, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This study consists in an innovative application of environmental physico-chemical techniques on fluvial sediments with the aim to trace the seasonal changes in suspended sediment transport of the complex Seine river catchment area in northern France. The aim of this project is to develop a detailed understanding for the discrimination of naturally triggered and anthropogenic induced processes and their temporal changes with weather conditions. With a focus on the heavy metal fraction, we determine the regional distribution of the suspended material and search for environmental fingerprints demonstrating the influence of fluvial transport mechanisms, changes in concentration related to discharge variations or different sediment sources, and in-situ alteration caused by variations in the geochemical conditions (oxy-redox, pH, Eh, etc.). To achieve these goals, we apply a combination of straightforward rock magnetic hysteresis measurements (performed using an AGM2900 at the LSCE) and advanced scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM). This interdisciplinary approach allows refining the detailed analysis of sediment trap samples, originating from Tessier et al. (2003), as recently shown by Franke et al. (2009). In our preliminary results, we observe a general increase in magnetic concentrations from summer to winter conditions, coupled with a magneto-mineralogic change to rather reduced metallic mineral phases. However, each riversection of the Seine system shows its specific trend line depending on the regional initial input, weathering conditions, drainage area and potential pollution sources. A systematic analysis of the detailed results will allow highlighting the climatic/seasonal influence on the metallic particle assembly. Keywords: Seine river system, environmental magnetism, suspended particulate matter, anthropogenic and natural input, magnetic hysteresis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),, heavy metal pollution, seasonal variability References: Franke

  9. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  10. Savannah River Site A/M Area Southern Sector Characterization Cone Penetrometer Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, B.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is located in the Atlantic Coastal Plaingeologic province. This area is characterized by low relief, predominantly unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous though Tertiary age. A multiple aquifer system underlies the A/M Area and affects the definition and distribution of a contaminant plume. The water table and uppermost confined aquifer (Steed Pond Aquifer) are contaminated with elevated concentrations of trichloroethylene(TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and their associated compounds. The deeper aquifers in this area have less widely spread chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.Cone penetrometer testing was selected as the method of investigation because it is minimally invasive, offers advanced technological capabilities in gathering lithologic data, and offers groundwater sampling capabilities. CPT testing utilizes a hydraulic push tool system. The probe collects real-time data that is processed by computer into soil/lithology classifications. The system can also be used to collect sediment and soil vapor samples although these features were not utilized during this project. Advantages of the CPT system include a small borehole diameter which minimizes cross-contamination of lithologic units, virtual elimination of drill cuttings and fluids that require disposal, collection of various types of undisturbed sediment and water samples and plotting of hydrostratigraphic and lithologic data while in the field.

  11. Corridor effect of the spatial changes of landscape patterns in arid areas: A case study of the river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Huarong; XIAO Duning; ZHOU Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The river corridor areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River are dominated by the traditional green corridors along the river section from the Qara Reservoir in Yuli County to the Taitema Lake in Ruoqiang County, which plays an important role in the social and economic development in the Tarim River Watershed with a extremely significant ecological functions. The buffer zones perpendicular to the watercourse were defined along both riversides at a 5-km interval beginning from the watercourse (10 km wider) using the method of the buffer zone analysis. The landscape pattern indexes of each buffer zone were calculated, and the indexes of the main landscape patterns were analyzed so as to reveal the radiative effect and the characteristics of the river corridors on landscape and patch levels.The results show that the radiative width is generally 30 km in the study area, and can be up to 50-70 km in sub- region FG1 because the study area is located in two drainage basins, with an ecological interstitial zone between them. The landscapes of woodlands and wetlands are generally distributed within the 10km buffer zone (it means that the buffer zone is 5 km away from the watercourse; the same hereafter)along both riversides. Moreover, the closer the buffer zone is to the watercourse, the higher the patch density and the largest patch index are. In the ecological and environmental regeneration for the study area,the extent of ecological effect of the river corridors 82must be fully considered, and the projects must be scientifically and rationally planned and designed.

  12. Preliminary study on the dissolved oxygen distributions and the influential factors in the Daliao River estuary and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Kun; MENG Wei; ZHENG Binghui; FU Guo

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were surveyed in the Daliao River Estuary in autumn to investigate the temporaland spatial trends of DO distributions. The results indicate that DO is weakly stratified in the Yingkou section of theDaliao River Estuary, and remains constant vertically in the areas near and out of the entrance. Horizontally, both in-stantaneous and continuous observations show that the Yingkou section of the Daliao River Estuary is affected by hy-poxic conditions; while no conditions of low DO have been observed in the areas near and out of the entrance.DO-salinity correlations exhibit different controlling factors of DO distributions in different sections of the Daliao Riv-er Estuary. At the upstream part of the Yingkou section of the Daliao River (A1-A4), oxygen demanding materials and the associated biochemical processes are the main factor controlling the DO distribution, but in the lower part of theYingkou section and the area near and out of the entrance (A5-A15), tidal advections are more influential for DO distributions.

  13. Mercury Fate and Transport in Hunza River Watershed, Northern Areas, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, K.; Khan, S. D.; Shah, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    smelting processes were acquired through interviews with miners. Panning, amalgamation and roasting processes were being done at workers huts where large amount of mercury is released to environment particularly due to no mercury recycling in the smelting process. This ongoing research study attempted to explore the source, fate and transport dynamics of mercury by 1) using high frequency sampling to examine potential source locations and transport dynamics of mercury; 2) determining the relationship between total suspended solids in the water column and mercury transport; 3) comparing analytical and observational data in GIS. Results of this study show that mercury concentrations are elevated in the upstream parts of Hunza watershed, where observational and earlier geochemical data confirm that gold panning activities are common in these areas. Furthermore, particulate bound mercury concentration is 3 orders of magnitude greater than that of dissolved mercury. This suggests that mercury contamination in the rivers is mostly associated with suspended sediments. Abrupt decrease in particulate and dissolved mercury concentration downstream of a naturally formed lake due to landslide, suggests that mercury is being deposited or used in methylation processes.

  14. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  15. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  16. Connectivity from source to sink in a lowland area: the Loire river basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Degan, Francesca; Salvador, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    Sediment connectivity relates to the transfer of sediments from sources to sinks via runoff and in channel transport. It is highly dependent on spatial variability of landscape properties such as differences in morphology, land use and infiltration/runoff characteristics but may also vary in time due to differences in rainfall amount/intensity and changes in vegetation cover throughout the year. In the Loire river basin, we found that sediment fluxes displayed strong variations in space but also at the interannual and seasonnal time scales (Gay et al. 2013). In this context, our goal is to better understand and quantify hillslope sediment redistributions within this lowland area thanks to the use of semi distributed connectivity approach. To this aim, Borselli's index of connectivity (IC, Borselli et al., 2008) is selected to assess hillslope connectivity at annual and seasonal time scales. Several improvements are proposed to take into account the coupling of the structural landscape connectivity and its hydrosedimentary response. Parameters such as rainfall intensity and differences in seasonal land cover are integrated into the model to account for landscape variations through time. Infiltration and runoff indices were also tested. Preliminary results confirm the variability of landscape connectivity throughout the year. The integration of the index of infiltration and runoff properties of landscape (IDPR) as defined by Mardhel et al. 2004 seems to improve the IC model outputs. From this first step, in-stream sediment connectivity index should be developed for a better understanding and assessment of sediment redistributions at the entire catchment scale. L. Borselli L., Cassi P., Torri D. Prolegomena to sediment and flow connectivity in the landscape: a GIS and field numerical assessment. Catena, 75 (2008), pp. 268-277 Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments

  17. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  18. Net radiation estimated by remote sensing in Cerrado areas in the Upper Paraguay River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Marcos Alves; Machado, Nadja Gomes; de Souza Nogueira, José; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2014-01-01

    The Cerrado is a heterogeneous landscape which is shrinking due to deforestation, giving rise to managed ecosystems. The land cover changes alter net radiation (Rn), which determines the quantity of available energy to the energy balance partition. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the spatial pattern of the vegetation indices, albedo, and land surface temperature (LST) and (2) to evaluate the Rn estimated by Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) images over Cerrado areas in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. We estimated the vegetation indices, albedo, LST, and Rn of five selected vegetation types. The values estimated by Landsat 5 TM images had seasonal variations with higher values of the vegetation indices and lower values of the albedo and the LST during the wet season. The riparian and Cerrado strictu sensu had higher values of vegetation indices and lower albedo and LST than grasslands. The Rn estimated by Landsat 5 TM images was highly correlated with the measured Rn. The Rn had a seasonal pattern, following the solar radiation, with higher values during the wet season and varied spatially with higher values in the riparian forest and Cerrado strictu sensu and lower in the grasslands. This study showed the applicability of the Landsat 5 TM images to estimate Rn, which can help to understand the heterogeneity in the study area.

  19. Affecting factors of preferential flow in the forest of the Three Gorges area, Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jinhua; ZHANG Hongjiang; HE Fan; QI Shenglin; SUN Yanhong; ZHANG Youyan; SHI Yuhu

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the factors affecting preferential flow,a 2.9 m-long,2.6 m-deep soil profile was dug in the Quxi watershed,Yangtze River.To analyze the influence of rainfall on preferential flow,the preferential flow process was observed when the rainfalls were recorded.Soil physical and infiltration characteristics were also measured to study their effect on preferential flow.The results showed that the rainfall amount that could cause preferential flow was over 26 mm.There are four types of rainfall in the Three Gorges area,namely gradually dropping rain,even rain,sudden rain and peak rain.Preferential flow process was found to be relevant to the rainfall process.It was determined that with different rainfall types,preferential flow appeared at different times,occurring first in peak rain,followed by sudden rain,gradually dropping rain,and then even rain.Preferential flow would appear when the rainfall intensity was over 0.075 mm/min.In the studied area,the coarse soil particles increased with the soil depth,and for the deeper soil layer,the coarse particles promote the formation of preferential flow.Preferential flow accelerates the steady infiltration rate in the 83-110 cm soil horizon,and the quickly moving water in this horizon also enhanced the further formation and development of preferential flow.

  20. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  1. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  2. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  3. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  4. Structure contours on top of Coal marker sands, the Deserado Study Area, Lower White River coal field, Colorado (desstrcg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and ARC/INFO coverage of the structure contours on top of the Coal marker sands in the Deserado Study area, Lower White River coal field, Colorado

  5. 75 FR 33239 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas, Fall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Forest Service Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas..., Forest Service, will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the management of... Forest Revised Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan). A Notice of Intent (NOI) for this project...

  6. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  7. Subsurface stratigraphy and structure of A/M area at the Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallaw, W.C.; Sims, W.R.; Haselow, J.S.

    1991-08-01

    This report is a study of the stratigraphy and structure of the A/M Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Post-Closure Care Permit process on the Savannah River Site. The data from the lithologic and geophysical logs of 93 wells is the basis of this analysis.

  8. Contribution of urban runoff in Taipei metropolitan area to dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in the Danshui River, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Nae-Wen; Jien, Shih-Hao; Hong, Nien-Ming; Chen, Yao-Te; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-01-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that Danshui River has almost the highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) yield in the world and exports most of the DIN in the form of ammonium unlike the world's large rivers. However, the DIN sources are poorly constrained. In this study, the contributions of major sources in the Taipei metropolitan area to the DIN export in the Danshui River were investigated. It is observed that ammonium is the major DIN species in the downstream reaches, resulting from the ammonium-dominated inputs of the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rain water pumping stations (RWPS). DIN concentrations in the downstream (urban) reaches are substantially elevated. The upstream tributaries annually discharge ∼2709 t DIN to the downstream reaches. However, the DIN discharge off the downstream reaches rises to ∼17,918 t, resulting from the contribution of RWPS-collected water, i.e., ∼14,632 t, and the effluents of two WWTP, i.e., ∼577 t. RWPS-collected water inherently contains the contribution of atmospheric deposition, ∼2937 t DIN. This finding implies that ∼11,695 t (∼66 % of the downstream output) DIN flux off the Danshui River is from urban runoff and can be attributed to human activities in the Taipei metropolitan area. To improve the water quality in the Danshui River, water quality controls in urban runoff are important.

  9. Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Observationally-constrained carbonaceous aerosol source estimates for the Pearl River Delta area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Zheng, J. Y.; He, Q. Y.; Long, X.; Zhao, Z. Z.; Cao, N. Y.; Fu, J. S.; Lam, Y. F.

    2015-11-01

    We simulated elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area of China and compared the results to seasonal surface measurements, with the aim of quantifying carbonaceous aerosol sources from a "top-down" perspective. Our regional model was driven by current-best estimates of PRD EC (39.5 Gg C yr-1) and OC (32.8 Gg C yr-1) emissions and included updated secondary organic aerosol formation pathways. The simulated annual mean EC and OC concentrations were 4.0 and 7.7 μg C m-3, respectively, lower than the observed annual mean EC and OC concentrations (4.5 and 13.1 μg C m-3, respectively). We used multiple regression to match the simulated EC against seasonal mean observations. The resulting top-down estimate for EC emission in the PRD area was 52.9 ± 8.0 Gg C yr-1. We estimated the OC emission in the PRD area to be 60.2 ± 10.3 Gg C yr-1, based on the top-down EC emission estimate and the primary OC / EC ratios derived from bottom-up statistics. Using these top-down emission estimates, the simulated average annual mean EC and OC concentrations were improved to 4.4 and 9.5 μg C m-3, respectively, closer to the observations. Secondary sources accounted for 42 % of annual mean surface OC in our top-down simulations, with biogenic VOCs being the most important precursors.

  11. Glacial geology of the Shingobee River headwaters area, north-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    During middle and late Wisconsin time in the Shingobee River headwaters area, the Laurentide Wadena lobe, Hewitt and Itasca phases, produced terminal and ground moraine along with a variety of associated glacial features. The stratigraphic record is accessible and provides details of depositional mode as well as principal glacial events during the advance and retreat of middle and late Wisconsin ice tongues. Geomorphic features such as tunnel valleys, stream terraces, and postglacial stream cuts formed by erosional events persist to the present day. Middle Wisconsin Hewitt phase deposits are the oldest and include drumlins, ground moraine, boulder pavements, and outwash. Together, these deposits suggest a wet-based, periodically surging glacier in a subpolar thermal state. Regional permafrost and deposition from retreating ice are inferred between the end of the Hewitt phase and the advance of late Wisconsin Itasca phase ice. Itasca phase glaciation occurred as a contemporaneous pair of adjacent ice tongues whose contrasting moraine styles suggest independent flow modes. The western (Shingobee) portion of the Itasca moraine contains composite ridges, permafrost phenomena, hill-hole pairs, and debris flows. By contrast, eastern (Onigum) moraine deposits generally lack glaciotectonic features and consist almost exclusively of mud and debris flows. Near the end of the Itasca phase, large-scale hill-hole pairs developed in the Shingobee division, and debris flows from the Onigum division blocked the preexisting Shingobee tunnel valley to form glacial lake Willobee. Postglacial streams formed deep valleys as glacial lake Willobee catastrophically drained. Dates based on temperature trends in Greenland ice cores are proposed for prominent glacial events in the Shingobee area. This report proposes that Hewitt phase glaciation occurred between 27.2 and 23.6 kiloannum and Itasca phase glaciation between 22.8 and 14.7 kiloannum. Des Moines lobe (Younger Dryas) glaciation

  12. Geology and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allan K.; Blome, Charles D.; Morris, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogeologic mapping and descriptions of the lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of Guadalupe River State Park and Honey Creek State Natural Area, Kendall and Comal Counties, Texas, are presented in this first detailed 1:24,000 geologic map, along with proposed names and descriptions of the hydrostratigraphic units in the study area. Variations in the amount and type of porosity of the lithostratigraphic unit, which vary depending on the depositional environment, lithology, structural history and diagenesis support the resulting hydrostratigraphy proposed herein.

  13. Nitrogen budget of a typical subterranean river in peak cluster karst area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Jiang, Guanghui

    2009-10-01

    Karst groundwater is one of the important water resources for people in the world. There is an estimate that by 2028 karst groundwater will supply more than 80% of people in the world. However, several areas in the world are characterized by high nitrate concentrations in karst aquifers. In China, karst groundwater is also threatened by extensive use of fertilizer and pesticides, industry waste, septic systems and poultry, hog or cattle manure. In order to understand the water quality of a subterranean river in south China, especially the dynamic variation of nitrate, nitrogen input and output were determined via auto-monitored apparatus, manual observation and samples from 2004 to 2008 in Guancun subterranean river drainage area. Land use and anthropogenic activities were also investigated frequently. The results showed the range of nitrate variation was 2.56-15.40 mg l-1, with an average value of 6.60 mg l-1. Spatial variation of nitrate concentrations showed nitrate rose where there were villages and agriculture distribution. Long series of nitrate and discharge monitoring revealed there was a nitrate peak in spring just before the beginning of rainy season. Three rainfall events were selected for analysis of relations among hydrological process, water chemistry, and nitrate of the spring. The flood processes of the spring were divided into three or four phases according to change of water level and water chemistry. They were dominated by initial condition of aquifer, piston flow in soil and vadose, piston flow in conduit, diffuse recharge, and bypass recharge. The original condition of aquifer and rainfall pulse controlled recharge flow and changes of nitrate and hydro-chemical graphs of the spring. The quantity of nitrogen input in a year was 66.61 t, and the output was 21.24 t. Nitrogen leaching loss in base flow accounted for 76.11% in a year. Some measures should be taken to protect karst water in the very near future, so that health risks to the local

  14. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  15. Observations of the gamma-ray emission from the Quiescent Sun with Fermi Large Area Telescope during the first 7 years in orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainó S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The high energy gamma-ray emission from the quiescent Sun is due to the interactions of cosmic ray (CR protons and electrons with matter and photons in the solar environment. Such interactions lead to two component gamma-ray emission: a disk-like emission due to the nuclear interactions of CR protons and nuclei in the solar atmosphere and a space extended emission due to the inverse Compton (IC scattering of CR electrons off solar photons in the whole heliosphere. The observation of these two solar emission components may give useful information about the evolution of the solar cycle by probing two different CR components (proton and electrons in regions not directly accessible by direct observations. We present the results of the observations of the Sun with Fermi-LAT in the first 7 years on orbit, with the exception of the flaring periods. Significantly large photon statistics and improved processing performance with respect to previous analysis allow us to explore both components of the emission in greater details and perform better comparisons of data with current models of the IC component. This allows us to probe CR electrons in the inner heliosphere which is not possible by other methods. Moreover, the longer period of observations allows us to study the variations of the emission between the maximum and the minimum of the solar cycle.

  16. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Renxiu [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil > vegetable soil > paddy soil > natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Cd exceeded the upper limit of Chinese standard for agricultural soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural soil had higher concentrations of metals and lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb in above-ground tissues of plant was more anthropogenic than soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atmospheric deposition may be a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves.

  17. Fish, Marmelos Conservation Area (BX044, Madeira River basin, states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a species list of fish from the Marmelos River Area – BX044 in the states ofAmazonas and Rondônia in northern Brazil. During a Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA performed in October andNovember of 2003, 133 fish species from six orders and 24 families were recorded. The most diverse families wereCharacidae (47 species, Cichlidae (15 species, Loricariidae (12 species and Pimelodidae (7 species. 23 fish specieswere common to the entire river basin and 4 were endemic to the aquatic system studied.

  18. Screening of recreational areas of rivers for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in the suburbs of Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Nazar, Mahdieh; Haghighi, Ali; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the presence of free-living amoebae (FLA), especially Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in river recreation areas in Tehran Province, Iran. All rivers surveyed were associated with human activity, and two were also a source of municipal tap water. Fifty-five water samples from 10 major rivers were screened for FLA and identified by morphological characters, PCR amplification targeting specific genes for Acanthamoeba (DF3 region of Rns gene) and other FLA (ITS PCR), and homology analysis. The percentage of positive FLA isolates was 27.3%, of which 80% were Acanthamoeba, assigned to the T4 and T15 genotype, and 20% were Naegleria. Isolation of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (91.7%) from recreation areas could be a health threat and a sanitary risk associated with human activity where young people and tourists congregate in summer. Posting of warning signs and education of high-risk individuals are important for disease prevention. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of genotype T15 (clustered with A. jacobsi) identified in Iran and the first report of the distribution of FLA such as Naegleria (N. pagei, N. clarki and N. fultoni) in recreation areas in rivers of Tehran Province using molecular methods.

  19. Determination of Outdoor Furniture on Coastline Recreation Area of Asi River (Antakya District and User Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Water surfaces which have significant importance for the acquisition of a city identity are the facts that lead the development of city, allow recreational activities and create visual and psychological effects on urban residents. This study has been conducted on Asi River coastline as it’s an important zone for Antakya city identity, divides new and old settlement areas and provides various recreational activities. The study conducted within 3 stages between April-July 2012. In the first stage of the study, amount and construction materials of existing outdoor furnitures were revealed. The second stage consists of questionnaire including details about user and usage with questions to determine the user satisfaction. According to the findings, the highest level of user satisfaction was found in bridges by all parameters and the lowest satisfaction level was found in sign/information boards by aesthetic and functional features and waste bins by amount. In this scope, the necessity of integration between city history and cultural values was found to be important so as to increase user satisfaction level from outdoor furniture. In addition, it is thought that this study will contribute to create a database for local governments.

  20. Performing Mimetic Mapping: A Non-Visualisable Map of the Suzhou River Area of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Karandinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions issues concerning the mapping of experience, through the concept of mimesis – the creative re-performance of the site experience onto the map. The place mapped is the Suzhou River area, a significant part of Shanghai, the former boundary between the British and American Settlements, and an ever-changing and transforming territory. Through the detailed description of the mapping processes, we analyse the position of this particular map within contemporary discourse about mapping. Here, we question the purpose of the process, the desired outcome, the consciousness of the significance of each step/event, and the possible significance of the final traces that the mapping leaves behind. Although after the mapping had been carried out, the procedure was analysed, post-rationalised, and justified through its partial documentation (as part of an educational process, this paper questions the way and the reason for these practices (the post-rationalising of the mapping activity, justifying the strategy, etc., and their possible meaning, purpose, demand or context. Thus we conclude that the subject matter is not the final outcome of an object or ‘map’; there is no final map to be exhibited. What this paper brings forth is the mapping as an event, an action performed by the embodied experience of the actual place and by the trans-local materiality of the tools and elements involved in the process of its making.

  1. Diversity analysis of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from the Yellow River source area: I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-qin PAN; Jin-feng YU; Yue-ming WU; Tian-yu ZHANG; Hong-feng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-four soil samples of eight ecosystem-types around the Yellow River source area were investigated for the number and specific composition of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes by dilution plate technique. And then the co-relationship between genus species of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes and ecosystem-types was analyzed. The results show that the amount and species distribution of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes had an obvious variability in different ecosystem-types, and that the dominant genus species varied in the eight ecosystem-types studied, with Cladosporium being the dominant genus in seven of the eight ecosystem-types except wetland. The index of species diversity varied in different ecosystem-types. The niche breadth analysis showed that Cladosporium had the highest niche breadth and distributed in all ecosystem-types, while the genera with a narrow niche breadth distributed only in a few ecosystem-types. The results of niche overlap index analysis indicated that Stachybotrys and Torula, Doratomyces and Scolecobasidium, Cladosporium and Chrysosporium had a higher niche overlap, whereas Arthrinium and Gliomastix, Phialophora and Doratomyces, Oidiodendron and Ulocladium had no niche overlap.

  2. Leaf area index measurements at the middle reaches of Heihe River forest sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jie; Yan, Guang-jian; Zhang, Wu-ming; Zhu, Ling; Chen, Ling

    2008-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important parameters of canopy structure as it related to many biophysical and physiological processes, including photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, carbon cycling, rain intercepting, net primary productivity, energy exchanging etc. Rapid, accurate and reliable estimations of LAI are required in these studies above. There are two main categories of procedures to estimate LAI: direct and indirect methods. The objective of this study is to evaluate LAI estimations obtained by different methods in HeiHe River forest sites. These methods include the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer, HemiView, fifty-seven degree photography method, fisheye photography method, the tracing radiation and architecture of canopies (TRAC), and Multi-Purpose Canopy Observation System (MCOS). HemiView shows a large variation on gap fraction measurements compared to LAI-2000, fifty-seven degree photography method is the superior choice to provide initial LAI values compared to other methods. To determine the non-photosynthesis elements and foliage clumping effects for optical methods, a new device named MCOS (Multi- Purpose Canopy Observation System) and TRAC were used. Finally, the results show that with the combination of MCOS or TRAC and LAI-2000 or hemispherical photography can provide accurate and efficient LAI values.

  3. Landslides at Qingjiang River in the Downstream Area of Shuibuya Dam Site, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallen D; Xiang Wei; Ehret D; Rohn J

    2006-01-01

    To enhance the general knowledge of landslides in China, the DAAD (German Academic mapped to gather information concerning landslides and their correlation to lithology, slope angles and texture. The geological mapping contained the characterization of the lithologicai units. The characterization of the shape of landslides and the classification of rocks into units with similar geotechnical behavior is contained in the geotechnical map. Samples were taken and investigated using X-ray diffraction to identify the clay minerals and geotechnical tests to determine the effective shear angle and cohesion of rocks and soils. Geotechnical mapping showed a close connection between lithology, slope angle and texture concerning the occurrence of landslides. Most landslides occur on the northern bank of the Qingjiang River where the dip angle of the bedding is nearly parallel to the slope, resulting in potential and effective slide planes. On the southern bank only sporadic and small landslides occur because the bedding is antipodal to the slope angle. This pilot work is a base for further and more detailed investigations in this area.

  4. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  5. [Mapping environmental vulnerability from ETM + data in the Yellow River Mouth Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Yan; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Xia, Yan-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Feng; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Jiang, Shu-Qian

    2013-10-01

    The environmental vulnerability retrieval is important to support continuing data. The spatial distribution of regional environmental vulnerability was got through remote sensing retrieval. In view of soil and vegetation, the environmental vulnerability evaluation index system was built, and the environmental vulnerability of sampling points was calculated by the AHP-fuzzy method, then the correlation between the sampling points environmental vulnerability and ETM + spectral reflectance ratio including some kinds of conversion data was analyzed to determine the sensitive spectral parameters. Based on that, models of correlation analysis, traditional regression, BP neural network and support vector regression were taken to explain the quantitative relationship between the spectral reflectance and the environmental vulnerability. With this model, the environmental vulnerability distribution was retrieved in the Yellow River Mouth Area. The results showed that the correlation between the environmental vulnerability and the spring NDVI, the September NDVI and the spring brightness was better than others, so they were selected as the sensitive spectral parameters. The model precision result showed that in addition to the support vector model, the other model reached the significant level. While all the multi-variable regression was better than all one-variable regression, and the model accuracy of BP neural network was the best. This study will serve as a reliable theoretical reference for the large spatial scale environmental vulnerability estimation based on remote sensing data.

  6. Exotic plant colonization and occupancy within riparian areas of the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River basins, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew M.; Roper, Brett B.; Archer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions into riparia often result in shifts in vegetative composition, altered stream function, and cascading effects to biota at multiple scales. Characterizing the distribution patterns of exotic plants is an important step in directing targeted research to identify mechanisms of invasion and potential management strategies. In this study, we employed occupancy models to examine the associations of landscape, climate, and disturbance attributes with the colonization and occupancy patterns for spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L.), Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense L., Scop.), and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in the riparia of headwater streams (n = 1,091) in the Interior Columbia River and Upper Missouri River Basins. We found relatively low occupancy rates for cheatgrass (0.06, SE = 0.02) and spotted knapweed (0.04, SE = 0.01), but moderate occupancy of Canada thistle (0.28, SE = 0.05); colonization rates were low across all species (<0.01). We found the distributions of spotted knapweed, Canada thistle, and cheatgrass to exhibit significant associations with both ambient climate conditions and anthropogenic and natural disturbances. We attribute the low to moderate occupancy and colonization rates to the relatively remote locations of our sample sites within headwater streams and urge consideration of means to prevent further invasions.

  7. 59 FR- Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-15

    ... INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [OR-030-03-1220-04: G5-042] Prohibited Acts in Owyhee National Wild and... and restrictions within the boundaries of the Main Owyhee River as established in the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic Rivers Management Plan. SUMMARY: The Vale...

  8. Urban rivers as conveyors of hydrocarbons to sediments of estuarine areas: source characterization, flow rates and mass accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauad, Cristiane R; Wagener, Angela de L R; Massone, Carlos G; Aniceto, Mayara da S; Lazzari, Letícia; Carreira, Renato S; Farias, Cássia de O

    2015-02-15

    Aliphatic (n-C12-n-C40, unresolved complex mixture, resolved peaks) and aromatic hydrocarbons (46 PAH) were investigated in suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampled over eleven months in six of the major rivers and two channels of the Guanabara Bay Basin. PAH flow rates of the most contaminated rivers, the contribution to the PAH sediment load of the receiving bay, and the main sources of hydrocarbons were determined. PAH (38) ranged from 28 ng L(-1) to 11,514 ng L(-1). Hydrocarbon typology and statistical evaluation demonstrated contribution of distinct sources in different regions and allowed quantification of these contributions. Total flow rate for the five major rivers amounts to 3 t year(-1) and responds for 30% of the total PAH annual input into the northern area of the Guanabara Bay. For the first time PAH mass deposited in the bay sediments has been estimated and shall serve as base for decision making and source abatement.

  9. Hydrology of the Price River basin, Utah, with emphasis on selected coal-field areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Dodge, J.E.; Darby, D.W.; Theobald, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Data obtained during a hydrologic study of the Price River basin, Utah, are used to describe seasonal variations of flow of springs, relation between ground water and surface water, hydraulic properties of the ground-water reservoir, ground-water recharge and discharge, flood characteristics of streams, mineralogic composition and depositional rates of sediments, nutrient and inorganic loading in streams and Scofield Reservoir, and water budgets for selected basins. Additional study and monitoring are needed to detect possible hydrologic changes caused by coal mining. Much of the ground-water discharge from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mesaverde Group in the Wasatch Plateau occurs along faults. In the Book Cliffs, where faulting is less extensive, most of the ground-water discharge is from the Flagstaff Limestone. The Flagstaff Limestone is greatly diffusive, has a small storage coefficient, and contains water which is perched. Springs issuing from the Star Point Sandstone in the Mud Creek drainage (Wasatch Plateau) had recession indexes greater than 365 days per log cycle. Springs issuing at higher altitudes from the Colton Formation and the Flagstaff Limestone in the Soldier Creek area (Book Cliffs) have great seasonal variability, with recession indexes ranging from 24 to 115 days per log cycle. Estimated transmissivities in the Soldier Creek area ranged from 0.003 foot squared per day in the lower part of the Castlegate Sandstone to 0.07 foot squared per day in the Price River Formation. Seepage from the Star Point Sandstone is the major contributor to base flow of the stream in Eccles Canyon (Wasatch Plateau). Gains of as much as 230 gallons per minute occurred near a fault zone which crosses Eccles Canyon at the junction with South Fork Canyon. The potentiometric surface of water in the Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau (Mud Creek drainage) and the Book Cliffs (Soldier Creek area) generally is above the coal zones, and dewatering will be necessary

  10. Holocene depocenter shift in the middle-lower Changjiang River basins and coastal area in response to sea level change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanghua WANG; Jingpu LIU; Baocheng ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Authors collected 38 sedimentary boreholes and numerous seismic profiles from previous publications to delineate the Holocene sedimentation rate of six major depositional sinks in the middle-lower Changjiang River basins and its river coast.The results demonstrate that the highest sedimentation rate of ca.15 m/ka occurred in the mono-depositional sink of the former Changjiang River mouth during 10000-8000 aBP,when post-glacial transgression happened and the Changjiang water level remained at lower stand.With the rising of the Changjiang water level in response to sea level rise,Jianghan Basin of the middle Changjiang River becomes the other important depositional sink with highest sedimentation rate of 10 m/ka since 7000 aBP.As Jianghan Basin was mostly filled up at ca.4000 aBP,Dongting Basin and the lower Changjiang valley trapped sediments in great amounts like in the river mouth.A considerable amount of Changjiang sediments has been delivered,both eastward and southward,to the inner continental shelf of the East China Sea,especially after 2000 aBP.This indicates reduced sediment storage capacity of the middle-lower Changjiang valley and the river mouth.In total,ca.1307.4 billion tons of sediment have deposited in the middle-lower Changjiang floodplain since 7000 aBP.In the meantime,ca.947 billion tons of sediment have been deposited in the river coast to form the Changjiang subaqueous delta and the ZhejiangFujian along-shelf mud wedge.Our result also reveals two time stages with lower sedimentation rates(<4 m/ka) in all basins during 8000-7000 aBP and in the estuarine area during 4000-2000 aBP,probably owing to stengthened chemical weathering of decline of monsoon precipitation.

  11. Analysis on radiocesium concentration in rivers that have catchment areas affected by the fallout from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. This study showed the monitoring results of radiocesium concentration in river waters and suspended sediments in Abukuma river basin and smaller coastal river catchments. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs- 137 on suspended sediments were generally decreasing at all sites. The decreasing rate changed lower at about one year later from the accident. Activity concentration in river waters also showed the same tendency although there are only few data within 1 year from the accident. Activity concentrations measured at the same day are proportional to the mean catchment inventory. Therefore, the activity concentration can be normalized by the mean catchment inventory. The normalized activity can be fitted to following double exponential function: [At] = 1.551 exp (-5.265t) + 0.069 exp (-0.266 t), where t [year] is the time from the accident. There is no time evolution of Kd between suspended sediments and river water. Instead, Kd was varied spatially. Although the reason of the spatial variation is not clear for now, geology of the catchment (i.e. mineral composition of suspended particles) seems to relate to the variation.

  12. Sun为eCommerce提供高可用性平台--记电子商务外包资源领先提供商Digital River对Sun平台的选用%Provision of Highly Applicable Platform by Sun for E-Commerce:Selection of Sun Platform by Digital River, the Leading Supplier of E-Commerce Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN公司北京分公司

    2004-01-01

    @@ Digital River公司是全球领先的电子商务外包资源提供商,在Sun StorEdge 9960磁盘阵列、Sun Fire 6800服务器,以及Sun 420R/280R架装式服务器等系统的采用,成功地提高了网络系统的性能,并扩展了客户服务项目.

  13. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geist, D. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arntzen, E. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  14. Oxygenated, nitrated, methyl and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rivers of Haihe River System, China: occurrence, possible formation, and source and fate in a water-shortage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Meng; Qi, Weixiao; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (SPAHs) occur ubiquitously in the whole global environment as a result of their persistence and widely-spread sources. Some SPAHs show higher toxicities and levels than the corresponding PAHs. Three types of most frequently existing SPAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs), and methyl-PAHs (MPAHs), as well as the 16 priority PAHs were investigated in this study. The purpose was to identify the occurrence, possible transformation, and source and fate of these target compounds in a water shortage area of North China. We took a river system in the water-shortage area in China, the Haihe River System (HRS), as a typical case. The rivers are used for irrigating the farmland in the North of China, which probably introduce these pollutants to the farmland of this area. The MPAHs (0.02-0.40 μg/L in dissolved phase; 0.32-16.54 μg/g in particulate phase), OPAHs (0.06-0.19 μg/L; 0.41-17.98 μg/g), and PAHs (0.16-1.20 μg/L; 1.56-79.38 μg/g) were found in the water samples, but no NPAHs were detected. The concentrations of OPAHs were higher than that of the corresponding PAHs. Seasonal comparison results indicated that the OPAHs, such as anthraquinone and 2-methylanthraquinone, were possibly transformed from the PAHs, particularly at higher temperature. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent was deemed to be the major source for the MPAHs (contributing 62.3% and 87.6% to the receiving river in the two seasons), PAHs (68.5% and 89.4%), and especially OPAHs (80.3% and 93.2%) in the rivers. Additionally, the majority of MPAHs (12.4 kg, 80.0% of the total input), OPAHs (16.2 kg, 83.5%), and PAHs (65.9 kg, 93.3%) in the studied months entered the farmland through irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in sharp river bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of three compared with the reach averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a 3D finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm/s) advects longitudinal momentum towards the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross-section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross-section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  16. Flow structure caused by a local cross-sectional area increase and curvature in a sharp river bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A. J. F.; Labeur, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    Horizontal flow recirculation is often observed in sharp river bends, causing a complex three-dimensional flow structure with large implications for the morphological and planimetric development of meanders. Several field observations in small-scale systems show that sharp bends are often found in association with a strong increase in cross-sectional area, the deposition of outer bank benches, and reattachment bars near the inner bank. Recent studies show that these bends can also occur in large-scale systems. In this study, we present field measurements of a sharp bend in the Mahakam River, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The cross-sectional area increases by a factor of 3 compared with the reach-averaged cross-sectional area. Along a river reach of about 150 km, cross-sectional area correlates strongly with curvature. The field measurements are analyzed together with the results from numerical simulation with a three-dimensional finite element model, which yields a comprehensive view of the intricate flow structure. In turn, the model is used to validate a new equation that captures the water surface topography dependence on cross-sectional area variation and curvature. The results show the importance of the increase in cross-sectional area in the development of horizontal recirculation. Vertical acceleration of the flow into the scour causes the pressure to deviate from a hydrostatic pressure distribution. Strong downflow (up to 12 cm s-1) advects longitudinal momentum toward the bed, causing the flow to concentrate in the lower part of the cross section. This increases the velocity magnitude throughout the cross section, which is expected to maintain the large scour depth found in several bends along the Mahakam River.

  17. 1989 and 2010/11 Aquatic Areas Data: Mississippi River Navigation Pools 4, 8, 13, 26, Open River Section 2, and the Illinois River’s La Grange Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhser, Janis; DeJager, Nathan R.; Rogala, James T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). Aerial images of Pools 1-13 Upper Mississippi River System and Pools, Alton-Marseilles, Illinois River were collected in color infrared (CIR) in August of 2010 at 8”/pixel and 16”/pixel respectively using a mapping-grade Applanix DSS 439 digital aerial camera. In August 2011, CIR aerial images of Pools 14-Open River South, Upper Mississippi River and Pools Dresden-Lockport, Illinois River were collected at 16”/pixel with the same camera. The CIR aerial images were interpreted and automated using a 31-class LTRMP vegetation classification. These data have been used to create a variety of products, one of which is a data set used to classify aquatic areas. The 2010/11 aquatic areas data sets were created by first generalizing the available land cover/use data into a land/water data set, then reinterpreting the areas classified as water to determine the type of aquatic area. Area coverage for this data set is the Upper Mississippi River between Minneapolis, MN and Cairo, IL, and the Illinois River from its confluence with the Mississippi to Joliet, IL.

  18. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  19. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  20. Socio-Economic Analysis of the Operational Impacts of Shiroro Hydropower Generation in the Lowland Areas of Middle River Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullateef Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the socio-economic analysis of the operational impacts of Shiroro hydroelectric power generation dam in the lowland areas of middle river Niger in Nigeria. The paper observed that more than thirty years since the conception and impoundment of water at Kanji over river Niger a number of action or inaction capable of altering the socio-economic profile of the riparian communities around the lowland areas of middle river Niger in Nigeria have taken place. The study therefore designed and administered a close-ended pre-coded instrument to conduct a survey of the dam affected communities located in the study area. The data harvested were analyzed using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The result obtained shows that the economic engagements of the riparian communities have been distorted. This is noticeable especially on both fish biodiversity and ecosystem with a resultant loss of fish-species. There is a dismal fall in productivity of small holder farmers and fishermen occasioned by avoidable flooding. In the same vein Strategic social and economic infrastructure have deteriorated and thus slowed down the socio and economic development in the area. In this connection a number of policy measures to mitigate the negative effect of hydropower production were suggested.

  1. Distribution of total mercury and methylmercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki River, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hamada, Yuriko Kono; Matsuyama, Akito; Imura, Ryusuke; Taniguchi, Yoko; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the soil and water around the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia. The concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in the forest soil ranged from 0.07 to 16.7 mg kg(-1) and from Mercury deposited on the soil surface can be trapped and retained by organic matter and subjected to methylation. The slope of the line obtained for the T-Hg vs. TOC plot became larger near the ASGM villages, implying a higher rate of mercury deposition in these areas. In contrast, the plots of MeHg vs. TOC fell along the same trend line regardless of the distance from the ASGM village. Organic carbon content may be a predominant factor in controlling MeHg formation in forest soils. The T-Hg concentration in the river water ranged from 0.40 to 9.6 μg L(-1). River water used for irrigation can prove to be a source of mercury for the paddy fields. The concentrations of Hg(0) and Hg(2+) in river water showed similar variations as that observed for the T-Hg concentration. The highest Hg(0) concentration of 3.2 μg L(-1) can be attributed to the waste inflow from work sites. The presence of Hg(0) in river water can become a source of mercury present in the atmosphere along the river. MeHg concentration in the river water was found to be 0.004-0.14% of T-Hg concentration, which was considerably lower than the concentrations of other Hg species. However, MeHg comprised approximately 0.2% of the T-Hg in paddy field soil. Mercury deposited from the atmosphere and the river water can be subjected to methylation. Paddy fields are very important ecosystems; therefore, the effect of MeHg on these ecosystems and human beings should be further investigated.

  2. Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge and Management Area: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Patoka River NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  3. 2010/11 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Pool 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  4. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Lidar: Umpqua River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Umpqua River study site in collaboration with the...

  5. 2010/11 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Pool 13

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  6. 2009 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Lidar: Umpqua River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Umpqua River study site in collaboration with the...

  7. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Shark River Project area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Gardiner, W.W.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the Shark River Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. Tests and analyses were conducted on the Shark River sediments. The evaluation of proposed dredged material consisted of bulk sediment chemical and physical analysis, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, water-column and benthic acute toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests. Individual sediment core samples collected from the Shark River were analyzed for grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon (TOC). One sediment composite was analyzed for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate, prepared from suspended-particulate phase (SPP) of the Shark River sediment composite, were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs. Benthic acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation tests were performed.

  8. 77 FR 73916 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... restaurants), and vessels who intend to transit in the Mystic River beneath the S99 Alford Street Bridge... appropriate means to achieve the widest distribution among the affected segments of the public. Such means of...

  9. Drainage areas for selected stream-sampling stations, Missouri River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), an investigation of the Missouri River Basin is being conducted to...

  10. A Natural Heritage Inventory of the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge Potential Acquisition Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents the results of a project undertaken through this cooperative agreement to inventory the Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge...

  11. Raptor-Powerline Mortality Data, Snake River Birds of Prey Conservation Area - 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a spreadsheet resulting from monthly searches for dead birds along randomly selected power line segments in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey...

  12. Raptor-Powerline Mortality Data, Snake River Birds of Prey Conservation Area - 1999-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — This data set is a spreadsheet resulting from monthly searches for dead birds along randomly selected power line segments in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey...

  13. Study area boundary for unconfined aquifer analysis, Wood River Valley, South-Central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The entire population of the Wood River Valley depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, rapid population growth...

  14. 2010/11 Aquatic Areas - Upper Mississippi River System - Pool 08

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has created high-resolution land cover/use data sets for the Upper Mississippi River...

  15. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  16. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  17. Contamination of PAHs in Sludge Samples from the Yangtze River Delta Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Rong-Yan; LUO Yong-Ming; ZHANG Gang-Ya; TENG Ying; LI Zhen-Gao; WU Long-Hua

    2007-01-01

    To ascertain the contaminated conditions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge and to evaluate the risk of application of this sludge for agricultural purposes, 44 sludge samples obtained from 15 cities in the Yangtze River Delta area of China were investigated using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after ultrasonic extraction and silica gel cleanup. PAHs' contents ranged from 0.0167 to 15.4860 mg kg-1 (dry weight, DW) and averaged 1.376 mg kg-1, with most samples containing<1.5 mg kg-1. Pyrene (PY), fluoranthene (FL), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IND), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiP) were the most dominant compounds, ranging from 0.1582 to 0.2518 mg kg-1. Single PAH, such as naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene rings), phenan-threne (PA, 3-benzene rings), PY (4-benzene rings), and FL (3-benzene rings), had high detection rates (76.1%-93.5%). The distribution patterns of PAHs were found to vary with the sludge samples; however, the patterns showed that a few compounds with 2- and 3-benzene rings were commonly found in the samples, whereas those with 4-, 5-, and 6-benzene rings were usually less commonly found. All the 44 sludge samples were within the B[a]P concentration limit for sludge applied to agricultural land in China (< 3.0 mg kg-1). The probable sources of PAH contamination in the sludge samples were petroleum, petroleum products, and combustion of liquid and solid fuel. The concentrations and distributions of the 16 PAHs in sludge were related to sludge type, source, and treatment technology, together with the physicochemical properties.

  18. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  19. Sulfate migration in a river affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mining area, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiqin; Lu, Guining; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chengfang; Wu, Jingxiong; Huang, Weilin; Yee, Nathan; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate, a major component of acid mine drainage (AMD), its migration in an AMD-affected river which located at the Dabaoshan mine area of South China was investigated to pursue the remediation strategy. The existing factors of relatively low pH values of 2.8-3.9, high concentrations of SO4(2-) (∼1940 mg L(-1)) and Fe(3+) (∼112 mg L(-1)) facilitated the precipitation of schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6SO4·nH2O) in the upstream river. Geochemical model calculations implied the river waters were supersaturated, creating the potential for precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. These minerals evolved from schwertmannite to goethite with the increasing pH from 2.8 to 5.8 along the river. The concentration of heavy metals in river waters was great reduced as a result of precipitation effects. The large size of the exchangeable sulfate pool suggested that the sediments had a strong capacity to bind SO4(2-). The XRD results indicated that schwertmannite was the predominant form of sulfate-bearing mineral phases, which was likely to act as a major sulfate sink by incorporating water-borne sulfate into its internal structure and adsorbing it onto its surface. The small size of reduced sulfur pools and strong oxidative status in the surface sediments further showed that SO4(2-) shifting from water to sediment in form of sulfate reduction was not activated. In short, precipitation of sulfate-rich iron oxyhydroxides and subsequent SO4(2-) adsorption on these minerals as well as water dilution contributed to the attenuation of SO4(2-) along the river waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abundance of Harpy and Crested Eagles from a reservoir-impact area in the Low- and Mid-Xingu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM. Sanaiotti

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Brazilian Amazon, two monospecific genera, the Harpy Eagle and Crested Eagle have low densities and are classified by IUCN as Near Threatened due to habitat loss, deforestation, habitat degradation and hunting. In this study, we evaluate occurrence of these large raptors using the environmental surveys database from Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Integrating the dataset from two methods, we plotted a distribution map along the Xingu River, including records over a 276-km stretch of river. Terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method were more efficient for detecting large raptors than standardized aquatic surveys, although the latter were complementary in areas without modules. About 53% of the records were obtained during activities of wildlife rescue/flushing, vegetation suppression or in transit. Between 2012 and 2014, four Harpy Eagles were removed from the wild; two shooting victims, one injured by collision with power lines and one hit by a vehicle. Also, seven nests were mapped. The mean distance between Harpy Eagle records was 15 km along the river channel, with a mean of 20 km between nests near the channel, which allowed us to estimate 20 possible pairs using the alluvial forest, riverine forest and forest fragments. Territories of another ten pairs will probably be affected by inundation of the Volta Grande channel, which is far from the main river. The average distance between Crested Eagle records was 16 km along the river channel. The only nest found was 1.3 km away from a Harpy Eagle nest. The remnant forests are under threat of being replaced by cattle pastures, so we recommend that permanently protected riparian vegetation borders (APP be guaranteed, and that forest fragments within 5 km of the river be conserved to maintain eagle populations.

  1. Practicality of marine protected areas - Can there be solutions for the River Indus delta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Samina; Fanning, Paul; Ahmed, Waqar; Tabrez, Mohsin; Zhang, Jing; Khan, Muhammad Wasim

    2016-12-01

    The River Indus delta is the most prominent feature on the Pakistan coast. Owing to its prominence, mangrove ecosystem, historical, ecological and economic significance it is also a proposed Marine Protected Area (MPA). Currently there are no designated MPAs in Pakistan. This paper presents findings of the Fishery Resource Appraisal Project of Pakistan (FRAPP) a fishery stock assessment carried out for the pelagic and demersal fishery resource of Pakistan from 2009 to 2015 and the Creek Survey Program (CSP) which was part of FRAPP. And discusses how the delta suffers from physical stress. The observations from FRAPP indicates deterioration in the mangrove ecosystem, that are evident in the form of loss of biodiversity and biological productivity. The 600 observations from 10 major creeks showed that trawl catches were a mix of generally small size fish and shrimp. Catches averaged less than 1 kg per tow in all the creeks sampled. Catch weights were somewhat higher in Isaro, WadiKhuddi, Paitiani, Dabbo, Richaal Creeks all of which were near mangrove areas and open sea. The most frequently occurring species of shrimps caught in the trawls belonged to 7 major taxa. The Khobar Creek and Upper Wari Creek are notable for the high rates of occurrence of every group except the Caridea. They are also the only two creeks where the freshwater family Paleomonidae is common. The size composition of the important penaeid family of shrimps in all study areas combined suggests that the smallest shrimps (0.5-1.5 cm carapace length CL) enter the creeks in February/March and adults (5-6 cm CL) move out again 6-12 months later. Four species of Penaeus (monodon, japonicus, semisulcatus, merguiensis), two species of Metapenaeus (monoceros, affinis), Parapeneoposis stylifera and Solenosera sp. were caught, all in low abundance, less than 0.5 Kg tow-1. The shrimp catches in the area off the Sindh coast, the catches averaged 4.30 ± 13.40 kg h-1 on the inner shelf (20-50 m) and 1.7 ± 6

  2. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of the Colorado River Corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Rubin, David M.; Dierker, Jennifer L.; Fairley, Helen C.; Griffiths, Ronald E.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Hunter, Ralph E.; Kohl, Keith; Leap, Lisa M.; Nials, Fred L.; Topping, David J.; Yeatts, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This report analyzes various depositional environments in three archaeologically significant areas of the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. Archaeological features are built on and buried by fluvial, aeolian, and locally derived sediment, representing a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. These analyses provide a basis for determining the potential influence of Glen Canyon Dam operations on selected archaeological sites and thus for guiding dam operations in order to facilitate preservation of cultural resources. This report presents initial results of a joint effort between geologists and archaeologists to evaluate the significance of various depositional processes and environments in the prehistoric formation and modern preservation of archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon National Park. Stratigraphic investigations of the Palisades, Lower Comanche, and Arroyo Grande areas of Grand Canyon yield detailed information regarding the sedimentary history at these locations. Reconstruction of past depositional settings is critical to a thorough understanding of the geomorphic and stratigraphic evolution of these three archaeologically significant areas. This examination of past sedimentary environments allows the relative significance of fluvial, aeolian, debris-fan, and slope-wash sedimentary deposits to be identified at each site. In general the proportion of fluvial sediment (number and thickness of flood deposits) is shown to decrease away from the river, and locally derived sediment becomes more significant. Flood sequences often occur as 'couplets' that contain a fluvial deposit overlain by an interflood unit that reflects reworking of fluvial sediment at the land surface by wind and local runoff. Archaeological features are built on and buried by sediment of various depositional environments, implying a complex interaction between geologic and cultural history. Such field analysis, which combines

  3. Prediction and prevention of the impacts of sea level rise on the Yangtze River Delta and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta region is characterized by high density of population and rapidly developing economy. There are low lying coastal plain and deltaic plain in this region. Thus, the study area could be highly vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise caused by global warming. This paper deals with the scenarios of the relative sea level rise in the early half period of the 21st century in the study area. The authors suggested that relative sea level would rise 25 50 cm by the year 2050 in the study area, of which the magnitude of relative sea level rise in the Yangtze River Delta would double the perspective worldwide average. The impacts of sea level rise include: (i) exacerbation of coastline recession in several sections and vertical erosion of tidal flat, and increase in length of eroding coastline; (ii) decrease in area of tidal flat and coastal wetland due to erosion and inundation; (iii) increase in frequency and intensity of storm surge, which would threaten the coastal protection works; (iv) reduction of drainage capacity due to backwater effect in the Lixiahe lowland and the eastern lowland of Taihu Lake region, and exacerbation of flood and waterlogging disasters; and (v) increase in salt water intrusion into the Yangtze Estuary. Comprehensive evaluation of sea level rise impacts shows that the Yangtze River Delta and eastern lowland of Taihu Lake region, especially Shanghai Municipality, belong in the district in the extreme risk category and the next is the northern bank of Hangzhou Bay, the third is the abandoned Yellow River delta, and the district at low risk includes the central part of north Jiangsu coastal plain and Lixiahe lowland.

  4. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the

  5. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  6. 100 Area and 300 Area Component of the River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment Spring 2006 Data Compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Queen; S. G. Weiss

    2006-11-20

    The purpose of this report is to describe the sampling approaches, modifications made to the 100 Area and 300 Area component of the RCBRA Sampling and Analysis Plan, summarize validation efforts, and provide sample identification numbers.

  7. Land and Water Use in Rice-upland Crop Rotation Areas in Lower Ili River Basin, Kazakhstan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIMIZU Katsuyuki; KITAMURA Yoshinobu; ANZAI Toshihiko; KUBOTA Jumpei

    2010-01-01

    The lower Ili River Basin is located in semi-arid area, and the annual rainfall is 177 mm. Therefore, the irrigation is inevitable for agriculture. Large-scale irrigated agriculture had been developed since 1960's in the lower parts of the river and the total irrigated area is about 32 000 hm2. In the project area, the paddy nee-upland crop rotation has been practiced. Due to the domestic water use for hydropower and agriculture as well as water use among riparian countries, the deficit of water for agriculture in the lower part has been concerned. The authors, therefore, conducted the field survey and water balance analysis of the Akdara irrigation project in the lower Ili River Basin in order to assess the land and water uses. Moreover, the impact of the water use on water environment to the basin was analyzed. The following results were obtained as following (1) the groundwater level in the irrigated district varied from 1.5 m to 3.5 m through year. (2) 1970's groundwater level was drastically raised from 8 m to 3 m and the groundwater had been recharged in this period. (3) Water use efficiency of agriculture, which is the ratio of total evapotranspiration to the total water withdrawal was as low as 0.23.

  8. Development of water quality objectives and management systems for the lower Athabasca River in the oil sands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noton, L. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Water Quality; McEachern, P. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Regional Environmental Management

    2004-07-01

    This paper addressed environmental concerns related to the increased oil sands activity along the lower Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta. The concerns include potential effects on water quality of the river even though wastewaters do not currently reach the Athabasca River, nor do they have any significant effects. However, as the industry expands, there is concern that releases of wastewater may increase significantly. A multi-stakeholder group called the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) has addressed some of these environmental management issues in the Athabasca area by establishing a water quality task group that examines water quality protection and management activities. The task group intends to develop and recommend water quality objectives and management options on the lower Athabasca River. Their 4 part process includes: (1) defining the problem, (2) setting goals, (3) measuring performance, and (4) managing and adapting to potential impacts. The group has identified and defined about 35 water quality variables of potential concern. It has also identified the uses of water it wants to protect and intends to prevent the degradation of water quality. A plan for developing site specific water quality objectives has been established following a review of water quality guidelines. Performance will be measured using water quality models that simulate full development scenarios. The modelling work will be instrumental in designing management schemes for any potential impacts.

  9. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trace metals in River Nile up- and downstream of a densely populated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2017-02-01

    Cairo city is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Efforts to restore fish habitat and recreational use of the river have raised concerns about its water, sediment and biota quality. This study provides a baseline data on the levels of PCBs and trace metals in River Nile along Cairo sector and implements the formulation of monitoring activities of the river's pollution status. Water, sediment and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) samples were collected during summer season, 2013 from two sites, up- and downstream, for detection and determination of 11 PCB congeners (PCBs 28, 44, 52, 70, 101, 105, 118, 138, 152, 180 and 192) as well as six trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Fe). Evidences of long- or short-term exposures to these contaminants as well as its accumulation tendency were assessed by integrating the obtained analytical results of biotic and abiotic components of this aquatic ecosystem. All calculated lifetime cancer risk values for PCBs showed unacceptable risk of cancer for human consumers at both normal and subsistence fish consumption rates. The calculated hazard index for total PCBs indicates that fish are not safe for human consumption except in site 1 at normal consumption rate. Meanwhile, trace metals do not pose unacceptable risks at both consumption rates except for Pb in site 1 at subsistence consumption rate.

  10. Health of white sucker within the St. Louis River area of concern associated with habitat usage as assessed using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Spring 2011, 200 adult white sucker were collected in four areas of the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC), located in Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. The areas included the upper AOC as a reference area, the upper estuary, St. Louis Bay and Superior Bay. Grossly visible abno...

  11. Pesticides in soil and sediment of a dyke-protected area of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gianna; Bläsing, Melanie; Kruse, Jens; Amelung, Wulf; Renaud, Fabrice; Sebesvari, Zita

    2017-04-01

    Coastal regions are densely populated but at the same time represent important agricultural areas for food production of the growing world population. To sustain high agricultural yields, in monocultures such as permanent rice systems, pesticides are used in high quantity and frequency. While earlier studies monitored the fate of pesticides in paddy rice systems, the overall fate of these compounds is altered nowadays due to the construction of dykes, which are needed in many delta regions to protect them from high tides, storm surges and salt water intrusion such as in the Red River Delta. The dyke system regulates the discharge and water exchange inside the diked area including irrigation channels for the paddy rice production. Local authorities observed increasing pollution towards the sea (highest pollution close to the dykes) and hypothesized that the dyke system would prevent water exchange and thus lead to an accumulation of pollutants within the diked area. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dykes on pesticide pollution patterns in coastal delta regions of the Red River Delta. The study was conducted in the district Giao Thuy of the Red River Delta, Vietnam. This area is surrounded by a sea and river dyke; both have several inlet and outlet gates to control the water level in the irrigation channels. We determined the pesticide pollution pattern in a diked agricultural area, as well as along salinity gradients in and outside the diked areas. Samples were taken from rice fields and sediments from irrigation channels inside the diked area as well from saline aquaculture fields located outside the dyke. Pesticide analysis was conducted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), followed up by the clean-up process described by Laabs et al. (2007) and analyses using gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (MSD). Preliminary results suggest that out of the 26 analysed compounds chlorpyrifos, propiconazole and

  12. [Contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water in underground river of Dashiwei Tiankeng group in karst area, Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-Sheng; Qi, Shi-Hua; Oramah, I T; Zhang, Yuan; He, Shi-Yi

    2011-04-01

    In order to understand the composition, sources and contamination characteristics of PAHs in water from underground river of Dashiwei Tiankeng group in typical karst area located in Leye County, Guangxi. The water samples were collected from different sections to analyze 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using GC-MS. The results showed that concentration of Sigma PAHs (the total PAHs) in water ranges from 54.7 ng/L to 192.0 ng/L, with an average concentration of 102.3 ng/L. The predominant PAHs in water are 2-3 ring PAHs, accounting for 65.1% of PAHs. The distribution of PAHs in water sampled along the underground river indicates that the mean concentration of PAHs in upstream area is higher than that of downstream because of wastewater discharge. Meanwhile, the underground river has some adsorption effect to 4-6 ring PAHs. The concentration of Sigma PAHs at Dashiwei Tiankeng section increases 93.8% attribute to the release of PAHs coming from Karst environmental medium and/or atmospheric transmission in underground river system. However, the concentration of Sigma PAHs at the confluence section of the tributary of Dashiwei Tiankeng is 47.3% less than that of the first upstream section duo to dilution. The concentration of Sigma PAHs at Bailang outlet section is 128.3% and 17.8% higher than that of flow-in section and Dashiwei Tiankeng section respectively. The ratios of specific PAHs indicate that the PAH sources in Leye County and Dashiwei Tiankeng areas mainly come from both petroleum and its combustion. However, the petroleum origin comes from anthropogenic inputs in town and the natural inputs in Dashiwei Tiankeng. The PAH sources in rural areas are mainly originating from the combustion of grass, wood and coal. Comparison to other areas in the world, the Sigma PAHs residual levels in underground river water in Dashiwei Tiankeng group is at the low level. In six sections, concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in surface water exceed the state

  13. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  14. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  15. Uncertainty result of biotic index in analysing the water quality of Cikapundung river catchment area, Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtikanti, Hertien Koosbandiah

    2017-05-01

    The Biotic Index was developed in Western Countries in response to the need in water quality evaluation. This method analysis is based on the classification of aquatic macrobenthos as a bioindicator for clean and polluted water. The aim of this study is to compare the analysis of Cikapundung river using 6 different Biotic Indexes. BI Shannon-Weiner, Belgian Biological Index (BBI), Family Biotic Index (FBI), Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP), Biological Monitoring Working Party-Average Score Per Taxon (BMWP-ASPT), and A Scoring System for Macroinvertebrate in Australian River (A SIGNAL). Those analysis are compared with Physical Water Index (CPI) which is developed in Indonesia. The result shows that a decreasing water quality is detected upstream to downstream of Cikapundung River. However, based on the CPI analysis result, the BMWP-ASPT biotic index analysis is more comprehensive than other BI in explaining Cikapundung water quality.

  16. River sequesters atmospheric carbon and limits the CO2 degassing in karst area, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianhong; Pu, Junbing; Martin, Jonathan B; Khadka, Mitra B; Wu, Feihong; Li, Li; Jiang, Feng; Huang, Siyu; Yuan, Daoxian

    2017-12-31

    CO2 fluxes across water-air interfaces of river systems play important roles in regulating the regional and global carbon cycle. However, great uncertainty remains as to the contribution of these inland water bodies to the global carbon budget. Part of the uncertainty stems from limited understanding of the CO2 fluxes at diurnal and seasonal frequencies caused by aquatic metabolism. Here, we measured surface water characteristics (temperature, pH, and DO, DIC, Ca(2+) concentrations) and CO2 fluxes across the air-water interface at two transects of Guijiang River, southwest China to assess the seasonal and diurnal dynamics of fluvial carbon cycling and its potential role in regional and global carbon budgets. The two transects had differing bedrock; DM transect is underlain by carbonate and detrital rock and PY is underlain by pure carbonate. Our results show that the river water both degasses CO2 to and absorbs CO2 from the atmosphere in both summer and winter, but the degassing and absorption varied between the two transects. Further, CO2 fluxes evolve through diurnal cycles. At DM, the river evaded CO2 from early morning through noon and absorbed CO2 from afternoon through early morning. At PY in summer, the CO2 evasion decreased during the daytime and increased at night while in winter at night, CO2 uptake increased in the morning and decreased in the afternoon but remained relatively stable at night. Although the river is a net source of carbon to the atmosphere (~15mMm(-2)day(-1)), the evasion rate is the smallest of all reported world's inland water bodies reflecting sequestration of atmospheric carbon through the carbonate dissolution and high primary productivity. These results emphasize the need of seasonal and diurnal monitoring of CO2 fluxes across water-air interface, particularly in highly productive rivers, to reduce uncertainty in current estimates of global riverine CO2 emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  18. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  19. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  20. [Pollution characteristics and ecological risk of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in river sediments from an electrical equipment dismantling area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan-Yu; Xue, Nan-Dong; Zhang, Shi-Lei; Li, Fa-Sheng; Gong, Dao-Xin; Liu, Bo; Meng, Lei

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediments collected from a river which through an electrical equipment dismantling area. The results showed that concentrations of PBDEs ranged from 101 to 20,400 ng · g(-1) with an average of 3,700 ng · g(-1), and BDE209 was the most dominant homologue accounted for more than 94% of all detected homologues. The concentration of PBDEs was higher in the middle of river than that in upstream and downstream and the average concentration in downstream was higher than the upstream, with a peak of concentration in the area near by dismantling industrial park. PBDEs pollution in this region is relatively serious compared with other regions. It was estimated that 0.39 t PBDEs (including 0.36 t BDE209) was discharged into the river as a result of dismantling industrial activities in last 40 years. A preliminary ecological risk assessment for PBDEs in sediments was conducted by hazard quotient method, the results showed that the OctaBDEs and DecaBDEs were in a low ecological risk, while the PentaBDEs was in a particularly high risk and could cause great harm to the environment.

  1. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  2. How a river course influences the species richness and ecological requirements on two opposite riverbanks in a forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Czarnecka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present research was to find correlations between the topographic attributes of a river valley and local ground-floor vegetation and its habitat requirements expressed by ecological indicator values (EIV, using the geographical information systems (GIS, digital elevation model (DEM, and multivariate statistical analysis. We paid special attention to the river course, which determines the differentiation in slope aspects and the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground surface. The model object was an almost latitudinal, ca. 4-km-long break section of the Sopot river, crossing the escarpment zone of the Central Roztocze Highlands, southeastern Poland. The main material comprised species lists (with estimated abundance for each ca. 200-m-long section, according to the river valley course, separately for the left and right riverbanks, 40 sections altogether, ca. 15 000 vegetation records, and physical and chemical soil measurements. A 3-meter resolution DEM was derived from a 1:10 000 topographic map. We calculated the correlations between the topographic attributes of the valley, species richness, and the EIVs for all the species recognized in each section of the valley. We found 241 herb plant species in the ground-floor vegetation of the study area. We did not find significant differences between the two riversides (61 ±13 species per one section for the left and 63 ±17 for the right side. Thus, the parallel course of the river valley does not change the species richness on a more “sunny” and more “shiny” riverbank. However, this factor “cooperating” with other topographic attributes of the valley significantly differentiates the shape of species showing various requirements for basic habitat resources: light, moisture, soil trophy, reaction, dispersion, and organic-matter content.

  3. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  4. Pollution with Heavy Metals in the River Lepenc and Agricultural Areas from Cement Factory in Elez Han “Sharrcem”

    OpenAIRE

    , S Demaku; , I. Shehu; , B Dobra; , A Malsiu; , A Gjokaj; , A Suhogerllaj; , F Dobra; , A. Shala

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we determinate the concentration of heavy metals as; Zn, Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni and Mn in water, sludge of river Lepenc and agricultural areas around the river. The Şrst sampling point, Ml-Soil, values as presented; Pb; 0.516 mg/kg, Zn; 0.394 mg/kg, Cu; 0.248 mg/kg, Ni; 0.142 mg/kg, Fe; 0.963 mg/kg and Mn; 0.516 mg/kg, While Ml-Water, presented values; Pb; 0.049 mg/dm3, Zn; 0.169 mg/dm3, Cu; 0.168 mg/dm3, Ni; 0.060 mg/dm3, Fe; 0.537 mg/dm3 dheMn; 0.025 mg/dm3,whereas Ml-Sludge, values a...

  5. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-bo; Ip, Carman C M; Zhang, Gan; Jiang, Gui-bin; Li, Xiang-dong

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201ng/g, with an average of 54.4ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the (210)Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades.

  6. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CE/CTM-SP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analitica

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  7. Archaeological survey of Kongakut-Firth River area: Summary of a paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Archeological evidence which might indicate a trace of man’s migration from Asia into the New World was the object of a one-man survey of the Kongakut-Firth River...

  8. Estimating spawning habitat availability in flooded areas of the river Waal, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Ruizeveld de Winter, A.C.; Straatsma, M.W.; Brink, N.G.M.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish spawning habitat availability in the river Waal is significantly influenced by seasonal and annual variations in discharge. In this paper we develop habitat suitability models, based on a literature survey of spawning preferences of the commonly occurring species roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream

  9. 33 CFR 165.810 - Mississippi River, LA-regulated navigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Gretna Light always shows green. All lights are visible throughout the entire width of the river and flash once every second. A green light displayed ahead of a vessel (in the direction of travel... green lights designated and located as follows: Governor Nicholls Light located on the left descending...

  10. Sediment quality in Rivers and their estuaries of an olive oil production area, Messinia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulou, Evaggelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Skoulikidis, Nikos; Dassenakis, Manos; Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Sediment analysis at four major rivers (Pamisos, Aris, Velikas and Nedon) and their estuaries towards heavy metals took place in the Prefecture of Messinia, Greece, during two sampling campaigns in 2008 and 2011. The main industrial activity in the region is the operation of 250 olive oil industries and the main problem concerning pollution derives from the vast quantities of olive mill waste waters that are being generated annually most of which is currently discharged in nearby streams. Chemical parameters such as phenols, total organic carbon and certain heavy metals were found to be strongly correlated with the wastes from the olive oil industries. Major and minor elements (heavy metals) were measured in riverine and estuarine sediments. In parallel heavy metals were determined in the olive waste from a local industry, using atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to correlate the results with the sediment analysis. Major and Minor elements were recorded based upon the total percentage of the sediment samples and in order to eliminate the grain size effect, the concentrations were normalized towards Al. A pollution indice, the sediment enrichment factor, was also calculated, the high values of which towards Cr are of particular interest. Additionally organic carbon and total phenolic compounds were determined in rivers and their estuaries. High concentrations of Chromium were recorded in River Aris sediment, which seems to be the most polluted. Relatively high concentrations of zinc were encountered at rivers Aris and Pamisos while the chromium load seems to be higher near the estuaries of the rivers. The olive mill waste water analysis confirmed the existence of chromium in the waste and extremely elevated values were also found at a nearby station where these wastes tend to accumulate for decades. In contrast the results from the Nedon River indicated that it is not affected, since the low values found remained constant from the source of the river until its

  11. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  12. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  13. The influence of surface water - groundwater interactions on the shallow groundwater in agricultural areas near Fu River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, Bentje; Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Song, Xianfang

    2014-05-01

    The Northern China Plain (NPC) is known as a very productive area in China for the production of maize and winter wheat, which is grown by local farmers rotationally without lag phases throughout the year. The needed application of fertilizers and pesticides can hereby have strong impacts on the quality shallow groundwaters. Because 70-80% percent of the annual rainfall in the NCP is limited to the summer months, irrigation in the spring season is a necessity. As high quality groundwater resources from deeper aquifers are a valuable and rare asset in Northern China, it should preferentially be used as drinking water, and farmers therefore often shift to flood irrigation with surface water from streams. It is due to this reason, that large agricultural areas are located very close alongside these waterways; often without buffer zones. Fu River is one of the major feeding streams for the Baiyangdian Lake region in the north of Hebei Province. It springs in the west of the lake area and - after passing the populated city of Baoding (with a population of about 600 000 in the metropolitan area) - continues on its course through agricultural area before it feeds into the lake system. Industrial and domestic wastewater as well as surface runoff from urban and agricultural areas substantiates for a significant amount of the river's recharge and often causes poor water quality. As the water from the river may infiltrate into the shallow groundwater, this could cause further deterioration of the groundwater quality, additionally to the effects of the agricultural activities. However, fluctuations may be high because of the strong seasonal differences in precipitation and depending on the connectivity and dynamics of the system . In order to assess the water quality situation and the potential link between surface water and shallow groundwater in the region, a small-scale investigation site was set up on a typical wheat-maize field that reaches almost up to the river bank in

  14. SIR2012-5282 Surficial Geology: Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and...

  15. Areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the upper Carson River Basin, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of areas permitted for irrigation, storage, evaporation, and disposal of treated sewage effluent in the Upper Carson River Basin, California...

  16. Environmental Assessment for opening portions of Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge and Management Area for hunting and fishing as proposed in the 1996 Hunting and Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to open portions of the Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge and Management Area (Refuge) for hunting (migratory birds,...

  17. Geothermal assessment of the lower Bear River drainage and northern East Shore ground-water areas, Box Elder County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauk, R.H.; Budding, K.E.

    1984-07-01

    The Utah Geological and Mineral Survey (UGMS) has been researching the low-temperature geothermal resource potential in Utah. This report, part of an area-wide geothermal research program along the Wasatch Front, concerns the study conducted in the lower Bear River drainage and northern East Shore ground-water areas in Box Elder County, Utah. The primary purpose of the study is to identify new areas of geothermal resource potential. There are seven known low-temperature geothermal areas in this part of Box Elder County. Geothermal reconnaissance techniques used in the study include a temperature survey, chemical analysis of well and spring waters, and temperature-depth measurements in accessible wells. The geothermal reconnaissance techniques identified three areas which need further evaluation of their low-temperature geothermal resource potential. Area 1 is located in the area surrounding Little Mountain, area 2 is west and southwest of Plymouth, and area 3 is west and south of the Cutler Dam. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  18. SOIL DEPLETION DUE TO URBANISATION IN THE AREAS NEAR THE PO RIVER (MUNICIPALITY OF CASTEL S. GIOVANNI, SORBOLO, BONDENO - ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Gherardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of soil resources in Italy is particularly evident in the vast plain of the Po River Valley, where urbanisation has led to a progressive depletion of land surface. Built-up areas now cover around 9%, on average, of the total surface area, but in the most densely inhabited communities, lying mainly along the major artery of the Via Emilia, this figure may exceed 20%. The trend shows no signs of relenting, above all because of the demand for large surfaces generated by the tertiary sector. The phenomenon thus needs to be carefully controlled, especially as regards land located near the Po River and its main effluents. The soils in these areas have different pedogenetic and micro-morphological characteristics and support particularly demanding agronomic activities; though the levels of agricultural productivity match the highest levels in Europe, management of the land generally entails the maintenance of efficient water regulation networks. In this context there is a pressing need to investigate the dynamics of changes in land use in relation to soil quality, particularly areas that have undergone urban development.

  19. Emission Control in River Network System of the Taihu Basin for Water Quality Assurance of Water Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As pollution incidents frequently occurred in the functional water areas of the Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta, effective emission control to guarantee water quality in the Taihu Basin became the priority for environmental management. In this study, a new total emission control (TEC method was proposed with an emphasis on the concept of water environmentally sensitive areas (WESAs. This method was verified in Wujiang District and the techniques can be concluded in three steps: (1 a 1-D mathematical model for the study area was established and the model was calibrated using field measurement data; (2 based on an analysis of administrative planning and regulations, WESAs were identified as the main controlling objectives for emission control calculations. The weighting coefficient of local pollution sources was investigated to discuss the effectiveness of TEC on water quality improvement at WESAs; and (3 applying the river network mathematical model, water quality along the river segments was simulated under different pollution control plans. The results proved the effectiveness of TEC in the study area and indicated that a 14.6% reduction in the total amount of ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, as well as a 31.1% reduction in the total amount of chemical oxygen demand (CODcr, was essential in order to meet the water quality standard in the WESAs.

  20. Spatial correlations between urbanization and river water pollution in the heavily polluted area of Taihu Lake Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Haixia; DUAN Xuejun; Becky STEWART; YOU Bensheng; JIANG Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Water pollution in the Taihu Lake Basin has been the focus of attention in China and abroad for a long time,due to its position in the forefront of urban development in China.Based on data gathering and processing from 84 monitoring sections in this heavily polluted area,this study first analyzes spatial patterns of urbanization and the distribution of river water pollution,and then uses the GeoDa bivariate spatial autocorrelation model to investigate the spatial correlation between urbanization and river water pollution at the scale of township units.The results show that urbanization has adverse impacts on water pollution,and the influence varies in different levels of development areas.The urban township units have the highest level of urbanization and highest pollution,but the best water quality; the suburban units have lower level of urbanization,but higher pollution and worse water quality;however the rural units have the lowest level of urbanization and lowest pollution,mainly affected by upstream pollution,but worst water quality.Lastly,urban and rural planning committees,while actively promoting the process of development in the region,should gradually resolve the issue of pollution control lagging behind urban life and urban development,giving priority to construction of centralized sewage treatment facilities and associated pipeline network coverage in the rural areas and suburban areas.

  1. Prediction and prevention of the impacts of sea level rise on the Yangtze River Delta and its adjacent areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施雅风; 朱季文; 谢志仁; 季子修; 蒋自巽; 杨桂山

    2000-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta region is characterized by high density of population and rapidly developing economy. There are low lying coastal plain and deltaic plain in this region. Thus, the study area could be highly vulnerable to accelerated sea level rise caused by global warming. This paper deals with the scenarios of the relative sea level rise in the early half period of the 21st century in the study area. The authors suggested that relative sea level would rise 25-50 cm by the year 2050 in the study area, of which the magnitude of relative sea level rise in the Yangtze River Delta would double the perspective worldwide average. The impacts of sea level rise include: (i) exacerbation of coastline recession in several sections and vertical erosion of tidal flat, and increase in length of eroding coastline; (ii) decrease in area of tidal flat and coastal wetland due to erosion and inundation; (iii) increase in frequency and intensity of storm surge, which would threaten the coastal protection works; (i

  2. Remapping annual precipitation in mountainous areas based on vegetation patterns: a case study in the Nu River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing; Ni, Guang-Heng; Shen, Chen; Sun, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Accurate high-resolution estimates of precipitation are vital to improving the understanding of basin-scale hydrology in mountainous areas. The traditional interpolation methods or satellite-based remote sensing products are known to have limitations in capturing the spatial variability of precipitation in mountainous areas. In this study, we develop a fusion framework to improve the annual precipitation estimation in mountainous areas by jointly utilizing the satellite-based precipitation, gauge measured precipitation, and vegetation index. The development consists of vegetation data merging, vegetation response establishment, and precipitation remapping. The framework is then applied to the mountainous areas of the Nu River basin for precipitation estimation. The results demonstrate the reliability of the framework in reproducing the high-resolution precipitation regime and capturing its high spatial variability in the Nu River basin. In addition, the framework can significantly reduce the errors in precipitation estimates as compared with the inverse distance weighted (IDW) method and the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation product.

  3. Organochlorine compounds in European catfish (Silurus glanis) living in river areas under the influence of a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River basin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Benito, Josep; Benejam, Lluís; García-Berthou, Emili

    2016-01-01

    European catfish, Silurus glanis, were used as sentinel organisms of the influence of recent and past discharges of organochlorine compounds (OCs) from a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River. The fish concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs were very high along the last 100 km of the river, including the irrigation channels, e.g. 1.2-27 ng/g wet weight of HCB, 6.3-100 ng/g ww of PCBs and 1-270 ng/g ww of total DDT compounds. These concentrations were much higher than those found upstream from the chlor-alkali discharge site, 0.2 ng/g ww for HCB, 5.6 ng/g ww for PCBs and 7.5 ng/g for DDT compounds. These concentrations were also standing out among those previously described in this fish species. The European catfish collected in sites under lower water flows, Ribarroja reservoir and irrigation channels, showed higher muscle lipid content, 1.09-7.2%, than those from sites of higher current intensities, river bed, 0.27%-0.67%. In these lower water current areas catfish exhibited OC ww concentrations that were correlated to % lipids. These differences suggest that normalization to lipid content is necessary for comparison of the OC accumulation in specimens from riverine systems living under different flow intensities. Accordingly, OC concentrations referred to lipid content showed more uniform downriver distribution which was consistent with a single focal point as main source of these compounds for the European catfish collected in the last 100 km of river stretch. This geographic distribution was also consistent with the uniform composition of PCB congeners in the studied European catfish. The distribution of DDT compounds was predominated by 4,4'-DDE which is common in most currently examined fish from aquatic environments. However, it included a high proportion of 4,4'-DDD and 2,4'-DDD which was consistent with the high contribution of benthic organisms from anoxic environments in the diet of these fish.

  4. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  5. The preservation status of the lichen biota in the designed Special Area of Conservation NATURA 2000 „Middle Łyna River Valley – Smolajny”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the list of 159 taxa, including 151 lichens and 8 saprotrophic or parasitic (lichenicolous fungi, recorded in the designed Special Area of Conservation NATURA 2000 „Middle Łyna River Valley – Smolajny” (the Forest Division of Wichrowo. The analysed area (2953 ha covers mostly forest communities, with natural character, associated with the valley of the Łyna river (hillside lime-oak-hornbeam forests, streamside alder-ash forest, riparian black alder forest.

  6. Statistical Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Middle Reaches area of the Yellow River During 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the hourly TBB and cloud images of FY-2E, meteorological observation data, and NCEP reanalysis data with 1°×1° spatial resolution from May to October during 2005-2014, the climatic characteristics of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River were analyzed, including mesoscale convective complex (MCC), persistent elongated convective systems (PECS), meso-βscale MCC (MβCCS) and Meso-βscale PECS (MβECS). The results are as follows: (1) MCS tended to occur over the middle and south of Gansu, the middle and south of Shanxi, the middle and north of Shaanxi, and the border of Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. MCS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River formed in May to October, and was easy to develop the mature in summer. MCC and MβECS were main MCS causing precipitation in summer. (2) The daily variation of MCS was obvious, and usually formed and matured in the afternoon and the evening to early morning of the next day. Most MCS generated fast and dissipated slowly, and were mainly move to the easterly and southeasterly, but the moving of round shape MCS was less than the elongated shape's. (3) The average TBB for the round shape MCS was lower than the elongated shape MCS. The development of MCC was most vigorous and strong, and it was the strongest in August, while that of MβECS wasn't obviously influenced by the seasonal change. The average eccentricity of the mature MCC and PECS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River was greater than that in USA, and the former was greater than in the lower reaches area of the Yellow River, while the latter was smaller. (4) The characteristics of rainfall caused by MCS were complex over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, and there were obvious regional difference. There was wider, stronger and longer precipitation when the multiple MCS merged. The rainfall in the center of cloud area was obviously greater than in other region of cloud area. The

  7. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  8. Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong FAN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of backflow, a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established. The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system. The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model, the numerical calculation format, and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed. Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated. The calculated water level, flow velocity distribution, amount of silting and scouring, and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data, which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable. The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network.

  9. Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong FAN

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of backflow,a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established.The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system.The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model,the numerical calculation format,and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed.Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated.The calculated water level,flow velocity distribution,amount of silting and scouring,and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data,which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable.The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network.

  10. Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Lower Ohio River Navigation Area, Illinois and Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Diagnostic artifacts for this period include the Hardln Barbed, Thebes , and Plevna projectile point types (Butler et al. 1979:12). Middle Archaic...on the Cumberland River, was more difficult and prepared Grant and his men for the bloody Battle of Shiloh on April 6 and 7, 1862 (Catton 1960:11...115). Many of the wounded from this battle were returned by riverboat to Mound City where a hospital was set up in a converted warehouse. The

  11. The activities and perspectives of improvement the polluted waste in surrounding rivers in Bucim mine area

    OpenAIRE

    Danevski, Tome; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar; Gocev, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of the influence that the tailing dump or waste as well as the flotation hydro-tailing dump over the environment around the region of copper mine Bucim, surrounding rivers, places, villages, appearance of dust, pollution of ambient air and mine tailing pond. Generally speaking, the monitoring will be done for two periods. The first analysis relating to the period from the year 2005, and the second analysis relating to the period from the year 2010/2012. The monitoring ...

  12. Hydrogeological investigations of the resurgence Šumetac on the river Kolpa and its tributary area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Novak

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the frame of hydrogeological investigations for the substitution of water supply plant Dolski potok dye tests have been made on two of the sinking brooks.The brooks sinking at the southern borderland of Šibje hill between Mozelj and Knežja Lipa have been color traced. The dyed water reappeared in the resurgence of Šumetac on the river Kolpa after eleven resp. three days.

  13. An Archeological Survey of Two Proposed Reservoir Areas, Rocky River Basin, North Carolina,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Technological Attributes ........................... 7-9 Variability of the Rocky River Assemblage ........ 7-11 CHAPTER 8: LITHIC ANALYSIS .......................... 8...The definitions for the variables used are discussed in detail in Chapter 8 ( Lithic Analysis ). These groups were sorted according to groundmass, luster...Flaked Stone Artifacts. ort American Antiquity 33, pp. 156-161. 1970 Lithic Analysis and Cultural Inference: A Paleo- ". Indian Case. University, of

  14. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months.

  15. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  16. Impact of urbanization on hydrological responses: a case study in Dongguan City in the Pearl River Delta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    China has observed rapid urbanization in the past decades, and the cities in the Pearl River Delta Area have experienced the rapidest urbanization, which caused fundamental impact on the hydrological responses. This paper studies this impact of Dongguan City, a typical city in the Pearl River Delta Area. Historic remote sensing imagery (acquired in 1979, 1989, 2000, 2006 and 2013) were first processed by using the support vector machines (SVM) method to extract the LULC data and impervious surface fraction data, and the urbanization pattern of Dongguan City is analysis. Then, a distributed hydrological model, the Liuxihe model is employed to simulated the hydrological processes of Hanxihe catchment in Dongguan City in 1979, 1989, 2000, 2006 and 2013 respectively, and the impact of change in impervious surface cover on the flood was assessed. The results show that the urbanized area in Dongguan City has increased more than 52% from 1979 to 2013 and the peak flow has increased more than two times from 1979 to 2013.

  17. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bela, J.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43/sup 0/30' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories. (RWR)

  18. Ranking contributing areas of salt and selenium in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, using multiple linear regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigating the effects of salt and selenium on water quality in the Grand Valley and lower Gunnison River Basin in western Colorado is a major concern for land managers. Previous modeling indicated means to improve the models by including more detailed geospatial data and a more rigorous method for developing the models. After evaluating all possible combinations of geospatial variables, four multiple linear regression models resulted that could estimate irrigation-season salt yield, nonirrigation-season salt yield, irrigation-season selenium yield, and nonirrigation-season selenium yield. The adjusted r-squared and the residual standard error (in units of log-transformed yield) of the models were, respectively, 0.87 and 2.03 for the irrigation-season salt model, 0.90 and 1.25 for the nonirrigation-season salt model, 0.85 and 2.94 for the irrigation-season selenium model, and 0.93 and 1.75 for the nonirrigation-season selenium model. The four models were used to estimate yields and loads from contributing areas corresponding to 12-digit hydrologic unit codes in the lower Gunnison River Basin study area. Each of the 175 contributing areas was ranked according to its estimated mean seasonal yield of salt and selenium.

  19. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George Luther; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  20. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  2. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  3. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  4. Quantifying river response to landsliding: experiments in DEM differencing using wide-area, structure-from-motion terrain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Joe; Brasington, James; Cook, Simon; Cox, Simon; Lotsari, Eliisa; McColl, Sam; Lehane, Niall; Williams, Richard; Vericat, Damia

    2017-04-01

    Sediment delivery to alpine rivers is characterized by large but infrequent pulses of material sourced from landslides and debris flows. In extreme cases, when the rate of sediment supply exceeds the transport capacity of channels, a landslide dam forms; impounding river flows and creating an inline lake. These rare events play a crucial but weakly understood role in the evolution of catchment drainage, channel morphology and sediment flux from mountain catchments to their sedimentary sinks. Until recently, insights into the response of river systems to such sediment overloading have been based on either localized ground surveys or expensive airborne lidar campaigns. The recent development of structure-from-motion photogrammetric methods offers the potential to bridge this scale-cost barrier, but has yet to be applied over wide-area (101-2 km2) extents which push the boundaries of traditional SfM workflows based on dense ground-control and low-altitude or terrestrial imagery. Here, we present preliminary insights into the response of the braided Dart River, Otago as it adjusts to a major pulse of sediment supplied by landsliding at Slip Stream (44.59 S 168.34 E) in January 2014. DEM differencing (DoD) is used to develop a sediment budget for this extreme slope-channel coupling, using wide-area (>80 km2) terrain models derived from SfM photogrammetry based on aerial helicopter surveys in May 2014 and 2015. Contrasting camera networks, image density and camera models were used in the two surveys providing an opportunity to evaluate the sensitivity of the resulting terrain model to data acquisition strategy. In both cases, georeferencing was based on a network of ground-control distributed along the 40 km valley floor which was also used to provide cross-validation tests on horizontal and vertical model reliability. Both models were subject to inherent systematic bias associated with compensation between the inferred interior and exterior model geometry. The use of a

  5. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  6. Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

    2014-06-01

    The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial

  7. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  8. Uranium(VI) adsorption and surface complexation modeling onto background sediments from the F-Area Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Davis, James A; Wan, Jiamin

    2012-02-07

    The mobility of an acidic uranium waste plume in the F-Area of Savannah River Site is of great concern. In order to understand and predict uranium mobility, U(VI) adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH using background F-Area aquifer sediments and reference goethite and kaolinite (major reactive phases of F-Area sediments), and a component-additivity (CA) based surface complexation model (SCM) was developed. Our experimental results indicate that the fine fractions (≤45 μm) in sediments control U(VI) adsorption due to their large surface area, although the quartz sands show a stronger adsorption ability per unit surface area than the fine fractions at pH 4.0. Our CA model combines an existing U(VI) SCM for goethite and a modified U(VI) SCM for kaolinite along with estimated relative surface area abundances of these component minerals. The modeling approach successfully predicts U(VI) adsorption behavior by the background F-Area sediments. The model suggests that exchange sites on kaolinite dominate U(VI) adsorption at pH 6.0.

  9. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  10. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  11. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  12. Allochthonous subsidies of organic matter across a lake-river-fjord landscape in the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for marine zooplankton in inner fjord areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Martinez, Rodrigo A.; San Martin, Valeska; Aguayo, Mauricio; Silva, Nelson; Torres, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystems can act as both sources and sinks of allochthonous nutrients and organic matter. In this sense, fjord ecosystems are a typical interface and buffer zone between freshwater systems, glaciated continents, and the coastal ocean. In order to evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter across fjord ecosystems, we characterized particulate organic matter along a lake-river-fjord corridor in the Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope (δ 13C) and lipid (fatty acid composition) biomarker analyses. Furthermore, estimates of zooplankton carbon ingestion rates and measurements of δ 13C and δ 15N in zooplankton (copepods) were used to evaluate the implications of allochthonous subsidies for copepods inhabiting inner fjord areas. Our results showed that riverine freshwater flows contributed an important amount of dissolved silicon but, scarce nitrate and phosphate to the brackish surface layer of the fjord ecosystem. Isotopic signatures of particulate organic matter from lakes and rivers were distinct from their counterparts in oceanic influenced stations. Terrestrial allochthonous sources could support around 68-86% of the particulate organic carbon in the river plume and glacier melting areas, whereas fatty acid concentrations were maximal in the surface waters of the Pascua and Baker river plumes. Estimates of carbon ingestion rates and δ 13C in copepods from the river plume areas indicated that terrestrial carbon could account for a significant percentage of the copepod body carbon (20-50%) during periods of food limitation. Particulate organic matter from the Pascua River showed a greater allochthonous contribution of terrigenous/vascular plant sources. Rivers may provide fjord ecosystems with allochthonous contributions from different sources because of the distinct vegetation coverage and land use along each river's watershed. These observations have significant implications for the management of local riverine areas in the context of

  13. A Study on the Construction of Ecological Protective Screen System in the Arid Valley Area of the Upper Reaches of the Min River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Bin

    2015-01-01

    The Min River is a large tributary in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Its source is the south range of the Min Mountains in the area where Sichuan and Gansu share a bounda ̄ry. The area consists of five counties in the Aba Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, including Wenchuan, Lixian, Maoxian, Songpan, and He ̄ishui. The area covers 25,426 square kilometers. The area in the upper reaches of the Min River is an arid valley, and its ecological position is very important. This area is not only one that is home to world heritage and national scenic spots, but it is also a poor ethnic minority area with relatively backward economic conditions. Moreover,it is also an important ecological screen and water source for the Chengdu plain,as well as an important part of the ecological protective screen in the upper rea ̄ches of the Yangtze River. As a result of natural disasters,pressure on the carrying capacity of the population and the careless manner of economic development,the resources and environment in this area have been exploited irrationally. This has cre ̄ated a series of serious environmental problems,in ̄cluding environmental pollution, and depletion of resources,etc. Therefore, constructing an ecologi ̄cal protective screen in the upper reaches of the Min River becomes very important.

  14. Biophysical indicators based on satellite images in an irrigated area at the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivas, Janice F.; Teixeira, Antônio Heriberto C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Ronquim, Carlos Cesar; Ribeiro da Silva Reis, João. Batista

    2016-10-01

    The Jaíba Irrigated Perimeter is a large irrigated agriculture area, located in the region Forest Jaíba between the São Francisco and Verde Grande rivers, in the Brazilian semi-arid region. In 2014, irrigators this the region face losses in the interruption of new plantings in irrigated areas due to water scarcity. The objective of this study is combine the model to estimate the Monteith BIO with the SAFER algorithm in the case of obtaining ET, to analyze the dynamics of natural vegetation and irrigated crops in water scarcity period. For application of the model are necessary data from meteorological stations and satellite images. Were used 23 satellite images of MODIS with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal 16 days, of 2014 year. For analyze the results, we used central pivots irrigation mask of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In areas with irrigated agriculture with central pivot, the mean values of BIO over the year 2014 were 88.96 kg.ha-1.d-1. The highest values occurred between April 23 and May 8, with BIO 139 kg.ha-1.d-1. For areas with natural vegetation, the average BIO was 88.34 kg.ha-1.d-1 with lower values in September. Estimates of ET varied with the lowest values of ET observed in natural vegetation 1.91+/-1.22 mm.d-1 and the highest values in irrigated area is observed 3.51+/-0.97 mm.d-1. Results of this study can assist in monitoring of river basins, contributing to the management irrigated agriculture, with the trend of scarcity of water resources and increasing conflicts for the water use.

  15. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS FROM UPPER MUREŞ RIVER CATCHMENT AREA USING DIFFERENT BIOTIC INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca PETROVICI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper approach the issue of assessing the water quality of tributaries located in the upper basin of the river Mureş, taking into account changes in the value of biotic indices. In this sense, have been selected the next five biotic indices: Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera index (EPT, Total Invertebrates index (T, Chironomidae index (Ch, EPT / Total invertebrates index (EPT / T, EPT / Chironomidae index (EPT / Ch and % Chironomidae index (% Chironomidae. Considering all these indices, it was found existence of a medium to best quality water in Mureş tributaries from Harghita Mountains and a good quality water which comes from the Maramureş Mountains and Transylvania Plateau.

  16. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. PMID:27699201

  17. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership - PATOKA_RIVER_NWR_AREA_USFWS_IN: Ownership Status of Lands Within the Acquirement Boundary (U S Fish and Wildlife Service, 1:24000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — PATOKA_RIVER_NWR_AREA_USFWS_IN is a polygon shapefile that depicts the ownership status of lands within the acquirement boundary of Patoka River National Wildlife...

  19. Expanding protected areas beyond their terrestrial comfort zone: identifying spatial options for river conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been very little consideration of freshwater ecosystems in identifying and designing protected areas. Recent studies suggest that protected areas hold enormous potential to conserve freshwater biodiversity if augmented with appropriate...

  20. Mineral resource areas of the Yellowstone River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource areas are defined as those areas with a high likelihood of containing occurrences of valuable mineral deposits. A variety of sources of minerals...

  1. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  2. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  3. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  4. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  5. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  6. Concentrations of surfactants and sterols in the surface microlayer of the estuarine areas of Selangor River, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalahi, Murad Ali; Talib Latif, Mohd; Mohd Ali, Masni; Dominick, Doreena; Firoz Khan, Md; Bahiyah Abd Wahid, Nurul; Ili Hamizah Mustaffa, Nur

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the concentration of surfactant and sterols as biomarkers in the surface microlayer (SML) in estuarine areas of the Selangor River, Malaysia. SML samples were collected during different seasons using a rotation drum method. The compositions of surfactants in SML were determined as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and disulphine blue active substances (DBAS) as anionic and cationic surfactants respectively. The concentration of sterols was determined using a gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The results show that the concentrations of surfactants around the estuarine area were dominated by anionic surfactants (MBAS) with average concentrations of 0.39 μmol L-1. The concentrations of total sterols in the SML ranged from 107.06 to 505.55 ng L-1. The surfactants and total sterol concentrations were found to be higher in the wet season. Cholesterol was found to be the most abundant sterols component in the SML of the Selangor River. The diagnostic ratios of sterols show the influence of natural sources and waste on the contribution of sterols in the SML. Further analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct inputs of sterols derived from human activity (40.58%), terrigenous and plant inputs (22.59%) as well as phytoplankton and marine inputs (17.35%).

  7. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River catchment area, Pakistan: Status, soil-air exchange and black carbon mediated distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Anam; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in passive air and soil samples from the catchment area of the Indus River, Pakistan. ∑15OCPs ranged between 0.68 and 13.47 ng g(-1) in soil and 375.1-1975 pg m-(3) in air. HCHs and DDTs were more prevalent in soil and air compartments. Composition profile indicated that β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the dominant of all metabolites among HCHs and DDTs respectively. Moreover, fBC and fTOC were assessed and evaluated their potential role in the distribution status of OCPs. The fTOC and fBC ranged between 0.77 and 2.43 and 0.04-0.30% respectively in soil. Regression analysis showed the strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of OCPs in the Indus River catchment area soil. Equilibrium status was observed for β-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, TC, HCB and Heptachlor with ff ranged between 0.3 and 0.59 while assessing the soil-air exchange of OCPs.

  8. [Horizontal and vertical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in river sediment from a typical electrical equipment industrial area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Meng-De; Deng, Dai-Yong; Yu, Le-Huan; Sun, Guo-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian; Xu, Mei-Ying

    2012-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in sediment collected from a river in a typical electrical equipment industrial area, Ronggui, Foshan. Eight samples were collected from river sediment. The results indicated that PBDEs were presented in all samples. Spatial trends showed that the concentrations of PBDEs in all sediment samples were ranged from 62 ng x g(-1) to 349 ng x g(-1), with an average of 178 ng x g(-1). The predominant congener was BDE-209 (90% - 99%), which ranged from 56-337 ng x g(-1), with an average of 171 ng x g(-1). Some of congeners such as BDE-196, 197 and 203 may be were the degradation product of BDE-209. Vertically, the concentrations of PBDEs were increased with the depth, whereas the concentrations were 147 ng x g(-1) in layer 0-10 cm and 260 ng x g(-1) in layer 30-40 cm, respectively. Distribution profile of PBDEs in vertical direction was similar in different depths. The commercial deca-BDE (94%), which contained BDE-209, 208, 207 and 206, was the dominate pollutant with minor contributions from penta-and octa-BDEs. The results suggested that this area was polluted by PBDEs and BDE-209 was the most dominate congener, which is related with the manufacturing activities for electrical equipment.

  9. 77 FR 19544 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... shipbuilding and dismantling, scrap metal operations, wire burning, aluminum smelting, and housing construction... will not limit vessels from transiting or using the waters covered, except for activities that may...) Regulated Navigation Area. The following area is a regulated navigation area: All waters within the...

  10. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  11. Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smederevac-Lalić, Marija; Pešić, Radmilo; Cvejić, Slobodan; Simonović, Predrag

    2012-05-01

    The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Bačka Palanka, Bačko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River.

  12. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  13. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Akiko; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Chemical Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Sakakibara, Koji [Hitachi Zosen Co., Konohana, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment:day{sup -1}. The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment.day{sup -1}, whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10{sup -2}, and 1.2 x 10{sup -2} -9.4 x 10{sup -1} {mu}g.g{sup -1} dry sediment day{sup -1}, respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  14. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  15. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  16. Archaeological Survey and Site Testing in Sloughing Easement Areas along the Sac River Downstream from Stockton Dam, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    lower Pomme de Terre River Valley by McMillan (1976a). Post oak, white oak, and black oak were found to be the most abundant tree species; but...lists for the lower Pomme de Terre River Valley along with the habitat preferences of each species. Similar species were probably present in the...research has been carried out in the lover Sac River drainage, the Pomme de Terre River drainage, and the Osage River drainage. Most of this work

  17. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan.

  18. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  19. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolvi...

  20. Geology and stratigraphy of the Challis Volcanic Group and related rocks, Little Wood River area, south-central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Richard F.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2005-01-01

    The southwestern part of the Challis volcanic field occupies the valley of the Little Wood River and its tributaries in the Hailey and Idaho Falls 1??2? quadrangles of south-central Idaho. The Little Wood River area is a structurally controlled topographic basin that is partly filled by Eocene Challis Volcanic Group and younger rocks. Rock types in the Challis Volcanic Group of the Little Wood River area include, in order of decreasing abundance, andesite lava flows and tuff breccia, dacite lava flows and flow breccia, volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, lithic tuff, nonvolcanic conglomerate, and rhyolite dikes. A basal nonvolcanic conglomerate, that locally rests on upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks at a regional unconformity, was deposited prior to eruption of volcanic rocks. Andesite was the first volcanic rock erupted and is a voluminous sequence as thick as 3,000 ft (1,000 m). Locally thick volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks accumulated in topographic lows. A sharp transition marks the beginning of dacite eruption from fissures and flow-dome complexes. Dacite flows and breccias are as thick as 2,000 ft (600 m). An upper volcaniclastic unit was deposited in paleotopographic lows following emplacement of the main dacite unit. Next, a widespread, distinctive, lithic rich ash flow tuff, correlated with the tuff of Stoddard Gulch, was deposited over much of the area. Deposition of the tuff was followed by eruption of thin andesite and dacite lava flows and deposition of conglomeratic sedimentary rocks. The entire sequence was then intruded by a dacite flow-dome complex composed of at least three separate intrusions. The Challis Volcanic Group in the study area is calcalkaline. Andesitic rocks are typically high potassium basaltic andesite, high potassium andesite, shoshonite, and banakite (latite). Dacitic rocks are high potassium dacite and trachyte. Tuffs and vitrophyres range in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte. The paleotopographic basin in which the

  1. 33 CFR 334.50 - Piscataqua River at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas. Area No. 1: The area bounded by a line at a point on the easterly side of Seavey Island at...; thence along the northerly side of Clark Island to a point on the easterly side at latitude 43°04′37″ N, longitude 70°43′25″ W, thence northeasterly to the easterly side of Jamaica Island at latitude 43°04′49″...

  2. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively, pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers (2 of western Siberia sampled in winter, spring, summer and autumn over a more than 1500 km latitudinal gradient allowed for establishing the main environmental factors controlling the transport of dissolved river components in this environmentally important region, comprising continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. There was significant latitudinal trend consisting in general decrease of DOC, DIC, SO4, and major cation (Ca, Mg, Na, K concentrations northward, reflecting the interplay between groundwater feeding (detectable mostly in the permafrost-free zone, south of 60° N and surface flux (in the permafrost-bearing zone. The trend of inorganic components was mostly pronounced in winter and less visible in spring, whereas for DOC, the trend of concentration decrease with latitude was absent in winter, and less pronounced in the spring flood than in the summer baseflow. The latitudinal trends persisted over all river watershed sizes, from 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area −2 yr−1 until 61° N, decreased two-fold in the discontinuous permafrost zone (62–66° N, and increased again to 3 t km−2 yr−1 in the continuous permafrost zone (67° N. The DIC, Mg, K and Ca followed this pattern. The total dissolved cation flux (TDS_c ranged from 1.5 to 5.5 t km−2 yr−1, similar to that in central Siberian rivers of the continuous permafrost region. While Si concentration was almost unaffected by the latitude over all seasons, the Si flux systematically

  3. The Influence of the Disturbed Continuity of the River and the Invasive Species--Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on Benthos Fauna: A Case Study on Urban Area in the River Ruda (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Kubicka, Justyna; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    The progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems and ecohydrological role of rivers is one of the most important global environmental issues. The loss of the ability of rivers to self-purify waters due to the disturbances of river continuity cause a lack of biological life in parts of rivers or even in an entire river. The appearance of alien species in degraded aquatic environments is an increasingly common phenomenon and constitutes one of the threats to biodiversity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible impact of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on native invertebrates as well as the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence benthos fauna including also alien species. The study conducted in industrial area, in the River Ruda (Poland), showed that at the sites at which the occurrence of the two alien species was observed, the density of native benthos and diversity decreased significantly. CCA analysis showed that non-native species occurred in fast water velocity and that their presence was associated with high values of conductivity, hardness, and a high chloride content. The arrival of new species from other geographical areas is one of the factors that influences the species balance in native aquatic fauna. The number of alien species in freshwater ecosystems probably will increase in the future as new aliens are moved outside of their native ranges.

  4. The Influence of the Disturbed Continuity of the River and the Invasive Species— Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on Benthos Fauna: A Case Study on Urban Area in the River Ruda (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Kubicka, Justyna; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    The progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems and ecohydrological role of rivers is one of the most important global environmental issues. The loss of the ability of rivers to self-purify waters due to the disturbances of river continuity cause a lack of biological life in parts of rivers or even in an entire river. The appearance of alien species in degraded aquatic environments is an increasingly common phenomenon and constitutes one of the threats to biodiversity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible impact of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on native invertebrates as well as the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence benthos fauna including also alien species. The study conducted in industrial area, in the River Ruda (Poland), showed that at the sites at which the occurrence of the two alien species was observed, the density of native benthos and diversity decreased significantly. CCA analysis showed that non-native species occurred in fast water velocity and that their presence was associated with high values of conductivity, hardness, and a high chloride content. The arrival of new species from other geographical areas is one of the factors that influences the species balance in native aquatic fauna. The number of alien species in freshwater ecosystems probably will increase in the future as new aliens are moved outside of their native ranges.

  5. Modelling algae growth and dissolved oxygen in the Seine River downstream the Paris urban area: contribution of high frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Escoffier, Nicolas; Groleau, Alexis; Poulin, Michel; Flipo, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen is a key variable in the hydro-ecological functioning of river systems. The accurate representation of the different biogeochemical processes affecting algal blooms and dissolved oxygen in the water column in hydro-ecological models is crucial for the use of these models as reliable management tools. This study focuses on the water quality of the Seine River along a 225 km stretch, from Paris to the Seine estuary. The study area is highly urbanized and located downstream France's largest agricultural area, and therefore receives large amounts of nutrients. During the last decades, nutrient inputs have been significantly reduced, especially with the implementation of new sewage water treatment technologies. Even though the frequency and the intensity of observed algal blooms have decreased, blooms were observed in 2011 and 2012. These blooms are generally followed by a period of high organic matter accumulation, leading to high mineralization fluxes and potential oxygen depletion. The hydrodynamics and the water quality of the Seine River are simulated for the 2011-2012 period with the distributed process-based hydro-ecological model ProSe (Even et al., 1998). The simulated chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations are compared to high frequency measurements at the Bougival monitoring station (50 km downstream from Paris), which is part of the CarboSeine monitoring network. The high frequency continuous dataset allows calibrating of primary producers' physiological parameters. New growth parameters are defined for the diatom community. The blooms occur at the end of the winter period (march 2011 and march 2012) and the optimal temperature for diatom growth is calibrated at 10°C, based on an analysis of the physiological response of the diatom community. One of the main outcomes of the modelling exercise is that the precise identification of the constituting communities of algal blooms must be achieved prior to the modelling itself. With the

  6. IMPACTS OF FLOOD EVENTS IN COARSE SEDIMENT-PRODUCING AREAS ON CHANNEL SILTATION AND FLUVIAL PROCESS OF THE LOWER YELLOW RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ou-yang ZHANG; Xiufu FENG; Jiong-xin XU

    2007-01-01

    The method of multiple regression is used to analyze the influences of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas on the channel siltation and fluvial process of the lower Yellow River based on the flood events from 1950 to 1985. The results showed that the flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas carry larger amounts of sediment load and coarser particle sizes than from other source areas, which increases deposition in the lower river channel. And there exist good correlations between channel siltation of the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the coming water and sediment of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas. Through these correlations, the amounts of sediment deposition in the lower river channel could be roughly estimated based on the runoff and sediment load of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas. The sediment deposition caused the fluvial process. There exists a complex response of channel form change to the coming water and sediment load of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas. When the sediment concentration is smaller than 200kg/m3, the ratio between wide-depth ratio after flood and wide-depth ratio before flood((B/h)a / (B/h)b) will increase with the increase of the maximum sediment concentration; when the sediment concentration is near 200kg/m3, (B/h)a / (B/h)b reaches the maximum value; and when the sediment concentration reaches the limits of hyperconcentrated flow, (B/h)a / (B/h)b will decrease with the increase of the maximum sediment concentration. Generally, flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas made channel form of the lower Yellow River deeper and narrower, but a large amount of sediment deposition simultaneously occurs. So, the impacts of flood events from the coarse sediment producing areas on the channel of the lower Yellow River are lessened.

  7. Geological Studies of the Salmon River Suture Zone and Adjoining Areas, West-Central Idaho and Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume describe petrologic, structural, and geochemical studies related to geographic areas adjacent to and including the Salmon River suture zone. We therefore start this volume by defining and giving a general description of that suture zone. The western margin of the North American continent was the setting for complex terrane accretion and large-scale terrane translation during Late Cretaceous and Eocene time. In western Idaho, the boundary that separates the Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted oceanic, island-arc rocks on the west from Precambrian continental metamorphic and sedimentary rocks on the east is called the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ). Readers will note that the term 'Salmon River suture zone' is used in the title of this volume and in the text of several of the papers and the term 'western Idaho suture zone' is used in several other papers in this volume. Both terms refer to the same geologic feature and reflect historical usage and custom; thus no attempt has been made by the editors to impose or demand a single term by the various authors of this volume. The suture zone is marked by strong lithologic and chemical differences. Rocks adjacent to the suture zone are characterized by high-grade metamorphism and much structural deformation. In addition, the zone was the locus of emplacement of plutons ranging in composition from tonalite to monzogranite during and after the final stages of accretion of the oceanic terrane to the North American continent. The contents of this paper consists of seven chapters.

  8. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Krivtzov, I. A.; Pokrovsky, B. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Kopysov, S. G.; Zemtzov, V. A.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobiev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers ( 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area water flow path (deep vs. surface) but has to be considered in the context of different climate, plant biomass productivity, unfrozen peat thickness and peat chemical composition. It can be anticipated that, under climate warming in western Siberia, the maximal change will occur in small (ionic composition, and this change will be mostly pronounced in summer and autumn. The wintertime concentrations and spring flood fluxes and concentrations are unlikely to be appreciably affected by the change of the active layer depth and terrestrial biomass productivity. Assuming a conservative precipitation scenario and rising temperature over next few centuries, the annual fluxes of DOC and K in the discontinuous permafrost zone may see a maximum increase by a factor of 2, whereas for DIC and Mg, this increase may achieve a factor of 3. The fluxes of Ca and TDSc may increase by a factor of 5. At the same time, Si fluxes will either remain constant or decrease two-fold in the permafrost-bearing zone relative to the permafrost-free zone of western Siberia.

  9. Toxaphene levels in retail food from the Pearl River Delta area of South China and an assessment of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, YouSheng; Liu, ZhiBin; Wu, DongTing; Zhang, JianQing; Zhou, Jian; Li, ShengNong; Lu, LinGeng; Lin, XiaoShi; Lu, ShaoYou; Peng, JinLing

    2016-06-01

    Limited literature exists on toxaphene contamination in food worldwide, particularly in mainland China. In this study, three toxaphene congeners, Parlar 26 (B8-1413), Parlar 50 (B9-1679) and Parlar 62 (B9-1025), were analyzed in five different food categories from the Pearl River Delta Area in China using isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), and toxaphene levels in food were reported and toxaphene dietary intake by local residents estimated. The results showed that fish contained the highest toxaphene level with a median of 12.87 pg/g wet weight (ww), followed by poultry meat, egg products, livestock meat and vegetable, which had median levels of 5.8, 2.2, 1.89 and 0.67 pg/g ww, respectively. Parlar 50 and Parlar 26 were the predominant characteristic congeners in fish, and Parlar 26 was the predominant congener not only in poultry products and eggs, but also in livestock and vegetable. The estimated average daily intake found by local residents was 35.57 pg/kg body weight/day. Overall toxaphene levels and estimated dietary intake in the Pearl River Delta Area of South China are far lower than the European Maximum Residue Limits (EU MRLs), the German MRL for fish, and other international literature data. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dietary intakes of toxaphene for the local residents is not considerable at the current time, but follow-ups are warranted to study dynamic changes of toxaphene in food in this area.

  10. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE INTERACTION OF GROUNDWATER WITH THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 100-D AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2008-11-05

    Groundwater beneath much of Hanford's 100 Areas is contaminated with hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) as a consequence of treating reactor cooling water to prevent corrosion. Several treatment systems are in place to remove Cr{sup +6} from the groundwater; however, these systems currently do not reduce Cr{sup +6} to concentrations below aquatic standards. Of concern is the transport of Cr{sup +6} to areas within the channel of the river, as sensitive species inhabit the river and its associated transition zone. The aquatic standard for Cr{sup +6} is currently 11 ug/l under the Record of Decision (ROD) for Interim Action and Department of Energy (DOE) currently plans to pursue remediation of the groundwater to achieve the 11 ug/l standard. Because the compliance wells used to monitor the current remediation systems are located some distance from the river, they may not provide an accurate indication of Cr{sup +6} concentrations in the water that reaches the riverbed. In addition, because salmon spawning areas are considered a high priority for protection from Hanford contaminants, it would be advantageous to understand (1) to what extent Cr{sup +6} discharged to the near-shore or river ecosystems is diluted or attenuated and (2) mechanisms that could mitigate the exposure of the river ecosystems to the discharging Cr{sup +6}. The current concentration target for Cr{sup +6} at near-river groundwater monitoring locations is 20 {micro}g/L; it is assumed that this groundwater mixes with river water that contains virtually no chromium to meet Washington Department of Ecology's (Ecology) water quality standard of 10 {micro}g/L in the river environment. This dynamic mixing process is believed to be driven by daily and seasonal changes in river stage and groundwater remediation system operations, and has been validated using analytical data from numerous groundwater samples obtained adjacent to and within the banks of the river. Although the mean mixing factor of

  11. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  12. Ecological Niche Modeling Identifies Fine-Scale Areas at High Risk of Dengue Fever in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoxuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most common and rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, this imported disease has posed a serious threat to public health in China, especially in the Pearl River Delta (PRD. Although the severity of DF outbreaks in the PRD is generally associated with known risk factors, fine scale assessments of areas at high risk for DF outbreaks are limited. We built five ecological niche models to identify such areas including a variety of climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic variables, as well as, in some models, extracted principal components. All the models we tested accurately identified the risk of DF, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC were greater than 0.8, but the model using all original variables was the most accurate (AUC = 0.906. Socioeconomic variables had a greater impact on this model (total contribution 55.27% than climatic and environmental variables (total contribution 44.93%. We found the highest risk of DF outbreaks on the border of Guangzhou and Foshan (in the central PRD, and in northern Zhongshan (in the southern PRD. Our fine-scale results may help health agencies to focus epidemic monitoring tightly on the areas at highest risk of DF outbreaks.

  13. Landform-related permafrost characteristics in the source area of the Yellow River, eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Sheng, Yu; Wu, Jichun; Feng, Ziliang; Ning, Zuojun; Hu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Xiumin

    2016-09-01

    The source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) lies in the eastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Glaciers are absent in the area, but permafrost is widespread because of the high elevations, typically 4200-5000 m a.s.l. Landforms in the SAYR were classified into seven basic types, based on their morphological characteristics and genesis, and further divided into 12 sub-classes based on geomorphic processes. Permafrost development and ground temperature in boreholes were analyzed on representative landforms in the SAYR. Permafrost was discontinuously distributed at 4300-4400 m a.s.l. in fluvial plains because of variations in local topography, sediments, vegetation and water content. In hills and low-relief mountains in the western part of the study area, permafrost is continuous above 4400 m a.s.l. even on unshaded south-facing slopes. In contrast, permafrost in the central part of the study area is discontinuous over this elevation range. Analysis of ground temperature measurements revealed that three macro-scale factors, latitude, longitude, and elevation, explain 72.8% of the variation in the measured mean annual ground temperature (MAGT). The remaining 27.2% can potentially be explained by variations in topography and land cover within the SAYR.

  14. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  15. STUDY REGARDING DELINEATION OF FLOOD HAZARD ZONES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE SOMEŞ RIVER, BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological studies will provide the characteristic parameters for the floods occurred for the calculus discharges with overflow probabilities of 0,1%; 1%, 5%, 10%. The hydrologic and hydraulic models will be made by using the hydro-meteorological data base and the topographical measurements on site; them calibration will be done according to the records of the historical floods. The studies on the hydrologic and hydraulic models will be necessary for the establishment of the carrying capacity of the riverbeds, for the delimitation of the flood plains and for the detection of the transit discharges at the hydro-technical installations, but also for the establishment of the parameters needed for the structural measures’ projects. These will be based on the 1D and 2D unstable hydro-dynamic models. Therefore, the users would be able to assess the proposed measures and the impact over the river’s system; of course with the potential combination of the 1D and 2D. The main objectives followed by the project are: • identification of the river basins or river sub-basins with flood risks; • regionalization of the flood hazard; • presentation of the main flash floods occurred during the last 30 years, which induced floods; • assessment of the consequences of eventual flood over the population, properties and environment; • the establishment of the protection degree, accepted for the human settlements, for the economic and social objectives, for the farm areas, etc.;

  16. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  17. Sr isotope tracing of aquifer interactions in an area of accelerating coal-bed methane production, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, C.D.; Pearson, B.N.; Ogle, K.M.; Heffern, E.L.; Lyman, R.M. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology & Geophysics

    2002-07-01

    Sr isotope data on groundwater samples from coal and overlying sandstone aquifers in the eastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, demonstrate that the Sr isotope ratio effectively identifies groundwater from different aquifers where major ion geochemistry and 0 and H stable isotope data fail. Groundwaters from sandstone aquifers have a uniform Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.7126-0.7127. Waters from coal seams vary from Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio = 0.7127 near the recharge area to 0.7151 farther into the basin. The distinct Sr isotope signatures of sandstone and coal aquifers may reflect different sources of Sr in these two rock types: Sr in sandstones is held primarily in carbonate cement, whereas coals contain more radiogenic Sr in organic matter. The Sr isotope ratio is useful in identifying wells that contain mixed waters, whether due to well construction or to incomplete aquifer isolation. Measurement and continued monitoring of the Sr isotope ratio in groundwaters should provide a powerful tool for characterizing the impact of the burgeoning coal-bed methane industry on the hydrology of the Powder River Basin.

  18. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wilma Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attributes of mangrove soils at this location is quite scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil organic matter and soil acidity in mangroves located in the estuary of the Paraíba River, State of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to increase the database of soil attributes in this region. The study area is in local influence of the Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest (Flona, an environmental conservation unit of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. For the choice of sampling points, we considered an area that receives direct influence of the eviction of domestic and industrial effluents. The soil of the study area is an “Organossolo Háplico” in Brazilian Soil Classification (Histosol, and was sampled at four point sites: one upstream of the effluent discharge (P1, one in the watercourse receiving effluent water (P2, one downstream of the effluent discharge (P3 and another near Flona (P4, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in four replications in time (28/08/2012 in the morning and afternoon, and 21/01/2013 in the morning and afternoon. Potential acidity, pH and soil organic matter (SOM were determined. No significant differences were detected in the potential acidity of the four collection sites, which ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 cmolc dm-3. Soil pH was greatest at point P4 (7.0 and lowest at point P1 (5.8. The SOM was highest at point P1 (86.4 % and lowest at P2 (77.9 %. The attributes related to soil acidity were not sensitive to indicate

  19. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  20. Wide-area estimates of stand structure and water use of tamarix spp. on the lower colorado river: Implications for restoration and water management projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Didan, K.; Osterberg, J.; Jordan, F.; Cunningham, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tamarix spp. removal has been proposed to salvage water and allow native vegetation to recolonize western U.S. riparian corridors. We conducted wide-area studies on the Lower Colorado River to answer some of the scientific questions about Tamarix water use and the consequences of removal, combining ground surveys with remote sensing methods. Tamarix stands had moderate rates of evapotranspiration (ET), based on remote sensing estimates, averaging 1.1 m/yr, similar to rates determined for other locations on the river and other rivers. Leaf area index values were also moderate, and stands were relatively open, with areas of bare soil interspersed within stands. At three Tamarix sites in the Cibola National Wildlife Refuge, groundwater salinity at the site nearest to the river (200 m) was relatively low (circa 2,250 mg/L) and was within 3 m of the surface. However, 750 and 1,500 m from the river, the groundwater salinity was 5,000-10,000 mg/L due to removal of water by the Tamarix stands. Despite the high groundwater salinity, the sites away from the river did not have saline surface soils. Only 1% of the mean annual river flow is lost to Tamarix ET on the Lower Colorado River in the United States, and the opportunities for water salvage through Tamarix removal are constrained by its modest ET rates. A possible alternative to Tamarix removal is to intersperse native plants among the stands to improve the habitat value of the riparian zone. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  1. Floodplain Sedimentation in Vegetated Areas of the Elwha River Floodplain, 2012-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. W.; Polka, J.

    2014-12-01

    The removal of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams from the Elwha River, near Port Angeles, Washington, has released a large pulse of sediment into the middle and lower reaches of the Elwha River. This sediment has important geomorphic, hydraulic, and ecological implications. Our project focuses on the deposition of fine sediment on vegetated parts of the Elwha floodplain using field observations of sediment accumulation in combination with a simplified physics numerical model, CAESAR-Lisflood. The floodplain of the Elwha is densely vegetated and in places is characterized by large amounts of local topographic variation. This makes measuring centimeter-scale overbank sedimentation difficult using traditional approaches such as lidar and total-station based cross-section surveys. To address this problem and to provide ground truth for more traditional surveying methods, we set up over 50 short (10-20 m long) cross-sections between sets of flagged trees and surveyed, at 1-meter intervals, ground elevation with respect to a spike set in each section. Nails in the trees ensure that the horizontal position of our measurements do not shift by more than a few centimeters from year to year. This approach allows sediment accumulation to be measured repeatedly with a precision we estimate to be on the order of a few centimeters, allowing us to estimate annual rates of local sedimentation. At a given point on the floodplain, sedimentation should depend significantly on the frequency of inundation. We simulate this for the 2012-2014 period using a CAESAR-Lisflood 2-D numerical model calibrated using a set of continuously recording staff gages. CAESAR-Lisflood uses simplified-physics hydraulic routines to efficiently simulate flow depth and velocity and to drive size-specific sediment transport and morphodynamic change. This allows the model to simulate changes in flood inundation probability for the post- removal period. CAESAR-based hydraulic results are used to interpret our

  2. Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between the elevation of the static water level in wells and the elevation of the accounting surface within the Colorado River aquifer in the vicinity of Vidal, California, the Chemehuevi Indian Reservation, California, and on Mohave Mesa, Arizona, were used to determine which wells outside the flood plain of the Colorado River are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the elevation of the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Geographic Information System (GIS) interpolation tools were used to produce maps of areas where water levels are above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the accounting surface. Calculated water-level elevations and interpolated accounting-surface elevations were determined for 33 wells in the vicinity of Vidal, 16 wells in the Chemehuevi area, and 35 wells on Mohave Mesa. Water-level measurements generally were taken in the last 10 years with steel and electrical tapes accurate to within hundredths of a foot. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to determine land-surface elevations to within an operational accuracy of ? 0.43 foot, resulting in calculated water-level elevations having a 95-percent confidence interval of ? 0.84 foot. In the Vidal area, differences in elevation between the accounting surface and measured water levels range from -2.7 feet below to as much as 17.6 feet above the accounting surface. Relative differences between the elevation of the water level and the elevation of the accounting surface decrease from west to east and from north to south. In the Chemehuevi area, differences in elevation range from -3.7 feet below to as much as 8.7 feet above the accounting surface, which is established at 449.6 feet in the vicinity of Lake Havasu. In all of the Mohave Mesa area, the water-level elevation is near or below the

  3. 78 FR 14447 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Chattahoochee River National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... the developed, natural area recreation, and rustic zones. History of Trail Development This rule adds... opportunities for mountain biking will increase tourism and benefit local economies. ] One comment expressed a...

  4. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Westbrook, T.M. (Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  5. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR INDIAN RIVER COUNTY, FLORIDA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  6. 76 FR 6327 - Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Presidential Helicopter Squadron (HMX-1). The restricted area will also protect public health by preventing... of military assets at MCAF which includes the Presidential Helicopter Squadron (HMX-1). The...

  7. Middle to Late Pleistocene ice extents, tephrochronology and paleoenvironments of the White River area, southwest Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Derek G.; Ward, Brent C.; Bond, Jeffrey D.; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Froese, Duane G.; Telka, Alice M.; Zazula, Grant D.; Bigelow, Nancy H.

    2013-09-01

    Sedimentary deposits from two Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations and intervening non-glacial intervals exposed along the White River in southwest Yukon, Canada, provide a record of environmental change for much of the past 200 000 years. The study sites are beyond the Marine Isotope stage (MIS) 2 glacial limit, near the maximum regional extent of Pleistocene glaciation. Non-glacial deposits include up to 25 m of loess, peat and gravel with paleosols, pollen, plant and insect macrofossils, large mammal fossils and tephra beds. Finite and non-finite radiocarbon dates, and twelve different tephra beds constrain the chronology of these deposits. Tills correlated to MIS 4 and 6 represent the penultimate and maximum Pleistocene glacial limits, respectively. The proximity of these glacial limits to each other, compared to limits in central Yukon, suggests precipitation conditions were more consistent in southwest Yukon than in central Yukon during the Pleistocene. Conditions in MIS 5e and 5a are recorded by two boreal forest beds, separated by a shrub birch tundra, that indicate environments as warm or warmer than present. A dry, treeless steppe-tundra, dominated by Artemisia frigida, upland grasses and forbs existed during the transition from late MIS 3 to early MIS 2. These glacial and non-glacial deposits constrain the glacial limits and paleoenvironments during the Middle to Late Pleistocene in southwest Yukon.

  8. POPs accumulated in fish and benthos bodies taken from Yangtze River in Jiangsu area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanjiu; Sun, Cheng; Li, Juan; Zhao, Yonggang; Wang, Hui; Li, Yiqiang

    2009-08-01

    The persistent organic pollutants of DDTs, PCBs, PAHs and HCHs accumulated in the bodies of fish and benthos taken at seven sites were measured to understand the issue of ecological health of Yangtze River at Jiangsu section. The highest levels for DDTs, the total 20 PCBs, the total 16 PAHs and HCHs in fish bodies were 0.076 microg/kg, 23.1 microg/kg, 7.44 ng/kg and 0.028 microg/kg, respectively and that in benthos bodies were 0.082 microg/kg, 14.3 microg/kg, 21.1 ng/kg and 0.026 microg/kg. The PAHs concentrations in benthos were higher than that in fish and they had a significant positive correlation (P < 0.05). Among the detectable chemicals, DDTs were 100% of p,p'-DDE isomers, the main PCBs were 4- and 5-chlorinated biphenyls in which PCB 105 had the highest detection frequency and the main PAHs were the compounds of 2-4 rings. PCBs were accumulated in fish bodies which enrichment factors were as high as 508-42,414 folds occurred at three sites. The results demonstrated that the accumulation measurements can be used to test the effects of PAHs, DDTs, PCBs and HCHs on aquatic ecological health.

  9. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  10. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  11. Assessment of the warning system against floods on a rural area: the case of the lower Siret River (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of non-structural measures such as an early warning system, across the Europe, in flood risk management, requires a better understanding of the public involved and of the territory threatened. This paper aims to conduct an assessment of early warning and information to people with an analysis of the population's behaviour, presented in a form of an event tree. The objective is to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the warning system during a deadly flood in the lower Siret River (Romania in 2005 and to demonstrate that each warning system has to be adapted to the territory in which it is effective. The behavioural model aims to determine to what extent the warning system can be improved but also to suggest ways to adapt risk education to the study area.

  12. Hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and exploration direction of Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas in the Pearl River Mouth Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated geologic study was performed in the Baiyun–Liwan deep water areas, Pearl River Mouth Basin, based on the achievements obtained during the past five exploration stages. The following understandings were obtained. (1 The Baiyun Sag has superior source rock conditions and has experienced three tectonic evaluation stages like rifting, rifting-depression and depression. The Wenchang–Enping Fms deposited during the rifting stage have large hydrocarbon generation potentials. During the rifting-depression and depression stages, the deposition in the study area was controlled by the Oligocene and Miocene shelf slope break zones. The Oligocene Zhuhai Fm shallow marine delta-longshore depositional system and the Miocene Zhujiang–Hanjiang Fms deep fan depositional system were formed, and they are the most favorable reservoir-caprock assemblages in the study area. (2 The Hydrocarbon accumulation pattern in the deep waters is different from that in the northern shallow waters. Shelf slope break zone, composite conduction system consisting of structural ridge, fault, sandbody, unconformity and fluid diapir as well as late tectonic movement are the three major factors controlling hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the study area. (3 The Liwan 3-1 gas field is a typical example. The superior trapping conditions, high-quality reservoirs of delta distributary channel controlled by shelf slope break zone, vertical conduction system consisting of fault and diapir, as well as the overlying massive marine mudstone caprock provide favorable geologic conditions for the formation of large gas fields. Four areas were identified as the targets of gas exploration in the near future: the deep water fan system in the central sag, the structural-stratigraphic traps in the uplifted areas on both sides of the main sag of Baiyun, a series of large structural traps on the fault terrace to the southwest of the main sag, and the ultra-deep frontiers in

  13. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha−1 year−1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha−1 year−1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha−1 year−1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  14. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Dia, Ibrahima; Konate, Lassana; Ayala, Diego; Fontenille, Didier; Cohuet, Anna

    2012-09-05

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

  15. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  16. Compiling an Open Database of Dam Inundation Areas on the Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, and Red River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, P. G.; Walcutt, A.; O'Neil-Dunne, J.; Geheb, K.; Troy, A.; Saah, D. S.; Ganz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Dam construction in mainland Southeast Asia has increased substantially in recent years with extensive regional impacts including alterations to water regimes, the loss and degradation of natural forests and biodiversity, and reductions in soil and water quality. The CGIAR Water Land Ecosystem program (WLE) and partners maintain a comprehensive database of locations and other data relating to existing, planned, and proposed dams in the region's major transboundary rivers spanning areas in Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, and China. A recent regional needs assessment and specific stakeholder requests revealed the need for a dataset reflecting the inundation areas of these dams for use in measuring impacts to river ecology, analyzing disaster risk, monitoring land cover and land use change, evaluating carbon emissions, and assessing the actual and potential impacts to communities. In conjunction with WLE and other partners, SERVIR-Mekong, a regional hub of the USAID and NASA-supported SERVIR program, formulated an explicit procedure to produce this dataset. The procedure includes leveraging data from OpenStreetMap and other sources, creating polygons based on surface water classification procedures achieved via Google Earth Engine, manual digitizing, and modeling of planned/proposed dams based on a DEM and the location and planned height of dams. A quality assurance step ensures that all polygons conform to spatial data quality standards agreed upon by a wide range of production partners. When complete, the dataset will be made publicly available to encourage greater understanding and more informed decisions related to the actual and potential impacts of dams in the region.

  17. Stability of patches of oasis landscape in arid areas: A case study of Sangong River Watershed, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Geping; ZHOU Chenghu; CHEN Xi

    2006-01-01

    The stability of oases is one of the key scientific issues in the process of evolution and management of oases in arid areas. The stability of oases and its representation are also different at different scales. This paper deals with the stability of oases at the landscape patch scale with a case study in the Sangong River Watershed of Tianshan Mountains.We employed the remote sensing, geographic information system and mathematical statistical methods to process the remote sensing images of three periods in 1978, 1987 and 1998, and put forward the approaches for representing the oasis stability at the landscape patch scale. The landscape control capacity of oasis patches is a kind of natural driving forces of the dynamic landscape change. The control capacity of a certain patch type on landscape change increases with its area and shape complexity and contrasts between it and other patches, and reduces with its spatial distances between it and other patches. The patch type with the strongest control capacity should be the matrix of landscape. The conversion of oasis landscape patches results from both natural and anthropogenic driving forces, particularly the anthropogenic driving forces. The higher the conversion proportion is, the lower the stability of patch types is and the stronger the anthropogenic disturbance is. The patch type with the strongest net control capacity in the Sangong River Watershed in 1987 was the desert grassland, which was the matrix of landscapes; but the matrix of landscapes had been changed into the irrigated lands in 1987 and 1998.The control capacities of landscape patches on the oasis landscape evolution have gradually reduced with time in the Sangong River Watershed, and the change extents also have reduced gradually. This reveals that the interaction among the landscape patch types generally tends to reduce, and the natural stability of the oasis landscape patches generally tends to increase. However, the conversion among the

  18. Investigation of the Strontium-90 Contaminant Plume along the Shoreline of the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Patton, Gregory W.; Hartman, Mary J.; Spane, Frank A.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts are underway to remediate strontium-laden groundwater to the Columbia River at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Past practices of the 100-N reactor liquid waste disposal sites has left strontium-90 sorbed onto sediments which is a continuing source of contaminant discharge to the river. The Remediation Task of the Science and Technology Project assessed the interaction of groundwater and river water at the hyporheic zone. Limited data have been obtained at this interface of contaminant concentrations, geology, groundwater chemistry, affects of river stage and other variables that may affect strontium-90 release. Efforts were also undertaken to determine the extent, both laterally and horizontally, of the strontium-90 plume along the shoreline and to potentially find an alternative constituent to monitor strontium-90 that would be more cost effective and could possibly be done under real time conditions. A baseline of strontium-90 concentrations along the shoreline was developed to help assess remediation technologies.

  19. Impact of hydrological alterations on river-groundwater exchange and water quality in a semi-arid area: Nueces River, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgulet, Dorina; Murgulet, Valeriu; Spalt, Nicholas; Douglas, Audrey; Hay, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding and methods for assessing the effects of anthropogenic disruptions, (i.e. river fragmentation due to dam construction) on the extent and degree of groundwater-surface water interaction and geochemical processes affecting the quality of water in semi-arid, coastal catchments. This study applied a novel combination of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and elemental and isotope geochemistry in a coastal river disturbed by extended drought and periodic flooding due to the operation of multiple dams. Geochemical analyses show that the saltwater barrier causes an increase in salinity in surface water in the downstream river as a result of limited freshwater inflows, strong evaporation effects on shallow groundwater and mostly stagnant river water, and is not due to saltwater intrusion by tidal flooding. Discharge from bank storage is dominant (~84%) in the downstream fragment and its contribution could increase salinity levels within the hyporheic zone and surface water. When surface water levels go up due to upstream freshwater releases the river temporarily displaces high salinity water trapped in the hyporheic zone to the underlying aquifer. Geochemical modeling shows a higher contribution of distant and deeper groundwater (~40%) in the upstream river and lower discharge from bank storage (~13%) through the hyporheic zone. Recharge from bank storage is a source of high salt to both upstream and downstream portions of the river but its contribution is higher below the dam. Continuous ERT imaging of the river bed complements geochemistry findings and indicate that while lithologically similar, downstream of the dam, the shallow aquifer is affected by salinization while fresher water saturates the aquifer in the upstream fragment. The relative contribution of flows (i.e. surface water releases or groundwater discharge) as related to the river fragmentation control changes of streamwater chemistry and likely impact the interpretation

  20. Repetitive ERTS-1 observations of surface water variability along rivers and low-lying areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    The Earth Resources Technology Satellite, ERTS-1, provides an 18 day repetitive coverage capability and observations in the 0.8-1.1 micron spectral region where the contrast between water and adjacent surfaces is relatively large. Using these capabilities, observations in Virginia, Iowa, Missouri, and California have been acquired showing distinct patterns of flooding. Repetitive views of these areas before and after flooding have been examined, and flood mapping was performed. Sloughs in California can be seen to expand in terms of the area covered by standing water as time extends from summer to autumn. The results indicate that ERTS-1 imagery can be a valuable adjunct to conventional and aircraft survey methods for ascertaining the amount of area covered by water or affected by flooding.

  1. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine = Variabiliteit van verontreinigingen in een sedimentatiegebied van de Rijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended

  2. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  3. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  4. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  5. Geology of the Pumpkin Buttes Area of the Powder River Basin, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William Neil; White, Amos McNairy

    1956-01-01

    About 200 uranium occurrences have been examined in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Wyoming. Uranium minerals are visible at most of these places and occur in red and buff sandstone lenses in the Wasatch formation of Eocene age. The uranium minerals are disseminated in buff sandstone near red sandstone, and also occur in red sandstone in manganese oxide concretions and uraninite concretions.

  6. 76 FR 30024 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Corporation, as shipbuilder of Littoral Combat Ships, has requested on behalf of the Department of Navy, that... this rule. List of Subjects in 33 CFR Part 334 Danger zones, Marine safety, Navigation (water... read as follows: PART 334--DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS 0 1. The authority citation for...

  7. Geology of the area between the Luna and Torio rivers, southern Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staalduinen, van C.J.

    1973-01-01

    Precambrian clastic rocks, deposited under unstable conditions, were folded before in a relatively stable environment shallow marine sedimentation spread out over the whole area. Silico-clastic sediments were deposited from Cambrian to Devonian, except from the Lower-Middle Cambrian when carbonate d

  8. Satellite-based investigation of flood-affected rice cultivation areas in Chao Phraya River Delta, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, N. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chang, L. Y.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of catastrophic floods in Thailand in 2011 caused significant damage to rice agriculture. This study investigated flood-affected rice cultivation areas in the Chao Phraya River Delta (CRD) rice bowl, Thailand using time-series moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The data were processed for 2008 (normal flood year) and 2011, comprising four main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct time-series MODIS vegetation indices (VIs), to filter noise from the time-series VIs by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), and to mask out non-agricultural areas in respect to water-related cropping areas; (2) flood-affected area classification using the unsupervised linear mixture model (ULMM); (3) rice crop classification using the support vector machines (SVM); and (4) accuracy assessment of flood and rice crop mapping results. The comparisons between the flood mapping results and the ground reference data indicated an overall accuracy of 97.9% and Kappa coefficient of 0.62 achieved for 2008, and 95.7% and 0.77 for 2011, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by close agreement (R2 > 0.8) between comparisons of the two datasets at the provincial level. The crop mapping results compared with the ground reference data revealed that the overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients obtained for 2008 were 88.5% and 0.82, and for 2011 were 84.1% and 0.76, respectively. A strong correlation was also found between MODIS-derived rice area and rice area statistics at the provincial level (R2 > 0.7). Rice crop maps overlaid on the flood-affected area maps showed that approximately 16.8% of the rice cultivation area was affected by floods in 2011 compared to 4.9% in 2008. A majority of the flood-expanded area was observed for the double-cropped rice (10.5%), probably due to flood-induced effects to the autumn-summer and rainy season crops. Information achieved from this study could be useful for agricultural planners to mitigate possible impacts

  9. Remote Sensing Survey of Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet, Breton Sound Disposal Area, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    was certainly a commonplace event for many coastal sailers and steamers on their way to and from New Orleans and other ports in the Gulf. Small...several days to avoid the appearance of falsely anomalous areas resulting from diurnal changes in the magnetic field, solar activity, or other natural...following it, it is possible to smooth the data and minimize the effects of solar flares and diurnal shifts. This method tends to mask anomalies of

  10. Recreation Carrying Capacity Facts and Considerations. Report 9. Shenango River Lake Project Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    specific problems and examines possible solutioins; and it does not include the methodologies for deter- mining and monitoring social and resource...Lake Peru enta ’ of Users Responding: Reasons NotPleasant Unpleasant Nmortnt General Reasons Characteristics and behavior of other people 73...t - - - - - Make area’s existence- less ObVious 6n3 Site Planning Tch n iques Redes -ign a-e-t a-ccommodate fewer users 1050 -- ’.1 Des igni

  11. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically.

  12. H-Area Seepage Basins: Groundwater quality assessment report, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium. Concentrations of at least one of the following constituents: tritium, nitrate, total radium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, mercury, lead, cadmium, trichloroethylene chromium, and arsenic in excess of the primary drinking water standard (PDWS) were observed in at least one well monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were exhibited in seventy-seven of the 105 (73%) groundwater monitoring wells. Elevated levels of nitrate in excess of the PDWS were exhibited in forty-four of the 105 (42%) monitoring wells.

  13. H-Area Seepage Basins: Groundwater quality assessment report, Savannah River Site. Second quarter, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the wells which make up the H-Area Seepage Basins (H-HWMF) monitoring network were sampled. Laboratory analyses were performed to measure levels of hazardous constituents, indicator parameters, tritium, nonvolatile beta, and gross alpha. A Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) scan was performed on all wells sampled to determine any hazardous organic constituents present in the groundwater. The primary contaminants observed at wells monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins are tritium, nitrate, mercury, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and total radium. Concentrations of at least one of the following constituents: tritium, nitrate, total radium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, mercury, lead, cadmium, trichloroethylene chromium, and arsenic in excess of the primary drinking water standard (PDWS) were observed in at least one well monitoring the H-Area Seepage Basins. Elevated levels of tritium above the PDWS were exhibited in seventy-seven of the 105 (73%) groundwater monitoring wells. Elevated levels of nitrate in excess of the PDWS were exhibited in forty-four of the 105 (42%) monitoring wells.

  14. Water Balance Analysis at Karangmumus River Basin Area (RBA Samarinda City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Karangmumus RBA to getting degradation pressure being concrete drying and flooding so much to frighten. Climate data from BMG Temindung and SPAS Lempake has to water balance analysis based on Hewlett and Nutter methode. This region have the Area Class III (1500–2000 mm/year. With the bimodel or double wave rainfall models with C patern. The hight rainfall depth periode at December and April, therefore the low rainfall depth at September and November. Have level Q = ± 9.9%, or rainfall tipe A (very wet area with tropical wet vegetation and E1 agroclimte zone. Water balance monthly indicated that this area have to water surplus 8 month, i.e. January (27.0 mm, February (57.3 mm, March (119.7 mm, April (72.8 mm, May (48.4 mm, Juni (19.6 mm, November (58.7 mm and December (75.3 mm, or total amounts water surplus 478.8 mm/year. The water deficits at Juni (0.4 mm, July (0.3 mm, Augus (3.9 mm, September (13.6 mm and October (26.7 mm or total amount water deficits (44.5 mm/year.

  15. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  16. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  17. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  18. Nitrous oxide in the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent marine area: Riverine input, sediment release and atmospheric fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.-L. Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O was measured in the waters of the Changjiang (Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent marine area during five surveys covering the period of 2002–2006. Dissolved N2O concentrations ranged from 6.04 to 21.3 nM, and indicate great temporal and spatial variations. Distribution of N2O in the Changjiang Estuary was influenced by multiple factors and the key factor varied between cruises. Dissolved riverine N2O was observed monthly at station Xuliujing of the Changjiang, and ranged from 12.4 to 33.3 nM with an average of 19.4 ± 7.3 nM. N2O concentrations in the river waters showed obvious seasonal variations with higher values occurring in both summer and winter. Annual input of N2O from the Changjiang to the estuary was estimated to be 15.0 × 106 mol/yr. N2O emission rates from the sediments of the Changjiang Estuary in spring ranged from −1.88 to 2.02 μmol m−2 d−1, which suggests that sediment can act as either a source or a sink of N2O in the Changjiang Estuary. Average annual sea-to-air N2O fluxes from the studied area were estimated to be 7.7 ± 5.5, 15.1 ± 10.8 and 17.0 ± 12.6 μmol m−2d−1 using LM86, W92 and RC01 relationships, respectively. Hence the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent marine area are a net source of atmospheric N2O.

  19. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  20. [Speciation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Heavily Polluted Area of Xiaoqing River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Yong-xia; Gao, Fu-wei; Xu, Min-min; Sun, Bo; Wang, Ning; Yang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    Th concentrations of Cu, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni in interstitial water were analyzed by ICP-MS from the heavily polluted area of Xiaoqing River. A modified BCR's sequential extraction procedure was used to investigate the fraction of the heavy metals in the surface sediments. The aquatic toxicity of heavy metals in interstitial water was assessed by US Water Quality Criteria (CCC, CMC). Based on the speciation of the metals in the surface sediments, the ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with methods of risk assessment code (RAC) and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that: The tested heavy metals would not pose chronic toxicity for aquatic ecosystem. The contents of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) in the surface sediments were higher than the background values of the local soils, indicating enrichment of heavy metals. Cu, As and Ni were mainly composed with residual fractions, Pb and Cr were mainly constituted of residual and oxidizable fractions, and mass fractions of Zn and Cd existed mainly in acid soluble and reducible factions. The contents of bio-available fractions of Cd, Zn, Cr and Pb in the sediments were higher those of residual fractions, indicating high potential for secondary release. Based on calculation of RAC method, Cu, Pb, Cr and As posed extremely low to low risk to the environment. Accordingly, Ni was of low to medium risk, Cd was of medium to high risk, and Zn was of medium to extremely high risk to the environment. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediments was in the descending order of Cd > Zn > Ni > As > Cu > Cr > Pb. Cd had high to very high potential ecological risk comparing with the other heavy metals. The potential ecological risk indexes (RI) of the heavy metals in the sediments were in the range of 136.83-264.83, and posed medium to high potential ecological risks for Xiaoqing River.

  1. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    energy, and produce X-rays, microwaves and a shock wave that heats the solar surface. Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that predicts the nature and magnitude of the shock waves that this beam of energetic electrons should create when they slam down into the solar atmosphere. Although their theory directed them to the right area to search for the seismic waves, the waves that they found were 10 times stronger than they had predicted. "They were so strong that you can see them in the raw data," Kosovichev says. The solar seismic waves appear to be compression waves like the "P" waves generated by an earthquake. They travel throughout the Sun's interior. In fact, the waves should recombine on the opposite side of the Sun from the location of the flare to create a faint duplicate of the original ripple pattern, Kosovichev predicts. Now that they know how to find them, the SOHO scientists say that the seismic waves generated by solar flares should allow them to verify independently some of the conditions in the solar interior that they have inferred from studying the pattern of waves that are continually ruffling the Sun's surface. SOHO is part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program, a global effort to observe and understand our star and its effects on our environment. The ISTP mission includes more than 20 satellites, coupled with with ground-based observatories and modeling centers, that allow scientists to study the Sun, the Earth, and the space between them in unprecedented detail. ISTP is a joint program of NASA, ESA, Japan's Institute for Astronautical Science, and Russia's Space Research Institute. Still images of the solar quake can be found at the following internet address: FTP://PAO.GSFC.NASA.GOV/newsmedia/QUAKE/ For further information, please contact : ESA Public Relations Division Tel:+33(0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.76.90 3

  2. Hydrology and numerical simulation of groundwater flow and streamflow depletion by well withdrawals in the Malad-Lower Bear River Area, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolp, Bernard J.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Solder, John

    2017-03-28

    The Malad-Lower Bear River study area in Box Elder County, Utah, consists of a valley bounded by mountain ranges and is mostly agricultural or undeveloped. The Bear and Malad Rivers enter the study area with a combined average flow of about 1,100,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr), and this surface water dominates the hydrology. Groundwater occurs in consolidated rock and basin fill. Groundwater recharge occurs from precipitation in the mountains and moves through consolidated rock to the basin fill. Recharge occurs in the valley from irrigation. Groundwater discharge occurs to rivers, springs and diffuse seepage areas, evapotranspiration, field drains, and wells. Groundwater, including springs, is a source for municipal and domestic water supply. Although withdrawal from wells is a small component of the groundwater budget, there is concern that additional groundwater development will reduce the amount of flow in the Malad River. Historical records of surface-water diversions, land use, and groundwater levels indicate relatively stable hydrologic conditions from the 1960s to the 2010s, and that current groundwater development has had little effect on the groundwater system. Average annual recharge to and discharge from the groundwater flow system are estimated to be 164,000 and 228,000 acre-ft/yr, respectively. The imbalance between recharge and discharge represents uncertainties resulting from system complexities, and the possibility of groundwater inflow from surrounding basins.This study reassesses the hydrologic system, refines the groundwater budget, and creates a numerical groundwater flow model that is used to analyze the effects of groundwater withdrawals on surface water. The model uses the detailed catalog of locations and amounts of groundwater recharge and discharge defined during this study. Calibrating the model to adequately simulate recharge, discharge, and groundwater levels results in simulated aquifer properties that can be used to understand

  3. Preliminary characterization of the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    Historical information about the F-Area Railroad Crosstie Pile is limited. The unit is believed to have been a borrow area for earth fill that began receiving railroad crossties during the 1960s. The number of crossties at the unit began to increase significantly in 1984 when major repair of the SRS rail system was initiated. An estimated 100,000 used railroad crossties have accumulated at the unit since 1984. In an effort to determine the impact of the railroad crossties on the environment a total of 28 soil samples were collected from four test borings in March of 1991. Sample depths ranged from ground surface to 21.5 feet. Three of the borings were extended to the water table and groundwater samples were collected, one in an upgradient background'' area, and two downgradient from the unit. Few analytes were reported above detection limits. Test results are summarized in Section 4.0 and analytes not detected are summarized in Appendix A to this report. In three soil samples collected from depths between 10 and 21.5 feet, copper occurred at levels slightly above background. These copper values were detected in the sidegradient test boring and in the two downgradient test borings. Three organic analytes, acetone, pyridine, and Toluene, were reported above detection limits but well below drinking water standards (DWS) in all test borings, including the upgradient boring. Radionuclide activities were reported above background in both soil and water samples from all test borings. There do not appear to be any statistically significant trends in radionuclide activities with depth, or between upgradient or downgradient borings. The analytes detected in the test borings downgradient from the unit cannot be attributed to the railroad crosstie pile as they are not significantly different than the values reported for the upgradient, background test boring.

  4. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  5. THE DRIVING FORCES OF LAND USE/COVER CHANGE IN THE UPSTREAM AREA OF THE NENJIANG RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 TM images, the land use/cover change was detected in the up stream area of the Nenjiang River between 1995 and 2000. With the spatial analysis techniques of GIS, the maps of land use degree and its change within this period were produced. To identify the causes of changes, elevation and slope were regarded as the main natural influencing factors and were transformed from coverage format to grid format within GIS. The Thiesson polygon method was used to the spatial allocation of socio-economic factors including human population, live stock numbers, mechanizing power of farming and the nearest distance from the changed pixel to the trunk stream and to main settlements, thereby the spatial relationship between land use degree change and socio-economic factor variation was analyzed. According to results of the spatial correlation, the determinants of changes in land use/cover, i.e. eleva tion, slope, population density change, livestock increase were extracted quantitatively in this area. At last, the spatial multi-linear regression model of land use degree change was developed as follows: A La = 11. 037-4. 512 * eleva tion-0. 298 * slope + 0. 292 * △ population + 2. 596 * A livestock.

  6. Application of large capacity air gun in three-dimensional crustal structure exploration of the Pearl River estuary area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Gong, Xuan; Sun, Jinlong

    2017-06-01

    The air gun source has been widely used as an artificial source in seismic exploration of the sea area because of its simple operation, low risk, automatic continuous operation and almost no influence on the observation environment. In 2015, we carried out the 3-D crustal structural exploration project in the Pearl River estuary, 13 seismic sounding explorations were set up in the sea area, and activated air gun source for more than 12,000 times. Through records of ocean bottom seismograph (OBS) and fixed seismic stations, we found that seismic records of OBS can be clearly identified Pg, PmP, and other phases, the records of the fixed seismic stations can be clearly identified the air gun shot events. The results show that the energy of the air gun shot in this field exploration is quite good, and data can support the study of the three-dimensional structure of the crust in the sea by air gun shot records of seismometers.

  7. Groundwater interaction with surface drains in the Ord River Irrigation Area, northern Australia: investigation by multiple methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony J.; Pollock, Daniel W.; Palmer, Duncan

    2010-08-01

    Following 35 years of persistent groundwater rise beneath northern Ivanhoe Plain in the Ord River Irrigation Area, northern Australia, the water table appears to have stabilized near the base of the irrigation surface-drain network. Hydrometric evidence indicates that intersection of the deepest surface drains by the rising water table simultaneously reduced aquifer recharge from surface-water infiltration and increased aquifer discharge by groundwater exfiltration. Water-table analysis supports the working hypothesis that the largest irrigation drain D4 on north Ivanhoe Plain has been receiving a significant amount of groundwater discharge since the mid-1990s. The rate of groundwater discharge to surface drains on north Ivanhoe Plain was estimated to be around 15-20 million (M)L/day based on groundwater-flow modelling. Groundwater tracing using radon and electrical conductivity indicated that groundwater discharge to drain D4 was ˜6-12 ML/day in August 2007. The rate of groundwater discharge was significantly larger where the drain traverses a very-permeable sand and gravel palaeochannel. Relatively modest exfiltration rates of order of magnitude tens to hundreds of mm/day into the drain were estimated to mitigate 0.5 m/year groundwater accretion for a land area of order of magnitude hundreds to thousands of ha.

  8. Heavy-metal enrichment in surficial sediments in the Oder River discharge area: source or sink for heavy metals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimmield, G. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Rd., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Leipe, T.; Neumann, T. [Institut fuer Ostseeforschung Warnemuende, Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    The Oder river drains a highly polluted industrial area and enters the Baltic Sea through a system of shallow lagoons. Surficial sediments in the discharge area of the Oder are highly enriched in heavy metals compared to their preindustrial background levels. Pore-water studies in short sediment cores reveal anoxic environments over the entire sediment column, except for a suboxic layer in the uppermost 5 to 20 mm of the sediment where Mn- and Fe-oxyhydroxides are reduced by organic matter. Heavy metals (such as Cu, Zn and Pb) are mobilized within the suboxic zones in the inner lagoon (represented by the Oder Lagoon) and in the open Baltic (represented by the Arkona Basin). The Achterwasser, located between the Oder Lagoon and the Arkona Basin, is directly affected by sea-level fluctuations in the Baltic. Pore-water studies indicate that, in contrast to the situation in the Oder Lagoon and Arkona Basin, surficial sediments of the Achterwasser represent a sink for heavy metals. This is associated with the high rate of Fe-sulphide formation occurring there, at least seasonally during salt-water inflow.(Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Museum of water, green and the sun - Marumori. New energy vision of the Marumori Town area; 2001 nendo Marumori machi shin energy vision hokokusho. Chiiki shin energy vision sakutei tou jigyo (Mizu to midori nto taiyo no hakubutsukan Marumori)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In Marumori Town, Miyagi Prefecture, a 'new energy vision of the area' was worked out which indicated the assessment of the energy reserved in the town and the course of new energy to be determined in the future. The energy consumption amount of Marumori Town in FY 1999 was estimated at 47,535 kL in crude oil conversion. By sector, the energy consumption amount was the largest in the order of the industrial sector, the transportation sector and the commercial/residential sector. The availability of new energy in Maruyama Town was estimated at approximately 480,585 GJ, of which the solar energy utilization was the largest, 53.1%. The photovoltaic power generation was the next largest, 25.4%, followed by the temperature difference energy (underground water), 8.9%, clean energy car, 7.8%, etc. As a plan for the first introduction of new energy, the following were studied: introduction of photovoltaic power generation facilities to the Marumori Town Office, introduction of new energy to public facilities around the Fudoson Park, introduction of wind power generation facilities to the town-run pasture, construction of the Marumori-type biogas plant, construction of a mini hydroelectric power plant, introduction of clean energy car to public vehicles, introduction of new energy facilities to the area of Kawa-no-Eki (station of the river), etc. (NEDO)

  10. Long term effect of metal pollution in the catchment area of Tisza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Győri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.

  11. Assessment of microbial populations within Chicago area nearshore waters and interfaces with river systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Sible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chicago area locks separate and control water flow between the freshwaters of Lake Michigan and the network of Illinois waterways. Under extreme storm conditions, however, the locks are opened and storm waters, untreated waste, and runoff are released directly into the lake. These combined sewer overflow (CSO events introduce microbes, viruses, and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous into nearshore waters which likely affect the native species. We collected surface water samples from four Chicago area beaches – Gillson Park, Montrose Beach, 57th Street Beach, and Calumet Beach – every two weeks from May 13 through August 5, 2014. Sampling was conducted with four biological replicates for each sampling date and location, resulting in 112 samples. Each community was surveyed through targeted sequencing of the V4 16S rRNA gene. Technical replicates were also sequenced and are included in this dataset. Taxa were identified using Mothur. Raw sequence data is available via NCBI׳s SRA database (part of BioProject PRJNA245802.

  12. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  13. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  14. The Politics of Place: Official, Intermediate and Community Discourses in Depopulated Rural Areas of Central Spain. The Case of the Riaza River Valley (Segovia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical and methodological arguments to study the politics of space in small marginal and depopulated areas of Spain. The case for research is the Riaza river valley in the province of Segovia. Usually the analysis of rural space (and the geographical space in general) provides opposing presentations: vertical, between…

  15. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  16. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  17. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  18. Topographic data of selected areas along the Alabama River near Montgomery, Alabama, collected using mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrow, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Topographic data at selected areas within the Alabama River flood plain near Montgomery, Alabama, were collected using a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial light detection and ranging system. These data were collected for inclusion in a flood inundation model developed by the National Weather Service in Birmingham, Alabama. Data are presented as ArcGIS point shapefiles with the extension .shp.

  19. Elements of Climate Evolution in yhe Area Between Prut and Dniester Rivers. Landscape and Pedogenetic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigău Gheorghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Component part of the Carpathian-Danubian-Pontic space, the interfluve area between Prut and Dniester is subject to the regional process of climate evolution and change. In what regards the concept of human-influenced pedogenesis, the role of the biological factor is significantly reduced. As a consequence the direction and intensity of the elementary landscape and pedogenetic processes are determined by the relations between climate and the geomorphological factor. In the conditions of a relative stability of the geomorphological factor, the determining role is held by climate. To this is added soil vulnerability to the implications of climate changes, determined by the degree of soil physical degradation but also by a series of intrinsic and external (drainage factors. This implies the idea of the control and management of the landscape and pedogenetic implications of climate changes by improving soil physical characteristics.

  20. Field guide to hydrothermal alteration in the White River altered area and in the Osceola Mudflow, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Rytuba, James J.; Ashley, Roger P.; Blakely, Richard J.; Vallance, James W.; Newport, Grant R.; Heinemeyer, Gary R.

    2003-01-01

    . The morning of the trip will examine the White River altered area, which includes high-level alteration related to a large, early Miocene magmatic-hydrothermal system exposed about 10 km east of Enumclaw, Washington. Here, vuggy silica alteration is being quarried for silica and advanced argillic alteration has been prospected for alunite. Clay-filled fractures and sulfide-rich, fine-grained sedimentary rocks of hydrothermal origin locally are enriched in precious metals. Many hydrothermal features common in high-sulfidation gold-silver deposits and in advanced argillic alteration zones overlying porphyry copper deposits (for example, Gustafson and Hunt, 1975; Hedenquist and others, 2000; Sillitoe, 2000) are exposed, although no economic base or precious metal mineralized rock has been discovered to date. The afternoon will be spent examining two exposures of the Osceola Mudflow along the White River. The Osceola Mudflow contains abundant clasts of altered Quaternary rocks from Mount Rainier that show various types of hydrothermal alteration and hydrothermal features. The mudflow matrix contains abundant hydrothermal clay minerals that added cohesiveness to the debris flow and helped allow it to travel much farther down valley than other, noncohesive debris flows from Mount Rainier (Crandell, 1971; Vallance and Scott, 1997). The White River altered area is the subject of ongoing studies by geoscientists from Weyerhaeuser Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The generalized descriptions of the geology, geophysics, alteration, and mineralization presented here represent the preliminary results of this study (Ashley and others, 2003). Additional field, geochemical, geochronologic, and geophysical studies are underway. The Osceola Mudflow and other Holocene debris flows from Mount Rainier also are the subject of ongoing studies by the USGS (for example, Breit and others, 2003; John and others, 2003; Plumlee and others, 2003, Sisson and others, 2003; Vallance and

  1. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  2. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  3. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  4. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  5. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  6. Project Work Plan 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2006-04-30

    The 100-N Area Innovative Treatment and Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) identified phyto¬remediation as a potential technology both for the removal of 90Sr from the soil of the riparian zone and as a filter for groundwater along the Columbia River. Recent greenhouse and growth chamber studies have demonstrated the viability of phytoextraction to remove 90Sr from this area’s soil/water; in conjunction with monitored natural attenuation and an apatite barrier the process would make an effective treatment for remediation of the 100-N Area 90Sr plume. All activities associated with the 100-NR-1 and 100-NR-2 Operable Units of the Hanford 100-N Area have had, and continue to have, significant regulatory and stakeholder participation. Beginning in 1998 with the ITRD process, presentations to the ITRD TAG were heavily attended by EPA, Washington State Department of Ecology, and stakeholders. In addition, three workshops have been held to receive regulatory and stakeholder feedback on monitored natural attenuation, the apatite barrier, and phytoremediation; these were held in Richland in August 2003, December 2004, and August 2005. The apatite injection treatability test plan (DOE 2005) describes phytoremediation as a technology to be evaluated during the March 2008 evaluation milestone as described in the Tri-Party Agreement change request (M-16-06-01 Change Control Form). If, during this evaluation milestone, phytoremediation is favorably evaluated it would be incorporated into the treatability test plan. The phytoremediation treatability test described in this proposal is strongly supported by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  7. Long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven-year measurements of precipitation, lightning flashes, and visibility from 2000 to 2006 have been analyzed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China, with a focus on the Guangzhou megacity area. Statistical analysis shows that the occurrence of heavy rainfall (>25 mm per day and frequency of lightning strikes are reversely correlated to visibility during this period. To elucidate the effects of aerosols on cloud processes, precipitation, and lightning activity, a cloud resolving – Weather Research and Forecasting (CR-WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme is employed to simulate a mesoscale convective system occurring on 28 Match 2009 in the Guangzhou megacity area. The model predicted evolutions of composite radar reflectivity and accumulated precipitation are in agreement with measurements from S-band weather radars and automatic gauge stations. The calculated lightning potential index (LPI exhibits temporal and spatial consistence with lightning flashes recorded by a local lightning detection network. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to reflect aerosol conditions representative of polluted and clean cases. The simulations suggest that precipitation and LPI are enhanced by about 16% and 50%, respectively, under the polluted aerosol condition. Our results suggest that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation (less than 25 mm per day, but enhances heavy precipitation. The responses of hydrometeors and latent heat release to different aerosol loadings reveal the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement in the Guangzhou megacity area, showing more efficient mixed phase processes and intensified convection under the polluted aerosol condition.

  8. Delimitation and analysis of environmental protection areas in the Paraíba do Sul River Basin in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ortiz, Jussara; Rosim, Sergio; Jimenez Ortiz, Manoel; de Freitas Oliveira, João. R.; Morais, Rodolfo; Siqueira, Fernando R.

    2014-10-01

    This work establishes a semi-automatic methodology to define and evaluate the Environmental Protection Areas (EPA), in the Paraíba River Basin, Brazil, taking account the land use and the water quality. The development of this work started from the water capitation point of Guaratingueta city located on the stream that runs through the city. From ASTER GDEM data the drainage network and the basin catchment was automatically extracted. Landsat images for the dates of 1989, 2001 and 2014 were digitally classified and the land uses were mapped, considering the area of permanent protection (APP) for drainage, respecting the limits indicated by Brazilian forest code. Scenes from the RapidEye satellite were used to answer questions of classification, due to good image definition. The study showed that in 1989, the total area classified as APP, 37.59% were anthropized, reaching 37.98% in 2001 and 36.98% in 2014. In a few years it was possible to associate data from water quality, measured directly at the capitation. In 2001 the water quality data showed that the intensive use of fertilizers drained into the Guaratingueta stream by rice paddies was seriously affecting the water supply of the municipality. In 2008 measures for water quality at the capitation point showed that the water resources were still impacted by agricultural activities from the rice fields. So, this work indicates the need for revitalization of the APP inside the EPA Guaratingueta in order to meet the law, protect watersheds and also avoid large investments in water treatment arriving for public consumption.

  9. Impacts of aerosols on weather and regional climate over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Seven-year measurements of precipitation, lightning flashes, and visibility from 2000 to 2006 have been analyzed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China, with a focus on the Guangzhou megacity area. Statistical analysis shows that the occurrence of heavy rainfall (>25 mm per day and frequency of lightning strikes are reversely correlated to visibility during this period. To elucidate the effects of aerosols on cloud processes, precipitation, and lightning activity, a cloud resolving – Weather Research and Forecasting (CR-WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme is employed to simulate a mesoscale convective system occurring on 28 Match 2009 in the Guangzhou megacity area. The model predicted evolutions of composite radar reflectivity and accumulated precipitation are in agreement with measurements from S-band weather radars and automatic gauge stations. The calculated lightning potential index (LPI exhibits temporal and spatial consistence with lightning flashes recorded by a local lightning detection network. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to reflect aerosol conditions representative of polluted and clean cases. The simulations suggest that precipitation and LPI are enhanced by about 16 % and 50 %, respectively, under the polluted aerosol condition. Our results suggest that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation (less than 25 mm per day, but enhances heavy precipitation. The responses of hydrometeors and latent heat release to different aerosol loadings reveal the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement in the Guangzhou megacity area, showing more efficient mixed phase processes and intensified convection under the polluted aerosol condition.

  10. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  11. Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, D.G. Jr.

    2000-01-27

    This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area.

  12. 2012 Annual Report: Simulate and Evaluate the Cesium Transport and Accumulation in Fukushima-Area Rivers by the TODAM Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2013-03-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the application of the time-varying, one-dimensional sediment-contaminant transport code, TODAM (Time-dependent, One-dimensional, Degradation, And Migration) to simulate the cesium migration and accumulation in the Ukedo River in Fukushima. This report describes the preliminary TODAM simulation results of the Ukedo River model from the location below the Ougaki Dam to the river mouth at the Pacific Ocean. The major findings of the 100-hour TODAM simulation of the preliminary Ukedo River modeling are summarized as follows:

  13. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    populated areas, mainly near the ocean shore and in arid regions. Thus, great effort is expended on the study of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Also the Sun, via the solar irradiance and via the effects of the so-called solar wind of magnetic particles on the Earth's atmosphere, may affect the climate. There is no proof linking solar effects to short-term changes in the Earth's climate. However, such effects cannot be excluded, either, making it necessary to study the Sun. The experiments summarized in the present work contribute to the present-day study of our Sun by repeating, in the laboratory, some of the nuclear processes that take place in the core of the Sun. They aim to improve the precision of the nuclear cross section data that lay the foundation of the model of the nuclear reactions generating energy and producing neutrinos in the Sun. In order to reach this goal, low-energy nuclear physics experiments are performed. Wherever possible, the data are taken in a low-background, underground environment. There is only one underground accelerator facility in the world, the Laboratory Underground for Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 0.4MV accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. Much of the research described here is based on experiments at LUNA. Background and feasibility studies shown here lay the base for future, higher-energy underground accelerators. Finally, it is shown that such a device can even be placed in a shallow-underground facility such as the Dresden Felsenkeller without great loss of sensitivity.

  14. Characteristis of Soil Water and Salt Spatial Variations in the Spring Season in Typical Yellow River Delta Areas of Kenli County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zhuo-ran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Yellow River Delta as an important area of reserved land resources, is faced with the problem of soil salinization. Grasping the status of soil water and salt as well as their spatial variation rules is an important foundation of prevention, control and use of soil salinization. This study selected Kenli County of the Yellow River Delta, obtained soil water and salt content data through field survey and lab experiments, and analyzed the status of soil water and salt as well as their spatial variation rules using statistics, GIS interpolation and buffer analysis methods. The results showed that the general salt content in the study area was mainly moderate. Salt content increased from soil surfacelayer to underlayer and salt content in each layer was significantly correlated. The areas with high saltness in surfacelayer, middlelayer and underlayer soil mainly distributed in the east near the Bohai Sea in Kenli County, while the areas with lower saltness mainly distributed in the southwest. Soil salt contents showed the trends of decrease, and soil water contents showed the trends of decrease first and then increase with the increase in distance to Bohai Sea. Stretching from the Yellow River, soil salt content showed increase tendency with the increase in distance to the Yellow River, and water content decreased first and then increased. The order from high saltness to low of different vegetation types was naked land>suaeda glauca>tamarix>vervain>reed>couch grass>paddy>cotton>winter wheat>maize, the order of different geomorphic types was depression>slightly sloping ground>slow hillock>beach heights. This study preliminary delineates soil water and salt status as well as their spatial variation rules in the spring season of the study area, and provides scientific basis for soil resource sustainable utilization in the Yellow River Delta.

  15. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  16. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  17. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  18. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  19. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system in the Endicott-Vestal area of southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-07-29

    The village of Endicott, New York, and the adjacent town of Vestal have historically used groundwater from the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system for municipal water supply, but parts of some aquifers in this urban area suffer from legacy contamination from varied sources. Endicott would like to identify sites distant from known contamination where productive aquifers could supply municipal wells with water that would not require intensive treatment. The distribution or geometry of aquifers within the Susquehanna River valley fill in western Endicott and northwestern Vestal are delineated in this report largely on the basis of abundant borehole data that have been compiled in a table of well records.

  20. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Nutrients in two coastal prairie streams draining agricultural areas, 1994-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Larry F.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began nationwide implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Long-term goals of NAWQA are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation?s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources (Leahy and others, 1990). The Trinity River Basin in east-central Texas (fig. 1) was among the first 20 hydrologic areas, called study units, to be assessed by this program. The first intensive data-collection phase for the Trinity River Basin NAWQA began in March 1993 and ended in September 1995. Streams in the Trinity River Basin were assessed by sampling water, bed sediment, and tissue of biota and characterizing the aquatic communities and their habitat. Aquifers were assessed by sampling water from wells. The coastal prairie is a small part of the Trinity River Basin, but it is environmentally important because of its proximity to Galveston Bay and the extensive use of agricultural chemicals on many irrigated farms. Galveston Bay (fig. 1) was selected by Congress as an estuary of national significance and was included on a priority list for the National Estuary Program. The Trinity River is especially important because its watershed dominates the total Galveston Bay drainage area and because its flow contributes substantial amounts of freshwater and water-quality constituents to the bay. Historically, measurements of the quantity and quality of water entering Galveston Bay from the Trinity River Basin have been made using data from a station about 113 kilometers (70 miles) upstream from Trinity Bay, an inlet bay to Galveston Bay. With a focused objective of providing additional water-quality information in the intervening coastal prairie area and an overall objective of improving the understanding of the relations between farming practices

  1. MOVING BEYOND PUMP AND TREAT TOWARD ENHANCED ATTENUATION AND COMBINED REMEDIES T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Jay Noonkester, J; Gerald Blount, G

    2008-04-03

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site, is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site has received approval to discontinue the active treatments and implement a full scale test of enhanced attenuation--an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via cometabolism). For T-Area, the enhanced attenuation development

  2. Application of Mat Traps to Determine the Present Speed of Accumulation of Alluvium at the Ryazan Area in the Middle Reaches of the Oka River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtsov V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the processes of channel sedimentation in riverbeds of lowland rivers has important fundamental and practical importance. In the economic development of river valleys a lot of attention is paid to the dynamics of the major reliefforming processes within the floodplain. A typical example showing the pattern of forming landforms and type of floodplain processes is deposition and redeposition of riverine sediment. In the future sedimentation of alluvium in areas of riverine floodplain makes the growth rate of natural levees, islands and shoals. For the average flow of the Oka river the pace of modern dynamics of accumulation of alluvium in the riverine areas is clarified. For the first time in this area the method of mat traps is applied. Rubber and coconut fiber were selected as the main materials for the traps. Specific features of the application methods and the difficulties encountered in its application were defined. The authors obtained the data about thickness of the layer of sediment accumulation of river flood of 2015, the results of particle size analysis of alluvial material with traps. The main patterns of distribution of fractions of alluvium and the pace of accumulation of various forms of riverine floodplain accumulation were identified. Tested methodology has proven its effectiveness and was found promising for use in the future in this region.

  3. Mapping water surface roughness in a shallow, gravel-bed river using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, B. T.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid advances in remote sensing are narrowing the gap between the data available for characterizing physical and biological processes in rivers and the information needed to guide river management decisions. The availability and quality of hyperspectral imagery have increased drastically over the past 20 years and hyperspectral data is now used in a number of different capacities that range from classifying riverine environments to measuring river bathymetry. A fundamental challenge in relating the spectral data from images to biophysical processes is the difficulty of isolating individual contributions to the at-sensor radiance, each associated with a different component of the fluvial environment. In this presentation we describe a method for isolating the contribution of light reflected from the water surface, or sun glint, from a hyperspectral image of a shallow gravel-bed river. We show that isolation and removal of sun glint can improve the accuracy of spectrally-based depth retrieval in cases where sun glint dominates the at-sensor radiance. Observed-vs.-predicted R2 values for depth retrieval improved from 0.56 to 0.68 following sun glint removal. In addition to clarifying the signal associated with the water column and bed, isolating sun glint could unlock important hydraulic information contained within the topography of the water surface. We present data from flume and field experiments suggesting that the intensity of sun glint is a function of water surface roughness. In rivers, water surface roughness depends on local flow hydraulics: depth, velocity, and bed material grain size. To explore this relationship, we coupled maps of image-derived sun glint with hydraulic measurements collected with a kayak-borne acoustic Doppler current profiler along 2 km of the Snake River in Grand Teton National Park. Spatial patterns of sun glint are spatially correlated with field observations of near-surface velocity and depth, suggesting that reach scale hydraulics

  4. MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE ANALYSIS OF AN EPHEMERAL RIVER AREA USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH ON LANDSAT IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aquilino

    2014-01-01

    The historical archive of LANDSAT imagery dating back to the launch of ERTS in 1972 provides a comprehensive and permanent data source for tracking change on the planet‟s land surface. In this study case the imagery acquisition dates of 1987, 2002 and 2011 were selected to cover a time trend of 24 years. Land cover categories were based on classes outlined by the Curve Number method with the aim of characterizing land use according to the level of surface imperviousness. After comparing two land use classification methods, i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN approach was found the best reliable and efficient method in the absence of ground reference data. The ANN approach has a distinct advantage over statistical classification methods in that it is non-parametric and requires little or no a priori knowledge on the distribution model of input data. The results quantify land cover change patterns in the river basin area under study and demonstrate the potential of multitemporal LANDSAT data to provide an accurate and cost-effective means to map and analyse land cover changes over time that can be used as input in land management and policy decision-making.

  5. Response of Broilers to Two Management Systems of Housing in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalio, Godfrey Adokiye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted toinvestigate the performance of broiler chickens under the intensive and semi- intensive systems of poultry production in Etche Local Government Area of Rivers State.Results of the study revealed significant (P< 0.05 differences in all the parameters investigated between the broilers produced in the two management systems. Birds managed under the intensive systems showed superior performances in average final weight (1,372.25g/bird as compared to those managed in the semi-intensive system (1,161.25g/bird. The daily weight gains of the birds were also significantly (P< 0.05 different, with the birds in the intensive group showing better performance. The superiority in final weight observed in the intensively managed broilers further reflected in their dressing percentage and primal cuts.In contrast, broilers managed under the semi-intensive system possessed superior internal organs on account of the exposure of the birds to varying environmental condition and feeds they utilized as they scavenge. Hence with the current trend in super market revolution, where the availability of primal cuts of broilers and internal organs are a major means of sales of the chicken in Nigeria, better management of the birds to bring about better production of primal parts and internal organs is advocated.

  6. Leaf Area Index Retrieval Combining HJ1/CCD and Landsat8/OLI Data in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary restriction on high resolution remote sensing data is the limit observation frequency. Using a network of multiple sensors is an efficient approach to increase the observations in a specific period. This study explores a leaf area index (LAI inversion method based on a 30 m multi-sensor dataset generated from HJ1/CCD and Landsat8/OLI, from June to August 2013 in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, China. The characteristics of the multi-sensor dataset, including the percentage of valid observations, the distribution of observation angles and the variation between different sensor observations, were analyzed. To reduce the possible discrepancy between different satellite sensors on LAI inversion, a quality control system for the observations was designed. LAI is retrieved from the high quality of single-sensor observations based on a look-up table constructed by a unified model. The averaged LAI inversion over a 10-day period is set as the synthetic LAI value. The percentage of valid LAI inversions increases significantly from 6.4% to 49.7% for single-sensors to 75.9% for multi-sensors. LAI retrieved from the multi-sensor dataset show good agreement with the field measurements. The correlation coefficient (R2 is 0.90, and the average root mean square error (RMSE is 0.42. The network of multiple sensors with 30 m spatial resolution can generate LAI products with reasonable accuracy and meaningful temporal resolution.

  7. The Development of Multiple Conceptual Models for the High Risk Saline Water Upconing Area in the Chi River Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettasana, T.; Craig, J. R.; Tolson, B.; Sykes, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Recently, there has been a good deal of research into the benefits of using multiple conceptual models in the simulation of data-poor aquifer systems. Here, multiple conceptual and numerical models have been developed to inform improved management decisions in the Chi River Basin, Northeast Thailand, where increasing groundwater withdrawals may result in water level declination and saline water upconing problems. Effective management policies, including water allocation strategies, are required to ensure sustainable groundwater usage in this area. Twelve alternative models have been identified from the combinations of three alternative models of hydrosratigraphy, two alternative models of recharge, and two alternative models of boundary conditions. It was found that the largest impact on the water budget is due to uncertainty in the hydrogeological model whereas the uncertainty in boundary conditions has the smallest impact. To select the best among the alternative models, multiple model performance criteria have been defined and applied to evaluate the quality of individual models. It was found that even models chosen from this small set of alternatives perform differently with respect to different evaluation criteria, and that it is unlikely that a single comparison criterion will ever be sufficient for general use. Rather, it is suggested here that performance or information criterion used for model selection and aggregations should be objective-specific. Once suitable performance metrics have been identified, the chosen alternative models may then be used both individually and collectively to assess the adverse impacts of future groundwater withdrawals and to formulate alternative water supply strategies.

  8. Funeral sites of the beginning of the Late Bronze age in the estuarine Trans-Kama river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyganov Anton V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers results of 2014 field research of the first stage of the late Bronze Age burial grounds in the Volga-Kama region –Novo-Mordovo II and Stary Kuybyshev VI. These burial grounds are located in the area of the abrasion escarpment of Kuybyshev dam lake, in the confluence of the Volga and the Kama rivers. The first burial ground was discovered by A.H. Khalikov in 1962, the second is a recent discovery. The authors believe that the funeral rite and the inventory of these sites are very similar. All inhumations were made in shallow sub-quadrangular pits, in a crouched position on the left side. The funeral rite and the inventory combine elements of the Pokrovskiy and the Potapovskiy cultural types, which makes the authors to suggest the origins of formation of the Zaymishche type sites here. Analogies revealed in the sites of the Pokrovskiy and Potapovskiy types date existence of Novo-Mordovo II and Stary Kuybyshev VI burial grounds to the period preceding the Srubnaya cultural-historical community, and overall can fit within 19th – 18th centuries BC.

  9. 59 FR- Prohibited Acts in West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-15

    ... INTERIOR [OR-030-03-1220-04: GS-043] Prohibited Acts in West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and... and restrictions within the boundaries of the West Little and North Fork Owyhee Rivers as established in the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic Rivers Management...

  10. Late Pleistocene and Holocene-Age Columbia River Sediments and Bedforms: Hanford Reach Area, Washington - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Fecht, T.E. Marceau

    2006-03-28

    This report presents the results of a geologic study conducted on the lower slopes of the Columbia River Valley in south-central Washington. The study was designed to investigate glaciofluvial and fluvial sediments and bedforms that are present in the river valley and formed subsequent to Pleistocene large-scale cataclysmic flooding of the region.

  11. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  12. Estimating flooded area and mean water level using active and passive microwaves: the example of Paraná River Delta floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salvia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure to estimate both the fraction of flooded area and the mean water level in vegetated river floodplains by using a synergy of active and passive microwave signatures. In particular, C band Envisat ASAR in Wide Swath mode and AMSR-E at X, Ku and Ka band, are used. The method, which is an extension of previously developed algorithms based on passive data, exploits also model simulations of vegetation emissivity. The procedure is applied to a long flood event which occurred in the Paraná River Delta from December 2009 to April 2010. Obtained results are consistent with in situ measurements of river water level.

  13. Estimating flooded area and mean water level using active and passive microwaves: the example of Paraná River Delta floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salvia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a procedure to estimate both the fraction of flooded area and the mean water level in vegetated river floodplains by using a synergy of active and passive microwave signatures. In particular, C Band Envisat ASAR in Wide Scan mode and AMSR-E at X, Ku and Ka Band, are used. The method, which is an extension of previously developed algorithms based on passive data, exploits also model simulations of vegetation emissivity. The procedure is applied to a long flood event which occurred in the Paraná River Delta from December 2009 to April 2010. Obtained results are consistent with in situ measurements of river water level.

  14. Glacier changes between 1976-2015 in the source area of the Ayayarwady River and implications to water availability in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Kühle, Laila; Evers, Mariele

    2017-04-01

    The Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar is one of the largest rivers in Asia, but it is at the same time the least known river in that region. The mighty river with a length of about 2.170 km, serves for transportation, domestic and industrial water supply, irrigation, a high biodiversity and fishing. The headwaters of the Ayeyarwady River are fed by glacial meltwater from the Himalayan Mountains (China and Myanmar) and it has not been studied yet, whether these glaciers have been changed in size and volume during the last decades. We here present a first assessment of glacier changes in the river source area for the period between 1976-2015 by using and analyzing Landsat (1-3, 4-5, 7, 8) images. 130 glaciers were identified for the years 1976, 1990, 2002 and 2015 and the results indicate that the average volume of these glaciers show a very dramatic loss up to -68% since 1976. Thereby, the highest volume loss could be detected in the period 2002-2015. If the present declining trend will continue, the glaciers will be disappeared completely by around 2050. Although glacial meltwater input is only the second relevant contribution to the river discharge after monsoon precipitation, the glacial input is still visible in the hydrographs of the Ayeyarwady. Already now, the people in Myanmar are affected by climate (monsoon rain) variability and the decreasing glacier volumes imply additional modifications in water availability and supply to which they have to adapt their water management and agricultural land use.

  15. Late pleistocene aggradation and degradation of the lower colorado river: Perspectives from the Cottonwood area and other reconnaissance below Boulder Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Mahan, S.A.; Paces, J.B.; Hudson, M.R.; House, P.K.; Malmon, D.V.; Blair, J.L.; Howard, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Where the lower Colorado River traverses the Basin and Range Province below the Grand Canyon, significant late Pleistocene aggradation and subsequent degrada tion of the river are indicated by luminescence, paleomagnetic, and U-series data and stratigraphy. Aggradational, finely bedded reddish mud, clay, and silt are underlain and overlain by cross-bedded to plane-bedded fine sand and silt. That sequence is commonly disconformably overlain by up to 15 m of coarse sand, rounded exotic gravel, and angular, locally derived gravel. Luminescence dates on the fine sediments range from ca. 40 ka to 70 ka, considering collective uncertainties. A section of fine grained sediments over a vertical range of 15 m shows normal polarity magnetization and little apparent secular variation beyond dispersion that can be explained by com paction. Aggradation on large local tributaries such as Las Vegas Wash appears to have been coeval with that of the Colorado River. The upper limits of erosional rem nants of the sequence define a steeper grade above the historical river, and these late Pleistocene deposits are greater than 100 m above the modern river north of 35??N. Ter race gravels inset below the upper limit of the aggradational sequence yield 230Th dates that range from ca. 32 ka to 60 ka and indicate that degradation of the river system in this area closely followed aggradation. The thick sequence of rhythmically bedded mud and silt possibly indicates set tings that were ponded laterally between valley slopes and levees of the aggrading river. Potential driving mechanisms for such aggradation and degradation include sediment-yield response to climate change, drought, fire, vegetation-ecosystem dynam ics, glaciation, paleofloods, groundwater discharge, and building and destruction of natural dams produced by volcanism and landslides. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  16. Composition of shrimp populations (Crustacea: Decapoda in non-vegetated areas of two river islands in a Brazilian Amazon estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shrimp found in non-vegetated areas of an estuary of the Amazon River. We ascertained the input of juveniles, species' biometrics and the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of species. The samples were collected monthly, from August 2006 to July 2007, in two places in the estuary, each next to an island. For collecting, we used a manual trawl to perform three hauls per month, totaling 36 samples per site. The abundance of shrimps was estimated as a function of the density of specimens per unit area. We used the Spearman's correlation to test the hypothesis that there is significant correlation between the average of the environmental variables measured and variations in shrimp density. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were significant differences in environment factors (temperature and salinity among the months and sites. We obtained 6,091 shrimps, from which 5,231 (85.88% were caught off the Arapiranga Island and 860 (14.12% off the Mosqueiro Island, Palaemonidae and Penaeidae were the only families recorded. Five species were collected: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, and Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967. The latter (pink shrimp was found for the first time in oligohaline environments (0-8. Macrobrachium amazonicum was the most abundant species. The recruitment of M. amazonicum juveniles was continuous throughout the year. The population of M. surinamicum was composed by juveniles and adults and that of F. subtilis exclusively by juveniles. The environmental factors analyzed were variable throughout the year and seem to explain the patterns of shrimp species occurrence in the region, the variation in their abundance and juvenile recruitment.

  17. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  18. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  19. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  20. Contribution à la ré-évaluation de l’aire de répartition du singe à queue de soleil (Cercopithecus solatus Contribution to the reassessment of the the sun-tailed monkey (Cercopithecus solatus distribution area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Motsch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Cercopithèque à queue de soleil (Cercopithecus solatus est uneespèce endémique du Gabon, où il a été observé pour la première fois en 1984 par Mike Harrison et décrit en 1988. A ce jour, peu d'informations sont disponibles sur cette espècediscrète et rare. Pour pallier le manque d’études sur cette espèce, le projet ECOSOL (ECOlogie de C. SOLatus, projet de recherche multidisciplinaire, a été initié en janvier 2009 pour améliorer les connaissances sur cette espèce peu connue et pour encouragersa conservation. Depuis près de 2 ans, de nouvelles données ont été acquises, en particulier sur l’aire de répartition de l’espèce, dont nous avons ici étudié la limite sud-est. Notre étude s’est déroulée dans trois régions du Gabon où la présence de c. solatus était soit démontrée (zone historique, soit suspectée, soit n’avait jamais été étudiée. Des enquêtes dans des villages et des marches de reconnaissance sur le terrain ont ainsi été réalisées. Les résultats obtenus ont 1/ confirmé la présence de C solatus dans la zone historique, 2/ semblent soutenir les hypothèses de sa présence en dehors et 3/ suggèrent même que C. solatus serait plus au sud-est et plus près de la République du Congo que ce qui a été jusqu’alors affirmé. Cette étude a contribué à réexaminer la distribution des populations de C. solatus sur le territoire gabonais, fournissant ainsi des outils supplémentaires pour juger du statut de conservation de l’espèce.The sun-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus solatus is an endemic species of Gabon, where it was first observed in 1984 by Mike Harrison and described in 1988. To date, little information is available on this cryptic and rare species. To overcome the lack of studies on this species, the ECOSOL project (ECOlogy of C. SOLatus, a multidisciplinary research project, was initiated in January 2009 to improve knowledge on this poorly known species and to

  1. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samb Badara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Methods Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Results Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. Conclusions The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

  2. Physiological response of riparian plants to watering in hyper-arid areas of Tarim River,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiao; WANG Qiang; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong

    2007-01-01

    The physiological responses and adaptive strategies of Populus euphratica Oliv.(arbor species),Tamarix ramosissima Ldb.(bush species),and Apocynum venetum L.(herb species)to variations in water and salinity stress were studied in the hyper-arid environment of the Tarim River in China.The groundwater table,the saline content of the groundwater,as well as the content of free proline,soluble sugars,plant endogenous hormones (abscisic acid (ABA),and cytokinins (CTK))of the leaves of the three species were monitored and analyzed at the lower reaches of the Tarim River in the study area where five transects were fixed at 100 m intervals along a vertical sampling line before and after water release.Saline stress dramatically increased soluble sugar concentration of the three species.Differences in sugar accumulation were determined among the species at different transects.The free proline concentration of the leaves of T.ramosissima and P.euphratica showed a proportional decrease with various degrees of elevation of the groundwater table after water release.There was a least correlation between the soluble sugars and proline stimulation in T.ramosissima.It was strongly suggested that T.ramosissima developed a different strategy to accumulate organic solutes to adapt to the stress environment.The soluble sugars and proline accumulation responded to the changes of groundwater table independently:the former occurred under salt stress,whereas the latter was more significant under drought stress.The concentration and the increase in concentration of ABA and CTK involved in stress resistance of the three species were also determined.This increase in the hormone concentration in P.euphratica was different from that of the other two species.Expressed as a function of increase of ABA concentration in leaves,A.venetum and T.ramosissima showed a different solute accumulation in response to groundwater table.There was a significant correlation between ABA accumulation and A [proline

  3. Research on River Ice Forecast of Freeze-up and Break-up in Yellow River Source Area%黄河源区河道冰封开河预报研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝振纯; 杜一衡; 鞠琴; 鲁承阳

    2014-01-01

    研究黄河源区封开河日期的预报模型,对于填补黄河源区凌情研究的空白,进一步了解气候变化对源区径流过程的影响十分重要。根据黄河源区的水文、气象资料,从热力因素、水力因素和河道条件等方面筛选了影响河流凌情演变的主要因子,选用多元线性回归法和人工神经网络法对封河日期和开河日期进行了预测,并对预测结果进行了对比分析,初步建立起具有一定精度的黄河源区河冰封开河预报模型。%The study on forecast model of freeze-up and break-up date is significant important to understand the ice-slush in the source region of Yellow River and the impacts of climate changes on runoff process of Yellow River source area. Based on the hydrological data and weather data of source region of Yellow River, the main factors which affecting river ice-slush evolution are selected from various factors of thermal, hydraulic and river channel conditions, and then the dates of freeze-up and break-up are forecasted by using multiple linear regression and artificial neural network methods. The forecast results are also compared. The ice forecast of freeze-up and break-up model is initially set up for the source region of Yellow River.

  4. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  5. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  6. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  7. Effect of no-flow in the Lower Yellow River on groundwater formation and usage in areas along the banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng CAO; Xueyan YE; Kaijun WANG; Jiyi JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Frequent flow cutoff has a serious effect on the eco-environment of the region along the Lower Yellow River. The authors study the impact on lateral seepage quantity and groundwater cycling caused by cutoff of the Yellow River and compare it with that of the year 1999 through the numerical simulation model of ground-water flow system of the affected zone. The lateral seepage quantity decreased 53.8% on flow cutoff stage from Huayuankou to the river entrance and breaking time of 300 d. The lateral seepage quantity will decrease 46.3% if flow cutoff is from Jiahetan to the river entrance and breaking time is 300 d, and it will decrease 75.2% if flow cutoff occurs throughout the year. The lateral seepage quantity will decrease 19.8% if flow cutoff is from Luokou to the river entrance and breaking time is 300 d, and it will decrease 25.1% if flow cutoff occurs throughout the year. The lateral seepage quantity will decrease 4.7% if flow cutoff is from Lijin to the river entrance and flow cutoff occurs throughout the year. Flow cutoff of the Yellow River has a minor effect on the shape of ground-water flow domain of the affected zone. Thus, the bound-ary condition of the shallow groundwater system will not change. Although flow cutoffhas a major influence on the riverside source fields in the Lower Yellow River, it will not have a significant effect on groundwater resources macroscopically in the affected zone of the Yellow River due to its large storage capacity.

  8. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  9. Nature conditionings of the cultural landscape in the area between the Ropa and Wisłok rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soszyński, Dawid

    2011-01-01

    The principal aim of the dissertation was to analyze the influence of natural environment components on main elements of the cultural landscape. The characteristics of each component were presented separately for the three main types of physiographic regions: mountains, foothills and depressions. Additionally, in selected cases, the analyses of cultural landscape evolution during the last centuries were presented. The research area is located between the Ropa and the Wisłok rivers in Beskid Niski and Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie - two regions in SE part of Poland. Besides, three small drainage basins were chosen for detailed investigation. The main method applied in dissertation, especially in spatial landscape structure research, was a cartographic analysis in GIS system. The elements of the cultural landscape described in this paper were: main communication routes, settlement patterns and dwellings (including spatial settlement distribution, country buildings, sacral landscape, industrial buildings) as well as land use. According to the research carried out in this work, the component of the natural environment which has had the most significant influence on the cultural landscape is land relief, especially land slopes. The impact of this factor is leading on all elements of the cultural landscape. The other factors (surface and ground waters, climate, soils, natural resources) have had a significant influence only on some of the analyzed elements. The elements of the cultural landscape which are most dependent on natural factors are spatial settlement distribution and the pattern of land use. In case of other cultural landscape elements, natural factors play less important but still significant role. The research proved that natural conditionings of the cultural landscape are less clear in the depression area and most clear within foothills and mountain areas, depending on analyzed cultural elements. A decrease of correlation intensity between natural and cultural

  10. Hydrologic, vegetation, and soil data collected in selected wetlands of the Big River Management area, Rhode Island, from 2008 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Meredith S.; Golet, Francis C.; Armstrong, David S.; Breault, Robert F.; McCobb, Timothy D.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board planned to develop public water-supply wells in the Big River Management Area in Kent County, Rhode Island. Research in the United States and abroad indicates that groundwater withdrawal has the potential to affect wetland hydrology and related processes. In May 2008, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island formed a partnership to establish baseline conditions at selected Big River wetland study sites and to develop an approach for monitoring potential impacts once pumping begins. In 2008 and 2009, baseline data were collected on the hydrology, vegetation, and soil characteristics at five forested wetland study sites in the Big River Management Area. Four of the sites were located in areas of potential drawdown associated with the projected withdrawals. The fifth site was located outside the area of projected drawdown and served as a control site. The data collected during this study are presented in this report.

  11. Floodplain deposits, channel changes and riverbank stratigraphy of the Mekong River area at the 14th-Century city of Chiang Saen, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Spencer H.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Bundarnsin, Tharaporn

    2008-10-01

    Riverbank stratigraphy and paleochannel patterns of the Mekong River at Chiang Saen provide a geoarchaeological framework to explore for evidence of Neolithic, Bronze-age, AD 5th Century Yonok and AD 14-16th Century Lan Na Cultures. Typical bank stratigraphy charted on the Thailand side is imbricate cobble gravel overlain by 5-10 m of reddish-brown sandy silt. The silt section is composed chiefly of 1/2 to 2-m thick layers of massive silt without paleosols interpreted as near-channel floodplain and gently-inclined levee deposits laid down by episodic, infrequent, large floods. The surface soil is dark-brown clay loam (pottery shards and charcoal of Lan Na time. Brick ruins of 14-16th Century Buddhist temples are crumbling into the river at Chiang Saen Noi, and formerly did so at Chiang Saen until banks were stabilized by rock walls. Bank retreat from river erosion has been > 20 m since Lan Na time, and has exposed a silt-filled moat. A radiocarbon age of 1475 cal yr AD was obtained from charcoal at the bottom of the moat, beneath 5.6 m of silt. Lag material from erosion of the silt banks contains Neolithic and Bronze Age artifacts out of stratigraphic context, as well as ceramics and bricks of Lan Na age. These artifacts as well Neolithic artifacts obtained from a 1972 excavation near the mouth of the Kham River indicate long human habitation of this riverbank area. In northern Thailand the Mekong is mostly in a bedrock canyon, but shifting topography along the active strike-slip Mae Chan fault has formed the upstream 2-5-km wide floodplain at Chiang Saen, and downstream has diverted the river into a broad S-shaped loop in the otherwise straight course of the river. A 1.7-Ma basalt within the bedrock channel 45-km downstream of Chiang Saen indicates little vertical incision by the river. Satellite images show former channels in the Chiang Saen area, meander-point-bar scrolls (radii of curvature > 1.2 km), and floodplain edges as arcuate cuts of similar curvature

  12. River Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  13. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  14. Unioned layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coal assessment area, Green River Basin, Wyoming (porbbfing.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the spatial query layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming....

  15. Wyodak-Anderson mine and lease areas in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana (prbleasg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a representation of the mine and lease boundaries in the Powder River Basin. This theme was created specifically for the National...

  16. Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge & Management Area Hunting and Fishing Plan : Intra-Service Section 7 Evaluation Form

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Section 7 Evaluation states that the Patoka River NWR Hunting and Fishing Plan is not likely to adversely affect listed species or critical habitats on the...

  17. LiDAR Data Collection for the James River Watershed and Adjacent Areas in South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The collection of LiDAR data for the James River basin began in 2010. The detailed surface elevation data will be used for conservation planning, design, research,...

  18. Relationship between sand-dust weather and water dynamics of desert areas in the middle reaches of Heihe River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Niu; XianDe Liu; Xin Li; YanQiang Wei; Hu Zhang; XiaoYan Li

    2016-01-01

    Sand-dust weather has become an international social-environmental issue of common concern, and constitutes a serious threat to human lives and economic development. In order to explore the responses of natural desert sand and dust to the dynamics of water in desertification, we extracted long-term monitoring data related to precipitation, soil water, groundwater, and sand-dust weather. These data originated from the test stations for desertification control in desert areas of the middle reaches of the Heihe River. We used an algorithm of characteristic parameters, correlations, and multiple regression analysis to establish a regression model for the duration of sand-dust weather. The response char-acteristics of the natural desert sand and dust and changes of the water inter-annual and annual variance were also examined. Our results showed: (1) From 2006 to 2014 the frequency, duration, and volatility trends of sand-dust weather obviously increased, but the change amplitudes of precipitation, soil water, and groundwater level grew smaller. (2) In the vegetative growth seasons from March to November, the annual variance rates of the soil moisture content in each of four studied layers of soil samples were similar, and the changes in the frequency and duration of sand-dust weather were similar. (3) Our new regression equation for the duration of sand-dust weather passed the R test, F test, and t test. By this regression model we could predict the duration of sand-dust weather with an accuracy of 42.9%. This study can thus provide technological support and reference data for water resource management and re-search regarding sand-dust weather mechanisms.

  19. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  20. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...