WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun protection products

  1. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun exposure. The start of summer is when UV rays can cause the most skin damage. Use sun protection, even on cloudy days. Clouds and haze don't protect you from the sun. Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas ...

  2. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  3. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure Anyone working outdoors is exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, even on cloudy ... nausea, and fatigue. In addition to the skin, eyes can become sunburned. Sunburned eyes become red, dry, ...

  4. Protective clothing in the sun | Tamas | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.

  5. Sun exposure, sun protection and sunburn among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Fioletov, Vitali

    2017-05-17

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and a history of sunburn are important risk factors for skin cancer. Sunburn is more common among men, younger age groups, and people in higher income households. Sun protection measures also vary by sex, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Associations between ambient UVR and sunburn and sun safety measures have not been quantified. A total of 53,130 respondents aged 18 or older answered a Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) module on sun safety, which was administered in six provinces from 2005 to 2014. The module contained questions about sunburn, time in the sun, and sun protection. These respondents were linked to an ambient erythemal UVR dataset representing the June-to-August mean. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine associations between population characteristics, sunburn, sun safety, time in the sun, and ambient UVR. Sunburn was reported by 33% of respondents and was more common among men, younger age groups, people who were not members of visible minorities, residents of higher income households, and individuals who were employed. On a typical summer day, a larger percentage of women than men sought shade and wore sunscreen, whereas a larger percentage of men wore a hat or long pants. As ambient summer UVR increased, women were more likely to apply sunscreen to their face, seek shade, or wear a hat (OR~1.02 to 1.09 per increase of 187 J/m² of erythemally-weighted UVR, or 5.4% of the mean); these associations were not observed among men. Findings related to sunburn and sun protection were similar to those of previous studies. The association between ambient UVR and women's precautionary measures suggests that information about UVR may influence their decision to protect their skin.

  6. Sun protection counseling by pediatricians has little effect on parent and child sun protection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Liza; Brown, Judith; Haukness, Heather; Walsh, Lori; Robinson, June K

    2013-02-01

    To compare counseling concerning sun protection and outdoor exercise with the parent's report of the behavior of a child aged 9-16 years old. Structured interviews of medical personnel in 3 Chicago area practices elicited information about counseling methods and recommendations. In each practice, a convenience sample of parents completed a self-reported survey of their and their child's behavior. Sun protection counseling occurred more frequently than exercise counseling in all practices (P = .014). Sun protection counseling was associated with parental prompting (P = .004), performing a summer camp physical (P = .002), and the child having a sunburn (P = .003). After controlling for the child's age, sex, and skin tone, sun protection counseling was not associated with the child's use of sun protection. In multivariate analysis of the child's sun protection behavior, parental sunburns, indoor tanning in the last 12 months, perception of skin cancer risk, and sun protection self-efficacy were significant (P = .02). Children who pursued outdoor sports were twice as likely to use inadequate sun protection and sustain sunburns (CI 1.3-1.7). The child's sun protection behavior was influenced by parental sun protection, parental perception of skin cancer risk, and parental sun protection self-efficacy; therefore, sun protection for children needs to be aimed at parents as well as children. Communication with parents in a way that incorporates the principles of motivational interviewing may be more effective in promoting behavioral change than admonitions to use sunscreen. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sun Protection for Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Shafie Pour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ultraviolet exposure results in premature skin aging (photoaging, dyspigmentation, sallow color, textural changes, loss of elasticity, and premalignant actinic keratoses. UVB radiation is mainly responsible for acute damages such as sunburn, and long-term damage including melanoma. Today the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced skin cancer is a major issue worldwide. History of sun exposure and sunburns are the most important behavioral risks. Childhood sun exposure is considered as a substantial risk because a child’s skin has a thinner stratum corneum, lower levels of protective melanin, and a higher surface area to body-mass-ratio. Thus, protection against UVR in childhood is essential. Research has shown that people who have had a sunburn in childhood or were in the sun unprotected are more likely to have skin cancer. In this article, we review the literature to address the protection of children against sun and skin cancer.

  8. Formulation of a topical sun protection cream for people with albinism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to design and develop a sun protection product for people with albinism that is affordable, applicable to their specific skin condition, and provide them with the maximum sun protection possible. To achieve the required Sun Protection Factor value of > 20, simple creams were combined with ...

  9. Sun Protection; A risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Sun Protection differentiates itself from other texts by adopting a risk-management approach to determine whether, how, and in what circumstances, harm might be caused, and to explore the feasibility of various strategies in controlling exposure to solar UV radiation. This multi-disciplinary book covers topics from climatology through human exposure to sunlight, as well as biological and clinical effects of UV radiation to physical and chemical strategies for photoprotection.

  10. Counseling on Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Sophie J; Gottschlich, Elizabeth A; Holman, Dawn M; Watson, Meg

    2017-12-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends clinical counseling for individuals ages 10 to 24 years to decrease skin cancer risk. A national, random sample of US American Academy of Pediatrics members practicing primary care in 2002 (response rate 55%) and 2015 (response rate 43%). Surveys explored attitudes and experiences regarding sun protection counseling; indoor tanning questions were added in 2015. χ 2 tests compared demographics and counseling responses across years, and multivariable logistic regression models examined counseling predictors. More pediatricians in 2015 (34%) than in 2002 (23%) reported discussing sun protection during recent summer months with ≥75% of patients. This pattern held across all patient age groups (each P tanning at least once with 10 to 13 year-old patients; approximately half discussed this with older adolescents. Most (70%) did not know if their states had laws on minors' indoor tanning access; those stating they knew whether a law existed counseled more. Although improved, sun protection counseling rates remain low. Indoor tanning counseling can be improved. Because early-life exposure to UV radiation increases risk and clinician counseling can positively impact prevention behaviors, pediatricians have an important role in skin cancer prevention; counseling may save lives. Time constraints remain a barrier. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Skin Tone Dissatisfaction, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Ettridge, Kerry; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the adoption of sun protection and sun exposure behaviors, the extent to which these behaviors group together, and the relationship between skin tone dissatisfaction and sun-related behaviors in South Australian adolescents (aged 12-17). A total of 2,875 secondary school students (1,461 male and 1,414 female) completed a questionnaire including questions about sun protection and sun exposure behaviors and skin tone dissatisfaction. Regular adoption of sun protection behaviors was low and ranged from 20% (wearing protective clothing) to 44% (sunscreen use). A principal components analysis identified four subgroups of sun-related behaviors: sun protection, appearance enhancement, sun avoidance, and sun exposure. Females had significantly higher skin tone dissatisfaction than males. Skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with decreased sun protection and avoidance and increased appearance enhancement and sun exposure in both males and females. Skin tone dissatisfaction plays an important role in Australian adolescents' sun-related behavior. Appearance-based interventions may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk through reduced sun exposure.

  12. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reddy, Tarylee; Mathee, Angela; Street, Renée A

    2017-09-28

    Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7%) were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%). Glare from the sun (59.7%) and excessive sweating (57.6%) were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard ( p = 0.003). In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  13. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7% were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%. Glare from the sun (59.7% and excessive sweating (57.6% were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard (p = 0.003. In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  14. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  15. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  16. Sun Protection Practices and Sun Exposure among Children with a Parental History of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Beth A.; Lin, Tiffany; Chang, L. Cindy; Okada, Ashley; Wong, Weng Kee; Glanz, Karen; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives of melanoma survivors have a substantially higher lifetime risk for melanoma than individuals with no family history. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary modifiable risk factor for the disease. Reducing UV exposure through sun protection may be particularly important for children with a parental history of melanoma. Nonetheless, limited prior research has investigated sun protection practices and sun exposure among these children. Methods The California Cancer Registry was used to identify melanoma survivors eligible to participate in a survey to assess their children's sun protection practices and sun exposure. The survey was administered by mail, telephone, or web to Latino and non-Latino white melanoma survivors with at least one child (0–17 years; N = 324). Results Sun exposure was high and the rate of sunburn was equivalent to or higher than estimates from average risk populations. Use of sun protection was suboptimal. Latino children were less likely to wear sunscreen and hats and more likely to wear sunglasses, although these differences disappeared in adjusted analyses. Increasing age of the child was associated with lower sun protection and higher risk for sunburn whereas higher objective risk for melanoma predicted improved sun protection and a higher risk for sunburns. Perception of high barriers to sun protection was the strongest modifiable correlate of sun protection. Conclusions Interventions to improve sun protection and reduce sun exposure and sunburns in high risk children are needed. Impact Intervening in high risk populations may help reduce the burden of melanoma in the U.S. PMID:25587110

  17. Predicting sun protection behaviors using protection motivation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Joanne W M; Glendon, A Ian

    2014-04-01

    Protection motivation theory components were used to predict sun protection behaviors (SPBs) using four outcome measures: typical reported behaviors, previous reported behaviors, current sunscreen use as determined by interview, and current observed behaviors (clothing worn) to control for common method bias. Sampled from two SE Queensland public beaches during summer, 199 participants aged 18-29 years completed a questionnaire measuring perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, response costs, and protection motivation (PM). Personal perceived risk (similar to threat appraisal) and response likelihood (similar to coping appraisal) were derived from their respective PM components. Protection motivation predicted all four SPB criterion variables. Personal perceived risk and response likelihood predicted protection motivation. Protection motivation completely mediated the effect of response likelihood on all four criterion variables. Alternative models are considered. Strengths and limitations of the study are outlined and suggestions made for future research.

  18. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleeved shirts and long pants and skirts can provide protection from UV rays. Clothes made from tightly woven ... expected. Remember to plan ahead, and keep sun protection handy—in your car, bag, or child’s backpack. Sun Safety in Schools The Protect Your Students from Skin Cancer fact ...

  19. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  20. 'My child did not like using sun protection': practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Zamantimande; Albers, Patricia N; Lucas, Robyn M; Banwell, Cathy; Mathee, Angela; Wright, Caradee Y

    2017-08-25

    Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child's 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade). Most mothers (97%) liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86) reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  1. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool managers were less likely to agree that they needed to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D. Lifeguards and parents who were non-Caucasian were less likely to report that sunlight helped the body to produce vitamin D. A stronger belief about the need to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D predicted more sun exposure for lifeguards. For parents, a stronger belief that they can get enough vitamin D from foods predicted greater sun protection and a stronger belief that sunlight helps the body produce vitamin D predicted lower sun exposure. This study provides information regarding vitamin D beliefs and their association with certain sun related behaviors across different demographic groups that can inform education efforts about vitamin D and sun protection. PMID:22851950

  2. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Strickland, Mark; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Lin, Chad

    2016-07-13

    Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals' risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day) and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14-17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity), gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  3. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pettigrew

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals’ risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Methods Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14–17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Results Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity, gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. Conclusion There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  4. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  5. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  6. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  7. Testing and Labelling of Sun Protective Clothing for Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, R.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest shown in the protective properties of clothing against the harmful effects of UV radiation from the sun. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising in many parts of the world, but especially in Australia and northern Europe. This is due to a number of factors including changing lifestyles, perceptions of the 'tanned image' and ozone depletion. Initial research was carried out in Australia where a test method for fabrics was formulated with a classification procedure. A number of European countries have taken up this initiative including the UK which earlier last year produced their own test method - BS 7914:1998. The European Union are now in the final stages of formulating the test method to be used by all member countries. Further work has also been carried out by BSI to investigate the complex aspects of labelling criteria in respect of garments. This has culminated in the recent publication (i.e. July 1999) of another standard - BS 7949:1999 - entitled 'Children's Clothing Requirements for Protection against Erythemally Weighted Solar Ultraviolet Radiation'. Other, more difficult parameters not yet covered in any of the published standards are still to be evaluated. These include the changes in the sun protection properties of textiles in a wet and/or stretched condition (precisely the state of many garments worn in the sun) and the requirements for products such as sun-shades and parasols where the measurement of UV reflectance is also very relevant. This current situation is reviewed and those aspects highlighted where resources for investigative research are needed, particularly by textile manufacturers and retailers. (author)

  8. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  9. Skin Cancer-Sun Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviors of Liver Transplant Recipients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.

  10. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  11. Sun exposure and sun protection behaviours among young adult sport competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Sheleigh; Spathonis, Kym; Eakin, Elizabeth; Gallois, Cindy; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville

    2007-06-01

    To explore the relationship between sun protection and physical activity in young adults (18-30 years) involved in four organised sports. Participants (n=237) in field hockey, soccer, tennis and surf sports completed a self-administered survey on demographic and sun-protective behaviours while playing sport. Differences in sun-protective behaviour were explored by sport and by gender. Sunburn during the previous sporting season was high (69%). There were differences between sports for sunburn, sunscreen use and reapplication of sunscreen. Lifesaving had the highest rates compared with the other three sports. Hats and sunglasses worn by participants varied significantly by sports. A greater proportion of soccer and hockey players indicated they were not allowed to wear a hat or sunglasses during competition. For all sports, competition was played mainly in the open with no shade provision for competitors while they were playing. There were some gender differences within each of the sports. Female soccer and tennis players were more likely to wear sunscreen compared with males. Female hockey players were more likely to wear a hat compared with males. Our findings highlight that there is still room for improvement in sun-protective behaviours among young adult sport competitors. There is a need for a systematic approach to sun protection in the sporting environments of young adults. Health promotion efforts to increase physical activity need to be paired with sun protection messages.

  12. Trends in sunburns, sun protection practices, and attitudes toward sun exposure protection and tanning among US adolescents, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokkinides, Vilma; Weinstock, Martin; Glanz, Karen; Albano, Jessica; Ward, Elizabeth; Thun, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Sun exposure in childhood is an important risk factor for developing skin cancer as an adult. Despite extensive efforts to reduce sun exposure among the young, there are no population-based data on trends in sunburns and sun protection practices in the young. The aim of this study was to describe nationally representative trend data on sunburns, sun protection, and attitudes related to sun exposure among US youth. Cross-sectional telephone surveys of youth aged 11 to 18 years in 1998 (N = 1196) and in 2004 (N = 1613) were conducted using a 2-stage sampling process to draw population-based samples. The surveys asked identical questions about sun protection, number of sunburns experienced, and attitudes toward sun exposure. Time trends were evaluated using pooled logistic regression analysis. In 2004, 69% of subjects reported having been sunburned during the summer, not significantly less than in 1998 (72%). There was a significant decrease in the percentage of those aged 11 to 15 years who reported sunburns and a nonsignificant increase among the 16- to 18-year-olds. The proportion of youth who reported regular sunscreen use increased significantly from 31% to 39%. Little change occurred in other recommended sun protection practices. A small reduction in sunburn frequency and modest increases in sun protection practices were observed among youth between 1998 and 2004, despite widespread sun protection campaigns. Nevertheless, the decrease in sunburns among younger teens may be cause for optimism regarding future trends. Overall, there was rather limited progress in improving sun protection practices and reducing sunburns among US youth between 1998 and 2004.

  13. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  14. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  15. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob

    2017-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents' experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents' outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade) and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  16. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  17. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  18. Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p = 0.032), educational level (p < 0.0001), sunscreen use (p = 0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p = 0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p < 0.0001) and regular use of hats (p = 0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population.

  19. Child sun protection: sun-related attitudes mediate the association between children's knowledge and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian

    2008-12-01

    To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex-year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours.

  20. Sun protection and skin self-examination in melanoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Urvi J; Hay, Jennifer L; Monroe-Hinds, Yvette C; Hummer, Amanda J; Begg, Colin B; Wilcox, Homer B; Oliveria, Susan A; Berwick, Marianne

    2009-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with melanoma are at risk for developing recurrent and second primary disease. Skin self-examination (SSE) and sun protection are standard clinical recommendations to minimize risk. In this study we examined performance of these behaviors in individuals with melanoma drawn from the general population. Potential participants (N=148) with a first primary melanoma diagnosed in 2000 were identified through a population-based cancer registry in New Jersey, USA. One hundred and fifteen individuals participated in a 30 min telephone interview concerning behavioral adherence with SSE and sun protection, self-efficacy for performing these behaviors, and perceived risk of developing another skin cancer. We utilized logistic regression to estimate potential associations of demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors with SSE and sun protection, respectively. Seventeen percent of subjects reported performing comprehensive SSE at least once every two months and 23% engaged in regular sun protection. Utilization of SSE was related to the presence of moles (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 1.1-15) and higher SSE self-efficacy (OR=14.4, 95% CI: 1.9-112). Regular sun protection was related to older age (>60 years; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.7), being female (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.3), and higher sun protection self-efficacy (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 1.4-18). These factors remained significant in multivariate models. In this group of primary melanoma survivors, the rates of SSE and sun protection are comparable to, but do not exceed, general population estimates. This study provides justification for further research to address barriers to prevention and control behaviors in melanoma survivors.

  1. Seasonal skin darkening in Chinese women: the Shanghaiese experience of daily sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huixia; Flament, Frederic; Long, Xiaohui; Wu, Jun; Xu, Mengzhi; Leger, Didier Saint; Meaudre, Helene; Senee, Jerome; Piot, Bertrand; Bazin, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The facial skin tone of two groups of Chinese women from Shanghai was compared using standard colorimetric space techniques during a 6-month interval between January and July 2011. During the study period, one group of women (n = 40) applied a potent sun-protective cosmetic product daily, while the other group (n = 40) did not use any sun protection. The results, based on images taken using a standardized digital camera coupled to a spectroradiometer, showed that sun protection largely mitigated changes in the components of skin tone, ie, lightness, melanization, and individual typology angle parameters. The skin darkening process appeared to be reduced or prevented in the sun-protected group when compared with the control group. The sun-protected women had participated in an earlier study in 2008, which confirmed that seasonal skin darkening occurs from winter through summer in Shanghaiese women. Comparing the data obtained in the winters of 2008 and 2011, we were able to identify better the impact of 3 years of aging on the components of skin tone. Comparing data between seasons on the same women with (2011 study) and without (2008 study) sun protection highlights the role of the test product in preventing skin darkening.

  2. The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, Vish; Rutsch, Linda; Zwirn, Jodie; Gorham, Sue; Puleo, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of…

  3. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  4. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Yang, Chunxue; Li, Fei; Fan, Jing; Wang, Linggao; Cai, Minqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women). Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products. PMID:25794187

  6. Skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Medine; Yavuz, Betul; Subasi, Media; Kartal, Asiye; Celebioglu, Aysun; Kacar, Halime; Adana, Filiz; Ozyurek, Pakize; Altiparmak, Saliha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students. A total of 1178 nursing students in the Aegean Region of Turkey took part in this descriptive study. A score for knowledge on protection against skin cancer and a score for protective behavior against skin cancer were calculated. In this study, first year students sunbathed more in the middle of the day than fourth year students, and their knowledge of skin cancer was lower. No statistical difference was determined for protective behavior between the two groups. The knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year students were alarmingly low, but the average scores for knowledge and behavior of the fourth year university students were higher. The knowledge levels of the fourth year students were average but their protective behavior was insufficient. It was found that the knowledge levels and the levels of protective behavior of light-skinned students were higher. This study revealed that the knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year nursing students against the harmful effects of the sun and for protection against skin cancer were alarmingly low. It also showed that the knowledge levels of the fourth year nursing students were average, but that their protective behavior was very insufficient. These findings suggest that it is of extreme importance to acquire knowledge and behavior for protection against skin cancers in the education of nursing students. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  7. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  8. Issues in summer safety: a call for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, B

    1999-01-01

    Summer is associated with vacation and time spent in the outdoors. It is also a time when parents and children need to be reminded of the dangers and long-term health effects of being exposed to hazards of the sun. It has been estimated that the regular use of sunscreen during childhood would reduce the lifetime incidence of certain types of skin cancer by 78%. Selecting a sunscreen may be a difficult task. Pediatric nurses and other health care professionals are in a pivotal position to educate both parents and children on the benefits of sun protection and offer information about strategies for enjoying a safe summer.

  9. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  10. Mediation analysis of decisional balance, sun avoidance and sunscreen use in the precontemplation and preparation stages for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Mediation analyses of sun protection were conducted testing structural equation models using longitudinal data with three waves. An effect was said to be mediated if the standardised path between processes of change, decisional balance and sun protection outcomes was significant. Longitudinal models of sun protection using data from individuals in the precontemplation (N = 964) and preparation (N = 463) stages who participated of an expert system intervention. Nine processes of change for sun protection, decisional balance constructs of sun protection (pros and cons), sun avoidance behaviour and sunscreen use. With the exception of two processes in the preparation stage, processes of change predicted the pros (r = .126-.614), and the pros predicted the outcomes (r = .181-.272). Three models with the cons as mediator in the preparation stage, and none in the precontemplation stage, showed a mediated relationship between processes and outcomes. In general, mediation analyses found both the process of change-to-pros and pros-to-behaviour paths significant for both precontemplation and preparation stages, and for both sun avoidance and sunscreen use outcomes. Findings provide support for the importance of assessing the role of underlying risk cognitions in improving sun protection adherence.

  11. Sun protection policies and practices in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Jopson, Janet A; Gray, Andrew

    2012-02-10

    For schools with primary age students, to report the percentages meeting specific requirements of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP). Schools were randomly selected, within geographic regions, from the Ministry of Education schools database. A questionnaire, mailed to school principals, assessed schools regarding 12 criteria for accreditation: policy, information, hats, 'play in the shade', sunscreen, clothing, role modelling, curriculum, planning, rescheduling, shade provision and review. Post-stratification weights (for achieving each criterion) were used to compensate for oversampling within some regions and differential response rates between regions, using the number of schools per region. 388 schools (representative in socioeconomic decile, size and type) participated. Less than 4% fully met accreditation criteria. Clothing (42%), curriculum delivery and shade (each 54%) requirements were met by the fewest schools. Staff role modelling (92%) was the most commonly met. Schools with uniforms tended to have more protective clothing expectations. Ongoing promotion is needed to consolidate gains and encourage comprehensive sun protection through policies, practices, environment and curriculum. Staff role modelling requirements may be strengthened by implementing existing occupational guidelines for mitigating UVR hazards. There is a need to further assist schools, particularly regarding sun protective clothing, curriculum delivery and environmental shade.

  12. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. To protect or not to protect: examining reasons for sun protection among young women at risk for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, M V; Heckman, C J; Darlow, S

    2018-03-27

    We aimed to further the understanding of the low rates of sun protection in young women at risk for skin cancer. Six-hundred-sixty-one daily diary entries were received via text message over 14 days from 56 young women at moderate to high risk of developing skin cancer. Women reported whether or not they used sun protection and also listed what their reasons were for using protection or not using sun protection each day. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the influence of study variables when predicting daily sun protection or lack of protection. The number of days in which sun protection was reported was positively associated with "habit" and "prevention" as reasons for protection and negatively associated with "not-needed" and "unprepared" as reasons for non-protection. Self-reported sun protection increased over the 14-day study period. Results of this study suggest the potential value of interventions aimed at motives for sun-protection behaviors.

  14. How to Improve Adolescents' Sun Protection Behavior? Age and Gender Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…

  15. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight......-blind study in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy volunteers, 8 male and 15 female, were enrolled. The protective effect of three different doses of melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight was tested. All participants had their backs exposed to sun from 1:22 PM.......5% concentrations. CONCLUSION: Application of melatonin cream 12.5% protects against natural sunlight induced erythema....

  16. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  17. Parental use of sun protection for their children-does skin color matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Marcus G; Nag, Shudeshna; Weinstein, Miriam

    2018-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. This study aimed to compare the frequency of ideal sun protection use between parents with lighter- and darker-skinned children and explore their attitudes and beliefs on sun safety and their choice of sun protection. Parents of children aged 6 months to 6 years completed self-administered questionnaires about sun protection practices for their children. Parents assessed their child's Fitzpatrick phototype and were divided into lighter- (Fitzpatrick phototype I-III) and darker-skinned (Fitzpatrick phototype IV-VI) groups. Sun safety guidelines from the Canadian Dermatology Association were used to qualify ideal sun protection. A total of 183 parents were included. Overall, 31 parents (17%) used ideal sun protection for their children. As their children grew older, parents were less likely to use ideal sun protection (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.90). Parents in the lighter-skinned group were more likely to use ideal sun protection for their children (odds ratio = 7.4, 95% confidence interval = 2.7-20.1), believe that sun exposure was harmful (odds ratio = 17.2, 95% confidence interval = 4.0-74.9), and perceive value in sun protection (odds ratio = 11.4, 95% confidence interval = 3.3-39.0); the darker-skinned group believed that darker skin tones provided more sun protection (odds ratio = 12.4, 95% confidence interval = 6.1-25.4). Ideal parental sun protection efforts are overall low, particularly in parents of darker-skinned children. The identified attitudes toward and beliefs about sun safety may aid in delivery of future sun protection interventions, especially in multiracial populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  19. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137 responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31 participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  20. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Validity and Stability of the Decisional Balance for Sun Protection Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Qing Yin; Joseph S. Rossi; Colleen A. Redding; Andrea L. Paiva; Steven F. Babbin; Wayne F. Velicer

    2014-01-01

    The 8-item Decisional Balance for sun protection inventory (SunDB) assesses the relative importance of the perceived advantages (Pros) and disadvantages (Cons) of sun protective behaviors. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SunDB measure, including invariance of the measurement model, in a population-based sample of N = 1336 adults. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the theoretically based 2-factor (Pros, Cons) model, with high internal consistencies for each subscale...

  2. Sun protection training based on a theater play for preschoolers: an effective method for imparting knowledge on sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Nadja; Stoelzel, Friederike; Garzarolli, Marlene; Herrmann, Sandra; Breitbart, Eckhard Wilhelm; Berth, Hendrik; Baumann, Michael; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Sun protection in childhood is important to reduce the risk of developing skin cancer later in life. The "Periods-of-Life-Program" for primary prevention of skin cancer introduces a combination of individual and environmental interventions for the preschool period. Within this pilot study, an intervention group received cognitive-behavioral and environmental interventions. A control group had solely received the environmental intervention, and a wait-control group received no intervention. Nursery school children (n = 80, 3 to 6 years of age) of four nursery schools were randomly assigned to these groups on school level. The ability of the cognitive-behavioral intervention (a theater play) to enhance sun protection knowledge was examined. The theater play improved knowledge over all age groups (p < .05 η(2) = .06). Age-specific analyses showed better results for children aged 5 to 6 (p < .05 η(2) = .20) compared to children aged 3 to 4 years (p = .17 η(2) = .04). In combining cognitive-behavioral and environmental interventions, the "Periods-of-Life-Program" is a promising strategy for primary prevention of skin cancer.

  3. Professional skippers' sun-protection knowledge and behavior in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Olivier; Bousser, Véronique; N'goala, Brigitte; Doloir, Anatole; Quist, Danièle; Derancourt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary inquiry, conducted on Martinique Island, sought to determine professional skippers' sun-protection knowledge and behavior. Fifty-two skippers (mean age: 41 years) completed a questionnaire; 39 (75 %) had a simple sunburn over the last 6 months and 3 (6%) severe sunburn; 54 (64%) declared achieving sun protection by wearing clothes during >90% of the day. Only 17% had used sun protection >90% of the time. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. Sun protection education for diverse audiences: need for skin cancer pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L.; Gordon, Elisa J.; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K.

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 wom...

  5. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  6. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  7. Parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding sun protection in children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Zoe; Greenfield, Sheila

    2018-02-01

    Childhood is a critical period for sun protection, when the skin is particularly susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation. Children are dependent upon parents to implement sun protective measures. Existing qualitative research exploring parents' attitudes and beliefs underpinning children's sun protection is from Australia, which has the highest melanoma incidence rates globally, and thus benefits from widespread sun protection awareness campaigns. Parents' sun protective behaviour may, therefore, differ between Australia and the UK. This study investigates the topic in a UK context, using qualitative methodology to gain detailed insights into a relatively under-researched area. The aim of the study was to explore parents' knowledge and understanding of sun protection in children, and factors that motivate and challenge them in this area. Finally, it aimed to determine if and how ethnicity and skin type influence these attitudes and beliefs. Twenty-two semi-structured individual interviews were carried out with parents of children aged 5 years or younger, recruited from local nurseries. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged, each incorporating two to three sub-themes. 'Attitudes towards children's sun protection' refers to the fact that parents considered sun protection to be important for children, a finding which was consistent between different skin types. 'Sun protection practices' brings together several protective behaviours adopted in children and, to a lesser degree, in parents, and their associated disadvantages. 'Sun safety knowledge' refers to parents' awareness of the risks of sun exposure and the need for protection, and illustrates where gaps in knowledge exist, such as regarding the need for vitamin D, and the importance of vigilant sun protection even in the UK. Finally, 'motivating and facilitating factors' highlights motivations for sun protection in children, and factors that

  8. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Patricia M; Taylor, Julie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Childhood is a high risk time for ultraviolet induced skin damage as this age group has more time and opportunity to be outdoors in the sun. Children in Africa with the inherited condition oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) are especially vulnerable due to their lack of protective melanin. They are highly susceptible to developing skin lesions that have both cosmetic and health complications, with a high risk of developing skin cancers. The study aimed to explore the adequacy of sun protection strategies of children with albinism in order to inform future provision. Methods Community based participatory research methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies in 90 pupils with OCA (40 female and 50 male) boarding at a special school educating pupils with visual impairment in a rural area of northern South Africa. Hats worn and sunscreen preparations used were examined during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in small peer groups. The resident nurse interpreted if necessary and provided additional information on monitoring and treatment of skin lesions. Results Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year and showed skin damage despite wearing protective head gear. All except one pupil possessed at least one hat, with a mean brim width of 5.4 cm. Gender differences in sun avoidance behaviour were documented, with females seeking shade during recreational periods and males playing soccer outside. Although 38% of pupils were using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) rating, only 12% had government sponsored tubes of SPF15 cream. Government sponsored sunscreen preparations were only provided if actively sought, involving time consuming trips to regional hospitals, with inadequate availability and insufficient supply. Conclusion Children with albinism living away from home in rural areas appear to have inadequate sun protection strategies. Changes in

  9. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Julie S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood is a high risk time for ultraviolet induced skin damage as this age group has more time and opportunity to be outdoors in the sun. Children in Africa with the inherited condition oculocutaneous albinism (OCA are especially vulnerable due to their lack of protective melanin. They are highly susceptible to developing skin lesions that have both cosmetic and health complications, with a high risk of developing skin cancers. The study aimed to explore the adequacy of sun protection strategies of children with albinism in order to inform future provision. Methods Community based participatory research methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies in 90 pupils with OCA (40 female and 50 male boarding at a special school educating pupils with visual impairment in a rural area of northern South Africa. Hats worn and sunscreen preparations used were examined during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in small peer groups. The resident nurse interpreted if necessary and provided additional information on monitoring and treatment of skin lesions. Results Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year and showed skin damage despite wearing protective head gear. All except one pupil possessed at least one hat, with a mean brim width of 5.4 cm. Gender differences in sun avoidance behaviour were documented, with females seeking shade during recreational periods and males playing soccer outside. Although 38% of pupils were using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF rating, only 12% had government sponsored tubes of SPF15 cream. Government sponsored sunscreen preparations were only provided if actively sought, involving time consuming trips to regional hospitals, with inadequate availability and insufficient supply. Conclusion Children with albinism living away from home in rural areas appear to have inadequate sun protection

  10. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  11. Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe. PMID:21338483

  12. Sun burn incidence and knowledge of greek elementary and high school children about sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria Ioannis; Toska, Aikaterini George; Rekleiti, Maria Dimitrios; Tsironi, Maria; Geitona, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to sun radiation and particularly its accumulation during childhood and adolescence is a significant risk factor for skin cancer development. The sun burn is particularly important. To estimate sun burn incidence in young pupils in a coastal area of Greece. Two surveys were conducted in a school population in the same district in Greece, over different periods of time, in young people 9 to 18 years old (n=2 977). Anonymous questionnaires were completed. Levels of significance were two- tailed and statistical significance was set at p=0.05. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. From the individual characteristics of the participants it was shown that the majority of them had dark hair and fair skin, whereas a significant percentage reported the existence of moles on face and their body (83.4% vs 68.1%). The sun burn incidence was high in adolescents and the younger pupils (41.9% vs 55.6%). The younger aged children who were living in an urban area had significantly higher rates of sun burn than those living in semi-urban areas (33.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.020). As far as the knowledge of pupils about the risks of sun radiation it was shown that the elementary school pupils had better knowledge than those at high school. Finally, those with better knowledge had the fewer sun burns (Mean 2.83 SD 0.87, pknowledge to the decrease of sun burn incidence is important as long as this is continuous. Therefore, the education should concern not only children but also teachers and parents in the context of continuous and systematic programs of health education.

  13. Socio demographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  14. Influence of age, gender, educational level and self-estimation of skin type on sun exposure habits and readiness to increase sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Anderson, C D

    2013-04-01

    Sun exposure habits and the propensity to undertake sun protection differ between individuals. Not least in primary prevention of skin cancer, aiming at reducing ultraviolet (UV) exposure, knowledge about these factors may be of importance. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a primary health care (PHC) population, the relationship between sun exposure habits/sun protection behaviour/readiness to increase sun protection and gender, age, educational level and skin UV-sensitivity. The baseline data from a previously performed RCT on skin cancer prevention was used. 415 patients, aged > 18 years, visiting a PHC centre in southern Sweden, filled-out a questionnaire mapping sun exposure, readiness to increase sun protection according to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM), and the above mentioned factors. Female gender was associated with more frequent suntanning (p protection. Subjects with low educational level reported less frequent sunscreen use than those with higher educational level, and also chose lower SPF (p skin UV-sensitivity was associated with markedly lower sun exposure (p protection. Females and subjects with high educational level reported higher readiness to increase sunscreen use than males and subjects with lower educational level (p skin type appear to be important factors affecting sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour, which supports the idea of appropriate mapping of these factors in patients in order to individualise sun protection advice according to the individual patient situation and capabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protecting Your Skin from the Sun%防晒护肤之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳君

    2006-01-01

    @@ Protecting your skin Most skin cancer can be prevented. Use the following tips to protect your skin from the sun. You may decrease your chances of developing skin cancer and help prevent wrinkles1. ● Limit your exposure to the sun, especially midday between 10 a.m.and 3 p.m. Seek shady areas,and avoid direct sunlight.

  16. Correlates of Sun Protection and Sunburn in Children of Melanoma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K; Peterson, Susan K; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Shete, Sanjay S; Lee, Jeffrey E; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Gritz, Ellen R

    2016-09-01

    Sunburns during childhood increase melanoma risk. Children of melanoma survivors are at higher risk, but little is known about their sunburn and sun protection. One study showed that almost half of melanoma survivors' children experienced sunburn in the past year. This study evaluated sunburn and sun protection in melanoma survivors' children, and relevant survivor characteristics from Social Cognitive Theory and the Health Belief Model. Melanoma survivors (N=340) were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center. Survivors completed a baseline questionnaire administered by telephone to report on the behavior of their children (N=340) as part of an RCT of a sun protection intervention. Data were collected in 2008 and analyzed in 2015. In the prior 6 months, 28% of children experienced sunburn. "Always" or "frequent" sun protection varied by behavior: sunscreen, 69%; lip balm, 15%; wide-brimmed hats, 9%; sleeved shirts, 28%; pants, 48%; sunglasses, 10%; shade, 33%; and limiting time outdoors, 45%. Survivors' sunburn and sun protection were positively associated with these outcomes in children. Correlates of sunburn also included older child age and higher risk perceptions. Correlates of sun protection behaviors included younger child age; stronger intentions, higher self-efficacy, and more positive outcome expectations about sun protection; and greater number of melanomas in survivors. Melanoma survivors may have a heightened awareness of the importance of their children's sun protection, but their children are not routinely protected. Correlates of children's sunburn and sun protection suggest subgroups of survivors to target with interventions to improve sun protection. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Real-time sun protection decisions in first-degree relatives of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Shuk, Elyse; Schofield, Elizabeth; Loeb, Rebecca; Holland, Susan; Burkhalter, Jack; Li, Yuelin

    2017-09-01

    Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer, and consistent use of sun protection is recommended to reduce risk. Yet sun protection use is generally inconsistent. Understanding the decisional factors driving sun protection choices could aid in intervention development to promote sun protection maintenance. In 59 first-degree relatives of melanoma patients, an interactive voice response system (IVRS) on participants' cell phones was used to assess twice daily (morning, afternoon) real-time sun protection usage (sunscreen, shade, hats, protective clothing) and decision factors (weather, type of activity, convenience, social support) over a 14-day summer interval where morning and afternoon outdoor exposures were anticipated. Generalized estimating equations and hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effect of demographics and decisional factors on sun protection choices over time. Sun protection use was inconsistent (e.g., 61% used sunscreen inconsistently). Most strategies were used independently, with the exception of moderate overlap of sunscreen and hat usage. Decision factors were highly relevant for sun protection. For instance, sunscreen use was related to the perception of having adequate time to apply it, whereas shade and hat usage were each related to convenience. Few findings emerged by gender, age, time of day, or year. Significant within-subject variation remained, however. The findings support continued examination of decision factors in understanding sun protection consistency in real time. Interventions where cues to action and environmental supports work together in varied settings can be developed to improve sun protection maintenance in populations at risk for this common disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Beck, Larry; Liu, Xia; Abbott, Allison; Eye, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  19. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Peter A., E-mail: westone47@gmail.com [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J. [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Scott, Michael D. [Mikonics, Inc., 40 B Old Road South, Santa Fe, NM 87540 (United States); Beck, Larry [L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, San Diego State University, Room PSFA 445, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Liu, Xia [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Abbott, Allison [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Eye, Rachel [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  20. ‘My child did not like using sun protection’: practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamantimande Kunene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. Methods To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child’s 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Results Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade. Most mothers (97% liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86 reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Conclusions Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  1. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  2. Validity and Stability of the Decisional Balance for Sun Protection Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qing Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 8-item Decisional Balance for sun protection inventory (SunDB assesses the relative importance of the perceived advantages (Pros and disadvantages (Cons of sun protective behaviors. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SunDB measure, including invariance of the measurement model, in a population-based sample of N=1336 adults. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the theoretically based 2-factor (Pros, Cons model, with high internal consistencies for each subscale (α≥.70. Multiple-sample CFA established that this factor pattern was invariant across multiple population subgroups, including gender, racial identity, age, education level, and stage of change subgroups. Multivariate analysis by stage of change replicated expected patterns for SunDB (Pros η2=.15, Cons η2=.02. These results demonstrate the internal and external validity and measurement stability of the SunDB instrument in adults, supporting its use in research and intervention.

  3. Effects of multiple viewings of an ultraviolet photo on sun protection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H I M

    2018-05-02

    To determine whether multiple viewings of one's ultraviolet (UV) facial photo differentially affects subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to a single viewing. Pretest-posttest control group. Southern California college students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to be shown their UV facial photo one time, multiple times over the course of 2 weeks, or not at all. Emotional reactions, perceived susceptibility to skin damage, and sun protection intentions were assessed immediately, and sun protection behaviors were assessed during a surprise telephonic follow-up 1 month later. Immediately after viewing a UV photo of their face, participants reported significantly greater perceived susceptibility to skin damage, greater intentions to engage in future sun protection, and more negative emotions than those who had not seen a UV photo. Moreover, 1 month later, those who had viewed their UV photo were less likely to report having sunbathed and reported significantly greater sun protection than did controls. There were no differences in sun protection behaviors between those who had been shown their UV photo only once during the initial intervention session and those who had been sent their UV photo several times thereafter. However, among those who had been sent their UV photo several times, those who reported having viewed their photo on additional occasions reported significantly greater sun protection behaviors than those who had not. Being randomly assigned to view a UV facial photo multiple times generally neither strengthened nor weakened effects on subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to being shown the photo just once. However, among those who were sent their photo and thus had the option of viewing it more often than they had been assigned to, those who chose to view their photo more frequently also engaged in more sun protection behaviors. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes about Vitamin D and impact on sun protection practices among urban office workers in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan H; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Whiteman, David C; Kimlin, Michael G; Neale, Rachel E

    2010-07-01

    Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Increasing scientific and media attention to the potential health benefits of sun exposure may lead to changes in sun exposure behaviors. To provide data that might help frame public health messages, we conducted an online survey among office workers in Brisbane, Australia, to determine knowledge and attitudes about vitamin D and associations of these with sun protection practices. Of the 4,709 people invited to participate, 2,867 (61%) completed the questionnaire. This analysis included 1,971 (69%) participants who indicated that they had heard about vitamin D. Lack of knowledge about vitamin D was apparent. Eighteen percent of people were unaware of the bone benefits of vitamin D but 40% listed currently unconfirmed benefits. Over half of the participants indicated that more than 10 minutes in the sun was needed to attain enough vitamin D in summer, and 28% indicated more than 20 minutes in winter. This was significantly associated with increased time outdoors and decreased sunscreen use. People believing sun protection might cause vitamin D deficiency (11%) were less likely to be frequent sunscreen users (summer odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.75). Our findings suggest that there is some confusion about sun exposure and vitamin D, and that this may result in reduced sun-protective behavior. More information is needed about vitamin D production in the skin. In the interim, education campaigns need to specifically address the vitamin D issue to ensure that skin cancer incidence does not increase.

  5. Determinants of Sunburn and Sun Protection of Agricultural Workers During Occupational and Recreational Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Claudine; Milon, Antoine; Koechlin, Alice; Vernez, David; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of occupational sunburn in agricultural workers and assess their occupational and recreational sun protection habits. Specific surveys of agricultural workers in Switzerland and France were conducted (N = 1538). Multivariate logistic regressions identified occupational sunburn determinants. Occupational and recreational sun protection habits were estimated and correlated. One-year occupational and recreational sunburn prevalences were 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Occupational sunburn increased with having a recent recreational sunburn, highly sensitive skin, young age, high perceived skin cancer risk, using sunscreen, and not wearing a hat. Correlation between protection habits during work and leisure was substantial (rs 0.5 to 0.7). Skin health knowledge was high and pro-tanning attitude moderate. Potentially modifiable sunburn determinants and suboptimal recreational and occupational sun protection practices were identified in agricultural workers. Refining and tailoring sun protection messages targeting the agricultural sector are needed.

  6. Predictors of sun protection behaviors and severe sunburn in an international online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Kasparian, Nadine A; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Tibben, Aad; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bergman, Wilma; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy A; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, and primary prevention of melanoma includes avoidance of sunburn as well as adequate sun protection behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported sun protection behaviors and sunburn in users of the Internet, and to identify the demographic, clinical, and attitudinal/motivational correlates of sun protection behaviors. Self-report data were gathered on behalf of the GenoMEL consortium using an online survey available in 10 different languages, and 8,178 individuals successfully completed at least 80% of survey items, with 73% of respondents from Europe, 12% from Australia, 7% from the United States, 2% from Israel, and 6% from other countries. Half of all respondents and 27% of those with a previous melanoma reported at least one severe sunburn during the previous 12 months. The strongest factors associated with sun protection behavior were perceived barriers to protection (beta = -0.44/beta = -0.37), and respondents who reported a positive attitude toward suntans were less likely to protect (beta = -0.16/beta = -0.14). Reported use of protective clothing and shade, as well as avoidance of midday sun exposure, were more strongly related to reduced risk of sunburn than sunscreen use. Despite widespread dissemination of public health messages about the importance of sun protection, a substantial proportion of this international sample, including respondents with a previous melanoma, reported inadequate sun protection behaviors resulting in severe sunburn. Future strategies to decrease sunburn should target the practical, social, and psychological barriers associated with nonuptake of sun protection. (c)2010 AACR.

  7. Predictors of Sun Protection Behaviours and Severe Sunburn inan International on-line study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Kasparian, Nadine A.; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Tibben, Aad; Aspinwall, Lisa G.; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bergman, Wilma; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmański, Sƚawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Leachman, Sancy A.; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A.; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, and primary prevention of melanoma includes avoidance of sunburn as well as adequate sun protection behaviour. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported sun protection behaviours and sunburn in users of the Internet, and to identify the demographic, clinical and attitudinal/motivational correlates of sun protection behaviours. Methods Self-report data were gathered on behalf of GenoMEL (www.genomel.org) using an online survey available in 10 different languages, and 8,178 individuals successfully completed at least 80% of survey items, with 73% of respondents from Europe, 12% from Australia, 7% from the USA, 2% from Israel, and 6% from other countries. Results Half of all respondents and 27% of those with a previous melanoma reported at least one severe sunburn during the previous 12 months. The strongest factors associated with sun protection behaviour were perceived barriers to protection (β=−0.44/β=−0.37), and respondents who reported a positive attitude towards suntans were less likely to protect (β=−0.16/β=−0.14). Reported use of protective clothing and shade, as well as avoidance of midday sun exposure, were more strongly related to reduced risk of sunburn than sunscreen use. Conclusions Despite widespread dissemination of public health messages about the importance of sun protection, a substantial proportion of this international sample, including respondents with a previous melanoma, reported inadequate sun protection behaviours resulting in severe sunburn. Impact Future strategies to decrease sunburn should target the practical, social and psychological barriers associated with non-uptake of sun protection. PMID:20643826

  8. ‘My child did not like using sun protection’: practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Zamantimande Kunene; Patricia N. Albers; Robyn M. Lucas; Cathy Banwell; Angela Mathee; Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. Methods To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child’s 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. ...

  9. Prevalence of sun protection behaviors in Hispanic youth residing in a high ultraviolet light environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles

    2018-01-01

    Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

    2013-09-01

    Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n = 16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean = 5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety.

  11. Protection motivation theory and stages of change in sun protective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice-Dunn, Steven; McMath, Ben F; Cramer, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the usefulness of the stage of change model and protection motivation theory (PMT) in creating brief persuasive appeals to promote healthy sun-behavior. College women (N = 254) read one of four essays that manipulated the level of threat and coping appraisal. The transition from the precontemplation to contemplation stage was promoted by threat appraisal information, but transition from contemplation to the preparation stage occurred only when individuals were provided with both high threat and high coping information. Thus, brief communications based on PMT may create attitudes leading to behavior change when later, more intensive, interventions are introduced.

  12. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Levy-Shraga

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls.Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6 y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8 y and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8 y, Male = 67. Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires.Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82 minutes/day vs. 81±65 minutes/day; p = 0.83, while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85 minutes/day vs. 124±87 minutes/day; p = 0.02. Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02 and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01, and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures.Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed.

  13. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Cohen, Rinat; Ben Ami, Michal; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Temam, Vered; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls. Methods Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8y) and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8y, Male = 67). Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82minutes/day vs. 81±65minutes/day; p = 0.83), while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85minutes/day vs. 124±87minutes/day; p = 0.02). Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02) and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01), and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures. Conclusions Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed. PMID:26348212

  14. Effects of pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Henk; Ter Huurne, Ellen; Taal, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The effect of public service announcements aimed at promoting primary prevention of skin cancer may be limited by superficial cognitive processing. The use of both pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements were evaluated for their potentially beneficial effects on judgment, cognitive processing and persuasiveness. In a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design individuals were shown public service announcements that advocated the advantages of sun protection measures in different versions in which a picture was present or not present and a textual argument was present or not present. The 159 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. In each condition, participants were shown 12 different public service announcements designed according to the condition. Participants judged each public service announcement on attractiveness, credibility, clarity of communication and the required amount of reflection. After the judgment task, they completed a questionnaire to assess knowledge, perceived advantages and disadvantages of sun protection and intended use of sun protection measures. Pictures enhanced attractiveness, but diminished comprehension. Textual arguments enhanced attractiveness, credibility and comprehension. Pictures as well as textual arguments increased knowledge of sun protection measures. Pictures and textual arguments in public service announcements positively influence the individual's perception of the advantages of sun protection methods and the advantages of their adoption.

  15. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, June K.; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun...

  16. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection among patients attending an outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Terzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of the study was to evaluate harmful effects of sun exposure and knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sun protection among patients attending our outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (171 male and 229 female aged between 16 and 89 years were included in this study. Subjects were requested to fill out a questionnaire composed of 52 questions. In the first part of the questionnaire, patients’ socio-demographic characteristics, history of sunburn, first-degree relatives with a history of skin cancer; in the second part, knowledge about harmful effects of sun and sun protection were inquired. In the third part, patient attitude and behaviors related to sun protection was evaluated. Results: Our results revealed that 69.25% of patients had satisfactory level of knowledge. While the level of knowledge was not affected by economic status, place of residence, skin type and presence of skin cancer in participants or their first-degree relatives, it was found to be increased with increasing educational level. The patients were found to prefer avoiding mid-day sun (75.5% and staying in the shade (64.8% chiefly as sun protection methods and 45.3% of patients were found to use sunscreens. Most frequently preferred sources of information about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection methods were found to be television, magazines and newspapers (76.3%, doctor’s advice and internet, respectively. Conclusion: Although a satisfactory level of knowledge about harmful effects of the sun and protection methods was found, it was observed that individuals could not convert their knowledge into the sun protection behavior

  17. A Survey of Sun Protection Policy and Education in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Buller, Mary Klein; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2006-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued recommendations for school programs to reduce skin cancer. Objective Personnel at U.S. secondary schools were surveyed to describe sun protection policy and education prior to these recommendations. Methods School principals or other personnel at 484 secondary schools in 27 cities responded to a telephone survey in January and February 2002 (response rate = 31%). Results A sun protection policy was reported at 10% of the schools but sun protection education occurred at nearly all schools (96%). Policies were more prevalent in regions with high ultraviolet radiation (pprotection was a low policy priority for U.S. schools. Sun safety education was prevalent but written materials were used infrequently. A substantial proportion of school personnel were receptive to the CDC’s advice. PMID:16488293

  18. Sun protection and low levels of vitamin D: are people concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Kimlin, Michael; Whiteman, David; Aitken, Joanne; Neale, Rachel

    2007-11-01

    Recent reports on the association between low serum vitamin D and increased risk of cancer raised concerns about possible adverse effects of primary prevention strategies for skin cancer. To evaluate if these reports may influence peoples' sun protective behavior, knowledge, and attitudes to the impact of sun protection on vitamin D. Within a population-based survey in Queensland, Australia (5,611 participants, mean age 50.7 years (range 20-75); 48.2% men), agreement with the statement that sun protection may result in not having enough vitamin D as well as factors associated with agreement were assessed. Overall, 837 (15.0%) participants agreed that sun protection may result in not having enough vitamin D, 2,163 (38.7%) neither agreed nor disagreed, and 2,591 (46.3%) disagreed with this statement. Factors associated with agreement included older age, darker skin color, and attempt to develop a suntan within the past year. These results suggest that future sun protection campaigns may need to address the issue of vitamin D and present ways to achieve sufficient vitamin D levels without increasing sun exposure at least in countries with high UV radiation throughout the year.

  19. A randomized intervention study of sun protection promotion in well-child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lori A; Deas, Ann; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Ehrsam, Gretchen; Jones, Richard H; Dellavalle, Robert; Byers, Tim E; Morelli, Joseph

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated the behavioral impact of a skin cancer prevention program in which health care providers delivered advice and materials to parents of infants over a 3-year period from 1998 to 2001. Fourteen offices of a large managed care organization in Colorado were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. 728 infants and their parents were recruited within 6 months of birth. At intervention offices, health care providers attended orientation sessions, prompts for delivering sun protection advice were placed in medical records, and parents received sun protection packets at each well-child visit between 2 and 36 months of age. Based on provider self-report and exit interviews of parents, providers in the intervention group delivered approximately twice as much sun protection advice as providers in the control group. Annual telephone interviews of parents indicated small but statistically significant differences in parent sun protection practices favoring the intervention. Skin exams revealed no significant differences in tanning, freckling, or number of nevi. Behavioral differences between groups appeared to grow over the 3 years of follow-up. This intervention strategy was successful in increasing the delivery of sun protection advice by health care providers and resulted in changes in parents' behaviors. While the behavioral effect was probably not strong enough to reduce risk for skin cancer, the effect may increase as children age and have more opportunities for overexposure to the sun.

  20. Sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in North-Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph; Gerber, Nathalie; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Surber, Christian

    2012-02-24

    The skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is one of the highest in Europe and still on the rise. Sun protection is the main preventive measure and of utmost importance during childhood and adolescence, since sunburns within these early phases of life increase the risk of developing skin cancer in adulthood. The aim of this prospective study, the first of its kind in Switzerland, was to investigate the sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in Basel (North-Western Switzerland) and to test their knowledge about adverse health effects of solar radiation and about protective measures. Between March and April 2010, supervised classroom surveys during regular school lessons were conducted in 13 public schools using a multiple-choice questionnaire. 960 questionnaires were handed out to 48 school classes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed on the data of 887 (>90%) students from three different grades (3rd, 6th and 9th grade). Sun-related knowledge was high in one third of all respondents only and significantly depended on student's age and educational background. Although the oldest students reached the highest knowledge scores, they protected themselves the least from the sun. Sunscreen was the principal form of sun protection mentioned, but was insufficiently applied. Seeking shade and wearing clothing as protective measures were hardly used. High educational background (i.e., of the parents) was a determinant for routine use of sunscreen but was not associated with following other sun protective measures. The desire for a suntan had no impact on the use of sunscreen, but was a significant predictor for not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts when in the sun. More than half of all study participants experienced at least one sunburn during the year preceding the survey. Fair skin type, higher grade, not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts were directly associated with increased odds of

  1. Prevalence of Sun Protection Use and Sunburn and Association of Demographic and Behaviorial Characteristics With Sunburn Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Ding, Helen; Guy, Gery P; Watson, Meg; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2018-05-01

    products (45.0% of users vs 36.1% of nonusers; P sunburn compared with the respective comparison groups. Sun sensitivity was significantly associated with a higher sunburn prevalence, independent of race/ethnicity, suggesting a need to consider sun sensitivity when identifying target demographic groups for sun safety interventions. Efforts to improve vigilance and consistency with use of sun protection are needed. In addition, those who engage in physical activity, use sunless tanners, or use sunscreen for tanning purposes may require additional intervention strategies to address the unique barriers they face in staying adequately protected.

  2. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  3. [Knowledge about UV-radiation and sun protection: survey of adolescents and young adults in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, C; Seibold, C; Loss, J; Steinmann, A; Nagel, E

    2008-10-01

    Identifying deficits in sun protection knowledge and behavior can serve as a starting point for primary prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and behavior related to ultraviolet radiation in the population between 14 and 45 years of age in Bavaria, as well as effects of the awareness campaign "Sensible in the Sun". In two Bavarian districts, 545 individuals of the target population completed a telephone survey about risks of UV-radiation, sun protection knowledge and behavior, and effects of the campaign. Sunburn and skin cancer as adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation were named by almost every participant. When asked about protective interventions, 91% mentioned sunscreen and 45-54% clothing, limited stay in the sun and seeking shade at noon. Women were better informed than men, adults better than adolescents. 10.6% were aware of the campaign. In this group, 37.9% had been motivated to consider their sun protective behavior; 13.8% (especially women >30 years) stated they had changed their behavior because of the campaign. There were deficits in knowledge, especially about eye damage and the importance of getting slowly used to UV radiation. Physician advice, but also broadcast and print media, has an effect on UV-related knowledge.

  4. A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Harrison, S L

    2018-04-01

    National standards for clothing designed to protect the wearer from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been implemented in Australia/New Zealand, Europe and the U.S.A. Industry standards reflect the need to protect the skin by covering a considerable proportion of the potentially exposed body surface area (BSA) and by reducing UVR-transmission through fabric (the Ultraviolet Protection Factor; UPF). This research aimed to develop a new index for rating sun-protective clothing that incorporates the BSA coverage of the garment in addition to the UPF of the fabric. A mannequin model was fixed to an optical bench and marked with horizontal lines at 1-cm intervals. An algorithm (the Garment Protector Factor; GPF) was developed based on the number of lines visible on the clothed vs. unclothed mannequin and the UPF of the garment textile. This data was collected in 2015/16 and analysed in 2016. The GPF weights fabric UPF by BSA coverage above the minimum required by international sun-protective clothing standards for upper-body, lower-body and full-body garments. The GPF increases with BSA coverage of the garment and fabric UPF. Three nominal categories are proposed for the GPF: 0 ≤ GPF garments that 'meet' minimum standards; 3 ≤ GPF garments providing 'good' sun protection; and GPF ≥ 6 indicating 'excellent' protection. Adoption of the proposed rating scheme should encourage manufacturers to design sun-protective garments that exceed the minimum standard for BSA coverage, with positive implications for skin cancer prevention, consumer education and sun-protection awareness. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Heydar Rahmati Asl; Kambiz Ahmadi Angali; Marzieh Araban

    2017-01-01

    The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four mo...

  6. Aware, motivated and striving for a 'safe tan': an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M; Sniehotta, Falko F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21-62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers' knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health messages need to

  7. Sun protective behaviour and sunburn prevalence in primary and secondary schoolchildren in western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Simone; Vuadens, Anne; Levi, Fabio; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grades (secondary school, n = 837) in the 18 public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of sunburns and of three sun protective behaviours (sunscreen, shade, wear of covering clothes). Response rate was 91%. Sunburn prevalence over the preceding year was high (60% at least one sunburn, 30% at least two, 43% at least one severe sunburn). Younger age, fair skin, regular sunscreen use, higher sun-related knowledge and preference for a tanned skin were predictors of sunburn. Sunscreen was the most used protective measure (69%), followed by seeking shade (33%) and wearing long-sleeved shirts (32%). Decline in all protective measures was observed in older pupils and those with pro-tan attitudes. The wear of covering clothes was significantly associated with sunscreen use and seeking shade. Parental encouragement favoured sunscreen use and wearing of protective clothes. Sunscreen use as a last protective barrier against ultraviolet radiation should be better emphasised in prevention campaigns targeting children and adolescents. Multi-faceted interventions, including role models, parents and peers should help to improve children's sun protective behaviours.

  8. Attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of secondary school adolescents regarding protection from sun exposure: a survey in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2012-08-01

    Sun protection behavior is a proven intervention for aging skin and skin cancer prevention, especially if training on prolonged sun exposure can be performed early in life. Despite the fact that there are several study reports from multicenters in the West, there are limited data on sun protection in tropical countries where the prevalence of sunburn as well as sun protection behavior and knowledge are low. In Bangkok, sun protection behavior among adolescents is different from the studies performed in the West. Schools are key institutions in encouraging students to prevent themselves from acquiring problems of long-time sun exposure. To assess the amount of time exposed to the sun, sun protection behavior, attitudes, and knowledge about sun exposure protection among secondary school adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. This is a nonrandomized, cross-sectional survey. All students from seven secondary schools in Bangkok (public/private, male/female/coed) were recruited in to the study. A total of 10,387 students were enrolled in to the study; 6176 (59.5%) and 4211 (40.5%) students were from grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12, respectively. Male students significantly lacked proper sun-protecting behaviors when compared to the female students in the use of sunscreen (9.4% vs. 28.0%, P protecting behaviors among junior high school students were deficient when compared to high school students in the use of sunscreen (57.1% vs. 60.6%, P protection behavior among adolescents in Bangkok was poor compared to Western countries. The attitudes and general knowledge about sun protection were significantly different among male and female students from grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12. The limitation of the study is the use of self-reported questionnaires in assessing sun exposure and protection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Population and age-group trends in weekend sun protection and sunburn over two decades of the SunSmart programme in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, J K; Warne, C D; Dobbinson, S J; Wakefield, M A; Hill, D J

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high skin cancer burden in Australia, the multicomponent, community-wide SunSmart programme has worked since 1988 to reduce excessive sun exposure.  To examine trends in key sun-protection behaviours and sunburn for the Melbourne population from 1987 to 2007, and examine for the first time patterns of change among age groups.   Representative cross-sectional weekly telephone surveys of weekend sun protection and sunburn were conducted over 11 of the summers in the period 1987-88 to 2006-07. Trends were analysed for the population and for age groups, adjusting for ambient temperature and ultraviolet radiation, which are environmental determinants of sun-related behaviour and sunburn.   The general pattern of trends suggests two distinct periods, one with rapid improvement in behaviours (more sunscreen use, less unprotected body exposure and less sunburn) from 1987-88 to 1994-95, and the second from 1997-98 to 2006-07 with fewer changes in behaviours noted. The age-group analyses showed a similar pattern of change over time across groups, with a few notable exceptions.  The similarity of the pattern of trends among age groups suggests that external influences including the SunSmart programme's activity had a relatively similar impact across the population. Sun-related behaviours continue to be amenable to change. More recent relative stability with some declines in sun protection suggests further intensive campaigns and other strategies may be needed to maintain previous successes and to achieve more universal use of sun protection. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Tanning youth: knowledge, behaviors and attitudes toward sun protection of high school students in Sakarya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, Tuncay M; Cinar, Nursan; Topsever, Pinar; Ucar, Fatma

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an in-school questionnaire, the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of high-school students in Sakarya, Turkey concerning sun protection and skin cancer. The knowledge and behavior scores of girls were higher than those of boys, whereas boys had better attitude scores.

  11. Melanoma Knowledge and Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviors among College Students by Gender and Skin Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…

  12. Suntans and Sun Protection in Australian Teen Media: 1999 To 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Liane J.; Lowe, John B.; Stanton, Warren R.; Clavarino, Alexandra M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the portrayal of tanned skin and sun protection in magazines, television programs, and movies popular with Australian adolescents were analyzed. Images of models in magazines (n = 1,791), regular/supporting characters in television programs (n = 867), and regular/supporting characters in cinema movies (n = 2,836) for the 12-month…

  13. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  14. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  15. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  16. Sun protection education for diverse audiences: need for skin cancer pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L; Gordon, Elisa J; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K

    2015-03-01

    Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 women and 12 men with a median age of 52. In 16 of the cognitive interviews with non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinos, pictures of skin cancer were requested by the participants in order to see the appearance of skin cancer. Kidney transplant recipients with skin of color did not consider themselves at risk to develop skin cancer and wanted to see examples of skin cancer occurring on people with skin of color. Based on these results, the workbook was modified to include pictures of squamous cell carcinoma on varying skin tones. Then, 8 participants evaluated the revised workbook in cognitive interviews and found the photographs acceptable and necessary to demonstrate the severity of skin cancer and personalize their risk of developing skin cancer. The participants progressed from having knowledge of skin cancer to believing that they could develop skin cancer because they observed skin cancers on people with their skin tone. Using pictures of skin cancers occurring on people with similar skin tone may heighten a kidney transplant recipients' sense of vulnerability and possibly improve the use of sun protection.

  17. Trends in skin cancer knowledge, sun protection practices and behaviours in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Anna; Boyle, Rhonda; Donnelly, David; Donnelly, Conan; Gordon, Sandra; McElwee, Gerry; O'Hagan, Art

    2012-06-01

    Sun exposure increases risk of skin cancer, especially melanoma, incidence of which continues to rise. Reported skin cancer knowledge and trends in sun care behaviours are documented in a UK region where there has been 20 years of sun-related health promotion campaigns. In 2000, 2004 and 2008, a 'care in the sun' module was included in the Northern Ireland (NI) Omnibus survey. Randomly selected subjects were asked to complete a sun-related questionnaire and proportions of respondents analysed by demographic and socio-economic factors, with differences tested using z-tests and the chi-squared test. Around 3623 persons responded. Skin cancer knowledge was high (97%). Sun avoidance decreased with time and was lowest among younger age groups and males. Sunscreen use was high (70%), unchanged over 8 years, and more likely among younger age groups, females, those in paid employment, and those with tertiary level education. Use of sunscreen with minimum Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 15 (a campaign message) increased from 45% to 70% (P < 0.01). Skin self-examination was infrequent (8%), less common among those aged ≥65 years, males and those with only primary or secondary level education. Messages on sunscreen use have penetrated the population well, but lower use among the unemployed suggests cost as an issue. Lack of sun avoidance in young people, especially men, poses a risk for further skin cancer increases. Low levels of reported skin self-examination in older people, men and those with lower educational attainment identify areas for further action.

  18. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers...

  19. Determinants of inadequate parental sun protection behaviour in their children--results of a cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, Swaantje; Bolte, Gabriele

    2014-03-01

    Unprotected sun exposure especially during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. A combined use of sun protection measures is recommended to protect children. However, the prevalence and determinants for combined use have been scarcely studied in children. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of parental sun protection behaviour. A cross-sectional survey was performed in five regions in Bavaria (Germany) during school entrance health examination (2010/2011). Parents of 4579 children (47% female, aged 5-6 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire (response 61%). Most children were regularly protected with single measures (shade (69%), clothes (80%), hat (83%), sunscreen (89%), sunglasses (20%)). However, regarding regular and combined use, >50% of children were inadequately protected. Larger family size, lower household equivalent income, darker skin and sunburn history were associated with inadequate use of different sun protection measures. The less frequent use of one sun protection measure was associated with less frequent use of the others. Child's sex, migration background, parental education and sun exposure showed inconsistent results regarding the different sun protection outcomes. Based on our results a regular, combined and correct use of multiple sun protection for children should be promoted independent of sociodemographic characteristics. Priority of shade, clothes and hat before sunscreen should be clarified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Outdoor workers and sun protection strategies: two case study examples in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite C; Stoneham, Melissa; Crane, Phil; Fleming, MaryLou; Janda, Monika; Tenkate, Thomas; Youl, Philippa; Kimlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk of developing skin cancer because they are exposed to high levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Outdoor Workers Sun Protection Project investigated sun protection strategies for high risk outdoor workers in rural and regional Australia. Fourteen workplaces (recruitment rate 37%) across four industries in rural and regional Queensland, Australia were recruited to the OWSPP. In 2011-2012, data were collected using pre- and post-intervention interviews and discussion groups. This article presents two workplaces as case study examples. The flat organisational structure of workplace 1 supported the implementation of the Sun Safety Action Plan (SSAP), whilst the hierarchical organisational nature of workplace 2 delayed implementation of the SSAP. Neither workplace had an existing sun protection policy but both workplaces adopted one. An effect related to the researchers' presence was seen in workplace 1 and to a lesser degree in workplace 2. Overt reciprocity was seen between management and workers in workplace 1 but this was not so evident in workplace 2. In both workplaces, the role of the workplace champion was pivotal to SSAP progression. These two case studies highlight a number of contextually bound workplace characteristics related to sun safety. These issues are (1) the structure of workplace, (2) policy, (3) an effect related to the researchers' presence, (4) the workplace champion and (5) reciprocity. There are several recommendations from this article. Workplace health promotion strategies for sun safety need to be contextualised to individual workplaces to take advantage of the strengths of the workplace and to build capacity.

  1. Sun-Protection Habits of Primary Students in a Coastal Area of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saridi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to record habits and attitudes of primary school students in Greece regarding sun-protection measures. Materials and Methods. 2,163 students with an average age of 9.9 (±1.1 years, studying in 14 schools of a Greek region, constituted our sample. The SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis and significance level was set to P≤0.05. Results. Our sample had an equal gender distribution. 16% of the students belonged to the high-risk group, 70.2% of the participants lived 0–5 km away from the sea (urban area, 84.2% of the students were Greek, and 15.8% had non-Greek nationality. Half of the participants said they wear a hat when under the sun and 72% of them said they use sunscreen. 33.1% of the students said they had a sunburn last summer. Greek students as well as those who lived near the sea had better behaviour patterns regarding sun protection. Finally, children who did not use a sunscreen systematically had suffered sunburns more often than the rest. Conclusions. Health education programmes are necessary for students and parents/teachers alike, in order to raise awareness about everyday sun protection.

  2. Sun-Protection Habits of Primary Students in a Coastal Area of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saridi, M.; Toska, A.; Rekleiti, M.; Liachopoulou, A.; Wozniak, G.; Kalokairinou, A.; Birbas, K.; Souliotis, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record habits and attitudes of primary school students in Greece regarding sun-protection measures. Materials and Methods. 2,163 students with an average age of 9.9 (±1.1) years, studying in 14 schools of a Greek region, constituted our sample. The SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis and significance level was set toρ≤0.05. Results. Our sample had an equal gender distribution. 16% of the students belonged to the high-risk group, 70.2% of the participants lived 0-5 km away from the sea (urban area), 84.2% of the students were Greek, and 15.8% had non-Greek nationality. Half of the participants said they wear a hat when under the sun and 72% of them said they use sunscreen. 33.1% of the students said they had a sunburn last summer. Greek students as well as those who lived near the sea had better behaviour patterns regarding sun protection. Finally, children who did not use a sunscreen systematically had suffered sunburns more often than the rest. Conclusions. Health education programmes are necessary for students and parents/teachers alike, in order to raise awareness about everyday sun protection.

  3. Sun-exposure knowledge and protection behavior in a North Chinese population: a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowei; Lian, Shi; Hao, Yongjing; Kang, Nan; Li, Shujuan; Nie, Yanjun; Zhang, Fan

    2010-08-01

    Sun exposure can cause a range of skin disorders. Skin damage can be prevented by following certain sun-protection measures. However, the majority of reported studies regarding sun-exposure knowledge and behavior have involved Caucasian populations. A self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions aimed at evaluating people's knowledge, awareness, and protection behavior regarding sun exposure, and their knowledge of sunscreens and sunscreen use. A total of 623 volunteers were enrolled, including 238 men (38.2%) and 385 women (61.8%). The percentages of correct answers regarding sun-exposure knowledge and awareness ranged from 50% to 80%. Overall, 58.8% used sunscreen as a sun-protection measure in daily life, followed by use of protective clothes (49.3%), sun umbrella (45.4%), sunglasses (45.3%), and hat (42.2%). Fifty-two percent thought that suntan was harmful or not attractive. The mean sun-protection factor (SPF) of the sunscreens used was 27.7 +/- 9.2 and the mean UVA protection grade (PA) was 2.3 +/- 0.6. Knowledge and awareness concerning the harmful effects of sun exposure are widespread among the Chinese population. Sunscreens with high SPF and PA are the most commonly used among Chinese people. Clear sex differences were observed. There is a significant difference in the attitude toward suntan between Chinese and Caucasian populations.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of sun protection and skin self-examination practices among cutaneous malignant melanoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Lessin, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about the level of engagement and correlates of sun protection and skin self-exam among individuals diagnosed with melanoma. Participants (N = 229) completed measures of skin self-exam and sun protection practice and knowledge and attitudes. Approximately eighty-four percent of patients reported engaging in skin self-examination at least once in the past year. Engagement in sun protection practices was moderate. Self-exam practice was associated with gender, physician recommendation about self-exam, and perceived benefits and barriers of self-exam. Sun protection was associated with gender, age, medical status and health care access, physician recommendation, knowledge, and a number of psychological factors. Behavioral interventions to improve skin surveillance and sun protection may benefit from an emphasis on physician education regarding self-exam and sun protection, education regarding the efficacy of sunscreen and the risks associated with sunbathing, reducing perceived barriers to self-exam and sun protection, and reducing reliance on social influences on sun protection practices.

  5. Assessment of the Academic Staff’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Habits Related to Sun Protection and Sunscreen Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Tuğba Alataş

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, the risk of cutaneous melanoma, skin cancers and photo sensitive skin diseases is increasing with the rise in unconscious sunbathe. The aim of our study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and habits of academic staff related to sun protection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 438 academic staff participated (a response rate 30.4%. The academic staff was asked to fill out our survey of 26 questions. Results: One hundred ninety-six women (44.7% and 242 men (55.3% participated in the study. Among the sun protection methods applied by the academic staff were applying sun protection cream, using sun glasses and avoiding sunlight as the first three methods, respectively. When the academic staff’s knowledge levels of sunscreen creams, sun protection factor (SPF, ultraviolet A (UVA and ultraviolet B (UVB assessed, it was determined that 11.2% of the participants knew the definition of SPF 30. In the question about UVA and UVB, 27.9% answered correctly. Conclusion: The use of sun protective cream among the sun protection methods by the academic staff is the first place. However, it has been determined that this method of protection is not conscious and regularly. Academic staff’s knowledge of sun protective creams, SPF, UVB and UVA was found to be inadequate.

  6. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  7. Patient awareness and sun protection behaviour following excision of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blacam, Catherine; Dermott, Clodagh Mc; Sugrue, Conor; Kilmartin, Darren; Kelly, Jack

    2017-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding disease awareness and sun protection behaviour in patients previously treated for non-melanoma skin cancer. Using a telephone-administered questionnaire, we investigated these characteristics in 250 patients in the west of Ireland who had undergone excision of basal cell carcinomas between January 2011 and December 2012. Only 28.8% of respondents knew that the lesion they had excised was a BCC and understood that there was a significant chance of developing another similar lesion in the next 3 years. Women and patients under age 65 were significantly better informed about their diagnosis than men (p = 0.021 and 0.000 respectively). The majority of patients (71.2%) knew that the overall effect of UV radiation on the skin was harmful and did employ some form of sun protection (avoid midday sun 72%; stay in shade 74%; wear hat 73.6%; wear sunscreen 72.8%). Females were statistically more likely to exercise better sun-protection behaviour (p = 0.002). While 76.8% of patients undertook some form of outdoor activity every day, only 22.8% wore sunscreen every day. Greater efforts should be made to communicate disease details and sun protection implications associated with basal cell carcinoma, especially to male patients. Improved population specific skin cancer awareness may lead to earlier detection and thus decrease both the patient morbidity and economic burden associated with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  9. Sun protection and exposure behaviors among Hispanic adults in the United States: differences according to acculturation and among Hispanic subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer prevention interventions that target the growing number of U.S. Hispanics are lacking. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors (i.e., sunscreen use, shade seeking, use of sun protective clothing, and sunburns among U.S. Hispanics with sun sensitive skin, with a focus on potential differences according to acculturation and Hispanic origin. Methods The sample consisted of 1676 Hispanic adults who reported having sun sensitive skin (i.e., they would experience a sunburn if they went out in the sun for one hour without protection after several months of not being in the sun. Participants completed survey questions as part of the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were conducted in August 2012. Results Greater acculturation was linked with both risky (i.e., not wearing sun protective clothing and protective (i.e., using sunscreen sun-related practices and with an increased risk of sunburns. Sun protection and exposure behaviors also varied according to individuals’ Hispanic origin, with for example individuals of Mexican heritage having a higher rate of using sun protective clothing and experiencing sunburns than several other subgroups. Conclusions Several Hispanic subpopulations (e.g., those who are more acculturated or from certain origins represent important groups to target in skin cancer prevention interventions. Future research is needed to test culturally relevant, tailored interventions to promote sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. Such initiatives should focus on public health education and increasing healthcare provider awareness of the importance of skin cancer prevention among Hispanics.

  10. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, A.R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of ± 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of ±0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of ±2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  11. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, A.R.L

    2000-07-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of {+-} 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of {+-}0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of {+-}2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  12. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  13. Parent and Child Characteristics Associated with Child Sunburn and Sun Protection Among U.S. Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K; Stapleton, Jerod L; Natale-Pereira, Ana M; Goydos, James S; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-05-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in U.S. Hispanics over several decades and the postdiagnosis outcomes are worse for Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Parents are influential in children's health preventive behaviors, but little is known about parental factors associated with children's skin cancer-related behaviors in the U.S. Hispanic population. The present study examined parental and child correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors (sunburns, sunbathing, sun-protective clothing use, and sunscreen use) of children of Hispanic parents. This survey study included a population-based sample of 360 U.S. Hispanic parents (44.8% male) who had a child 14 years of age or younger. Measures included parental reports of parent and child demographic characteristics, parent skin cancer knowledge and linguistic acculturation, and parent and child skin cancer-related behaviors. Approximately 28% of children and 31.9% of parents experienced at least one sunburn in the past year and approximately 29% of children and 36.7% of parents were reported to sunbathe. Moderate use of sun-protective clothing and sunscreen was reported for parents and their children. Child sun-protective clothing use and sunscreen use, sunburns, and sunbathing were associated with the corresponding behaviors of their parents. Future research should consider the role of acculturation and perceived risk in the sun protection behaviors of U.S. Hispanic children, particularly in those who report a fair skin type. Hispanic parents should be included in interventions targeting their children's skin cancer-related behaviors, and it is suggested that such interventions could also encourage parents to improve their own behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  15. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  16. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Rahmati Asl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four months after the intervention. In the posttest, there was a significant difference in mean score of the protection motivation theory components between the experimental and control groups. the comparison of the mean score of the components of protection motivation theory in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention showed a significant difference in all the components except for the response cost, while in the control group the mean score difference not significant. The results of this study showed that the intervention may lead to the sun exposure preventive behaviors, which reflects the effectiveness of the educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory.

  17. Seven-year trends in sun protection and sunburn among Australian adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Angela; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Slevin, Terry

    2013-02-01

    To examine the change in sun protective behaviours and sunburn of Australians over a seven-year period, in the context of sustained skin cancer prevention campaigns and programs. Weekly cross-sectional telephone interviews of Australians were conducted throughout summer in 2010/11 for comparison with 2003/04 and 2006/07. In 2010/11, n=1,367 adolescents (12-17 years) and n=5,412 adults (18-69 years) were interviewed about their sun-related attitudes, weekend sun protection and sunburn. Multivariate analyses adjusted for key demographics, temperature, cloud, wind and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to assess change in outcomes over time. There were consistent improvements in adolescents' and adults' attitudes, intentional tanning and incidence of sunburn over time. Behavioural changes were variable. Adults spent less time outdoors during peak UVR compared to past surveys, while adolescents were less likely to be outdoors compared with 2006/07. Sunscreen use and wearing of long sleeves increased among adults, but hat wearing decreased for both age groups, as did leg cover by adolescents since 2003/04. There has been a sustained decrease in weekend sunburn among adolescents and adults. The findings suggest improvements in skin cancer prevention attitudes of Australians over time. Australians' compliance with sun protection during summer has improved in some areas, but is still far from ideal. The sustained decrease in weekend sunburn among adolescents and adults is encouraging, but further improvements are required. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  19. Can an hour or two of sun protection education keep the sunburn away? Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Sunwise School Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenausis Kristin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma incidence is rising at a rate faster than any other preventable cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV light increases risk for skin cancer as an adult, thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing the incidence of this disease. Methods The Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise School Program, a national environmental and health education program for sun safety of children in primary and secondary schools (grades K-8, was evaluated with surveys administered to participating students and faculty. Results Pretests (n = 5,625 and posttests (n = 5,028 were completed by students in 102 schools in 42 states. Significant improvement was noted for the three knowledge variables. Intentions to play in the shade increased from 68% to 75%(p Conclusions Brief, standardized sun protection education can be efficiently interwoven into existing school curricula, and result in improvements in knowledge and positive intentions for sun protection.

  20. The relative role of cognitive and emotional reactions in mediating the effects of a social comparison sun protection intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Heike I M

    2018-02-01

    This experiment examined the cognitive and emotional impact of two social comparison-based sun protection interventions in a sample of Southern California college students (N = 223). One of the interventions employed comparison UV photos of peers who had either much more (downward social comparison) or much less (upward social comparison) skin damage than did participants themselves. The second intervention consisted of descriptive norms information suggesting that a large majority of the participants' peer group regularly protect their skin from the sun. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions in a 4 (Social Comparison Information: no photo vs. no comparison photos vs. upward comparison photos vs. downward comparison photos) × 2 (Descriptive Norms Information: Received vs. not received) design. Emotional reactions (e.g. worry, embarrassment, relief) and sun-related cognitive reactions (perceived susceptibility, sun protection intentions) were assessed immediately. Sun protection behaviours were assessed in a surprise telephone follow-up five weeks following the intervention. The results demonstrated that the combination of seeing photos of peers who had very little sun damage and learning that a majority of one's peers engage in regular sun protection resulted in reliably greater subsequent sun protection than all other conditions. Further, there was relatively direct evidence that both negative emotional reactions and sun protection intentions mediated this effect. These findings add to the growing literature suggesting the importance of thoroughly examining the role of emotions in health behaviour decisions. Both theory and intervention efficacy would benefit from a better understanding of the relative role of cognitions and emotions in behaviour change.

  1. Sun protective behaviour in renal transplant recipients. A qualitative study based on individual interviews and the Health Belief Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Haedersdal, Merete

    2010-01-01

    : The major result was the finding that patients did not perceive the threat of skin cancer as an important health problem and, therefore, did not give a high priority to sun protection, even though patients were aware of their increased risk of developing skin cancer. Moreover, negative individual attitudes......BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at high-risk of developing aggressive and potentially lethal non-melanoma skin cancer, which emphasizes the need for consistent sun protective behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that exert an influence on the sun protective behaviour of RTRs...... recommend that RTRs are informed about the potential severity of skin cancer, and about the importance of consistent sun protective behaviour....

  2. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  3. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity

    OpenAIRE

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Vončina, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethac...

  4. Use of social networking sites and associations with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure, and sun protection in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, John; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Gleaves, David H; Corsini, Nadia; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that greater exposure to traditional media (i.e. television, film, and print) predicted skin cancer risk factors in adolescents; however, the relationship between social media usage and these outcomes remains unexplored. We examined whether social networking site (SNS) usage, and the particular manner of this use, was associated with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure and sun protection among Australian adolescents. We also explored sex differences in SNS usage related to tanning. A total of 1856 South Australian secondary school students completed the Australian School Students Alcohol and Drug 2014 survey. SNS usage related to tanning comprised posting pictures, posting text, viewing pictures, viewing text and liking or sharing posts. Adolescents spent 214.56 minutes, on average, per day using SNSs. Behaviours related to tanning that involved pictures (i.e. viewing pictures, posting pictures, and liking or sharing content) were significantly associated with more skin tone dissatisfaction, more sun exposure and less sun protection. Females performed all SNS-linked behaviours more frequently than did males, with the exception of posting text. Australian adolescents spend a considerable amount of time using SNSs, and their behaviours related to tanning on these SNSs are significantly associated with skin cancer risk factors.

  5. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF) of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml) have SPF value about 1.44±0....

  6. Children´s sun protection need not conflict with health promoting physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Margareta; Boldemann, Cecilia; Wester, Ulf

    and vegetation influenced UV-exposure and also children´s physical activity measured with step-counters. In Malmö access to spacious outdoor play settings with vegetation decreased sunburn risk and increased physical activity during children´s free play in May - also during long stay outdoor. Results from...... Raleigh in April also indicate that vegetation is sunprotective when children play. Favourable outdoor environment may promote both sun protection and physical activity in a Nordic spring or summer climate, while for physical activity, this might not be so pronounced at a southern mid-latitude due...

  7. Psychosocial Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among U.S. Hispanic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Coups, Elliot J.; Stapleton, Jerod L.; Manne, Sharon L.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Gordon, Marsha; Tatum, Kristina S.; Robinson, June K.; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer among U.S. Hispanics increased 1.3% annually from 1992 to 2008. However, little research has focused on skin cancer prevention among the rapidly growing Hispanic population. In this study, we examined theory-driven, psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors in a population-based sample of 787 Hispanic adults (49.6% female, mean age = 41.0 years) residing in five southern or western U.S. states. Participants completed an English- or Spanish-language onlin...

  8. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivet-Seyve, Mathieu; Santoro, Francine; Lachmann, Nadège

    2017-01-01

    Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF) moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners. This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3-5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability. The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female). At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44) showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days' treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial redness, did not worsen rosacea, and was easily incorporated into their skincare regimen. Half would switch to the product, and 80% of subjects would buy and recommend the product. The product was well tolerated in rosacea-prone subjects, producing objective

  9. [Is there an Association between Prevention Campaign Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviour of Parents for their Children? Results of a Parent Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, S; Fromme, H; Bolte, G

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study are to assess prevalence of awareness of sun protection campaigns among parents in Bavaria, Germany, to analyse the impact of sociodemographic factors on campaign knowledge and the association between parental campaign knowledge and sun protection behaviour in their children. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2010-2011 in Bavaria, Germany, with parents of 4,579 children aged 5-6 years (response rate 61%). Prevalence of knowledge of sun protection campaigns is 13% among parents in Germany and independent of sociodemographic factors. Ignorance of sun protection campaigns is associated with inadequate sun protection behaviour in children independent of sociodemographic and exposure characteristics. Awareness of sun protection campaigns is low among parents. Knowledge of adequate sun protection behaviour should be further increased at the population level in Germany independently of sociodemographic status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer ( p  Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  12. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  13. Sun protection attitudes and behaviours among first generation Australians with darker skin types: results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa; Bonevski, Billie

    2015-02-01

    Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population.

  14. The Impact of Parental Knowledge and Tanning Attitudes on Sun Protection Practice for Young Children in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Gefeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  15. The impact of parental knowledge and tanning attitudes on sun protection practice for young children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B

    2014-05-05

    Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement "Tanned skin is healthy skin", this was not the case for "Tanning makes me look better". Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  16. Evaluation of Sun Protection Habits and Melanocytic Nevi of Population Screened in a Shopping Mall in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Öztürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The evaluation of sun protection habits, numbers and types of nevi in our community. Material and Method: A stand was built in a big mall in Ankara where 764 patients were screened for the presence of nevi in three working day periods during the month of May of 2005 and 2006. Lesions were evaluated with the help of digital dermatoscopy. In the study, sun protective practices, sunscreen using habits, dermatoscopic diagnosis of the lesions, numbers and the localization of the lesions were also recorded. Results: The study population consisted of 764 patients (438 female, 326 male with age ranging from 1 to 80 (33.7±13.7 years. 55.6% of them had skin type III, 47.3% had sunburn history. Most of the patients (44.1% were not using sunscreens. Hats and umbrellas (40.3% were the most common accessories used for protection. 904 lesions of 764 patients examined by dermatoscopy revealed that the most common diagnosis was nevi. Two patients were diagnosed with having cutaneous melanoma or basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Our findings have shown that the general population is not aware of the risks of sun exposure or the appropriate ways for sun protection and that there is a necessity for educational programmes or campaigns about sun protection and nevi in our general population.

  17. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sanderman, Robbert; Wardle, Jane

    2006-12-01

    Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10,161). Sun protection behavior and beliefs about the importance of sunscreen use for health were measured. There was little change in the proportion of men and women who sunbathed, but use of sun protection increased over the 10-year interval from 52% to 63% in men and 80% to 87% in women. There was wide variation in sun protection use and strength of health beliefs between countries. The association between strength of beliefs and behavior was more marked in 2000 than 1990. Sun protection behavior was positively associated with the socioeconomic background of participants. The use of sunscreen increased among educated young Europeans from several countries over the 1990s, but important sex differences remain. Awareness of the risk to health of unprotected sunbathing is high, but there is scope of strengthening attitudes to sunscreen use.

  18. Sun protection for preventing basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Guillermo; Nova, John; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Andrea Esperanza; Medina, Roger David; Solorzano-Restrepo, Carolina; Gonzalez, Jenny; Olmos, Miguel; Godfrey, Kathie; Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2016-07-25

    'Keratinocyte cancer' is now the preferred term for the most commonly identified skin cancers basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), which were previously commonly categorised as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Keratinocyte cancer (KC) represents about 95% of malignant skin tumours. Lifestyle changes have led to increased exposure to the sun, which has, in turn, led to a significant increase of new cases of KC, with a worldwide annual incidence of between 3% and 8%. The successful use of preventive measures could mean a significant reduction in the resources used by health systems, compared with the high cost of the treatment of these conditions. At present, there is no information about the quality of the evidence for the use of these sun protection strategies with an assessment of their benefits and risks. To assess the effects of sun protection strategies (i.e. sunscreen and barrier methods) for preventing keratinocyte cancer (that is, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) of the skin) in the general population. We searched the following databases up to May 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trial registries and the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We included randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of preventive strategies for keratinocyte cancer, such as physical barriers and sunscreens, in the general population (children and adults), which may provide information about benefits and adverse events related to the use of solar protection measures. We did not include trials focused on educational strategies to prevent KC or preventive strategies in high-risk groups. Our prespecified primary outcomes were BCC or cSCC confirmed clinically or by histopathology at any follow-up and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected studies for eligibility using

  19. Association of Indoor Tanning Frequency With Risky Sun Protection Practices and Skin Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-10-12

    Indoor tanning is prevalent among young adults and women and is associated with increased risk of melanoma. Evidence suggests that indoor tanners may be more inclined to adopt poor photoprotective practices that further increase their risk of skin cancer; however, gaps in the literature exist in young adults and by indoor tanning frequency. To examine the association between indoor tanning frequency and behaviors related to skin cancer prevention and to investigate whether these associations vary by age group or sex. Cross-sectional population-based study of US 2015 National Health Interview Survey data including 10 262 non-Hispanic white adults aged 18 to 60 years without a history of skin cancer. Rare/never use of sunscreen, protective clothing, shade; multiple sunburns within the past year; previous full-body skin examination. Of the 10 262 individuals in our study population (49% female; median age, 39 y), 787 (7.0%) reported having tanned indoors in the past year. Among individuals aged 18 to 34 years, frequent indoor tanners (≥10 times in the past year) were more likely to report never/rare use of protective clothing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49) and shade (aPR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70), compared with individuals who did not tan indoors. Among women aged 18 to 60 years, those who frequently tanned indoors were more likely to rarely/never use sunscreen (aPR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.62), protective clothing (aPR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42), and shade (aPR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.25-1.90) on a warm sunny day, as well as more likely to report multiple sunburns in the past year (aPR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45) compared with those who did not tan indoors. Individuals who tanned indoors in the past year were not significantly more likely to have undergone a previous full-body skin examination in any subpopulation examined. Individuals who tan indoors often exhibited a concurrent tendency to sunburn, avoid sun protection, and avoid skin cancer

  20. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao DY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour

  1. Development of a whole-organism model to screen new compounds for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Hsin; Wen, Chi-Chung; Yang, Zhi-Shiang; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Jen-Ning; Ku, Chia-Chen; Wu, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2009-01-01

    We used zebrafish as a whole-organism model to screen new compounds for sun protection activity. First of all, we designed a series of UVB exposure experiments and recorded the phenotypic changes of zebrafish embryos. Results showed that 100 mJ/cm(2) of UVB given six times separated by 30 min intervals is the best condition. Fin malformation (reduced and/or absent fin) phenotypes are the most evident consequences after exposure to UVB. Each fin was affected by UVB, including pelvic, ventral, caudal, and dorsal fin, but pelvic fin seemed to be the most sensitive target after UVB exposure. We furthermore carried out "prevention" and "treatment" experiments using green tea extract and/or (-)-epigallocatechin (EGCG) to test this whole-organism model by observing the morphological changes of all fins (especially pelvic fin) after UVB exposure. Effects of UVB, green tea extract and EGCG on fin development were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results showed that a zebrafish pelvic fin in the UVB + green tea (treatment) group is 5.51 (range from 2.39 to 14.90) times, one in the UVB + green tea (prevention) group is 7.04 (range from 3.11 to 18.92) times, and one in the 25 ppm of EGCG (prevention) group is 22.19 (range from 9.40 to 61.50) times more likely to return to normal fin than one in the UVB only group. On the basis of these observations, we believe this model is effective for screening the higher stability and lower toxicity of new compounds, such as small chemicals which are derivative from EGCG or other dietary agents for sun protection.

  2. Evaluation of the new ESR network software for the retrieval of direct sun products from CIMEL CE318 and PREDE POM01 sun-sky radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Estellés

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Skynet Radiometers network (EuroSkyRad or ESR has been recently established as a research network of European PREDE sun-sky radiometers. Moreover, ESR is federated with SKYNET, an international network of PREDE sun-sky radiometers mostly present in East Asia. In contrast to SKYNET, the European network also integrates users of the CIMEL CE318 sky–sun photometer. Keeping instrumental duality in mind, a set of open source algorithms has been developed consisting of two modules for (1 the retrieval of direct sun products (aerosol optical depth, wavelength exponent and water vapor from the sun extinction measurements; and (2 the inversion of the sky radiance to derive other aerosol optical properties such as size distribution, single scattering albedo or refractive index. In this study we evaluate the ESR direct sun products in comparison with the AERosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET products. Specifically, we have applied the ESR algorithm to a CIMEL CE318 and PREDE POM simultaneously for a 4-yr database measured at the Burjassot site (Valencia, Spain, and compared the resultant products with the AERONET direct sun measurements obtained with the same CIMEL CE318 sky–sun photometer. The comparison shows that aerosol optical depth differences are mostly within the nominal uncertainty of 0.003 for a standard calibration instrument, and fall within the nominal AERONET uncertainty of 0.01–0.02 for a field instrument in the spectral range 340 to 1020 nm. In the cases of the Ångström exponent and the columnar water vapor, the differences are lower than 0.02 and 0.15 cm, respectively. Therefore, we present an open source code program that can be used with both CIMEL and PREDE sky radiometers and whose results are equivalent to AERONET and SKYNET retrievals.

  3. Sun protection practices among offspring of women with personal or family history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Brooks, Daniel R; Colditz, Graham A; Koh, Howard K; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2006-04-01

    Family history of skin cancer is an important determinant of skin cancer risk for offspring. No previous study of the effect of personal or family history of skin cancer on the sun protection behaviors of the offspring has been published. A retrospective study was conducted of the sun protection behaviors of the adolescent participants in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), who were offspring of mothers from the Nurses Health Study II. Adolescents' surveys were matched with their mothers' reports of a personal or family history of skin cancer and compared with adolescents whose mothers did not report a personal or family history of skin cancer. The outcome measures were (1) occurrence of frequent sunburns during the past summer, (2) use of a tanning bed during the past year, and (3) routine use of sunscreen. Frequent sunburns were defined as the report of > or = 3 sunburns during the past summer. We compared those who reported having used a tanning bed in the past year at least once with those who reported no tanning bed use in the past year. Routine use of sunscreen was defined as a respondent who replied that he or she "always" or "often" used sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or more when he or she was outside for > 15 minutes on a sunny day during the past summer. General estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for gender, age, color of untanned skin, and number of friends who were tanned. We also conducted an additional analysis restricted to children whose mothers had received a diagnosis of skin cancer in which we assessed sun protection behaviors according to the child's age and mother's age at the time of the mother's diagnosis and the number of years that had passed since the diagnosis of the mother's skin cancer. In 1999, 9943 children reported their sun protection behaviors; 8697 of their mothers had not received a diagnosis of skin cancer or reported a family history of melanoma, 463

  4. Occupational risk factors for skin cancer and the availability of sun protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Linda; Ofenloch, Robert; Surber, Christian; Diepgen, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Germany implemented a new occupational disease "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV radiation (UVR)" into the German ordinance on occupational diseases. Since primary prevention is very important, the aim of this study was to assess the provision of sun protection measures by the employers in vocational school students for outdoor professions. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the availability of sun protection measures at German workplaces and the risk of occupational sunburn by surveying 245 vocational school students working in outdoor occupations. More than 40 % of the students did not receive any sun protection measures by their employer, and 34.5 % of the students got sunburned during work. Working in the shade was a protective factor for occupational sunburn but was merely available for 23.7 % of the outdoor workers. Our study reveals a strong need for effective sun protection measures, including both administrative controls like education and personal protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

  5. Aware, motivated and striving for a ‘safe tan’: an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M.; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Birch-Machin, Mark A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21–62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers’ knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health

  6. Knowledge, perceptions and behaviours about skin cancer and sun protection among secondary school students from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, M; Cazzaniga, S; Fargnoli, M C; Naldi, L; Peris, K

    2013-05-01

    Although sun exposure is a strong risk factor for skin cancer, tanning is very popular among adolescents. Awareness of skin cancer and sun exposure might influence sun protective behaviours in this population. To investigate the awareness of skin cancer and sun-safe practices among Italian adolescents. A questionnaire about knowledge of skin cancer, perceived severity of sun rays/skin cancer and behaviour toward sun protection was administered to 1204 secondary school students. Predictors of these three components were assessed by case-control analyses considering different combinations of answers. Multiple logistic regression models were used to this scope. The majority of participants had heard of skin cancer in the past (97.0%), correctly identified possible causes (58.6%) and names (64.2%) of skin cancers and judged appropriately the perceived danger of sunrays (70.2%) and skin cancer (80.6%). Nonetheless, students' behaviour was poor: only 13.5% stated to always use sun-safe practices and 39.1% never used any. Independent predictors of proper knowledge were: Lyceum school, and family or TV/media as information source; of appropriate perceived severity: Lyceum school, a darker skin type, and dermatologists as information source; of acceptable behaviour: female sex, a darker skin type, and dermatologists or general practitioners (GPs) as information source. Despite a fairly good knowledge about skin cancer and sun exposure, students' behaviour was unsatisfactory. Knowledge is not sufficient to produce a positive behaviour, as determinants of these two aspects are different. Dermatologists and GPs should be considered as key-figures for future multicomponent intervention strategies in this field. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  8. Skin Cancer Awareness and Sun Protection Behavior Before and Following Treatment Among Skin Cancer-Treated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Nourmohammad Pour, Pedram; Etesami, Ifa; Al-Asiri, Safa; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-15

    There is little known about illness perception in patients with skin tumors. We conducted this study to investigate Iranian patients' understanding of skin tumors, and to evaluate their sun-protective behavior changes after treatment of skin cancer. Patients with a skin biopsy of basal cell carcinoma were asked to complete questionnaires. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were mostly referred to our tumor clinic from rural areas. At the skin cancer perception investigation, 63% of patients did not consider their disease as a long-lasting situation. Besides, 45.4% of patients consider their illness as a serious condition which significantly affecting their lives. Our patients had a strong belief in treatment control (81%) and 81% of them also described worries about their skin cancer. The leading causes of skin cancer as assumed by patients were: history of skin cancer (37.4%), poor medical care in the past (36.4%), extreme sun exposure (31.5%), and lack of sun protection (27.5%). In regard to sun-protective behavior after treatment of skin cancer, 55.4% of patients showed no changes or even negative change in their sun-protective behavior, But 44.5% of the patients changed their sun-protective behavior in a positive way which was statically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Our study demonstrates how our patients with skin cancer perceive their disease and we need to educate our patients, considering diseases' aspects, causes and symptoms. This is of great value as dermatologists should be aware of patients' perceptions of their disease in order to improve patients' knowledge through educating more about different aspects of disease.

  9. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivet-Seyve M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathieu Grivet-Seyve,1 Francine Santoro,2 Nadège Lachmann2 1Galderma Research and Development, Sophia Antipolis, France; 2Galderma Research and Development, Egerkingen, Switzerland Background/objective: Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners.Subjects and methods: This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3–5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability.Results: The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female. At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44 showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days’ treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial

  10. The sun as a production factor; Die Sonne als Produktionsfaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [AEE - Institut fuer Nachhaltige Technologien, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    2008-04-15

    So far the solar power hardly was used for production processes or for the heating of production halls. Typical areas of utilization of solar power are food and beverage industry, textile and chemical industry as well as simple wash processes. This is due to the low process temperatures between 30 and 90 C. Apart from low-temperature processes a large, potential exists in the middle temperature range to approximately 250 C which would be capable of being developed for solarthermal plants. At present, available collectors do not achieve the necessary temperature level with appropriate efficiencies. Under this aspect, in the context of the IEA task 33/IV three categories are developed by medium temperature collectors with a work temperature from 80 to 250 C: (a) Flat glazing with multiple glazing and anti-reflection coating; (b) Stationary CPC collectors; (c) Small parabolic trough collectors and Fresnell collectors. The previous work in the context of the IEA task 33/IV shows that the potential in the medium temperature range can be also used by the development of more efficient collectors and an adjusted system engineering.

  11. Predicting sun-protective intentions and behaviours using the theory of planned behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt Sutton, Louise C; White, Katherine M

    2016-11-01

    To synthesise theory of planned behaviour (TPB) relationships, using meta-analysis, and test the predictive utility of the model for sun protection behaviour. Thirty-eight samples were identified via database/manual searches and academic society posts based on the criteria: measuring sun-protective intentions and/or prospective behaviour; using the TPB/theory of reasoned action as a basis of measurement; and providing bivariate correlations for at least one relevant TPB association. Sun-protective intentions and behaviours. The sample-weighted average effects were moderate-to-strong with attitudes showing the strongest association with intention (r+ = 0.494), followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = 0.451), and subjective norm (r+ = 0.419). Intentions showed a stronger association with prospective behaviour (r+ = 0.486) compared to PBC (r+ = 0.314). A total of 39% of variance in intentions and 25% of variance in behaviour were explained. Publication bias was not evident. Moderator analyses showed that TPB associations were stronger when measures specified the Target, Action, Context and Time; in non-student samples; and when follow-up exceeded two weeks. Despite recent criticism, this review shows that the TPB explains a large amount of variance in sun protection and that TPB associations are robust across different populations.

  12. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  13. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n =

  14. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate crosslinker respectively, due to theirs thermosensitivity exhibit increase in protecting activity against UV radiation when heated to 45 degrees C. The MX microspheres have higher increase in terms of UV absorbance, comparing to DX microspheres, when heated in the 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C range. Studied microspheres have high potential for application as components of sun-screens used in elevated temperatures.

  15. Sun Safety at Work Canada: a multiple case-study protocol to develop sun safety and heat protection programs and policies for outdoor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Desre M; Tenkate, Thomas; Strahlendorf, Peter; Kushner, Rivka; Gardner, Audrey; Holness, D Linn

    2015-07-10

    CAREX Canada has identified solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) as the second most prominent carcinogenic exposure in Canada, and over 75 % of Canadian outdoor workers fall within the highest exposure category. Heat stress also presents an important public health issue, particularly for outdoor workers. The most serious form of heat stress is heat stroke, which can cause irreversible damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver. Although the need for sun and heat protection has been identified, there is no Canada-wide heat and sun safety program for outdoor workers. Further, no prevention programs have addressed both skin cancer prevention and heat stress in an integrated approach. The aim of this partnered study is to evaluate whether a multi-implementation, multi-evaluation approach can help develop sustainable workplace-specific programs, policies, and procedures to increase the use of UV safety and heat protection. This 2-year study is a theory-driven, multi-site, non-randomized study design with a cross-case analysis of 13 workplaces across four provinces in Canada. The first phase of the study includes the development of workplace-specific programs with the support of the intensive engagement of knowledge brokers. There will be a three-points-in-time evaluation with process and impact components involving the occupational health and safety (OHS) director, management, and workers with the goal of measuring changes in workplace policies, procedures, and practices. It will use mixed methods involving semi-structured key informant interviews, focus groups, surveys, site observations, and UV dosimetry assessment. Using the findings from phase I, in phase 2, a web-based, interactive, intervention planning tool for workplaces will be developed, as will the intensive engagement of intermediaries such as industry decision-makers to link to policymakers about the importance of heat and sun safety for outdoor workers. Solar UV and heat are both health and safety hazards

  16. Factors associated with sun protection compliance: results from a nationwide cross-sectional evaluation of 2215 patients from a dermatological consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, U; Thellier, S; Sibaud, V; Taïeb, C; Mery, S; Paul, C; Meyer, N

    2014-06-01

    Campaigns designed to promote sun protection often fail to induce long-term changes in behaviour. There is limited information on patients with low compliance to sun protection recommendations from dermatologists. To characterize dermatology patients at higher risk of low compliance to sun protection measures, and to investigate the relationship between sun protection behaviour, knowledge about accurate sun protection recommendations, ultraviolet (UV)-associated risks and level of UV exposure. An anonymous self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed by dermatologists to patients receiving a sunscreen prescription. Four domains were explored: sun protection behaviour, sun protection knowledge, level of UV exposure and knowledge about UV-associated risks. We modelled sun protection behaviour and determined factors associated with low compliance to sun protection measures. In total 2215 questionnaires were analysed. Patients stratified by risk who better complied with sun protection measures had a better knowledge of UV-associated risks (mean score 14·45 ± 3·20 vs. 12·75 ± 3·29 and 11·20 ± 3·80, P protection measures (mean score 12·08 ± 2·79 vs. 10·68 ± 3·11 and 9·00 ± 3·63, P protection measures also reported higher levels of sun exposure (mean score 4·24 ± 2·26 vs. 4·02 ± 2·05 and 3·34 ± 2·14, P protection behaviour were age below 20 or over 64 years, male sex, lower knowledge about accurate sun protection recommendations and UV-associated risks, and low UV exposure. This study shows the complex relationship between UV exposure, knowledge about UV-associated risks, and knowledge about sun protection recommendations and behaviour. Future skin cancer prevention programmes should focus on specific populations with low sun protection behaviour and high UV exposure. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Sustainability of the Dissemination of an Occupational Sun Protection Program in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Zhang, Xiao; Kane, Ilima L.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of an occupational sun safety program, Go Sun Smart (GSS), was explored in a randomized trial, testing dissemination strategies at 68 U.S. and Canadian ski areas in 2004-2007. All ski areas received GSS from the National Ski Areas Association through a Basic Dissemination Strategy (BDS) using conference presentations and free…

  18. Pollution and Sun Exposure: a Deleterious Synergy. Mechanisms and Opportunities for Skin Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrot, Laurent

    2017-09-18

    Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure. Skin may thus be impacted by external influences through oxidation of some of its surface components. Moreover, internal contamination is highly probable since some pollutants present in plasma could be delivered by the circulation of the blood. In fact, aggravation of skin diseases such as atopy or eczema during peaks in pollution suggests that skin surface is not the only one to be impacted. Moreover, epidemiological data pointed to a significant correlation between exposure to pollution or cigarette smoke and early occurrence of aging markers. Oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic impairments are among the most probable mechanisms of pollution-derived dermatological hazards which might be amplified by the deleterious synergy of pollution and sun, particularly UVA. Protection strategies should thus combine surface protection (sunscreens with high UVA absorption, antioxidants preventing lipid peroxidation) and enhanced deeper skin tissue resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation, with antioxidants targeting mitochondria or the induction of natural antioxidation and detoxification such as the Nrf2 pathway. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Sun Protection and Skin Examination Practices in a Setting of High Ambient Solar Radiation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Thompson, Bridie S; Green, Adèle C; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-09-01

    Primary prevention and early detection are integral strategies to reduce the burden of skin cancer. To describe the prevalence of sun protection and skin examination practices in a population exposed to high levels of ambient solar radiation and to identify associated factors. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from a prospective cohort of 40,172 adults aged 40 through 69 years from Queensland, Australia, recruited in 2011. We obtained data on all melanoma diagnoses through 2009 via record linkage with the Queensland Cancer Registry (notifications have been mandatory since 1982). We calculated prevalence proportion ratios to compare prevalence of sun protection and skin examination practices in 3 separate groups: those with a history of melanoma (group 1), those with a self-reported history of treated actinic lesions (group 2), and those without either (group 3). We used multivariate generalized linear models to identify factors associated with each practice. Participants with a previously confirmed melanoma (group 1; n = 1433) and/or treated actinic lesions (group 2; n = 24,006) were more likely than those without (group 3; n = 14,733) to report sun protection practices, including regular use of sunscreen (53.3%, 45.1%, and 38.1%, respectively) and wearing hats (74.7%, 68.2%, and 58.2%, respectively). They were also more likely to have had a whole-body skin examination by a physician in the past 3 years (93.7%, 83.4%, and 52.1%, respectively). Within all 3 groups, the strongest association with sun protection practices was with sun-sensitive skin type. Within group 3 (no history of treated skin lesions), the strongest factor associated with clinical skin examinations was self-reported nevus density at 21 years of age, whereas a family history of melanoma was a significant factor in groups 2 and 3. In this large sample exposed to high levels of ambient solar radiation, sun protection and skin examination practices were most frequent among those

  20. Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation--effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Calles, C; Benesova, T; Macaluso, F; Krutmann, J

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760-1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches human skin. While infrared radiation of longer wavelengths (IRB and IRC) does not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of the shorter wavelength (IRA) reaches the dermis. IRA radiation has been demonstrated to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least two ways: (a) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 1, and (b) by decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. IRA radiation exposure therefore induces similar biological effects to UV radiation, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different, specifically, the cellular response to IRA irradiation involves the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Effective sun protection requires specific strategies to prevent IRA radiation-induced skin damage. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Accuracy of Principal and Teacher Knowledge of School District Policies on Sun Protection in California Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Reynolds, Kim D; Berteletti, Julia; Massie, Kim; Ashley, Jeff; Buller, Mary Klein; Meenan, Richard T

    2018-01-18

    Policy is a key aspect of school-based efforts to prevent skin cancer. We explored the extent and accuracy of knowledge among principals and teachers in California public school districts about the elements specified in their district's written sun safety policy. The sample consisted of California public school districts that subscribed to the California School Boards Association, had an elementary school, adopted Board Policy 5141.7 for sun safety, and posted it online. The content of each policy was coded. Principals (n = 118) and teachers (n = 113) in elementary schools were recruited from September 2013 through December 2015 and completed a survey on sun protection policies and practices from January 2014 through April 2016. Only 38 of 117 principals (32.5%) were aware that their school district had a sun protection policy. A smaller percentage of teachers (13 of 109; 11.9%) than principals were aware of the policy (F 108 = 12.76, P < .001). We found greater awareness of the policy among principals and teachers who had more years of experience working in public education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, F 106 = 4.71, P = .03) and worked in schools with more non-Hispanic white students (OR = 7.65, F 109 = 8.61, P = .004) and fewer Hispanic students (OR = 0.28, F 109 = 4.27, P = .04). Policy adoption is an important step in implementing sun safety practices in schools, but districts may need more effective means of informing school principals and teachers of sun safety policies. Implementation will lag without clear understanding of the policy's content by school personnel.

  2. Expression of advanced glycation end-products on sun-exposed and non-exposed cutaneous sites during the ageing process in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Maria; Taulescu, Marian; Crisan, Diana; Cosgarea, Rodica; Parvu, Alina; Cãtoi, Cornel; Drugan, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    The glycation process is involved in both the intrinsic (individual, genetic) and extrinsic (ultraviolet light, polution and lifestyle) aging processes, and can be quantified at the epidermal or dermal level by histological, immunohistochemical (IHC), or imagistic methods. Our study is focused on a histological and immunohistological comparison of sun-protected regions versus sun-exposed regions from different age groups of skin phototype III subjects, related to the aging process. Skin samples collected from non-protected and UV protected regions of four experimental groups with different ages, were studied using histology and IHC methods for AGE-CML [N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine]. A semi-quantitative assessment of the CML expression in the microvascular endothelium and dermal fibroblasts was performed. The Pearson one-way ANOVA was used to compare data between the groups. In the dermis of sun-exposed skin, the number and the intensity of CML positive cells in both fibroblasts and endothelial cells (p<0.05) was higher compared to sun-protected skin, and was significantly increased in older patients. The sun-exposed areas had a more than 10% higher AGE-CML score than the protected areas. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the histological score and the IHC expression of CML. We concluded that in healthy integument, the accumulation of final glycation products increases with age and is amplified by ultraviolet exposure. The study provides new knowledge on differences of AGE-CML between age groups and protected and unprotected areas and emphasizes that endothelium and perivascular area are most affected, justifying combined topical and systemic therapies.

  3. Expression of advanced glycation end-products on sun-exposed and non-exposed cutaneous sites during the ageing process in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Crisan

    Full Text Available The glycation process is involved in both the intrinsic (individual, genetic and extrinsic (ultraviolet light, polution and lifestyle aging processes, and can be quantified at the epidermal or dermal level by histological, immunohistochemical (IHC, or imagistic methods. Our study is focused on a histological and immunohistological comparison of sun-protected regions versus sun-exposed regions from different age groups of skin phototype III subjects, related to the aging process. Skin samples collected from non-protected and UV protected regions of four experimental groups with different ages, were studied using histology and IHC methods for AGE-CML [N(epsilon-(carboxymethyllysine]. A semi-quantitative assessment of the CML expression in the microvascular endothelium and dermal fibroblasts was performed. The Pearson one-way ANOVA was used to compare data between the groups. In the dermis of sun-exposed skin, the number and the intensity of CML positive cells in both fibroblasts and endothelial cells (p<0.05 was higher compared to sun-protected skin, and was significantly increased in older patients. The sun-exposed areas had a more than 10% higher AGE-CML score than the protected areas. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the histological score and the IHC expression of CML. We concluded that in healthy integument, the accumulation of final glycation products increases with age and is amplified by ultraviolet exposure. The study provides new knowledge on differences of AGE-CML between age groups and protected and unprotected areas and emphasizes that endothelium and perivascular area are most affected, justifying combined topical and systemic therapies.

  4. Genetic Test Reporting and Counseling for Melanoma Risk in Minors May Improve Sun Protection Without Inducing Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Tammy K; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Kohlmann, Wendy; Champine, Marjan; Hauglid, Jamie; Wu, Yelena P; Scott, Emily; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy A

    2018-01-19

    Genetic testing of minors is advised only for conditions in which benefits of early intervention outweigh potential psychological harms. This study investigated whether genetic counseling and test reporting for the CDKN2A/p16 mutation, which confers highly elevated melanoma risk, improved sun protection without inducing distress. Eighteen minors (M age  = 12.4, SD = 1.9) from melanoma-prone families completed measures of protective behavior and distress at baseline, 1 week (distress only), 1 month, and 1 year following test disclosure. Participants and their mothers were individually interviewed on the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing 1 month and 1 year post-disclosure. Carriers (n = 9) and noncarriers (n = 9) reported significantly fewer sunburns and a greater proportion reported sun protection adherence between baseline and 1 year post-disclosure; results did not vary by mutation status. Anxiety symptoms remained low post-disclosure, while depressive symptoms and cancer worry decreased. Child and parent interviews corroborated these findings. Mothers indicated that genetic testing was beneficial (100%) because it promoted risk awareness (90.9%) and sun protection (81.8%) without making their children scared (89.9%); several noted their child's greater independent practice of sun protection (45.4%). In this small initial study, minors undergoing CDKN2A/p16 genetic testing reported behavioral improvements and consistently low distress, suggesting such testing may be safely implemented early in life, allowing greater opportunity for risk-reducing lifestyle changes.

  5. Physicians involved in the care of patients with high risk of skin cancer should be trained regarding sun protection measures: evidence from a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M; Rioual, E; Adamski, H; Roguedas, A-M; Misery, L; Michel, M; Chastel, F; Schmutz, J-L; Aubin, F; Marguery, M-C; Meyer, N

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge, regarding sun protection, is essential to change behaviour and to reduce sun exposure of patients at risk for skin cancer. Patient education regarding appropriate or sun protection measures, is a priority to reduce skin cancer incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge about sun protection and the recommendations given in a population of non-dermatologists physicians involved in the care of patients at high risk of skin cancer. This study is a cross-sectional study. Physicians were e-mailed an anonymous questionnaire evaluating the knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, sun protection and about the role of the physician in providing sun protection recommendations. Of the responders, 71.4% considered that the risk of skin cancer of their patients was increased when compared with the general population. All the responders knew that UV-radiations can contribute to induce skin cancers and 71.4% of them declared having adequate knowledge about sun protection measures. A proportion of 64.2% of them declared that they were able to give sun protection advices: using sunscreens (97.8%), wearing covering clothes (95.5%), performing regular medical skin examination (91.1%), to avoid direct sunlight exposure (77.8%), avoiding outdoor activities in the hottest midday hours (73.3%) and practising progressive exposure (44.4%). Non-dermatologist physicians reported a correct knowledge of UV-induced skin cancer risk factors. The majority of responders displayed adequate knowledge of sun protection measures and declared providing patients with sun protection recommendation on a regular basis. Several errors persisted. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Studies on zeolite contribution to the sun protection properties of plant oil lotion rich in vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendevski, S.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen lotions rich in vitamin E provide benefit in preventing and treating sunburns. The sun protection capacity of vitamin E's lotion formulations decrease with time of light exposure. The zeolite microparticles with previously absorbed vitamin E and added after to sun protection oil lotion could be used as reservoir for replacing UV photo degraded vitamin E. In the research, the vitamin E absorption capacities of zeolite microparticles of concentration of 0.2 % w/v in plant oil mixture (Olea Europea Oil, Sunflower oil) have been studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The sedimentation and laser diffraction measurements gave broad distribution on size of the zeolite microparticles (1 μm to 15 μm) without interparticle interactions in the solution. The results showed ten-fold decrease in UV absorbance at wavelength of 292 nm in the first 30 minutes of vitamin E absorption to zeolite microparticles and a flat of release in the sunscreen lotion. (Author)

  7. Prevalence and determinants of Australian adolescents' and adults' weekend sun protection and sunburn, summer 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David; Girgis, Afaf; Aitken, Joanne F; Beckmann, Kerri; Reeder, Anthony I; Herd, Natalie; Fairthorne, Andrew; Bowles, Kelly-Ann

    2008-10-01

    Reducing people's exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary strategy for skin cancer prevention. We sought to provide comprehensive national data on preventive behaviors and risk assessment for Australia. A national survey was conducted in summer 2003-2004. In 8 weekly cross-sectional surveys, adults and adolescents were interviewed about their sun protection and sunburn on the previous summer weekend. Adjustments were made for specific weather and ultraviolet radiation conditions relevant to time and location. Adolescents were relatively homogeneous in their low compliance with sun protection (significantly less use of hats, covering clothing, shade, and sunglasses than adults) on weekends, and consequently were more likely to be sunburned than adults (25% compared with 18%; odds ratio=1.80, Psunburn, as was ultraviolet radiation for adults' sunburn. Using shade, spending less time outdoors, and, for adults, wearing clothing covering were associated with reduced odds of sunburn. The study relied on self-reported behaviors and sunburn. Further improvement in Australians' sun-protective behaviors is needed.

  8. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  9. Fator de proteção solar: significado e controvérsias Sun protection factor: meaning and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schalka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS é o principal dado para quantificação da eficácia fotoprotetora de um filtro solar, sendo universalmente aceito. Seu método é baseado na determinação da Dose Eritematosa Mínima (DEM, definida como sendo a menor quantidade de energia necessária para o desencadeamento de eritema, em áreas de pele protegidas e não protegidas pelo produto em estudo. O valor do FPS é, então, calculado como a razão numérica entre a DEM da pele protegida e a da pele não protegida. A primeira publicação demonstrando um método para determinação do valor do FPS foi apresentada em 1978 pela agência norte-americana FDA, seguida por outras publicações do próprio FDA e de outras agências regulatórias internacionais. Apesar de ser considerado o método referência para quantificação da eficácia fotoprotetora de produtos tópicos, existem controvérsias na literatura acerca do método para determinação do FPS e sobre as implicações das reais condições de uso na proteção atingida na prática pelos usuáriosThe Sun Protection Factor (SPF is the most important data to quantify the effectiveness of a sunscreen, being universally accepted. The method is based on determining the minimum erythematous dose (MED, defined as the smallest amount of energy required for triggering the erythema, in areas of protected and unprotected skin. The SPF value is then calculated as the ratio between the MED of protected and unprotected skin. The first publication of a method for determining the SPF was presented in 1978 by the U.S. FDA agency, followed by other publications of FDA and other international regulatory agencies. Although considered the reference method for quantification of sunscreen efficacy of topical products, there are controversies in literature about the method for determining the SPF and the implications of the real conditions of use in the protection achieved in practice by users

  10. Sunburn and sun protective behaviors among adults aged 18-29 years--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Skin cancer is an important public health concern. Nonmelanoma skin cancers, comprised mainly of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are the most common malignancies in the United States. Melanoma, although less common, is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers can be disfiguring, negatively affect quality of life, and create economic burden. Furthermore, age-adjusted incidence rates of both have increased in recent years. Different patterns of sun exposure are associated with different types of skin cancer. Continuous, chronic sun exposure, such as that observed among outdoor workers is associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Intermittent exposure, such as recreational exposure, is associated with melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Sunburn typically occurs after intermittent exposure, and the risk for melanoma increases with an increasing number of sunburns during all periods of life. Sunburn is more common among persons aged 18-29 years compared with older adults. To evaluate trends in sunburn and sun protective behaviors among persons aged 18-29 years, CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The results indicated that although protective behaviors such as sunscreen use, shade use, and wearing long clothing to the ankles have increased in recent years, sunburn prevalence remains high, with 50.1% of all adults and 65.6% of whites aged 18-29 years reporting at least one sunburn in the past 12 months. These results suggest that additional efforts are needed to identify and implement effective strategies targeting younger adults to improve their sun protective behaviors and prevent sunburn and ultimately skin cancer.

  11. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  12. Good, but Not Perfect: Parental Knowledge About Risk Factors for Skin Cancer and the Necessity of Sun Protection in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefeller, Olaf; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B

    2015-01-01

    The level of knowledge and awareness of skin cancer risks in parents of young children is largely unknown. The Erlangen Kindergarten study, which enrolled 3,129 parents of 3- to 6-year-old children in southern Germany, addressed this. The population-based survey found an overall high level of knowledge about skin cancer risks and strong support for the necessity of sun protection but identified two areas (role of intermittent sun exposure, sun protection on cloudy summer days) offering a target for improvement in future public health campaigns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Secondary School Female Students toward Skin Cancer and Sun Protection Behaviors in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mazloomy Mahmoodabad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin cancer is regarded as the most common cancer in most countries, whose most important risk factor is exposure to sunlight. Since prevention programs demand to be held in this regard in childhood and adolescence, this study aimed to determine the Knowledge, attitude, and performance of secondary school female students towards skin cancer and sun protection behaviors in Yazd. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 513 secondary school female students, who were selected using a stratified sampling method. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that its reliability was confirmed in Mazloomy's study via Cronbach alpha (0.81. Moreover, the study data were analyzed by descriptive statistics as well as analytic statistics using SPSS software (ver. 11.5. Results: Mean age of participants was 15/88±1/04 years. Mean and standard deviation scores of knowledge, attitude, performance were reported 12.19 ± 5.44 (total core= 37, 18.98 ± 2.26 (total core= 24 and 7.47 ± 2/51 (total core= 16 respectively. Using sunscreen (71.5% was introduced as the most prevalent sun protection behavior. A significant correlation was observed between knowledge and attitude (r= 0.350, p=0.000, as well as performance(r= 0.264, p=0.000 and age (r= 0.134, p=0.010. Conclusion: As the study findings revealed, lack of knowledge as well as undesirable sun protection behaviors except for using sunscreen supported the need to conduct school-based educational intervention.

  14. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H.; Wang, Timothy S.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit UV exposure. Objective To determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. Methods We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Results Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% versus 27.0%; aPOR=1.41; 1.16–1.71), long sleeves (20.5% versus 7.7%; aPOR=1.55; 1.21–1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% versus 10.5%; aPOR=1.52; 1.24–1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% versus 33.1%; aPOR=2.11; 95% CI=1.73–2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% versus 40.7%; aPOR=0.95; 0.77–1.17). Among subjects with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Limitations Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure. Conclusion Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. PMID:27198078

  15. Using UV photoaged photography to better understand Western Australian teenagers' attitudes towards adopting sun-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra F; Westbrook, Dominique; Chang, Paul

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the viewing of a personal photoaged photograph had the capacity to alter Western Australian teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen teenagers. The teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes prior to viewing their photoaged photograph are encapsulated in the study's central theme: 'You've got to look after your skin and use sunscreen, but I always forget!'. Post-viewing their photoaged facial image many teenagers reiterated their intentions to adopt (when they remembered) skin-protective measures. However, photoaged photography did not alter other teenagers' intention to tan. NEW KNOWLEDGE: Teenagers who choose to continue to tan were aware of the long-term health risks associated with ultra-violet over-exposure. However, their desire remained strong to emulate the media promoted image of bronzed youth being popular individuals. Indeed, the social benefits of being considered attractive to their peers became an attitudinal barrier to the teenagers' adoption of skin-protective behaviours. Those teenagers who changed their pro-tanning attitudes following their viewing of their ultra-violet photoaged photograph did so because of the shock they received when they saw their sun-damaged facial image. This suggests that photoageing photography can be effective with many adolescents because it reduces the cause-and-effect delay that exists between the occurrence of sun-damage and its visual presentation in later-life. Greater effort needs to be focused on increasing teenagers' understanding of how sun-damage occurs, when it is appropriate to apply sunscreen, as well as in changing the prevailing media image of an attractive body being a tanned body.

  16. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  17. Assessment of knowledge of skin cancer prevention and its relation with sun exposure and photo protection amongst gym academy members on the south of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Mariana Rocha; Durães, Edson Souza Machado; Martignago, Beatriz Castellar de Faria; Blanco, Luiz Felipe de Oliveira; Fabris, Thiago Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent neoplasia in several parts of the world and also in Brazil. There is evidence of an increase in morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. Although the incidence of skin cancer is increasing, it is estimated that 45% of all preventable cancers worldwide are skin neoplasias. Several studies have emphasized the need for campaigns to encourage sun protection. To assess the knowledge about skin cancer prevention and its association with sun exposure and photo protection in gym members. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study during January to July 2009, including gym members of both sexes in the city of Criciuma. A self-administered questionnaire was used. The statistical analysis was conducted in a descriptive way in regards to the absolute and relative frequencies of the variables under study. Of the 317 questionnaires studied, 62% were from women and 38% from men. Skin types II and III predominated, and the average age was 27.6 years. 94.3% of the participants reported that they had heard about the risks of sun exposure, mostly in terms of skin cancer risk (80.8%). Most participants, especially women, reported some form of sun protective measure. The population studied, similar to that in other regions of Brazil and the world, is aware of the risks of excessive sun exposure and skin cancer prevention, but has not yet incorporated appropriate sun protection measures into their daily habits.

  18. Environmental Impacts by Fragments Released from Nanoenabled Products: A Multiassay, Multimaterial Exploration by the SUN Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Mónica J B; Lin, Sijie; Schlich, Karsten; Navas, José M; Brunelli, Andrea; Neubauer, Nicole; Vilsmeier, Klaus; Costa, Anna L; Gondikas, Andreas; Xia, Tian; Galbis, Liliana; Badetti, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio; Hristozov, Danail; Kammer, Frank von der; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Nel, André; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2018-02-06

    Nanoenabled products (NEPs) have numerous outdoor uses in construction, transportation or consumer scenarios, and there is evidence that their fragments are released in the environment at low rates. We hypothesized that the lower surface availability of NEPs fragment reduced their environmental effects with respect to pristine nanomaterials. This hypothesis was explored by testing fragments generated by intentional micronisation ("the SUN approach"; Nowack et al. Meeting the Needs for Released Nanomaterials Required for Further Testing: The SUN Approach. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016 (50), 2747). The NEPs were composed of four matrices (epoxy, polyolefin, polyoxymethylene, and cement) with up to 5% content of three nanomaterials (carbon nanotubes, iron oxide, and organic pigment). Regardless of the type of nanomaterial or matrix used, it was observed that nanomaterials were only partially exposed at the NEP fragment surface, indicating that mostly the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of the matrix drove the NEP fragment toxicity. Ecotoxicity in multiple assays was done covering relevant media from terrestrial to aquatic, including sewage treatment plant (biological activity), soil worms (Enchytraeus crypticus), and fish (zebrafish embryo and larvae and trout cell lines). We designed the studies to explore the possible modulation of ecotoxicity by nanomaterial additives in plastics/polymer/cement, finding none. The results support NEPs grouping by the matrix material regarding ecotoxicological effect during the use phase. Furthermore, control results on nanomaterial-free polymer fragments representing microplastic had no significant adverse effects up to the highest concentration tested.

  19. The influence of age and gender in knowledge, behaviors and attitudes towards sun protection: a cross-sectional survey of Australian outpatient clinic attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Garbutcheon-Singh, Kieran Benjamin; Dixit, Shreya; Brown, Pam; Smith, Saxon D

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sun protection in different age groups and between men and women. A multicenter cross-sectional study using a population-based survey of 416 individuals over the age of 18 years was undertaken during 2014. Of individuals aged 18-30 years, 94% had experienced at least one episode of sunburn in the previous year. The likelihood of self-examining increased as age increased (p knowledge about sun protection and sunscreen use, and were twice as likely to know that sunscreen was denatured by heat and had an expiry date (p = 0.01). Women were more than twice as likely to put on sunscreen every day compared with men (p = 0.002). Reported barriers to sunscreen use included greasiness and forgetfulness and this was more commonly reported as age decreased (p = 0.002; p = 0.004). The younger population was less likely to use more than one modality of sun protection (p = 0.05). This study highlights a number of gender- and age-specific findings with regards to sun protection. There are knowledge, attitude, and behavior deficiencies within each demographic group that need to be specifically targeted through educational and public health efforts in order to improve general sun protection measures and decrease the incidence of skin cancers.

  20. Primary school sun protection policies and practices 4 years after baseline—a follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I.; Jopson, Janet A.; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Before the 2005 launch of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP), 242 randomly sampled primary schools completed a mail survey about sun protection policies, practices, curriculum and environment. A 2009 follow-up included 189 (78%) and their mean Total Accreditation Score (TAS = total SSAP requirements met, range 0–12), increased by 0.8 (95% CI 0.5–1.2, P schools acknowledging input from Health Promoting Schools demonstrated a tendency towards being statistically significantly higher by 0.5 (95% CI −0.1 to 1.1, P = 0.082), but statistically significantly higher by 1.1 (95% CI 0.5–1.7, P schools acknowledging Cancer Society input. Lowest attainment was for the clothing (43%), shade (52%) and curriculum (55%) criteria. Key perceived barriers were cost, particularly of shade and limited support by parents and others. Schools which had not applied for accreditation identified lack of programme awareness and ‘other priorities’ as barriers; further information, better resourcing and training assistance as key needs. Observed positive change justifies increased support to consolidate gains and achieve sustainable universality. PMID:22907533

  1. Sun protection behavior and knowledge of patients attending laser clinic to prevent adverse events of laser: A Cross-sectional, Single Center, Tertiary Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Lueangarun, Suparuj; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Panchaprateep, Ratchathorn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2018-06-08

    Limited data of sun protection knowledge in laser treatment patients exists therefore, preventative information should be provided by dermatologists to minimize harmful effects. To assess sun protection knowledge-behavior and knowledge to prevent adverse events from laser therapy among patients who visited a laser clinic at a tertiary university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. This is a self-reported questionnaire, cross-sectional survey. All participants from the Laser Clinic in KCMH were recruited into the study. A Total of 385 patients were enrolled into the study; 80.5% female participants. Patients who never received laser treatment significantly lacked proper sun protection knowledge to prevent adverse events of lasers when compared to those who previous received laser treatments regarding the application of sunscreen after laser treatment (56.6% vs 17.4%, p protection in the post laser area (41.9% vs 20.4%, p knowledge of sun protection to prevent adverse events were significantly different among the group of educational levels and previous history of laser treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Google Earth to Assess Shade for Sun Protection in Urban Recreation Spaces: Methods and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, R; Wilson, N; Signal, L; Barr, M; Mackay, C; Reeder, A; Thomson, G

    2018-05-16

    Shade in public spaces can lower the risk of and sun burning and skin cancer. However, existing methods of auditing shade require travel between sites, and sunny weather conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software-Google Earth-for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools. Outcome measures included method accuracy (assessed by comparison with a subsample of field observations of 10 of the settings) and inter-rater reliability. Of the 164 activity areas identified in the 45 settings, most (83%) had no shade cover. The method identified most activity areas in playgrounds (85%) and beaches (93%) and was accurate for assessing shade over these areas (predictive values of 100%). Only 8% of activity areas at outdoor pools were identified, due to a lack of street view images. Reliability for shade cover estimates was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). Google Earth appears to be a reasonably accurate and reliable and shade audit tool for playgrounds and beaches. The findings are relevant for programmes focused on supporting the development of healthy urban open spaces.

  3. Response Across the Health-Literacy Spectrum of Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Sun-Protection Education Program Delivered on Tablet Computers: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John J; Desai, Amishi; Gordon, Elisa J

    2015-08-18

    Sun protection can reduce skin cancer development in kidney transplant recipients, who have a greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma than the general population. A culturally sensitive sun-protection program (SunProtect) was created in English and Spanish with the option of choosing audio narration provided by the tablet computer (Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 10.1). The intervention, which showed skin cancer on patients with various skin tones, explained the following scenarios: skin cancer risk, the ability of sun protection to reduce this risk, as well as offered sun-protection choices. The length of the intervention was limited to the time usually spent waiting during a visit to the nephrologist. The development of this culturally sensitive, electronic, interactive sun-protection educational program, SunProtect, was guided by the "transtheoretical model," which focuses on decision making influenced by perceptions of personal risk or vulnerability to a health threat, importance (severity) of the disease, and benefit of sun-protection behavior. Transportation theory, which holds that narratives can have uniquely persuasive effects in overcoming preconceived beliefs and cognitive biases because people transported into a narrative world will alter their beliefs based on information, claims, or events depicted, guided the use of testimonials. Participant tablet use was self-directed. Self-reported responses to surveys were entered into the database through the tablet. Usability was tested through interviews. A randomized controlled pilot trial with 170 kidney transplant recipients was conducted, where the educational program (SunProtect) was delivered through a touch-screen tablet to 84 participants. The study involved 62 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, and 48 Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between the intervention and control groups in age, sex, income, or time since

  4. [Solar protection products: efficacy and risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beani, J-C

    2012-04-01

    Solar protection products (SPP) containing chemical filters and/or mineral filters are extensively used today in photoprotection; however, concerns continue to be voiced about their efficacy and about their possible dangers. A rapid review of photoprotection strategies shows that SPP owe their photoprotective effect to the absence of other photoprotection methods having clearly established efficacy in healthy subjects; in addition, they exhibit real protective efficacy against the majority of harmful effects of solar radiation, provided they have been devised in keeping with the specifications clearly set out in the recommendations of the French Medicines Agency (Afssaps). Such efficacy is dependent on their correct usage, recently reiterated by Afssaps in its recommendations to end-users concerning the good use of solar products: application of adequate quantities of such products, selection of the appropriate photoprotection class based on phototype and conditions of exposure, and regular renewal of applications in the event of prolonged exposure and after bathing or profuse sweating. Solar filters have long been known to cause contact allergic dermatitis, irritative dermatitis and photosensitisation, and a particular risk has appeared with the use of octocrylene. However, debate has centred primarily on the risk of endocrine disturbance potentially induced by chemical filters, certain of which exhibit established transcutaneous penetration. The risk of mimicry of an effect of oestradiol has been raised on the basis of a series of studies, almost all of which were carried out by the same team, and which mainly concerned 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) following oral absorption in the rat. The risk of this type of effect with SPPs under normal conditions of use seems fairly remote according to the current state of knowledge; in any event, within the context of the "National Fertility Action Plan", Afssaps has been formally requested to analyse the risk

  5. Genetics perspective of UV rays and new alternatives for sun protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, E.O.; Vargas, N.; Martínez, L.M.; Agudelo, C.A.; Ortiz, I.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV), has three different wavelengths: UVA (315-400 nm), UVB (280-315 nm) and UVC (100-280 nm), which impact in different ways on the skin of human beings, and may be responsible of skin aging, burns and cancers. Currently we have multiple sunscreen alternatives, ranging from conventional physical methods to complex molecular mechanisms and inducers of cell repair as Polypodium leucotomos. The purpose of this review is to show the implications of ultraviolet rays on human beings exposed to sunlight and the protection alternatives that are available and show what is to come in photo protection towards the future. (authors) [es

  6. Creating a Sun-Safe Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Strategies for minimizing sun exposure of campers and staff include educating campers about the sun's effect on their skin, scheduling activities when the sun is less intense, creating shade at the camp site, incorporating sun protection into camp dress code, and training staff regarding sun protection. Addresses OSHA and liability issues. (LP)

  7. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, M.; Faurschou, A.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application. METHODS: Seven areas were marked on the back of 24 volunteers. One area was phototested ...

  8. Beyond the usual suspects: target group- and behavior-specific factors add to a theory-based sun protection intervention for teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Sun protection standards among teenagers are low while sun exposure peaks in this age group. Study 1 explores predictors of adolescent protection intentions and exposure behavior. Study 2 tests the effectiveness of an intervention based on these predictors. Study 1(cross-sectional, N = 207, ages 15-18) and Study 2 (RCT, N = 253, ages 13-19) were conducted in schools. Path models were used to analyze data. Self-efficacy (β = .26, p motivation (β = .54, p motivation (β = .29, p health behavior theories.

  9. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to sun/shade production regime, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida, ‘Cherokee Brave™’ and ‘Cherokee Princess’ were grown in #5 nursery containers in an amended 100% bark substrate. Treatments were assigned based on exposure time to a full sun/shade condition during the growing season: 1) plants grown in full sun, 2) plants grown in...

  10. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun allergy Overview Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ...

  11. Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection, and indoor tanning behaviors among Americans: review from national surveys and case studies of 3 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Cokkinides, Vilma; Hall, H Irene; Hartman, Anne M; Saraiya, Mona; Miller, Eric; Paddock, Lisa; Glanz, Karen

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (from solar and nonsolar sources) is a risk factor for skin cancer. We sought to summarize recent estimates on sunburns, sun-protection behaviors, and indoor tanning available from national and selected statewide behavioral surveys. Estimates of the prevalence of sunburn, sun-protection behaviors, and indoor tanning by US adults, adolescents, and children collected in national surveys in 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2007 to 2009 were identified and extracted from searches of computerized databases (ie, MEDLINE and PsychINFO), reference lists, and survey World Wide Web sites. Sunburn estimates from 3 state Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Systems were also analyzed. Latest published estimates (2005) showed that 34.4% of US adults were sunburned in the past year. Incidence of sunburns was highest among men, non-Hispanic whites, young adults, and high-income groups in national surveys. About 3 in 10 adults routinely practiced sun-protection behaviors, and women and older adults took the most precautions. Among adolescents, 69% were sunburned in the previous summer and less than 40% practiced sun protection. Approximately 60% of parents applied sunscreen and a quarter used shade to protect children. Indoor tanning was prevalent among younger adults and females. Limitations include potential recall errors and social desirability in self-report measures, and lack of current data on children. Many Americans experienced sunburns and a minority engaged in protective behaviors. Females and older adults were most vigilant about sun protection. Substantial proportions of young women and adolescents recently used indoor tanning. Future efforts should promote protective hats, clothing, and shade; motivate males and younger populations to take precautions; and convince women and adolescents to reduce indoor tanning. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Natural Botanical Oil for Sun Protection: Characterization and in vitro and in vivo Human Skin Permeation and Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréo-Filho, Newton; Bim, Antonio Vinicius Kosiski; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Kitice, Nidia Ayumi; Haridass, Isha N; Abd, Eman; Santos Lopes, Patricia; Thakur, Sachin S; Parekh, Harendra S; Roberts, Michael S; Grice, Jeffrey E; Benson, Heather A E; Leite-Silva, Vânia Rodrigues

    2018-01-01

    The use of sunscreen products is widely promoted by schools, government agencies, and health-related organizations to minimize sunburn and skin damage. In this study, we developed stable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing the chemical UV filter octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC). In parallel, we produced similar stable SLNs in which 20% of the OMC content was replaced by the botanical urucum oil. When these SLNs were applied to the skin of human volunteers, no changes in fluorescence lifetimes or redox ratios of the endogenous skin fluorophores were seen, suggesting that the formulations did not induce toxic responses in the skin. Ex vivo (skin diffusion) tests showed no significant penetration. In vitro studies showed that when 20% of the OMC was replaced by urucum oil, there was no reduction in skin protection factor (SPF), suggesting that a decrease in the amount of chemical filter may be a viable alternative for an effective sunscreen, in combination with an antioxidant-rich vegetable oil, such as urucum. There is a strong trend towards increasing safety of sun protection products through reduction in the use of chemical UV filters. This work supports this approach by producing formulations with lower concentrations of OMC, while maintaining the SPF. Further investigations of SPF in vivo are needed to assess the suitability of these formulations for human use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Photoprotection and vitamin D status: a study on awareness, knowledge and attitude towards sun protection in general population from Kuwait, and its relation with vitamin D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf; Issa, Bayoumi Ibrahim; Nair, Vasanthy

    2012-01-01

    The primary cause of skin cancers is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. And, for decades sun protection has been promoted in various public health education campaigns. Recently, however, vitamin D deficiency has been related to increased risk of skin cancers. And, skin being the primary site for the synthesis of active form of vitamin D, excessive sun protection could lead to vitamin D-deficient states. But, the results have so far been conflicting. To study the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of representative groups from the general population from Kuwait towards sun protection. And, also study the correlation of the level of sun protective measures used and vitamin D levels in these groups. The study constituted of two main parts. First part comprised a questionnaire-based survey of representative group of people aged 18 and above to assess their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards sun protection. The second part consisted of measuring serum vitamin D levels in 150 volunteers amongst the responders of the questionnaire, who had been regularly using sunscreens for at least 2 years and compare to the levels seen in 150 age and sex-matched responders of similar skin phototypes, who had never used sunscreens. Out of the total of 1044 responders, 80% of them had adequate knowledge of the beneficial and harmful effects of sun exposure, and had been using sunscreens regularly, and adopting other sun protective measures in their daily life. The levels of vitamin D were found to be deficient in both sunscreen users and those who had never used sunscreens. The difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant (60.67% vs 54.67%; P value>0.001). Population at large seems to be adequately informed about the beneficial and deleterious effects of sun exposure. Vitamin D levels are deficient in majority of our people, and there is a need to do larger surveys covering all parts of the country and give supplemental doses of vitamin D to those

  14. Photoprotection and vitamin D status: A study on awareness, knowledge and attitude towards sun protection in general population from Kuwait, and its relation with vitamin D levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Al-Mutairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary cause of skin cancers is exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation. And, for decades sun protection has been promoted in various public health education campaigns. Recently, however, vitamin D deficiency has been related to increased risk of skin cancers. And, skin being the primary site for the synthesis of active form of vitamin D, excessive sun protection could lead to vitamin D-deficient states. But, the results have so far been conflicting. Aims: To study the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of representative groups from the general population from Kuwait towards sun protection. And, also study the correlation of the level of sun protective measures used and vitamin D levels in these groups. Methods: The study constituted of two main parts. First part comprised a questionnaire-based survey of representative group of people aged 18 and above to assess their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards sun protection. The second part consisted of measuring serum vitamin D levels in 150 volunteers amongst the responders of the questionnaire, who had been regularly using sunscreens for at least 2 years and compare to the levels seen in 150 age and sex-matched responders of similar skin phototypes, who had never used sunscreens. Results: Out of the total of 1044 responders, 80% of them had adequate knowledge of the beneficial and harmful effects of sun exposure, and had been using sunscreens regularly, and adopting other sun protective measures in their daily life. The levels of vitamin D were found to be deficient in both sunscreen users and those who had never used sunscreens. The difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant (60.67% vs 54.67%; P value>0.001. Conclusion: Population at large seems to be adequately informed about the beneficial and deleterious effects of sun exposure. Vitamin D levels are deficient in majority of our people, and there is a need to do larger surveys covering all

  15. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  16. Consumer protection act for digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  17. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  18. Sun's dynamics and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavanescu, Adela; Rusu, Mircea V.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis processes in the sun are one of the main results related to the evolution of the Sun. Dynamics and energetics of the Sun could be studied indirectly by their elements products in produced by nucleosynthesis. Also solar atmosphere and its characteristics reveled in its full development is observed during the solar eclipses. We try to correlate these facts in order to obtained data to be used in solar models. (authors)

  19. Protected interoperability of telecommunications and digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.; Cartier, Gene N.; Craft, James P.

    1994-11-01

    New federal standards for the protection of sensitive data now make it possible to ensure the authenticity, integrity and confidentiality of digital products, and non-repudiation of digital telecommunications. Under review and comment since 1991, the new Federal standards were confirmed this year and provide standard means for the protection of voice and data communications from accidental and wilful abuse. The standards are initially tailored to protect only `sensitive-but-unclassified' (SBU) data in compliance with the Computer Security Act of 1987. These data represent the majority of transactions in electronic commerce, including sensitive procurement information, trade secrets, financial data, product definitions, and company-proprietary information classified as `intellectual property.' Harmonization of the new standards with international requirements is in progress. In the United States, the confirmation of the basic standards marks the beginning of a long-range program to assure discretionary and mandatory access controls to digital resources. Upwards compatibility into the classified domain with multi-level security is a core requirement of the National Information Infrastructure. In this report we review the powerful capabilities of standard Public-Key-Cryptology, the availability of commercial and Federal products for data protection, and make recommendations for their cost-effective use to assure reliable telecommunications and process controls.

  20. Sun-protective Behaviors of Student Spectators at Inter-school Swimming Carnivals in a Tropical Region of High Ambient Solar Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Turner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans and Australia (particularly in Queensland has the highest incidence globally. Sunlight is a known skin carcinogen and reflects off water, exacerbating the risk of sunburn. In 1988, the SunSmart Program was developed to promote sun-protection to Australian children. Within a decade, it evolved to include a voluntary national accreditation program for schools, known as the SunSmart Schools (SSS Program. Additionally, in 2008, it became compulsory for primary schoolchildren attending Queensland government-funded schools to wear a shirt during all water-based activities, except when competing. We observed the proportion of student spectators from 41 Townsville (latitude 19.3°S primary schools (65.9% SSS wearing hats at inter-school swimming carnivals in 2009-2011 and 2015 and the proportion wearing a shirt. Overall, a median of 30.7% student spectators from each school wore a hat (max 46.2% [2009]; min 18% [2015] and 77.3% wore a shirt (max 95.8% [2009]; min 74.5% [2015], suggesting that hats are under-utilized. Students from non-government (private schools were twice as likely as students from government schools to wear a hat (41% vs 18.2% p=0.003. Neither the hat nor the shirt-wearing behaviors of student spectators were significantly influenced by their school’s size (number of students, educational advantage, sun-protection policy score or SunSmart status, indicating that other socio-economic factors, not assessed here, may have influenced the results. Our findings suggest that the mandatory swim-shirt policy introduced in 2008 was very effective, especially initially. However, monitoring and feedback of results to schools may be needed to maintain high levels of compliance in the longer-term. Schoolchildren attending swimming carnivals should not rely on sunscreen or shade alone to protect against direct and reflected-sunlight, and need prompting to put a hat and shirt back on immediately after

  1. Comparison of three techniques for evaluating skin erythemal response for determination of sun protection factors of sunscreens: high resolution laser Doppler imaging, colorimetry and visual scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Kaspar, K; Funkel, O

    2001-04-01

    Sun protection factor (SPF) measurement is based on the determination of the minimal erythema dose (MED). The ratio of doses required to induce a minimal erythema between product-treated and untreated skin is defined as SPF. The aim of this study was to validate the conventionally used visual scoring with two non-invasive methods: high resolution laser Doppler imaging (HR-LDI) and colorimetry. Another goal was to check whether suberythemal reactions could be detected by means of HR-LDI measurements. Four sunscreens were selected. The measurements were made on the back of 10 subjects. A solar simulator SU 5000 (m.u.t., Wedel, Germany) served as radiation source. For the visual assessment, the erythema was defined according to COLIPA as the first perceptible, clearly defined unambiguous redness of the skin. For the colorimetric determination of the erythema, a Chromameter CR 300 (Minolta, Osaka, Japan) was used. The threshold for the colorimetry was chosen according to the COLIPA recommendation as an increase of the redness parameter delta a* = 2.5. For the non-contact perfusion measurements of skin blood flow, a two-dimensional high resolution laser Doppler imager (HR-LDI) (Lisca, Linköping, Sweden) was used. For the HR-LDI measurements, an optimal threshold perfusion needed to be established. For the HR-LDI measurements basal perfusion +1 standard deviation of all basal measurements was found to be a reliable threshold perfusion corresponding to the minimal erythema. Smaller thresholds, which would be necessary for detection of suberythemal responses, did not provide unambiguous data. All three methods, visual scoring, colorimetry and HR-LDI, produced similar SPFs for the test products with a variability of colorimetry are suitable, reliable and observer-independent methods for MED determination. However, they do not provide greater sensitivity and thus do not result in lower UV dose requirements for testing.

  2. A novel strategy to protect Sutton’s nevi during forced or voluptuary exposition to sun rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Albeit halo nevi are estimated to be present in approximately 1% of the general population, and they are found to be more prevalent in people with vitiligo, malignant melanoma or Ullrich-Turner’ s syndrome, it is not necessary evident that their presence in human body is to be associated to vitiligo and/or melanoma, both genetically and pathophisiologically. In this study I want to demonstrate how it can be safe to expose Sutton’s nevi (halo nevi to all the sun rays (even the most dangerous during all the daylight, employing two natural cosmetic items: the former based on natural juleps made of polychrome algae (and it is to be considered the absorber sun filter and the latter is a physical sun blocking agent, apt to reflect all the UV rays. The former must be spread onto the halo, the latter, after half an hour, onto the nevus itself.

  3. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  4. baonan sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. BAONAN SUN. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 90 Issue 2 February 2018 pp 23 Research Article. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and multicomponent Schrödinger–Boussinesq system · BAONAN SUN ZHAN LIAN.

  5. Fengrui Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Fengrui Sun. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 34 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 851-864. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle · Kang Ma Lingen Chen Fengrui Sun · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Finite-time exergoeconomic ...

  6. The flight over the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducrocq, A.

    1985-01-01

    With the ''Ulysse'' mission, a satellite is going for the first time to leave the ecliptic plane to observe the sun poles. The ISPM (International Solar Polar Mission) probe will go and visit the sun in passing Jupiter way. Sun pole regions are surmised to play a major role in solar wind production [fr

  7. Ineffectiveness of sun awareness posters in dermatology clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, G W; Senthilselvan, A; Salopek, T G

    2010-06-01

    Although sun awareness posters have been used in doctors' offices and clinics for decades to promote sun protective behaviour, there is no evidence of their usefulness. To investigate whether sun awareness posters lead to inquiry of skin cancer and sun protection measures. Patients considered at risk for skin cancer seen at a dermatology clinic were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire designed to assess the effectiveness of three different sun awareness posters placed in patient rooms. The posters were selected on the basis of their catchy slogan and eye-appealing images, and included those featuring parental interest, sex appeal and informative advice. Only half of the patients noticed the posters (50.6%). The poster with sex appeal garnered the most attention (67.8%), followed by the informative poster (49.2%) and the parental interest poster (35.8%) (P poster inquired about cutaneous cancers and sun protection practices twice as often as those who did not notice the poster, only one-tenth of such inquiries were attributed to the poster ( approximately 5% of the target population). As reported in the questionnaire, the posters themselves were less effective than the advice of physicians in influencing patient attitudes towards sun protection measures. Organizations that produce and disseminate posters should consider beyond focus groups when they design their posters and should consider field testing their products to ensure that they are reaching the targeted audience and are having the expected beneficial effect, otherwise their posters are simply decorative.

  8. Performance of a two-leaf light use efficiency model for mapping gross primary productivity against remotely sensed sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Mei; Zhou, Yanlian; Ju, Weimin; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang, Leiming; Liu, Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Estimating terrestrial gross primary production is an important task when studying the carbon cycle. In this study, the ability of a two-leaf light use efficiency model to simulate regional gross primary production in China was validated using satellite Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument - 2 sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence data. The two-leaf light use efficiency model was used to estimate daily gross primary production in China's terrestrial ecosystems with 500-m resolution for the period from 2007 to 2014. Gross primary production simulated with the two-leaf light use efficiency model was resampled to a spatial resolution of 0.5° and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. During the study period, sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model exhibited similar spatial and temporal patterns in China. The correlation coefficient between sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and monthly gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was significant (pproduction simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model were similar in spring and autumn in most vegetated regions, but dissimilar in winter and summer. The spatial variability of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model was similar in spring, summer, and autumn. The proportion of spatial variations of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and annual gross primary production simulated by the two-leaf light use efficiency model explained by ranged from 0.76 (2011) to 0.80 (2013) during the study period. Overall, the two-leaf light use efficiency model was capable of capturing spatial and temporal variations in gross primary production in China. However, the model needs further improvement to better simulate gross primary production in summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit ultraviolet exposure. We sought to determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% vs 27.0%; aPOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.16-1.71), long sleeves (20.5% vs 7.7%; aPOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% vs 10.5%; aPOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.24-1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% vs 33.1%; aPOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.73-2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% vs 40.7%; aPOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.77-1.17). Among those with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure are limitations. Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  11. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  12. Ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum: long term follow-up highlights the role of DNA repair in protection from sun damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian P; Thompson, Amy H; Bishop, Rachel J; Clayton, Janine A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Zein, Wadih M; Tamura, Deborah; Khan, Sikandar G.; Ueda, Takahiro; Boyle, Jennifer; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Inui, Hiroki; Moriwaki, Shin-Ichi; Emmert, Steffen; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Bradford, Porcia; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in DNA repair genes. Clinical manifestations of XP include mild to extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation resulting in inflammation and neoplasia in sun-exposed areas of the skin, mucous membranes, and ocular surfaces. This report describes the ocular manifestations of XP in patients systematically evaluated in the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. Design Retrospective Observational Case Series Participants Eighty-seven participants, aged 1.3 to 63.4 years, referred to the National Eye Institute for examination from 1964 to 2011. Eighty-three had XP, 3 had XP/Cockayne Syndrome complex, and 1 had XP/trichothiodystrophy complex. Methods Complete, age- and developmental stage-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity; eyelid, ocular surface and lens pathology; tear film and tear production measures; and cytological analysis of conjunctival surface swabs. Results Of the 87 patients, 91% had at least one ocular abnormality. The most common abnormalities were conjunctivitis (51%), corneal neovascularization (44%), dry eye (38%), corneal scarring (26%), ectropion (25%), blepharitis (23%), conjunctival melanosis (20%), and cataracts (14%). Thirteen percent of patients had some degree of visual axis impingement and 5% had no light perception in one or both eyes. Ocular surface cancer or a history of ocular surface cancer was present in 10% of patients. Patients with an acute sunburning skin phenotype were less likely to develop conjunctival melanosis and ectropion but more likely to develop neoplastic ocular surface lesions than non-burning patients. Some patients also showed signs of limbal stem cell deficiency. Conclusions Our longitudinal study reports the ocular status of the largest group of XP patients systematically examined at one facility over an extended period of time. Structural eyelid abnormalities, neoplasms of

  13. Environmental protection: Streamlining petroleum exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum industry is inherently subject to a tremendous degree of volatility through fluctuation in world market prices and vagaries of world politics. A more recent stressful demand on the existing domestic petroleum exploration and production system has been the burgeoning number of environmental regulations imposed on this segment of the industry. Prudent and acceptable oil-field practices must now include agency-regulated environmental protection measures. Many independent producers are unfamiliar not only with the regulatory agencies, but also with the jargon and ambiguities, of regulations that very widely from state to state. Whereas some companies perceive only the restrictions and added cost of regulatory compliance, other companies have sought to optimize benefits while minimizing financial burdens by approaching this modern necessity more creatively, thereby discovering numerous means to become even more competitive. The domestic oil field of the 1990s will be increasingly affected by environmental regulation and public opinion. A number of companies have taken a proactive position on environmental issues. Industry examples include Louisiana Land and Exploration Company's history of wetlands conservation and Chevron's SMART (Save Money and Reduce Toxics). The future of the quality of life of this nation, and indeed the planet as a whole, lies in our capability to deal concurrently with the issues of a petroleum-based economy while protecting the natural environment that sustains life

  14. The sun protection factor (SPF) inadequately defines broad spectrum photoprotection: demonstration using skin reconstructed in vitro exposed to UVA, UVBor UV-solar simulated radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernerd, Françoise; Vioux, Corinne; Lejeune, François; Asselineau, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Wavelength specific biological damage has been previously identified in human skin reconstructed in vitro. Sunburn cell and pyrimidine dimers were found after UVB exposure, and alterations of dermal fibroblasts after UVA exposure. These damages permitted us to discriminate UVB and UVA single absorbers. The present study shows that these biological effects can be obtained simultaneously by a combined UVB + UVA exposure using ultraviolet solar simulated light (UV-SSR), which represents a relevant UV source. In addition, the protection afforded by two broad spectrum sunscreen complex formulations was assessed after topical application. These two formulations displayed the same sun protection factor but different UVA protection factors determined by the persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method. Dose response experiments of UVA or UV-SSR showed that the preparation with the highest PF-UVA provided a better protection with regard to dermal damage compared to the other formulation. Using an original UVB source to obtain the UVB portion of SSR spectrum, the preparations provided the same protection. This study strikingly illustrates the fact that the photoprotection afforded by two sunscreen formulations having similar SPF values is not equal with regard to dermal damage related to photoaging.

  15. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  16. yimin sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YIMIN SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 687-693 RESEARCH NOTE. The association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate identified risk variants of the GLI3 gene in a Chinese population · YIRUI WANG YIMIN SUN ...

  17. jianhua sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JIANHUA SUN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 575-584 Article. MicroRNA-486-5p suppresses TGF-b2-induced proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells by targeting Smad2.

  18. Systematic and Iterative Development of a Smartphone App to Promote Sun-Protection Among Holidaymakers: Design of a Prototype and Results of Usability and Acceptability Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M; Sniehotta, Falko F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Olivier, Patrick; Araújo-Soares, Vera

    2017-06-12

    Sunburn and intermittent exposure to ultraviolet rays are risk factors for melanoma. Sunburn is a common experience during holidays, making tourism settings of particular interest for skin cancer prevention. Holidaymakers are a volatile populations found at different locations, which may make them difficult to reach. Given the widespread use of smartphones, evidence suggests that this might be a novel, convenient, scalable, and feasible way of reaching the target population. The main objective of this study was to describe and appraise the process of systematically developing a smartphone intervention (mISkin app) to promote sun-protection during holidays. The iterative development process of the mISkin app was conducted over four sequential stages: (1) identify evidence on the most effective behavior change techniques (BCTs) used (active ingredients) as well as theoretical predictors and theories, (2) evidence-based intervention design, (3) co-design with users of the mISkin app prototype, and (4) refinement of the app. Each stage provided key findings that were subsequently used to inform the design of the mISkin app. The sequential approach to development integrates different strands of evidence to inform the design of an evidence-based intervention. A systematic review on previously tested interventions to promote sun-protection provided cues and constraints for the design of this intervention. The development and design of the mISkin app also incorporated other sources of information, such as other literature reviews and experts' consultations. The developed prototype of the mISkin app was evaluated by engaging potential holidaymakers in the refinement and further development of the mISkin app through usability (ease-of-use) and acceptability testing of the intervention prototype. All 17 participants were satisfied with the mISkin prototype and expressed willingness to use it. Feedback on the app was integrated in the optimization process of the mISkin app

  19. Neutrinos from the Sun, pollution of the Galaxy by the products of stellar nucleosynthesis and the terrestrial ice ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1978-01-01

    One of the possible explanations of Davis' observational results on solar neutrinos is the hypothesis stating that the metal abundance Z is extremely low throughout the whole Sun, with the exception of its surface layers. Accretion of interstellar matter during the voyage of the Sun in the Galaxy should be responsible for the higher abundance of the heavy elements of the solar surface. The matter which was accreted by the Sun might have contained a higher percentage of the heavy elements than the matter out of which the Sun was born. Periods of enhanced accretion during the passage of the Sun through the spiral arms of the Galaxy can be ralated to the successive ages in the history of the Earth. (author)

  20. How does Investors' Legal Protection affect Productivity and Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Binyamin Berdugo; Sharon Hadad

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the implications of investors' legal protection on aggregate productivity and growth. We have two main results. First, that better investors' legal protection can mitigate agency problems between investors and innovators and therefore expand the range of high-tech projects that can be financed by non-bank investors. Second, investors' legal protection shifts investment resources from less productive (medium-tech) to highly productive (high-tech) projects and therefore enha...

  1. [Light protection: principles of UV protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Mang, R

    2006-05-01

    UV radiation is responsible for the induction of epithelial and melanocytic skin cancer, photoaging, and photodermatoses. UV protection is necessary to prevent damage caused by non-physiologic exposure. UV protection includes not only reduction of sun exposure but also use of sun protective filters, UV protective clothes, DNA repair enzymes, and antioxidant supplementation. Consumers are uncertain about the possibilities and limitations of commercial sun protection measures. Dermatologists must explain protective measures to the general public which continues to believe that UV-tanned skin is healthy. The sunscreen market is a highly competitive but lucrative market. The range of products with different designations and promises makes difficult for both consumers and dermatologists to determine what is sensible UV protection.

  2. Implementing an Internet-Delivered Skin Cancer Genetic Testing Intervention to Improve Sun Protection Behavior in a Diverse Population: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Berwick, Marianne; Zielaskowski, Kate; White, Kirsten Am; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Robers, Erika; Guest, Dolores D; Sussman, Andrew; Talamantes, Yvonne; Schwartz, Matthew R; Greb, Jennie; Bigney, Jessica; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Hunley, Keith; Buller, David B

    2017-04-25

    Limited translational genomic research currently exists to guide the availability, comprehension, and appropriate use of personalized genomics in diverse general population subgroups. Melanoma skin cancers are preventable, curable, common in the general population, and disproportionately increasing in Hispanics. Variants in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene are present in approximately 50% of the population, are major factors in determining sun sensitivity, and confer a 2-to-3-fold increase in melanoma risk in the general population, even in populations with darker skin. Therefore, feedback regarding MC1R risk status may raise risk awareness and protective behavior in the general population. We are conducting a randomized controlled trial examining Internet presentation of the risks and benefits of personalized genomic testing for MC1R gene variants that are associated with increased melanoma risk. We will enroll a total of 885 participants (462 participants are currently enrolled), who will be randomized 6:1 to personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk versus waiting list control. Control participants will be offered testing after outcome assessments. Participants will be balanced across self-reported Hispanic versus non-Hispanic ethnicity (n=750 in personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk arm; n=135 in control arm), and will be recruited from a general population cohort in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which is subject to year-round sun exposure. Baseline surveys will be completed in-person with study staff and follow-up measures will be completed via telephone. Aim 1 of the trial will examine the personal utility of personalized genomic testing for melanoma risk in terms of short-term (3-month) sun protection and skin screening behaviors, family and physician communication, and melanoma threat and control beliefs (ie, putative mediators of behavior change). We will also examine potential unintended consequences of testing among those who receive

  3. Sun and solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland))

    1982-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased /sup 14/C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind.

  4. The Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejna, L.; Sobotka, M.

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 50 papers classified in six parts. The introductory paper is devoted to magnetic fields of the Sun and of low-mass main-sequence stars. 7 papers discuss the morphology and fine structure of solar active regions, 9 papers deal with evolutionary aspects of the regions, 6 papers with observations and theories of the solar magnetic field, 9 deal with velocity fields, oscillations and waves in the active regions and 18 papers discuss the physical structure of active regions and its diagnostics. (M.D.). 218 figs., 19 tabs., 1,317 refs

  5. Sun behaviour in Canadian children: results of the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora, Erin C; Marrett, Loraine D

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is a particularly important determinant of skin cancer, yet little data are available for children. This paper describes sun behaviour among Canadian children for the summer of 2006. As part of the Second National Sun Survey (NSS2), 1,437 parents reported on the time spent in the sun, and the frequency of sun protection behaviours and sunburning for one of their children aged 1 to 12 years. Analysis was carried out using complex survey procedures in SAS and STATA. The majority of children (94%) spend at least 30 minutes in the sun on a typical summer day; however, regular sun protection is only commonly reported for young children (1 to 5 years) and involves covering their heads and wearing sunscreen (85%). The frequency of other protective behaviours is much lower, and sun protection decreases with age. Older children are also twice as likely to spend extended time in the sun and to get a sunburn. Among older children, boys are more likely to cover their heads and girls are more likely to wear sunscreen. Regular sun protection among Canadian children is low, given their sun exposure. Heavy reliance on sunscreen is consistent with previous reports and indicates that other measures, such as seeking shade and wearing protective clothing, need to be promoted. Riskier sun behaviour among older children may reflect decreased parental control, as well as changing attitudes and peer pressure, and highlights the importance of adult role models and targeted interventions for this age group.

  6. Effect of the product type, of the amount of applied sunscreen product and the level of protection in the UVB range on the level of protection achieved in the UVA range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C; Diarra, H; Coiffard, L

    2016-03-16

    Using a topical product is part of the overall strategy for skin cancer prevention. The level of protection attainable when using commercial products is indicated by the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value, in use everywhere. This value reflects the level of protection primarily in the UVB range. However, UVA radiation also has deleterious effects on the skin, and it is essential to prevent it, which is why products must offer a wide spectrum of protection. Tests conducted in vivo, before any marketing, are done by applying the studied product at a rate of 2.0 mg cm(-2), while users, in practice, only use 1.0-1.5 mg cm(-2). We now know that this reduction in the amount of applied product greatly affects the SPF. To complete the state of knowledge in this area, we sought to evaluate the effect of a decrease in the amount of applied sunscreen product by studying sunscreen creams and oils on the level of protection attainable in the UVA range. We have shown that the PF-UVA is divided by a factor of 2.2, on average, when the amount of applied product is reduced by half, with differences depending on the product type under consideration (cream or oil) and depending on the SPF of the preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Angular Normalization of Ground and Satellite Observations of Sun-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence for Assessing Vegetation Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; He, L.; Chou, S.; Ju, W.; Zhang, Y.; Joiner, J.; Liu, J.; Mo, G.

    2017-12-01

    Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measured from plant canopies originates mostly from sunlit leaves. Observations of SIF by satellite sensors, such as GOME-2 and GOSAT, are often made over large view zenith angle ranges, causing large changes in the viewed sunlit leaf fraction across the scanning swath. Although observations made by OCO-2 are near nadir, the observed sunlit leaf fraction could still vary greatly due to changes in the solar zenith angle with latitude and time of overpass. To demonstrate the importance of considering the satellite-target-view geometry in using SIF for assessing vegetation productivity, we conducted multi-angle measurements of SIF using a hyperspectral sensor mounted on an automated rotating system over a rice field near Nanjing, China. A method is developed to separate SIF measurements at each angle into sunlit and shaded leaf components, and an angularly normalized canopy-level SIF is obtained as the weighted sum of sunlit and shaded SIF. This normalized SIF is shown to be a much better proxy of GPP of the rice field measured by an eddy covariance system than the unnormalized SIF observations. The same normalization scheme is also applied to the far-red GOME-2 SIF observations on sunny days, and we found that the normalized SIF is better correlated with model-simulated GPP than the original SIF observations. The coefficient of determination (R2) is improved by 0.07±0.04 on global average using the normalization scheme. The most significant improvement in R2 by 0.09±0.04 is found in deciduous broadleaf forests, where the observed sunlit leaf fraction is highly sensitive to solar zenith angle.

  8. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Ekstrak Etanol Daun Jamblang (Syzygium cumini(L.) Skeels) dan Amylum Oryzae Terhadap Nilai Sun Protection Factor Krim Tabir Surya Oktil Metoksisinamat secara In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Sri Rahmayanti Azhar

    2016-01-01

    Sun exposure contain ultraviolet radiation that can cause a variety of skin disorders ranging from reddish, black spots, dryness, wrinkles to skin cancer. Cosmetic sunscreen can filter the sun or hold the entire sun exposure to reduce the adverse effects of sunlight. Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is an active substance which works chemically to absorb ultraviolet light (UV) into the epidermal layer of the skin. Another active subtance is a jamblang leaf (Syzigium cumini (L) Skeels) because it ...

  9. Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperature. They can also cause eye problems, wrinkles, skin spots, and skin cancer. To protect yourself Stay out of the ... protection Avoid sunlamps and tanning beds Check your skin ... feel of birthmarks, moles, and spots. Such changes are a sign of skin cancer. ...

  10. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thune, P.

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab

  11. Influence of application amount on sunscreen photodegradation in in vitro sun protection factor evaluation: proposal of a skin-mimicking substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshimasa; Hirao, Tetsuji; Hatao, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Widely used polymethylmethacrylate substrates for in vitro sun protection factor (SPF) testing of sunscreens do not mimic the rough surface structure of skin, and in addition, sample loading is less than that used in in vivo SPF testing (2.00 mg cm(-2)). We have developed a skin-mimicking substrate (SMS), which has furrows and ridges on its surface, like human skin. A comparison of the photodegradation profiles of sunscreens on commercially available substrates (including SMS) at the recommended application amounts, and on SMS at various application amounts showed that the photodegradation rate of photounstable sunscreen was dependent on the application amount being higher at lower application amounts. SMS at the recommended application amount of 2.00 mg cm(-2) provided in vitro SPF values that were comparable with in vivo SPF values. Our results confirm that, in order to develop a reliable in vitro SPF method, which is consistent with in vivo SPF determination, it is important to use the same application amount of sample as in the in vivo method, in order to take proper account of sunscreen photostability. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Radiation protection programme for a radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, Thutu Nelson

    2015-02-01

    The present project reviews reactor based radioisotope production facilities. An overview of techniques and methodologies used as well as laboratory facilities necessary for the production process are discussed. Specific details of reactor based production and processing of more commonly used industrial and pharmaceutical radioisotopes are provided. Ultimately, based on facilities and techniques utilized as well as the associated hazard assessment, a proposed radiation protection programme is discussed. Elements of the radiation protection programme will also consider lessons from recent incidents and accidents encountered in radioisotope production facilities. (au)

  13. The Sun on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    For 150 years, the Sun has been seen as a gaseous object devoid of a surface, as required by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Yet, not one line of observational evidence supports a gaseous Sun. In contrast, overwhelming evidence exists that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Recently, 40 proofs have been compiled in conjunction with the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM). This model advances that the Sun has a true surface. Photospheric structures, such as sunspots, granules, and faculae, are not optical illusions, as in the SSM, but real objects with a condensed nature. The LMHSM accounts for the thermal spectrum by invoking true inter-atomic structure on the photosphere in the form of the graphite-like layered hexagonal metallic hydrogen lattice first proposed by Wigner and Huntington. Within the convection zone, layered metallic hydrogen, insulated by intercalate atoms, enables the generation of the solar dynamo. Electrons located in conduction bands provide a proper means of generating magnetic fields. Metallic hydrogen ejected from the photosphere also thinly populates the corona, as reflected by the continuous K-coronal spectrum. This coronal matter harvests electrons, resulting in the production of highly ionized atoms. Electron affinity, not temperature, governs the ion profile. The chromosphere is a site of hydrogen and proton capture. Line emission in this region, strongly supports the idea that exothermic condensation reactions are occurring in the chromosphere. In the LMHSM, solar activity and solar winds are regulated by exfoliation reactions occurring in the Sun itself, as the metallic hydrogen lattice excludes non-hydrogen elements from the solar body.

  14. Work-time sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers: results from the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Loraine D; Pichora, Erin C; Costa, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe summer work-related sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers. Information on time in the sun and sun protection practices at work during the summer of 2006 were collected from 1,337 outdoor workers aged 16-64 years as part of the Second National Sun Survey. Proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) were estimated using procedures appropriate for complex survey designs. Twenty-six percent of all Canadians, 39% of males and 33% of those aged 16-24 years work outdoors during the summer. Although 41% spend four or more hours daily in the sun at work, just over half always or often protect themselves by covering their heads (58%), wearing protective clothing (56%) or wearing sunglasses (54%), and only 29% use sunscreen. Males and those aged 16-24 spend the most work time in the sun but are the least likely to use protection. The prevalence of outdoor work and sun behaviours varies among regions. Study findings confirm the need for strategies to reduce time in the sun and increase the use of sun protection among outdoor workers. In order to be effective, these strategies must include both enhanced workplace policies and practice, and increased individual use of sun protection.

  15. Comparison of Authorization/Registration/Notification Processes among Biocidal Products, Cosmetics, Plant Protection Products and Human Medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, comparison of the authorization/registration/notification processes of biocidal products, cosmetics, plant protection products and medicinal products are made and in this respect, the situation in EU is assessed.

  16. Sun protection enhancement of titanium dioxide crystals by the use of carnauba wax nanoparticles: the synergistic interaction between organic and inorganic sunscreens at nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Hernández, J R; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2006-09-28

    Carnauba wax is partially composed of cinnamates. The rational combination of cinnamates and titanium dioxide has shown a synergistic effect to improve the sun protection factor (SPF) of cosmetic preparations. However, the mechanism of this interaction has not been fully understood. In this study, an ethanolic extract of the carnauba wax and an ethanolic solution of a typical cinnamate derivative, ethylcinnamate, were prepared and their UV absorption and SPF either alone or in the presence of titanium dioxide were compared. The titanium dioxide crystals and the cinnamates solutions were also distributed into a matrix composed of saturated fatty acids to emulate the structure of the crystallized carnauba wax. SPF, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray studies of these matrices were performed. Additionally, carnauba wax nanosuspensions containing titanium dioxide either in the lipid phase or in the aqueous phase were prepared to evaluate their SPFs and their physical structure. Strong UV absorption was observed in diluted suspensions of titanium dioxide after the addition of cinnamates. The saturated fatty acid matrices probably favored the adsorption of the cinnamates at the surface of titanium dioxide crystals, which was reflected by an increase in the SPF. No modification of the crystal structure of the fatty acid matrices was observed after the addition of cinnamates or titanium dioxide. The distribution of the titanium dioxide inside the lipid phase of the nanosuspensions was more effective to reach higher SPFs than that at the aqueous phase. The close contact between the carnauba wax and the titanium dioxide crystals after the high-pressure homogenization process was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  17. Tribute to Sun Kwok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kam Ching

    2016-01-01

    position as the first appointed Dean of Science at the University of Hong Kong. As soon as he arrived, he began to reform the science curriculum at HKU, beginning with the introduction of a flexible major/minor system, Faculty common admission, experiential learning requirements, an academic advising system, creation of the interdisciplinary major Environmental Science, introduction of academic induction, undergraduate summer research fellowship and overseas research fellowship, and science service courses for engineering and medicine students. The most significant was his creation of a one-year core sequence of new science foundation courses, which introduced new ways of teaching mathematics and science at the undergraduate level. He is also committed to the internationalization of academic staff, having brought in new hires from many different countries and greatly raising the quality of the staff as a result. In spite of his heavy administration duties, Sun continues to teach every year. He designed and taught the course Our Place in the Univers e as part of the Common Core of HKU. The course discusses the impact of 5000 year of astronomical development on society, religion and society. In 2016, Sun Kwok will have completed his 10-year tenure as Dean. I am glad to have the opportunity to dedicate the 11"t"h Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics to celebrate the academic career of Sun Kwok. Many of us present here are well familiar with the influence Sun has effected over his career on the physics and chemistry of the late stages of evolution. I am very glad to see that so many experts in this field are gathered here in Hong Kong and I wish everyone a very successful and productive conference. I also wish Sun will continue his productive scientific research after he no longer has the administrative burdens and we look forward to more exciting science results from Sun in the years to come. (paper)

  18. Effect of sun mushroom extract in pork sausage and evaluation of the oxidative and microbiological stability of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Santi Stefanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of lipid oxidation is one of the meat industry’s target and, consequently, the search for natural antioxidants has been increased in last years. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom (Agaricus blazei Murrill on the oxidative and microbiological stability of pork meat sausage during storage at 4ºC. The extract was added to sausages in 0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 2.0 % (v/w concentrations. There was done the proximate composition, pH, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* e h*, TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and microbiological analyzes. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, in randomized completely design. The results from proximate composition and microbiological analyzes at day 0 were according to the Brazilian legislation. At 1st day of storage, control treatment showed higher (p<0,05 a* value (red than the other treatments, while b* value (yellow has increased (p<0,05 during the storage period in all treatments. At 21st day of storage, TBARS values of sausages with 2.0 % extract addition was lower (0,705±0,01 mg MDA/kg sample (p<0,05 than the control (1,097±0,11mg MDA/kg sample. The extract has not shown effect on the microbiological stability of the sausages. Nevertheless, the hydroethanolic extract from sun mushroom was effective on the oxidative stability of pork meat sausage when added in a 2.0 % concentration, improving its shelf-life up to 21 days of storage at 4 °C, and it is possible the use as a natural antioxidant source.

  19. The cost reduction on the use of local productive arrangement on competitive supply logistic. Study about the case on APL milk and sun of the productive chain of milk in Ceará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Maria Braga Carneiro

    2008-07-01

    milk in Ceará State. Here called like Milk and Sun. Searched to check if the enterprises that consist the sequence productive analyzed to reach a meaning cost reduction developing its activist inside the productive arrangement. Metodologicament done use, at principal, the deductive method, and, subsidiaryment the inductive method. The search can be classified the point of view about its nature like a search applied and described, looking for describe and to analyze the characteristics of the enterprises the belong Local Productive Arrangement analyzed. Key-words: Local productive arrangement. Cost. Supply logistic.

  20. Personal Protection: The Way Forward (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.

    2000-01-01

    The perceived need for sunscreens with ever-increasing sun protection factors is unnecessary and leads to more confusion than clarity. Year-round sun protection achieved by the inclusion of ultraviolet (UV) filters in skin care products intended for daily use is not indicated for people living in northern Europe and may, in fact, be potentially harmful. Future needs for sun protection are likely to be influenced more by global warming than ozone depletion, and by the rising trend for overseas holidays to sunny destinations. (author)

  1. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  2. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  3. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  4. The star ''Sun''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives a resume of our knowledge of the Sun. In particular, he discusses the mass, luminosity and chemical composition of the Sun, and then asks what an observer from Sirius would think about the Sun. (G.T.H.)

  5. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  6. The sun and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased 14 C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind. (U.K.)

  7. Official control of plant protection products in Poland: detection of illegal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczyk, Marek; Płonka, Marlena; Stobiecki, Tomasz; Kronenbach-Dylong, Dorota; Waleczek, Kazimierz; Weber, Roland

    2018-04-03

    Market presence of illegal and counterfeit pesticides is now a global problem. According to data published in 2012 by the European Crop Protection Association (ECPA), illegal products represent over 10% of the global market of plant protection products. Financial benefits are the main reason for the prevalence of this practice. Counterfeit and illegal pesticides may contain substances that may pose a threat to the environment, crops, animals, and humans, inconsistent with the label and registration dossier. In Poland, action against illegal and counterfeit plant protection products is undertaken by the Main Inspectorate of Plant Health and Seed Inspection (PIORiN), the police, the prosecution, and the pesticide producers. Results of chemical analyses carried out by the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Sośnicowice Branch, Pesticide Quality Testing Laboratory (PQTL IPP-NRI Sosnicowice Branch) indicate that a majority of illegal pesticides in Poland are detected in the group of herbicides. Products from parallel trade tend to have the most irregularities. This article describes the official quality control system of plant protection products in Poland and presents the analytical methods for testing pesticides suspected of adulteration and recent test results.

  8. Environmental protection in exploration and production by AGIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossena, G.; Di Luise, G.; Ceffa, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a panorama of environmental protection activities being undertaken by AGIP (Italian General Petroleum Company). The Company has developed a wide-ranging program based on 20 years experience in world-wide on- and off-shore exploration and production. The research studies on technologically innovative on-site waste management, noise abatement and subsidence control and monitoring techniques are co-operative efforts involving the joint participation of national research institutions, universities and leading international petroleum companies. Given the intense oil carrier traffic along Italy's tourism dependent coastlines, one of the key projects is the creation of a national emergency plan to deal with oil spills. AGIP is also actively involved in the training of national and foreign site personnel in environmental protection techniques

  9. Radiation protection optimization in practices for radiopharmaceuticals production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Osvaldir Paulo dos

    2004-06-01

    This works has arisen from the need of updating radiological protection procedures, creating new ones and training qualified personnel to perform radiological protection duties in a nuclear facility. The main purpose of the research was to assess and minimize gamma and neutron dose rates emitted during the production and handling of radiopharmaceuticals at IEN/DIRA. A mobile measurements system (SMMG-N) was developed for on-site measurements. This system has proven to be more handy than the equipment formerly used for for this task. It has also proven to reduce the measurements uncertainties and to allow for the standardization of assessment procedures. He dose rates calculated using the data provided by this system have been compared with results obtained otherwise and good agreement was observed between them. This study has confirmed the need to improve the radiation shielding of KIPROS target-chamber and target vault in order to meet the radiological principles of dose rate limitation and optimization. (author)

  10. Radiation protection optimization in practices for radiopharmaceuticals production at IEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P. dos; Delgado, Jose U.; Cardoso, Domingos D'Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This work has arisen from the need of updating radiological protection procedures, creating new ones and training qualified personal to perform radiological protection duties in a nuclear facility. The main purpose of the research was to assess and minimize gamma and neutron dose rates emitted during the production and handling of radiopharmaceuticals at IEN/DIRA. A mobile measurements system (SMMG-N) was developed for on-site measurements. This system has proven to be handier than the equipment formerly used for this task. It has also proven to define the measurements uncertainties and to allow for the standardization of assessment procedures. Here dose rates calculated using the data provided by this system have been compared with results obtained otherwise and good agreement was observed between them. This study has confirmed the need to improve the radiation shielding of target-chamber and target vault in order to meet the radiological principles of dose rate limitation and optimization. (author)

  11. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Response of container-grown flowering dogwood cultivars to powdery mildew under sun/shade production and different fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container-grown dogwoods are an important product in the nursery and landscape industry and rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture mainly due to fertilizer, water, and shade management. Our experiments indicate that ...

  13. Characterisation of corrosion products on pipeline steel under cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanarde, Lise [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France)]|[UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Campaignolle, Xavier; Karcher, Sebastien; Meyer, Michel [Gaz de France Research and Development Division, 361 avenue du President Wilson, BP33, 93211 Saint Denis La Plaine (France); Joiret, Suzanne [UPR15 du CNRS, Laboratoire des Interfaces et Systemes Electrochimiques, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, C.P. 133, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-07-01

    Onshore gas transmission lines are conjointly protected against external corrosion by cathodic protection (CP) and organic coatings. If both protection systems are simultaneously faulty, the pipe may be subjected to local loss of protection criteria. Consequently, the development of a corrosion due to the ground intrinsic corrosiveness may occur. To guarantee an optimal and safe use of its 31000 km buried gas transmission network, Gaz de France regularly inspects its pipelines. When indications of metal damage are suspected, excavations are realized to carry out a finer diagnosis and, if necessary, to repair. Whenever, corrosions are encountered, although it occurs very scarcely, it is necessary to evaluate its degree of gravity: activity, mechanism, and kinetics. Among corrosion defects, it is indeed essential to differentiate those active, from those older inactive at the time of excavation, since those last ones may possibly have been annihilated, by a PC reinforcement for instance. Eventually, the identification of the corrosion mechanism and its associated rate will provide an assessment of the risks encountered by other sections of the pipeline similar to that excavated. This study investigates to what extent the degree of gravity (activity, kinetics) of a corrosion can be determined by the characterization and identification of its associated corrosion products. Moreover, it will attempt to relate it to the close environment features as well as to the operating conditions of the pipe. The preliminary results presented in this paper consist in a laboratory study of the time evolution of corrosion products formed on the surface of ordinary low carbon steel samples. The specimens have been previously subjected to various polarization conditions in various aqueous media. The selected solutions are characteristic of ground waters. The main parameters considered for the definition of the media were its initial chemical composition, pH and dissolved gas composition

  14. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  15. Localized products in France: definition, protection and value-adding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bérard

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available La notion de production localisée recouvre une réalité particulièrement importante en France, à la fois sur le terrain, à travers la grande diversité des produits, et dans l’imaginaire des Français. Les dispositifs de valorisation dont ces produits peuvent bénéficier renforcent l’intérêt porté à certains d’entre eux. Dans un tel contexte, il importe de mieux comprendre ce qui fait leur spécificité, d’approfondir certaines notions, de mettre l’accent sur ce qui les différencie réellement. Ce sont les critères d’ordre culturel associant un lieu à une histoire et à un groupe social qui permettent d’organiser et de penser cette famille foisonnante et polymorphe.En marge des demandes formelles de protection de l’indication géographique, de nombreuses initiatives contribuent à valoriser les productions locales. Elles sont le fait d'acteurs issus d'horizon divers, dans le cadre d'actions coordonnées, sans être réellement formalisées.Tous les pays n’ont pas le même rapport au lieu. L’inscription d’un produit dans un territoire est le fruit d’un ensemble de critères au poids plus ou moins important selon l’histoire économique et sociale du pays, sa culture, les rapports de force locaux, le milieu naturel.The concept of local production is a particular reality in France, both in the field itself, home to a huge variety of such products, and in the imagination of the French people. Regional products, terroir products, local, traditional and free-range products... There are countless terms to define this uniquely varied family that is thought to add meaning and promote attachment and as such, much coveted. The protection measures now in place make some of these products seem particularly interesting. Within such a context, what matters is to understand what makes local products special, exploring certain concepts, emphasizing what really makes them different and trying to make sense of their profusion

  16. Our turbulent sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, K.

    1982-01-01

    The quest for a new understanding of the sun and its surprising irregularities, variations, and effects is described. Attention is given to the sun's impact on life on earth, the weather and geomagnetic storms, sunspots, solar oscillations, the missing neutrinos in the sun, the 'shrinking sun', the 'dance' of the orbits, and the search for the 'climate connection'. It is noted that the 1980s promise to be the decade of the sun: not only because solar power may be a crucial ingredient in efforts to solve the energy crisis, but also because there will be brilliant auroras over North America, because sunspot activity will be the second highest since the 17th century, and because an unmanned spacecraft (i.e., the solar polar mission) will leave the plane of the solar system and observe the sun from above and below

  17. Sustainable Product: Personal Protective Equipment Manufactured with Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Aparecido Boa Vista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the case of manufacturing of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE using as raw material biopolymers produced from ethanol from sugar cane, known as green polypropylene, produced since 2008 by BRASKEM. This article studied the PPE for the employee’s head protection, named helmet by NR 6, which is used in situations of exposure to weather and work scenarios in places where there is risk of impact from falling or projecting objects, burns, electric shock, and solar radiation. The MSA, green helmet manufacturer, made an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere by comparing the two manufacturing processes of the helmet shell, covering the January 1 to December 31, 2011 period. It concluded that the sustainable helmet (green polyethylene and pigments robs 231g of CO2 from the atmosphere per produced unit, while the helmet’s production with traditional raw materials (polyethylene and petrochemical pigments found that, for each unit produced, 1029g of CO2 are emitted into the atmosphere. The study showed that substitution of raw materials has led to reduction in the impact generated in the helmets’ production.

  18. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  19. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  20. Package selection for moisture protection for solid, oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; MacDonald, Bruce C

    2010-11-01

    This review describes how best to select the appropriate packaging options for solid, oral drug products based on both chemical and physical stability, with respect to moisture protection. This process combines an accounting for the initial moisture content of dosage form components, moisture transfer into (out of) packaging based on a moisture vapor transfer rate (MVTR), and equilibration between drug products and desiccants based on their moisture sorption isotherms to provide an estimate of the instantaneous relative humidity (RH) within the packaging. This time-based RH is calculationally combined with a moisture-sensitive Arrhenius equation (determined using the accelerated stability assessment program, ASAP) to predict the drug product's chemical stability over time as a function of storage conditions and packaging options. While physical stability of dosage forms with respect to moisture has been less well documented, a process is recommended based on the threshold RH at which changes (e.g., dosage form dissolution, tablet hardness, drug form) become problematic. The overall process described allows packaging to be determined for a drug product scientifically, with the effect of any changes to storage conditions or packaging to be explicitly accounted for. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  1. Labour Protection and Productivity in EU Economies: 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei, Fabrizio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines cross-national and sectoral differences in multifactor productivity growth in sixteen European countries from 1995 to 2005. The main aim is to ascertain the role of flexible employment contracts and collective labour relationships in explaining the ample differentials recorded in the European economy. We use the EU KLEMS database for growth accounting and a broad set of indicators of labour regulations, covering two distinct 'areas' of labour regulation: employment laws and collective relations laws. This comprehensive approach allows us to consider arrangements that regulate allocation of labour inputs (fixed-term and part-time contracts, hours worked and the payoff and decision rights of employees. We find that, since 1995, European countries have not followed similar patterns of growth. A large number of variations between European economies are caused by marked differentials in multifactor productivity and part of this heterogeneity is caused by sectoral diversities. We show that, in labour-intensive sectors such as services, fixed-term contracts, which imply shorter-term jobs and lower employment tenures, may discourage investment in skills and have detrimental effects on multifactor productivity increases. Employment protection reforms which slacken the rules of fixed-term contracts cause potential drawbacks in terms of low productivity gains. We also find that more stringent regulation of these practices, as well as a climate of collective relations, sustain long-term relationships and mitigate these negative effects

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of UK university students in relation to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and their sun-related behaviours: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lucy; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-03-13

    To explore whether knowledge about the harms of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) influences UK university students' sun-related behaviours and examine in depth their attitudes towards: sun protection, natural and artificial tanning behaviours. Qualitative methodology with 15 semistructured, individual interviews. Thematic analysis using the Framework Method with analyst triangulation and member validation. One university in the West Midlands, UK. 15 Caucasian male (n=4) and female (n=11) students, aged 18-22 years, from a UK university. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling from the university's main campus followed by purposive sampling for: gender, course and sun-related behaviours. Five main themes emerged: (1) knowledge of UVR; (2) sun-protection practices; (3) attitudes towards tanning; (4) external influences and (5) internal influences . All students knew the associated skin cancer risks from the sun and sunbed use, but this did not appear an important influence in their sun-related behaviours. Body image strongly motivated sun-protection practices and the desire to tan naturally or artificially, across both genders. However, participants' final decision-making appeared to be influenced by their beliefs that practising known harmful sun-related behaviours would not affect them or the perceived susceptibility to sunburn. Beliefs about sunbathing and sunscreen use prompted improper use of sun protection and inadvertently caused more harmful practices. Participants' peers, family and the media had dual roles influencing the development of attitudes towards sun protection and tanning, which contributed to how participants behaved in the sun and their engagement in tanning methods. Knowledge about the risk of skin cancer associated with UVR did not strongly influence sun-related behaviours, whereas body image appeared as a key motivator. Attitudes towards sun protection and tanning stemmed from the media, peers and family, and particularly from

  3. 42 CFR 3.208 - Continued protection of patient safety work product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued protection of patient safety work product... GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.208 Continued protection of patient safety work...

  4. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  5. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  6. Production of multimedia textbook: ionizing radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, O.; Holy, K.

    2005-01-01

    In our contribution we want to outline our plan of actions to be carried out for the creation of the first multimedia internet textbook in Slovakia in the field of ionizing radiation and radiation protection. In particular we want to describe first steps that have been performed at its realisation. This textbook would be applicable to the full-time study as well as to distance learning at traditional universities and technical universities. It will also be usable for various forms of in-service training by e-learning. Our objective is to create a modem internet textbook in radiation protection, of which production will be co- ordinated with other European Union countries. The output of our project -the multimedia textbook -will be available to all students at our university's servers and other users will have CDs at their disposal. We propose the use of this multimedia didactic means also in various forms of the distance e-learning. The main motivation for the implementation of distance courses is the necessity to update knowledge, skills and qualification in our contemporary rapidly developing world. The distance e-learning form of education can solve also the problem with the acquisition of the professional qualifications for the work with ionizing radiation. This is the reason for usage of the mentioned textbook not only as the fundamental and unified textbook for the students of universities, but also as the study material for the civil servants responsible for radiation protection, for in-service workers and providers of the professional training. (authors)

  7. Kug Sun Hong

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Kug Sun Hong. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 33 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 43-47 Composites. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–HAP composites · Asit Kumar Khanra Hwa Chul Jung Seung Hoon Yu Kug Sun Hong Kwang Seon Shin.

  8. F F Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. F F Sun. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 71-76. Study of electroless copper plating on ABS resin surface modified by heterocyclic organosilane self-assembled film · H N Zhang J Wang F F Sun D Liu H Y Wang F Wang.

  9. Microbial Diversity-Based Novel Crop Protection Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc.; DuPont Experimental Station; Yalpani, Ronald Flannagan, Rafael Herrmann, James Presnail, Tamas Torok, and Nasser; Herrmann, Rafael; Presnail, James; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

    2007-05-10

    Extremophilic microorganisms are adapted to survive in ecological niches with high temperatures, extremes of pH, high salt concentrations, high pressure, radiation, etc. Extremophiles produce unique biocatalysts and natural products that function under extreme conditions comparab le to those prevailing in various industrial processes. Therefore, there is burgeoning interest in bioprospecting for extremophiles with potential immediate use in agriculture, the food, chemical, and pharm aceutical industries, and environmental biotechnology. Over the years, several thousand extremophilic bacteria, archaea, and filamentous fungi were collected at extreme environmental sites in the USA, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone surrounding the faeild nuclear power plant in Ukraine, in and around Lake Baikal in Siberia, and at geothermal sites on the Kamchatka peninsula in Russia. These organisms were cultured under proprietary conditions, and the cell- free supernatants were screened for biological activities against plant pathogenic fungi and major crop damaging insects. Promising peptide lead molecules were isolated, characterized, and sequenced. Relatively high hit rates characterized the tested fermentation broths. Of the 26,000 samples screened, over thousand contained biological activity of interest. A fair number of microorganisms expressed broad- spectrum antifungal or insecticidal activity. Two- dozen broadly antifungal peptides (AFPs) are alr eady patent protected, and many more tens are under further investigation. Tapping the gene pool of extremophilic microorganisms to provide novel ways of crop protection proved a successful strategy.

  10. Microbial Diversity-Based Novel Crop Protection Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannagan, Ronald; Herrmann, Rafael; Presnail, James; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

    2007-01-01

    Extremophilic microorganisms are adapted to survive in ecological niches with high temperatures, extremes of pH, high salt concentrations, high pressure, radiation, etc. Extremophiles produce unique biocatalysts and natural products that function under extreme conditions comparab le to those prevailing in various industrial processes. Therefore, there is burgeoning interest in bioprospecting for extremophiles with potential immediate use in agriculture, the food, chemical, and pharm aceutical industries, and environmental biotechnology. Over the years, several thousand extremophilic bacteria, archaea, and filamentous fungi were collected at extreme environmental sites in the USA, the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone surrounding the faeild nuclear power plant in Ukraine, in and around Lake Baikal in Siberia, and at geothermal sites on the Kamchatka peninsula in Russia. These organisms were cultured under proprietary conditions, and the cell- free supernatants were screened for biological activities against plant pathogenic fungi and major crop damaging insects. Promising peptide lead molecules were isolated, characterized, and sequenced. Relatively high hit rates characterized the tested fermentation broths. Of the 26,000 samples screened, over thousand contained biological activity of interest. A fair number of microorganisms expressed broad- spectrum antifungal or insecticidal activity. Two- dozen broadly antifungal peptides (AFPs) are alr eady patent protected, and many more tens are under further investigation. Tapping the gene pool of extremophilic microorganisms to provide novel ways of crop protection proved a successful strategy.

  11. Sunburn, sun exposure, and sun sensitivity in the Study of Nevi in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M; Oliveria, Susan A; Arora, Arshi; Marchetti, Michael A; Orlow, Irene; Dusza, Stephen W; Weinstock, Martin A; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-11-01

    To examine the joint effect of sun exposure and sunburn on nevus counts (on the natural logarithm scale; log nevi) and the role of sun sensitivity. We describe an analysis of cross-sectional data from 443 children enrolled in the prospective Study of Nevi in Children. To evaluate the joint effect, we partitioned the sum of squares because of interaction between sunburn and sun exposure into orthogonal components representing (1) monotonic increase in log nevi with increasing sun exposure (rate of increase of log nevi depends on sunburn), and (2) nonmonotonic pattern. In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginally significant monotonic pattern of interaction (P = .08). In adjusted analyses, sun exposure was associated with higher log nevi among those without sunburn (P sunburn (P = .14). Sunburn was independently associated with log nevi (P = .02), even though sun sensitivity explained 29% (95% confidence interval: 2%-56%, P = .04) of its effect. Children with high sun sensitivity and sunburn had more nevi, regardless of sun exposure. A program of increasing sun protection in early childhood as a strategy for reducing nevi, when applied to the general population, may not equally benefit everyone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 'It's bit of an eye opener' - A qualitative study of women's attitudes towards tanning, sun protection and a facial morphing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sofia; Grogan, Sarah; Dhingra, Katie; Benn, Yael

    2018-03-01

    Skin cancer is to a large degree behaviourally preventable, meaning that evidence-based interventions have scope to make a difference. Previous research indicates that appearance-based interventions such as facial morphing may be more effective than health-based interventions, and that it can personalise the issue of skin cancer. This study examined attitudes to UV exposure, as well as reactions to a facial morphing intervention, through interviews with 25 women aged 35 years and older. Thematic analysis revealed four themes; two regarding attitudes to UV exposure (confusion and contradiction, and change and continuity), and two relating to the facial morphing intervention (negative reactions to UV-exposed photo and positive outcomes of the intervention). Women experienced a number of barriers to adopting safer behaviour in the sun; their current attitudes to UV exposure had been shaped by available information sources throughout their ageing. They expressed negative evaluations of the UV photo, which fed directly into motivation to reduce UV exposure. These results can be interpreted along the lines of goal-directed behaviour. This type of intervention has the potential to reduce UV exposure among this participant group, something that needs to be further investigated with randomised control trials.

  13. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  15. Sun exposure and sun protection habits in high school students from a city south of the country Práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio de uma cidade do sul do país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dupont

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective solar protection is an uncommon practice among young people, increasing the likelihood of sunburn, sunstroke and skin cancers. This fact is more significant in the south of Brazil, where the prevalence of white skinned population is larger, being more prone to sun damage. OBJECTIVES: To study the practices of sun exposure and sun protection in high school students from the city of Carlos Barbosa - RS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 775 students, enrolled on the first half of 2010, who had signed the consent form. We used a non-identifiable, self-administered questionnaire, with questions about related topics. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square or Fisher exact and t-Student tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under the number 2010-115H. RESULTS: Most students are exposed to the sun at the more critical periods, remaining exposed for more than an hour. Five hundred and seventy-six students (74,3% reported using sunscreen, but less than 10% did it during all months of the year. Female teenagers are most likely to use sunscreen (p FUNDAMENTOS: A proteção solar efetiva é uma prática incomum entre os jovens, aumentando a probabilidade de queimaduras solares, insolações e cânceres de pele. Esse fato é mais significativo na Região Sul do Brasil, onde a prevalência da população branca é maior, sendo mais propensa aos danos causados pelo sol. OBJETIVOS: Estudar as práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio da cidade de Carlos Barbosa, RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 775 estudantes matriculados no primeiro semestre de 2010, que tiveram o termo de consentimento assinado. Utilizou-se um questionário não identificável, autoaplicável, com perguntas abordando tópicos relacionados ao tema. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e o teste t-Student. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comit

  16. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations

  17. PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCT RESIDUES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF SLOVENE ORIGIN FOUND IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena BAŠA ČESNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2008, 166 apple, bean, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, pear, potato and spinach samples from Slovene producers were analysed for plant protection product residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 158 different active compounds using three analytical methods. In two samples (1.2% exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs were determined which is better than the results of the monitoring of pesticide residues in the products of plant origin in the 27 European Union, Member States (EU MS and 2 European Free Trade Association (EFTA States: Norway and Iceland in 2008 (2.2%. The most frequently found active substance in agricultural products was dithiocarbamates. Products which contained 4 or more active substances per sample were apples and pears.

  18. Melanoma risk: adolescent females' perspectives on skin protection pre/post-viewing a ultraviolet photoaged photograph of their own facial sun damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastabrook, Suzette; Chang, Paul; Taylor, Myra F

    2018-03-01

    Suntanning increases skin cancer risk and prematurely ages skin. Photoageing photography is an effective means of increasing adult ultraviolet radiation (UVR) awareness and skin-protection practices. While adults' largely positive suntanning-deterrence responses to photoageing photography are well-documented, comparatively little is known about the deterrence effectiveness of photoageing photography with adolescents. To help fill this knowledge gap, in-depth interviews were collected from 10 adolescent females and were subsequently subjected to interpretive phenomenological analysis. The emergent central theme - Having a tan and looking good in the short-term is okay, however, in the longer-term you can end up looking far worse… but still a tan is worth it - and its component subthemes reveal that the adolescent female's desire for a suntan is largely appearance driven. While photoaged photography is effective in increasing their awareness of the skin damage that UVR exposure causes, it does not alter their suntanning intentions. The analysis also revealed that one of the major barriers to adolescent females' adoption of skin-protective behaviours is their belief in their own invincibility. Hence, skin-protection interventions that lessen the aura of invincibility around adolescent females' understanding of their risk for developing skin cancers are vital to reducing the incidence of malignant melanoma.

  19. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  20. Metabolic signature of sun exposed skin suggests catabolic pathway overweighs anabolic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Randhawa

    Full Text Available Skin chronically exposed to sun results in phenotypic changes referred as photoaging. This aspect of aging has been studied extensively through genomic and proteomic tools. Metabolites, the end product are generated as a result of biochemical reactions are often studied as a culmination of complex interplay of gene and protein expression. In this study, we focused exclusively on the metabolome to study effects from sun-exposed and sun-protected skin sites from 25 human subjects. We generated a highly accurate metabolomic signature for the skin that is exposed to sun. Biochemical pathway analysis from this data set showed that sun-exposed skin resides under high oxidative stress and the chains of reactions to produce these metabolites are inclined toward catabolism rather than anabolism. These catabolic activities persuade the skin cells to generate metabolites through the salvage pathway instead of de novo synthesis pathways. Metabolomic profile suggests catabolic pathways and reactive oxygen species operate in a feed forward fashion to alter the biology of sun exposed skin.

  1. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  2. 21 CFR 347.50 - Labeling of skin protectant drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... omitted. (f) Products containing only cocoa butter, petrolatum, or white petrolatum identified in § 347.10... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of skin protectant drug products. 347.50... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 347...

  3. Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues

  4. Comparison of two personal ultraviolet index monitors for sun awareness in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is known to have both adverse and beneficial consequences for human health. Sunburn and skin cancer are probably the most well-known acute and chronic adverse health impacts. These themes have recently been discussed in the media for the general public; consequently interest in sun protection is growing. The promotion of the use of practical personal strategies to reduce adverse health risks, such as healthy sun behaviour, sun protection mechanisms and solar ultraviolet radiation awareness tools, is increasing. One such tool is the personal UV index (UVI monitor, promoted commercially as a viable tool for sun awareness; however, such instruments have not been scientifically evaluated in a South African context. Here, two different types of personal UVI monitors, commercially available in South Africa, were compared with a research-grade UVB biometer for a continuous 7-h period on 02 March 2012 in Pretoria. One of the two personal UVI monitors showed reasonable agreement with the UVB biometer, whereas the other monitor overestimated UVI by up to 4 UVI units. When comparing two identical products manufactured by the same company, one monitor overestimated UVI twofold, suggesting inter-instrument variability may be a concern. Commercially available, personal UVI monitors should be used with caution as a public health tool for sun awareness in South Africa.

  5. Multiple stress by repeated use of plant protection products in agricultural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik, R.; Zorn, M.I.; Brock, T.C.M.; Roex, E.W.M.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Current risk assessment of plant protection products is performed on a formulated-product-by-formulated-product basis and does not take into account the fact that products may be mixed and/or that different products are used sequentially within a growing season. This report evaluates three

  6. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index improve remote-sensing gross primary production estimates under varying nutrient availability in a typical Mediterranean savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Priego, O.; Guan, J.; Rossini, M.; Fava, F.; Wutzler, T.; Moreno, G.; Carvalhais, N.; Carrara, A.; Kolle, O.; Julitta, T.; Schrumpf, M.; Reichstein, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the performances of different optical indices to estimate gross primary production (GPP) of herbaceous stratum in a Mediterranean savanna with different nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) availability. Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence yield computed at 760 nm (Fy760), scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI), MERIS terrestrial-chlorophyll index (MTCI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed from near-surface field spectroscopy measurements collected using high spectral resolution spectrometers covering the visible near-infrared regions. GPP was measured using canopy chambers on the same locations sampled by the spectrometers. We tested whether light-use efficiency (LUE) models driven by remote-sensing quantities (RSMs) can better track changes in GPP caused by nutrient supplies compared to those driven exclusively by meteorological data (MM). Particularly, we compared the performances of different RSM formulations - relying on the use of Fy760 or sPRI as a proxy for LUE and NDVI or MTCI as a fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - with those of classical MM. Results showed higher GPP in the N-fertilized experimental plots during the growing period. These differences in GPP disappeared in the drying period when senescence effects masked out potential differences due to plant N content. Consequently, although MTCI was closely related to the mean of plant N content across treatments (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), it was poorly related to GPP (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.05). On the contrary sPRI and Fy760 correlated well with GPP during the whole measurement period. Results revealed that the relationship between GPP and Fy760 is not unique across treatments, but it is affected by N availability. Results from a cross-validation analysis showed that MM (AICcv = 127, MEcv = 0.879) outperformed RSM (AICcv =140, MEcv = 0.8737) when soil moisture was used to constrain the seasonal dynamic of LUE. However

  7. Does the sun ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaak, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    The work of various groups, which have been investigating the possibility of measuring the periodicities of solar oscillations in an attempt to test theoretical models of the sun, is reported. In particular the observation of small velocity oscillations of the surface layers of the sun that permits the measurement of the sound waves (or phonons) in the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Oscillations with periods of 2.65 h, 58 and 40 min and amplitudes of 2.7, 0.8 and 0.7 ms -1 respectively are reported. Support for a periodicity at about 2.65 h from a number of other groups using other measuring techniques are considered. It is felt that the most probable interpretation of the observed solar oscillations is that the sun is a resonator which is ringing. (UK)

  8. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  9. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  10. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  11. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Heydenreich, Jakob; Young, Antony Richard; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-08-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined by daily skin examinations by the same observer. Erythemally effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure was assessed with time-stamped personal dosimeters worn on the wrist. Volunteers reported their clothing cover and sunscreen use in diaries, and this information was used to determine body site-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data clearly support a substantial skin cancer risk from sun holidays. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The protective effects of aqueous extracts of wild-growing and fermented Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (higher basidiomycetes), in CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Han, Chunchao; Zhao, Baosheng; Yu, Haitao

    2012-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (AbS), has traditionally been used for the prevention of a range of diseases, including cancer, hepatitis, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and dermatitis. The hepatoprotective effect of the fermented mushroom of A. brasiliensis (FMAE) and wild-growing A. brasiliensis (WMAE) were studied in this paper. An in vivo study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced antioxidant activity in 2-month-old rats was conducted by examining the levels of activities of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and the antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT). Rats were divided into four groups, each containing six rats. The first group served as a control group. The second group was the CCl4 group. Group I and group II were treated orally with distilled water for 14 days respectively. Group III and Group IV were treated orally by WMAE and FMAE at oral doses of 50 mg/kg-day, respectively. Both WMAE and FMAE could reduce CCl4-induced toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity, by suppressing ALT and AST activities, and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity. The studies demonstrate that both the fermented and wild-growing A. brasiliensis could protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

  13. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  14. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  15. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Bero, Elizabeth; Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Leveraging funds from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we combined the expertise of an archaeoastronomer, a solar scientist, and a teacher to trace humankind's view of the Sun and how that has changed, from the time of Stonehenge in about 1800 B.C.E., to the time of the Maya in 700 C.E., up to the modem era. Our program was aimed at middle-school students in an attempt to explain not only how science is done today, but how science has evolved from the observations of ancient societies. From these varied cultures, we touched on methods of observing the Sun, ideas of the composition of the Sun, and the relationship of the Sun to everyday life. Further, using the von Braun Astronomical Society's Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama as a test-bed for the program, we illustrated concepts such as solstices, equinoxes, and local noon with approximately 800 eighth grade students from the local area. Our presentation to SEPA will include a description of NASA's IDEAS program and how to go about partnering with a NASA astronomer, some slides from our planetarium program and web-site, and some hands-on activities.

  16. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  17. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  18. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  19. YUAN-BO SUN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YUAN-BO SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 97 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 173-178 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Investigating multiple dysregulated pathways in rheumatoid arthritis based on pathway interaction network · XIAN-DONG SONG XIAN-XU SONG GUI-BO LIU ...

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients attending dermatology clinics at four hospitals in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Gavelan, Elizabeth; Sáenz-Anduaga, Eliana; Ramos, Willy; Sánchez-Saldaña, Leonardo; Sialer, María del Carmen

    2011-01-01

    To establish the knowledge, about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients treated at the dermatology clinics in four hospitals in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 364 patients selected using a systematic random sampling process in the four participating hospitals. The selected patients were interviewed to determine their knowledge, behavior and practices in relation to sun exposure and photoprotection. The chi-square test was used to identify any significant differences between knowledge and practices. The mean age of the patients in this sample was 45.1 ± 21.4 years. Of the 364 patients, 55.9% were women and 54.8% had skin phototype IV. The principal risks related to sun exposure were skin cancer (80.5%) and sunburn (77.8%). Knowledge regarding sun protection was more evident in individuals with university/college education (pphotoprotection, 38.4% used these products daily, while 61.6% used them only occasionally. The use of photo-protectors differed significantly in accordance with the individual's education level (psolar protection. The level of awareness of the outpatients treated at the dermatology clinics in these four hospitals in Lima, Peru about the risks of sun exposure is acceptable; however, a large proportion fail to incorporate regular solar protection as a practice in their daily life.

  1. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  2. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  3. PRODUCT CERTIFICATION AND LEGAL PROTECTION TO ENHANCE INDONESIAN TRADITIONAL HERBAL PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwaningsih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to empower traditional herbs producer and help legal protection of Indonesian traditional medicines, implementing Participatory Research and juridical-sociological approaches. Data were collected through literary, questionnaire, interview and Focus Group Discussion. The first year study revealed that Herbal Producer Association worked with all members, persuading government offices to get product certification and effective trademark licenses. In the second year study the researchers and Producers Association trained and facilitated vendors to endorse trademark, label registry, and markets shares. Producers maintain traditional medicine management, because product certification is hard to achieve. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberdayakan produsen jamu/OT dan membantu perlindungan hukumnya, dengan memanfaatkan pendekatan penelitian partisipatoris dan sosiologis yuridis. Data dikumpulkan dengan literatur, kuesioner, wawancara dan Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Pada tahun pertama organisasi gabungan pengusaha jamu (GP Jamu bersama-sama dengan seluruh anggotanya mendorong pemerintah untuk perolehan sertifikasi produk izin edar dan merek secara efektif. Pada tahun kedua, peneliti dan gabungan pengusaha jamu melakukan pelatihan guna perolehan izin edar, pendaftaran merek, dan peningkatan pemasaran. Para pengusaha jamu tradisional perlu terus menerus didampingi karena perolehan izin edar terkesan sulit.

  4. ECOTOXICITY AND PHYTOTOXICITY OF PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS TO RHIZOSPHERE FUNGI AND WINTER WHEAT SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Registration of plant protection products involves the analysis of their effects on soil microorganisms. The residues of plant protection products penetrate the soil, but their impact on fungi remains scarcely researched. In this study, the influence of selected plant protection products on the abundance of rhizosphere-dwelling fungi and the growth of winter wheat seedlings was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The analysed plant protection products had an inhibitory effect on the growth of filamentous fungi in the rhizosphere, whereas yeasts were resistant to those products applied to soil. Tebuconazole exerted the strongest suppressive effect on the growth of filamentous fungi, and propiconazole was characterized by the greatest phytotoxic activity against winter wheat seedlings. Azoxystrobin had the weakest ecotoxic and phytotoxic effects, and its application to soil usually led to a rapid increase in the counts of fungi of the genus Acremonium.

  5. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  6. 100 billion suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1983-01-01

    A work on the world of astrophysics primarily for lay readers. The author writes only about the discoveries he ''experienced'' during the past 25 years (before 1979). Illustrated somewhat in color plus a set of superb colar plates. Contents, abridged: The long life of stars. The life story of the sun. The life story of massive stars. The end of stars. How stars are born. Planets and their inhabitants

  7. The sun in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonett, C.P.; Giampapa, M.S.; Matthews, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on solar science are presented. The topics considered include: variability of solar irradiance, sunspot number, solar diameter, and solar wind properties; theory of luminosity and radius variations; standard solar models; the sun and the IMF; variations of cosmic-ray flux with time; accelerated particles in solar flares; solar cosmic ray fluxes during the last 10 million yrs; solar neutrinos and solar history; time variations of Be-10 and solar activity; solar and terrestrial components of the atmospheric C-14 variation spectrum; solar flare heavy-ion tracks in extraterrestrial objects. Also addressed are: the faint young sun problem; atmospheric responses to solar irradiation; quaternary glaciations; solar-terrestrial relationships in recent sea sediments; magnetic history of the sun; pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity; magnetic activity in pre-main-sequence stars; classical T Tauri stars; relict magnetism of meteorites; luminosity variability of solar-type stars; evolution of angular momentum in solar-mass stars; time evolution of magnetic fields on solarlike stars

  8. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chinese Food Product Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhi-guo; WANG Shu-ting; XIONG Wan-zhen; HUANG Li-min

    2012-01-01

    The geographical Indications intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage are the general focus of attention of the world today. In the Chinese food product resources, there are 44 kinds of national geographical indication products, 41 national geographical indication trademarks, 9 kinds of national and 212 kinds of provincial-level intangible cultural heritage. This article introduces the geographical indication protection and geographical indication trademark registration of the Chinese food products, the protection of intangible cultural heritage of traditional craftsmanship; discusses the countermeasures for the protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage; finally puts forth several recommendations.

  9. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  10. Dietary Protected Feed Supplement to Increase Milk Production and Quality of Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Handayanta, E.; Widayati, D. T.; Putro, P. P.; Kustono

    2017-04-01

    The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (pmilk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).

  11. Alternative designs for petroleum product storage tanks for groundwater protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke Adeleke, Samson

    In developing countries, there are numerous occurrences of petroleum product spillage in groundwater. The current practice of burying storage tanks beneath the surface without adequate safety devices facilitates this phenomenon. Underground tanks rust and leak, and spilled petroleum products migrate downward. The movement of the oil in the soil depends on its viscosity and quantity, the permeability of the soil/rock, and the presence of fractures within the rock. The oil spreads laterally in the form of a thin pancake due to its lower specific gravity, and soluble components dissolve in water. The pollution plume of petroleum products and dissolved phases moves in the direction of groundwater flow in the aquifer within the pores of soil and sediments or along fractures in basement complex areas. Most communities reply heavily on groundwater for potable and industrial supplies. However, the sustainability of this resource is under threat in areas where there are filling stations as a result of significant groundwater contamination from petroleum product spillage. Drinking water becomes unpalatable when it contains petroleum products in low concentrations, and small quantities may contaminate large volumes of water. Considering the losses incurred from spillage, the cost of cleaning the aquifer, and the fact that total cleansing and attenuation is impossible, the need to prevent spillage and if it happens to prevent it from getting into the groundwater system is of paramount importance. This paper proposes alternative design procedures with a view to achieving these objectives.

  12. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P [Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway)

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  15. Assessing impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P.J.; Mavsar, R.; Giergiczny, M.; Lindner, M.; Edwards, D.; Schelhaas, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop viable strategies for intensifying the use of forest biomass and for increasing forest protection, impacts on ecosystem services need to be assessed. We investigated the biophysical and economic impacts of increased forest biomass production and biodiversity protection on forest ecosystem

  16. Radiation protection products. Terms and definitions. Vyrobky radiacne ochranne techniky. Nazvy a definice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The basic terms of radiation protection means, these means and their parts are defined. Radiation protection products are classified into nine groups and their outer appearance and design are described. The standard also gives equivalent terms in Czech, Russian, Polish, Hungarian, German, Bulgarian and Romanian.

  17. Optimization of radiation protection of cell maintenance of radiopharmaceutical production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Jessica S.; Gerulis, Eduardo; Todo, Alberto S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This paper performs a study of maintenance tasks realized in production cells to suggest improvements related to the occupational doses based on the optimization principle of the radioprotection. A data survey has been realized of the doses received by the workers during the maintenance. The average values of effective doses are lower than the limits established in the regulations, however can be optimized

  18. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT PROTECTION TREATMENTS IN APPLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Tomaš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple is the most represented fruit species in Croatia. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L, is one of the most important apple pests whose population is growing from year to year. The aim of this study was to determine the economic effectiveness of four treatments against codling moth (1 - based on baculovirus; 2 - based on the group of synthetic pyrethroid; 3 - based on kaolin, 4 - control treatment, on the three apple varieties. The experiment was performed at the Agricultural Institute Osijek, Croatia, during three years (2012-2014. In order to analyze the results of apple production it was necessary to calculate production efficiency, labor productivity, and profitability of production. The results of the research of economic efficiency according to market prices treatment 1 and treatment 2 had economic coefficient above 1 with tendency of significant growth, while treatment 3 and 4 were uneconomical. The treatment 1showed advantage over the treatment 2 because of its positive effects on human health and biodiversity, as well as satisfactory economic efficiency.

  19. Protection against radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Methods suitable for diminishing radioactive contamination of foods and agricultural products and reducing at the same time the irradiation hazards for the human organism are dealt with. The possibilities for the decontamination of foods vegetal and of animal origin are discussed separately. (author)

  20. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  1. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  2. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. New methods alternative to methyl bromide in stored product protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, L.; Trematerra, P.

    2003-01-01

    Several tools are available for managing insect pests associated with stored products and processed foods. A effective use of pesticides and alternatives requires a thorough understanding of pest ecology, the application of pesticides only when pest populations exceed acceptable levels and an evaluation of risks, costs and benefits. At this regard, the Integrated Pest Management concept emphasizes the integration of disciplines and control measures including biological enemies, cultural management, sanitation, modified atmospheres, heat and cold, irradiation and pesticides into a total management system [it

  4. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suriani BT. Tolo; Ahsan Yunus; Ahmadi Miru; Irwansyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community C...

  5. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Sever, Thomas L.; Bero, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Using a grant from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we have developed an inter-disciplinary curriculum for middle-school students which targets both history and astronomy. Our curriculum explores the attitudes and techniques of ancient spiritual leaders, specifically those of the Maya and Inca cultures, who observed and tried to control the Sun. We wish students to understand the probable importance of astronomical observations to these ancient peoples. In addition, using the experience of an archaeologist, we show how modern techniques of viewing the Earth through satellite imagery, has allowed the re-discovery of ancient sites where solar observations and attempted manipulation of the universe took place. To contrast ancient observations of the Sun with modern ones, we use the experience of a solar astronomer and bring to the classroom up-to-date information about solar astronomy and the impact of solar activity on the Earth's environment. In this presentation, we will present fragments of our curriculum as well as results from pre- and post-tests given to participating groups of students. Finally, we will discuss comments from local middle-school teachers who were asked to evaluate our curriculum.

  6. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  7. The protective cell petrus for the production of californium 252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sontag, R.; Berger, R.

    1967-01-01

    The alpha, beta, gamma, neutron cell which is described in the present paper is devoted to the transplutonium element production and study. It is located at the CEN in Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). The 4 feet ordinary concrete shielding made of stacked blocs allows the manipulation of radioactive sources as high as 1000 curies of 1 MeV gamma rays and with a fast neutrons flux of 10 9 n.cm -2 .s -1 . The airtight alpha containment box is equipped with two transfer systems, one consists of a parallelepiped shaped airtight box located in a turntable, the other uses standard cylindrical containers made of polyethylene. The general equipment and the main setting up are also described. (authors) [fr

  8. Radiological protection tests for products which can lead to exposure of the public to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Wrixon, A.D.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1976-07-01

    Testing plays an important role in deciding whether products which irradiate the general public are acceptable from a radiological protection point of view. This report discusses the role which testing should play in decision-making and develops a systematic approach to the testing of products. As an example of this approach, a proposed test programme for ionisation chamber smoke detectors is described. The use of test results as a basis for design specifications and performance requirements in the development of radiological protection standards for products is discussed. A description of the relevant standards is included. (author)

  9. [Sun exposure at school: Evaluation of risk (erythema dose), benefits (vitamin-D synthesis) and behaviour among children in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, E; de Paula Corrêa, M; Vouldoukis, I; Godin-Beekmann, S; Sigal, M-L; Beauchet, A

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the potential risk associated with sun exposure during the school year, we decided to evaluate behaviour, risk [UV index (UVI), minimal erythema dose (MED)] and benefits (vitamin-D synthesis) of sun exposure in primary schoolchildren in France, as well as the various sun protection methods used for children. We performed the study on a sunny day (July 24) in a school in Antony (France). Evaluation of UVI (with calculation of MED) and the amount of vitamin D synthesized according to exposed body surface area and phototype were performed every 15minutes from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The effects of albedo and shade on UVI were assessed in 8 different locations at the school. The sun-protection measures used by the children were systematically evaluated. Fifty-seven children were evaluated; the maximum UVI was 7.2 and the maximum temperature was 30.7°C. Irrespective of phototype and clothing, 1 MED was reached and an adequate level of vitamin D was synthesized in the skin before midday. Albedo had little impact on irradiation. The amount of protection afforded by shadow varied greatly, with the highest level occurring in the covered courtyard (99.5% reduction of UVI) and the lowest in the shadow of buildings (53.7% reduction of UVI). With strict sun protection measures concerning dress, children reached 1 MED before synthesizing 1000IU of vitamin D, but with clothing "suited to high temperatures", 1000IU of vitamin D were synthetized before 1 MED was reached. Compliance with photoprotection measures was poor. Regardless of duration of exposure during the day (minimal model: two play breaks+lunchtime break) and of skin phototype, at least 1.5 MED was reached during the day. This was an experimental study ignoring children's actual behaviour (movement, sweating, application of sun protection products, etc.). Moreover, due to weather conditions, the study was performed at a recreation centre in July and not during the "standard" school year. Sun

  10. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of b...

  11. Australian primary school communities' understandings of SunSmart: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, Matthew; Wright, Bradley; Dudley, Dean; Cotton, Wayne; Brown, Alexandra

    2017-10-01

    Skin cancer represents a major health issue for Australia. Childhood sun exposure is an important risk factor and evidence suggests the use of sun protection measures by Australian school children could be improved. This study examines how the SunSmart Program, a school-based skin cancer prevention resource, can be supported to further increase sun protection behaviours to assist in lowering skin cancer incidence. The Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework was adopted to select key stakeholders from a convenience sample of five school communities. Students, teaching staff and parents participated in semi-structured focus group and individual interviews. A thematic analysis was used to extract key themes from the data. Although these school communities were aware of sun protection practices and the risks associated with sun exposure, their understandings of the SunSmart Program were limited. Sun protection policy implementation was inconsistent and students were unlikely to engage in sun protection practices beyond the school setting. School communities require additional support and engagement to holistically enforce the principles of the SunSmart Program. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  13. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional processing methods that include ... The traditional sun drying method is very inefficient as the product can take 2-. 3 days to dry. .... using a digital balance (Ohaus Corporation type). The same applied .... preservation and marketing.

  14. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  15. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Cathy M; White, Katherine M; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Starfelt, Louise C; Wihardjo, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explored fully as a medium for improving sun-protective behaviour in adults. This paper presents the study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an online intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) that aims to improve sun safety among Australian adults. Approximately 420 adults aged 18 and over and predominantly from Queensland, Australia, will be recruited and randomised to the intervention (n = 200), information only (n = 200) or the control group (n = 20). The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive attitudes and beliefs toward sun-protective behaviour, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over sun protection. The intervention will be delivered online over a single session. Data will be collected immediately prior to the intervention (Time 1), immediately following the intervention (Time 1b), and one week (Time 2) and one month (Time 3) post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun-protective behaviour. Secondary outcomes are the participants’ attitudes toward sun protection, perceptions of normative support for sun protection (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, personal norms and image norms) and perceptions of control/self-efficacy toward sun protection. The study will contribute to an understanding of the effectiveness of a TPB-based online intervention to improve Australian adults’ sun-protective behaviour. Australian and New Zealand Trials

  16. No smoking guns under the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The Sun is a typical main sequence star that generates its energy via the fusion of hydrogen into helium in two chains of nuclear reactions: the so-called pp chain and the CNO chain. If the nucleon number, electric charge, lepton flavour and energy are conserved and the Sun is in a steady state, then the total solar neutrino flux is fixed, to a good approximation, by the solar luminosity (approximately 65 billion neutrinos/cm2/s at Earth), independent of the specific nuclear reactions that power the Sun and produce neutrinos by beta decay or the electron capture of reaction products. The neutrinos from the dominant pp chain are produced by the beta decay of proton pairs (pp), boron-8 and lithium-4, and by electron capture by pp pairs and beryllium-7. Their spectra can be measured directly in the laboratory or calculated from the standard theory of electroweak interactions. To a very good approximation, they are independent of the conditions in the Sun. Only their relative contributions depend on the detailed ...

  17. Amphibians and plant-protection products: what research and action is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Annette; Junghans, Marion; Aeberli, Caroline; Brühl, Carsten A; Streissl, Franz; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Swiss amphibians are threatened. There is a range of factors which have been discussed as possible causes for their decline, including plant protection products (PPPs). The influence of PPPs on amphibian populations has not yet been studied to any great extent, neither for active ingredients nor for the wetting agents, breakdown products or tank mixtures. A further topic of discussion was how to better protect amphibians by reducing their exposure to PPPs in agricultural fields. Experts at a workshop concluded that further research is needed.

  18. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  19. Towards label-free evaluation of oxidative stress in human skin exposed to sun filters (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Wang, Hequn; Suita, Yusuke; Roider, Elisabeth; Fisher, David E.; Evans, Conor L.

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, is the most common form of cancer in North America. Paradoxically, skin cancer incidence is steadily on the rise even despite the growing use of sunscreens over the past decades. One potential explanation for this discrepancy involves the sun filters in sunscreen, which are responsible for blocking harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is proposed that these agents may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the site of application, thereby generating oxidative stress in skin that gives rise to genetic mutations, which may explain the rising incidence of skin cancer. To test this hypothesis, ex vivo human skin was treated with five common chemical sun filters (avobenzone, octocrylene, homosalate, octisalate, and oxybenzone) as well as two physical sun filters (zinc oxide compounds), both with and without UV irradiation. To non-invasively evaluate oxidative stress, two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of the skin samples were used to monitor levels of NADH and FAD, two key cofactors in cellular redox metabolism. The relative redox state of the skin was assessed based on the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of these endogenous cofactors. While the sun filters were indeed shown to have a protective effect from UV radiation, it was observed that they also generate oxidative stress in skin, even in the absence of UV light. These results suggest that sun filter induced ROS production requires more careful study, especially in how these reactive species impact the rise of skin cancer.

  20. Sun and shade

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available later in the chapter. Table 1: Quantified benefit of solar protection for various cities and towns in various climatic regions City/ Town Heating Degree and Cooling Degree Day category1 Solar protection (hours) 1 Medium Medium 2 Medium Low 3... Low High 4 Low Low 5 Low Medium 6 High Low 7 High Medium 2009 21002 (A2) Bloemfontein █ 1214 1899 Cape Town █ 729 1282 Durban █ 1436 2128 East London █ 871 1481 George █ 588 1128 Johannesburg...

  1. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  2. The Journal of Stored-Products Research: The living history of stored product protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year, the Journal of Stored Products Research (JSPR) completes 52 years of history with publications of research papers. With approx. one hundred articles annually, the JSPR is an important scientific forum for stored product researchers throughout the globe. The aims and scope of JSPR are focu...

  3. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  4. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  5. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  6. Information strategy and information products in radiation protection. A Norwegian RISKPERCOM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J B; Toennesen, A [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Waldahl, R [Avdeling for media og kommunikasjon, Oslo Univ., Oslo (Norway)

    1998-02-01

    A short description of the national background for the radiation issue is presented together with a presentation of information strategy and analysis of the information products of the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. This is part of an international study. 35 refs.

  7. Information strategy and information products in radiation protection. A Norwegian RISKPERCOM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitan, J.B.; Toennesen, A.; Waldahl, R.

    1998-02-01

    A short description of the national background for the radiation issue is presented together with a presentation of information strategy and analysis of the information products of the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. This is part of an international study. 35 refs

  8. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  9. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  10. Short communication: Effect of on-farm feeding practices on rumen protected lysine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P; Tucker, H A; Clark, R E; Miura, M; Ballard, C S

    2016-02-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to determine whether mechanical mixing of total mixed ration (TMR) or TMR dry matter alters Lys release from 6 rumen-protected Lys (RPL) products (A, B, C, D, E, and F). In the first study, routine mixing procedures were simulated to determine if inclusion of RPL products in TMR altered in situ release of Lys. Following mixing, Dacron bags containing RPL products were ruminally incubated for 0, 6, 12, or 24 h to determine Lys release. The second study occurred independently of the first, in which Lys release from RPL products was evaluated when incorporated into a TMR that differed in dry matter (DM) content. Bags containing TMR and RPL product mixture were stored at room temperature for 0, 6, 18, and 24 h to simulate RPL product exposure to TMR when mixed and delivered once per day. Concentration of free Lys in both studies was determined using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Following mechanical mixing, ruminal Lys release was significantly greater for C and tended to increase for F. Mechanical mixing did not alter ruminal Lys release from other RPL products evaluated. Hours of ruminal incubation significantly altered Lys release for all products evaluated, and a significant interaction of mechanical mixing and hours of ruminal incubation was observed for A and C. Exposure to lower TMR DM (40.5 versus 51.8%) significantly increased Lys release from B but did not alter Lys release from the other RPL products evaluated. Moreover, time of exposure to TMR significantly increased Lys release from all RPL products evaluated, and a significant interaction of TMR DM and time of exposure to TMR was observed for B and E. These data suggest mechanical mixing and variation in TMR DM may compromise the rumen protection of RPL products; therefore, on-farm feeding practices may alter efficacy of RPL products in dairy rations. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  12. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  13. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  14. Protected meat products in Hungary – local foods and hungaricums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Kovács

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Les auteurs de cette étude présentent une vue d'ensemble sur la production locale des produits carnés en Hongrie, en tenant compte de la législation de l'UE, les indications géographiques protégées (IGP et la désignation de l'origine. La collection des produits carnés Régionaux Hongrois conforme avec le programme national « Traditions – Goûts – Régions » (TGR, en abréviation hongroise: HÍR, est listée. Ce programme fut entamé en 1998, sous l'égide du Ministère de l'Agriculture et du Développement Rural. L’inventaire réalisé comprend 300 produits agricoles, provenant de 9 régions différentes de la Hongrie. Après l'accession de la Hongrie à L'UE, 11 produits ont été soumis à la Commission de la Protection de l'Origine. Actuellement, ces produits se trouvent provisoirement sous une protection nationale.The authors present an overview of the development of Hungarian high quality regional meat products under EU legislation for protection of geographical indications and designation of origin, and conforming to Hungary’s national program – Traditions, Tastes, Regions (TTR, Hungarian abbreviation: HÍR, launched in 1998 by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and covering 300 agricultural products from nine regions. After Accession, 11 products were submitted for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, four of which are meat products. A categorization of Hungarian consumers shows that there is a remarkable heritage of agricultural products and traditional manufacturing methods that offers considerable potential for producers within an increasingly diverse and quality-oriented EU food market.

  15. PROPERTIES OF NEAR-SUN ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Asteroids near the Sun can attain equilibrium temperatures sufficient to induce surface modification from thermal fracture, desiccation, and decomposition of hydrated silicates. We present optical observations of nine asteroids with perihelia <0.25 AU (sub-solar temperatures {>=}800 K) taken to search for evidence of thermal modification. We find that the broadband colors of these objects are diverse but statistically indistinguishable from those of planet-crossing asteroids having perihelia near 1 AU. Furthermore, images of these bodies taken away from perihelion show no evidence for on-going mass-loss (model-dependent limits {approx}<1 kg s{sup -1}) that might result from thermal disintegration of the surface. We conclude that, while thermal modification may be an important process in the decay of near-Sun asteroids and in the production of debris, our new data provide no evidence for it.

  16. The sun and the neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacsne Dajka, E.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the solar neutrino puzzle is given. The main processes in the sun, the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are described. The solar neutrino puzzle, i.e. the fact that the detected amount of neutrinos coming from the sun is less than the amount predicted by the solar model is discussed. The first generation solar neutrino experiments are presented. (K.A.)

  17. Seasonally-induced alterations of some facial signs in Caucasian women and their changes induced by a daily application of a photo-protective product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, F; Gautier, B; Benize, A-M; Charbonneau, A; Cassier, M

    2017-12-01

    Caucasian women, mostly related to structural (wrinkles) and vascular elements. Such changes appear alleviated or prevented by daily applications of a strong sun photo-protective product. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Do Historical Production Practices and Culinary Heritages Really Matter? Food with Protected Geographical Indications in Japan and Austria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gugerell, Katharina; Uchiyama, Yuta; Kieninger, Pia; Penker, Marianne; Kajima, Shuichiro; Kohsaka, Ryo

    Geographical Indications (GIs) are collective intellectual property rights that protect food and other products uniquely linked to the production area, local geophysical conditions, and traditions, namely, with the terroir. Thus, GIs can contribute to the transmission and retention of culinary

  19. Production of a DNA Vaccine Specific for the 64 kDa Protective Antigen of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middlebrooks, Bobby L

    2007-01-01

    The gene for the protective antigen of E. rhusiopathiae will be inserted into a eukaryotic vector both for the production of a DNA vaccine and for large scale production of the recombinant protein (in vitro...

  20. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliu, S.; Llorente, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS

  1. Corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61: Surface chemistry and protective ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, S., E-mail: sfeliu@cenim.csic.es; Llorente, I.

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Surface chemistry of the corrosion product layers on magnesium alloys. • Influence of the type of alloy on the carbonate surface enrichment. • Relation between surface composition and protection properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the chemical composition of the corrosion product layers formed on magnesium alloys AZ31 and AZ61 following immersion in 0.6 M NaCl, with a view to better understanding their protective action. Relative differences in the chemical nature of the layers were quantified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD). Corrosion behavior was investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen evolution measurement. An inhibitive effect from the corrosion product layers was observed from EIS, principally in the case of AZ31, as confirmed by hydrogen evolution tests. A link was found between carbonate enrichment observed by XPS in the surface of the corrosion product layer, concomitant with the increase in the protective properties observed by EIS.

  2. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shafika Mohd Sairazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS. In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA. KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  3. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  4. Jobs and the resource curse in the sun: The effects of oil production on female labor force participation in California counties from 1980-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gabriel

    This study aims to evaluate the relationship between oil income and the female labor force participation rate in California for the years of 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 using panel linear regression models. This study also aims to visualize the spatial patterns of both variables in California through Hot Spot analysis at the county level for the same years. The regression found no sign of a relationship between oil income and female labor force participation rate but did find evidence of a positive relationship between two income control variables and the female labor force participation rate. The hot spot analysis also found that female labor force participation cold spots are not spatially correlated with oil production hot spots. These findings contribute new methodologies at a finer scale to the very nuanced discussion of the resource curse in the United States.

  5. Estimating Diurnal Courses of Gross Primary Production for Maize: A Comparison of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Light-Use Efficiency and Process-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying gross primary production (GPP is of vital importance to understanding the global carbon cycle. Light-use efficiency (LUE models and process-based models have been widely used to estimate GPP at different spatial and temporal scales. However, large uncertainties remain in quantifying GPP, especially for croplands. Recently, remote measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF have provided a new perspective to assess actual levels of plant photosynthesis. In the presented study, we evaluated the performance of three approaches, including the LUE-based multi-source data synergized quantitative (MuSyQ GPP algorithm, the process-based boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS model, and the SIF-based statistical model, in estimating the diurnal courses of GPP at a maize site in Zhangye, China. A field campaign was conducted to acquire synchronous far-red SIF (SIF760 observations and flux tower-based GPP measurements. Our results showed that both SIF760 and GPP were linearly correlated with APAR, and the SIF760-GPP relationship was adequately characterized using a linear function. The evaluation of the modeled GPP against the GPP measured from the tower demonstrated that all three approaches provided reasonable estimates, with R2 values of 0.702, 0.867, and 0.667 and RMSE values of 0.247, 0.153, and 0.236 mg m−2 s−1 for the MuSyQ-GPP, BEPS and SIF models, respectively. This study indicated that the BEPS model simulated the GPP best due to its efficiency in describing the underlying physiological processes of sunlit and shaded leaves. The MuSyQ-GPP model was limited by its simplification of some critical ecological processes and its weakness in characterizing the contribution of shaded leaves. The SIF760-based model demonstrated a relatively limited accuracy but showed its potential in modeling GPP without dependency on climate inputs in short-term studies.

  6. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  7. Further European initiatives and regulations concerning radiation protection: drinking water guideline, maximum permissible contamination in food products and feeding stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection community has observed intensively the development of basic safety standards concerning protection against hazards of ionizing radiation. The new core part of the European radiation protection legislation is complemented by several specialized regulations relevant for radiation protection. Besides the existing regulations in the field of emergency protection the European Commission initiated a drinking water guideline that will be published in the near future. Furthermore the European commission approved a revised regulation concerning the maximum permissible contamination limits for food products and feeding stuff in case of a future nuclear accident. Together with the new radiation protection basic standards a new complete, coherent and modernized European regulation package will be accomplished.

  8. Shock Protection of Portable Electronic Products: Shock Response Spectrum, Damage Boundary Approach, and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Goyal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The pervasive shock response spectrum (SRS and damage boundary methods for evaluating product fragility and designing external cushioning for shock protection are described in detail with references to the best available literature. Underlying assumptions are carefully reviewed and the central message of the SRS is highlighted, particularly as it relates to standardized drop testing. Shortcomings of these methods are discussed, and the results are extended to apply to more general systems. Finally some general packaging and shock-mounting strategies are discussed in the context of protecting a fragile disk drive in a notebook computer, although the conclusions apply to other products as well. For example, exterior only cushioning (with low restitution to reduce subsequent impacts will provide a slenderer form factor than the next best strategy: interior cushioning with a “dead” hard outer shell.

  9. Technical advance in China's petroleum exploitation and production and its environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xingchun, Li; Wei, Fan; Jialin, Wang; Yong, Li

    2010-09-15

    China has gained great development in the fields of petroleum exploitation and production, and these achievements provide reservation for China's energy safety. Some of them may strengthen the environment protection from the source, while some of them may bring certain environmental pressure. This study analyses the opportunities and the challenges brought by the technology development and gives countermeasures for decrease the negative impact of technology development.

  10. Thematic strategy on sustainable use of plant protection products. Prospects and requirements for transferring proposals for plant protection products to biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Lueskow, Heike [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Gross, Rita [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The sustainable use of pesticides pursues, independent of the authorisation of single products, the aim to minimise existing environmental risks of pesticide use and therefore contribute to the reduction of its impact on the environmental protection goals. The Thematic Strategy (TS) and the Framework Directive 2009/128/EC (FWD) on sustainable use of pesticides have so far only been implemented for plant protection products (PPP). For biocides there exists no harmonised approach. Within the project the possibilities and requirements for transferring measures of the FWD to the biocide area have been analysed, with specific focus on wood preservatives, insecticides, and antifouling products. Several biocidal active substances are found in the outlets of sewage treatment plants and in surface water, but an inventory of the present environmental impact as well as reliable data on biocide consumption and use patterns, which could be used to identify key action areas, are generally missing. These data are urgently needed for the development of suitable indicators and the definition of the objectives. Sustainable use of biocides addresses the three issues; social, environmental and economic impact at which the ecological background assigns the borderline and beam barrier of the economic and social development. A systematic analysis of the instruments for improving sustainable use of pesticides described in TS and FWD indicated that many issues can be transferred to the biocide area. This concerns e.g. education and training, requirements for sales, the establishment of awareness programmes, control of the machinery for biocide application, the development of best practice standards based on integrated pest management principles, and the collection of statistics on biocide consumption. Some biocide specific characteristics need to be considered: E.g. unlike PPP, the intended use of some biocides is to be directly applied in water bodies or indoors. Furthermore for some

  11. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-01

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  12. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  13. Glutathione (GSH Production as Protective Adaptation Against Light Regime Radiation of Symbiodinium Natural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Muhaemin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH, as a wide range of low molecular weight, which found in marine microalgae and event bacteria, are essential to prevent photooxidation and productivity loss from these Radical Oxigen Species (ROS. Symbiodinium, endo-symbiont of corals, were exposed with different UV radiation combined with irradiance treatments to explore biomass specific initial response. Intracellular glutahione was observed as potential adaptive response of Symbiodinium population under environmental specific stress. The result showed that GSH production increased significantly with increasing irradiance and/or UV levels. GSH concentration was fluctuated among populations exposed by different irradiance treatments, but not effected by UV and irradiance exposure. GSH production as a response of UV exposure was higher than irradiance treatments. Both these high correlative fluctuation of intracellular GSH production and the presence of both treatments indicated protective specific adaptation of Symbiodinium under specific environmental stress, respectively.   Keywords: zooxanthellae, irradiance, glutathione (GSH, corals, Fungia

  14. Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Zagorec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved in growth, survival, and metabolism during meat storage and processing are well known. This species exhibits a wide genomic diversity that can be observed when studying different strains and on which probably rely its multiple facets in meat products: starter, spoiler, or protective culture. The emerging exploration of the microbial ecology of meat products also revealed the multiplicity of bacterial interactions L. sakei has to face and their various consequences on microbial quality and safety at the end of storage.

  15. Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved in growth, survival, and metabolism during meat storage and processing are well known. This species exhibits a wide genomic diversity that can be observed when studying different strains and on which probably rely its multiple facets in meat products: starter, spoiler, or protective culture. The emerging exploration of the microbial ecology of meat products also revealed the multiplicity of bacterial interactions L. sakei has to face and their various consequences on microbial quality and safety at the end of storage. PMID:28878171

  16. Antioxidant and cyto/DNA protective properties of apple pomace enriched bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Dharmesh, Shylaja M; Pynam, Hasitha; Bhimangouder, Shivaleela V; Eipson, Sushma W; Somasundaram, Rajarathnam; Nanjarajurs, Shashirekha M

    2016-04-01

    Apple pomace (AP), the residue that remains after the extraction of juice from apple accounts for ~25 % of total apple weight. Current study is aimed at identification of phytochemicals and utilization of Dehydrated apple pomace (DAP) in the preparation of bakery products with potential health benefits. DAP was prepared by drying the pomace obtained by crushing peeled apple fruits. DAP was incorporated into bakery products such as bun, muffin and cookies for value addition. Bioactivity such as free radical scavenging, cyto/DNA protectivity was evaluated in these products. DAP contained 17 g/100 g starch, 49.86 g/100 g fructose and 37 g/100 g dietary fibre. The phenolics and flavonoids content was 1.5 mg/g and 3.92 mg/g, respectively. Increase in DAP resulted in decreased volume and enhanced firmness of buns and muffins. DAP at 15 % in buns, 30 % in muffins and 20 % in cookies were found to be acceptable. DAP blended products exhibited better free radical scavenging as well as cyto/DNA protective properties suggesting the retention of bioactivity after baking. Addition of DAP potentially enhanced the bioactivity of the products evaluated.

  17. A Novel Busbar Protection Based on the Average Product of Fault Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibin Zou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an original busbar protection method, based on the characteristics of the fault components. The method firstly extracts the fault components of the current and voltage after the occurrence of a fault, secondly it uses a novel phase-mode transformation array to obtain the aerial mode components, and lastly, it obtains the sign of the average product of the aerial mode voltage and current. For a fault on the busbar, the average products that are detected on all of the lines that are linked to the faulted busbar are all positive within a specific duration of the post-fault. However, for a fault at any one of these lines, the average product that has been detected on the faulted line is negative, while those on the non-faulted lines are positive. On the basis of the characteristic difference that is mentioned above, the identification criterion of the fault direction is established. Through comparing the fault directions on all of the lines, the busbar protection can quickly discriminate between an internal fault and an external fault. By utilizing the PSCAD/EMTDC software (4.6.0.0, Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada, a typical 500 kV busbar model, with one and a half circuit breakers configuration, was constructed. The simulation results show that the proposed busbar protection has a good adjustability, high reliability, and rapid operation speed.

  18. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  19. Current Status and Outlook in the Application of Microalgae in Biodiesel Production and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Rong, Junfeng [SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, Beijing (China); Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangqiang@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)

    2014-08-19

    Microalgae have been currently recognized as a group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids, and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO{sub 2} fixation, NO{sub x}, and wastewater treatment) and biorefinery has been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g., food, medicine, wastewater treatment, and flue gas treatment) with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  20. Current status and outlook in the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae have been currently recognized as one group of the most potential feedstocks for biodiesel production due to high productivity potential, efficient biosynthesis of lipids and less competition with food production. Moreover, utilization of microalgae with environmental purposes (CO2 fixation, NOX and wastewater treatment and biorefinery have been reported. However, there are still challenges that need to be addressed to ensure stable large-scale production with positive net energy balance. This review gives an overview of the current status of the application of microalgae in biodiesel production and environmental protection. The practical problems not only facing the microalgae biodiesel production but also associated with microalgae application for environmental pollution control, in particular biological fixation of greenhouse gas (CO2 and NOX and wastewater treatment are described in detail. Notably, the synergistic combination of various applications (e.g. food, medicine, wastewater treatment and flue gas treatment with biodiesel production could enhance the sustainability and economics of the algal biodiesel production system.

  1. SU(N) Irreducible Schwinger Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Manu; Raychowdhury, Indrakshi; Anishetty, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    We construct SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons satisfying certain U(N-1) constraints which implement the symmetries of SU(N) Young tableaues. As a result all SU(N) irreducible representations are simple monomials of $(N-1)$ types of SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons. Further, we show that these representations are free of multiplicity problems. Thus all SU(N) representations are made as simple as SU(2).

  2. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured...... in the questionnaire. Exposure measured in SED by dosimetry correlated strongly with the exposure scale. In a linear regression model of UVR (SED) received, 41 percent of the variation was explained by skin type, age, week of participation and the exposure scale, with the exposure scale as the main contributor...

  3. Nuclear astrophysics of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    In the first chapter we will discuss the problem of nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun and consider the modern aspects of the neutrino astrophysics of the Sun. The second chapter is devoted to the high energy interactions in the solar atmosphere during the flares. Among a great number of events during the solar flares we shall consider mainly the nuclear reactions. Special attention will be paid to the genetic connection between the different components of solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation. The idea of the unity of processes in different parts of the Sun, from hot and dense interior up to the rare plasma of the solar corona will be the main line of the book. (orig./WL) 891 WL/orig.- 892 HIS

  4. Torsional oscillations of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, H.B.; Howard, R.; National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1985-01-01

    The sun's differential rotation has a cyclic pattern of change that is tightly correlated with the sunspot, or magnetic activity, cycle. This pattern can be described as a torsional oscillation, in which the solar rotation is periodically sped up or slowed down in certain zones of latitude while elsewhere the rotation remains essentially steady. The zones of anomalous rotation move on the sun in wavelike fashion, keeping pace with and flanking the zones of magnetic activity. It is uncertain whether this torsional oscillation is a globally coherent ringing of the sun or whether it is a local pattern caused by and causing local changes in the magnetic fields. In either case, it may be an important link in the connection between the rotation and the cycle that is widely believed to exist but is not yet understood. 46 references

  5. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  6. Turning to the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jai Narain Prasad Nishad

    1997-01-01

    The importance of the increasing use of renewable energy sources was recognized in India in the early 1970s. During the past quarter century, a significant effort has gone into the development, trial and induction of a variety of technologies for use in different sectors. Today, india has one of th world's largest programmes for renewable energy. Our activities cover all teh major renewable energy sources of interest to us, including biogas, biomass, solar, wind and small-hydro power and other emerging technologies. Several systems and products are now commercially available, and are economically viable in comparison to fossil fuels

  7. Ultraviolet radiation, sun and tanning salons; Ultrafiolett straaling, sol og solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The pamphlet gives some information about ultraviolet radiation (UV), UV-sources and health effects, tanning in artificial and natural sun. It also includes some sun protection advice. It is intended mainly for persons inspecting artificial tanning units and for the owners of tanning salons. (Author)

  8. Sun and Skin: The Dark Side of Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a toll on your skin and its underlying connective tissue. As a result, your skin may develop more wrinkles and lines. Too much sun exposure can also raise your risk for skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in the ...

  9. Rights to Designaton Focusing on Protected Designations and Geographical Indications of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilková Zuzana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue covered by the field of industrial property, it deals with the right to designation, especially with characteristics of legal regulation of labeling of products with regard to their geographical origin at the Slovak, communitarian and international levels. Individual objects of the industrial property may be the result of intellectual creative activity of its creator/creators (e.g. inventions, utility models, designs or they are not the result of creative activity of a particular natural person and are considered as industrial property rights to designation. The group of rights to designation includes: business names, trademarks, designation of origin for products and geographical indications for products. The rights to designation, inter alia, shall ensure uniqueness and competitive advantage for entrepreneurs and easy identification on the market of goods and services for the consumers. The paper closely analyzes the harmonized legal regulation of designations of origin and geographical indications of agricultural products, foodstuffs, spirit drinks, and wines. At the example of Tokaj wine region, it demonstrates the importance of protected designations at the EU level, in case of which demonstrable geographical origin of the product with controlled product specification by authorized national bodies brings a guarantee of quality of this product for consumers and the competitive advantage during their commercial implementation for the entrepreneurs.

  10. Adoption of Sun Safe Work Place Practices by Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Allan; Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara; Lui, Lucia; Buller, Mary; Scott, Michael D.; Jenkins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Context Outdoor workers are especially susceptible to skin cancer, the most common, but also one of the most preventable, forms of cancer. Colorado, the location of the study, has the second highest rate of skin cancer deaths in the nation. Objective Local government managers in Colorado—in municipalities, counties and special districts—were surveyed in order to ascertain the extent to which they engage in formal (written) and informal practices to protect their outdoor workers against excessive exposure to sun. Design The survey consisted of 51 question assessing awareness of formal or informal practices for sun protection of outdoor workers. An index of practices--the study's dependent variable--was created that was comprised or practices such as providing employees free or reduced-cost sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, long-sleeved work shirts, long work pants, and temporary or permanent outdoor shade shelters. Proscriptive policies, such as restricting the use of broad brimmed hats, were subtracted from the index. Surveys were completed by 825 administrators representing 98 jurisdictions. Responses from administrators in the same jurisdiction were averaged. Results Over 40 percent of responding jurisdictions indicated that they engaged in informal sun safety practices. Tests conducted to determine what variables might account for the adoption of these sun protection practices found that the degree to which a community could be regarded as cosmopolite and as having an individualistic political culture were significant predictors. Type of government was also significant. Although, higher community income was a significant predictor, neither local government budget nor size was significant. Conclusions The adoption of sun safe practices bears low costs with potentially high returns. Findings from this study suggest that awareness campaigns might most effectively target cosmopolite communities, but that the greatest impact might be achieved by targeting

  11. Adoption of sun safe workplace practices by local governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Allan; Andersen, Peter A; Buller, David B; Walkosz, Barbara; Lui, Lucia; Buller, Mary; Scott, Michael D; Jenkins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor workers are especially susceptible to skin cancer--the most common, but also one of the most preventable, forms of cancer. Colorado, the location of the study, has the second highest rate of skin cancer deaths in the nation. Local government managers in Colorado-in municipalities, counties, and special districts-were surveyed to ascertain the extent to which they engage in formal (written) and informal practices to protect their outdoor workers against excessive exposure to sun. The survey consisted of 51 questions assessing awareness of formal or informal practices for sun protection of outdoor workers. An index of practices--the study's dependent variable--was created that was composed or practices such as providing employees free or reduced-cost sunscreen, wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses, long-sleeved work shirts, long work pants, and temporary or permanent outdoor shade shelters. Proscriptive policies, such as restricting the use of broad brimmed hats, were subtracted from the index. Surveys were completed by 825 administrators representing 98 jurisdictions. Responses from administrators in the same jurisdiction were averaged. More than 40% of responding jurisdictions indicated that they engaged in informal sun safety practices. Tests conducted to determine what variables might account for the adoption of these sun protection practices found that the degree to which a community could be regarded as cosmopolite and as having an individualistic political culture were significant predictors. Type of government was also significant. Although, higher community income was a significant predictor, neither local government budget nor size was significant. The adoption of sun safe practices bears low costs with potentially high returns. Findings from this study suggest that awareness campaigns might most effectively target cosmopolite communities, but that the greatest impact might be achieved by targeting localite communities. Government size and budget do not

  12. Trial production of x-ray protective coat in clinico-orthodontics and evaluation of efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, H; Nezu, F; Arita, M; Numata, K; Nishioka, T [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Dentistry

    1977-09-01

    The authors produced for trial an x-ray protective coat for patients which could be used for any type of dental roentogenography particularly by clinicoorthodontists and could easily exert a sufficient protective effect. The trial product is of coat type covering the front, sides, and back of the trunk and is made of vinyl sheet containing lead and rubber sheet containing lead. When patients put on the coat during cephalography, the internally absorbed dose was decreased greatly in the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra and the area of thyroid and considerably in the area of right joint and the area corresponding to the center of the sternal shaft. The protective effect of the coat was also great in ortho-pantomography in regions corresponding to hemopoietic tissues abundant in bone-marrow, such as the areas of bilateral joints the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra, and the area corresponding to the center of sternal shaft. Internally absorbed doses in different regions due to various types of roentgenography were tabulated. The x-ray protective coat was described to be useful not only in orthodontics but also in roentogenography in the craniocervical region.

  13. Trial production of x-ray protective coat in clinico-orthodontics and evaluation of efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hatsuo; Nezu, Fumio; Arita, Masatoshi; Numata, Keisuke; Nishioka, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    The authors produced for trial an x-ray protective coat for patients which could be used for any type of dental roentogenography particularly by clinicoorthodontists and could easily exert a sufficient protective effect. The trial product is of coat type covering the front, sides, and back of the trunk and is made of vinyl sheet containing lead and rubber sheet containing lead. When patients put on the coat during cephalography, the internally absorbed dose was decreased greatly in the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra and the area of thyroid and considerably in the area of right joint and the area corresponding to the center of the sternal shaft. The protective effect of the coat was also great in ortho-pantomography in regions corresponding to hemopoietic tissues abundant in bone-marrow, such as the areas of bilateral joints the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra, and the area corresponding to the center of sternal shaft. Internally absorbed doses in different regions due to various types of roentgenography were tabulated. The x-ray protective coat was described to be useful not only in orthodontics but also in roentogenography in the craniocervical region. (Chiba, N.)

  14. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Education and the National Program for the diffusion of Scientific Degrees (Progetto Lauree Scientifiche or PLS). In the last years has been mainly aimed to underline the connections between Astronomy, Astrophysics and the new materials involved in the astronomical techniques. The Sun has always been used in the course as a key element since the final product was the production of a self-constructed solar telescope able to be used to monitor the solar activity through Wolf's number estimation. In the third edition the project has been extended to other three Universities on the Italian territory: University of l'Aquila, University of Camerino and University of Calabria. Over the years more than 80 students and 50 teachers where directly involved and more than 50 different high schools on all the national territory, reaching thousands of their students in the final dissemination part of the program. 25 telescopes are currently in use in high school institutes all-over Italy. A book describing the project has been published by Springer in 2013 (STUDENTI-RICERCATORI per cinque giorni "Stage a Tor Vergata" Editors: Liù M. Catena, Francesco Berrilli, Ivan Davoli, Paolo Prosposito, ISBN: 978-88-470-5271-0 (Online) ), the link to the book describing the project and reporting student interviews is at: http://link.springer.com/book

  15. SUN EXPOSURE AND PHOTOPROTECTION HABITS EVALUATION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AT ENIO PIPINO PUBLIC SCHOOL IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. S. Bernardes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the sun exposure and photoprotection habits of high school students at Enio Pipino Public School in Sinop-MT. 140 surveys were answered by high school students from the urban area of Sinop-MT. From all the interviewed students, 42,14% were male, and 57,85% female, 63 students declared themselves brown, 53 white, and 42 black. Most of the students declared that they are exposed to sun for at least two hours weekly, and 60% of them between 10am and 3pm. Only 26,42% of the students wear sunscreen during the day, and from those, 8,57% re-apply the product, 52,85% of the students declared no knowledge about SPF. Most of the students do not use physical methods of protection although they assume to be aware about the damages caused by solar radiation expodure, and 13 of them declared to have skin cancer incidence in their families. Analyzing the results, it was possible to identify the studied population vulnerability about the risks of sun radiation exposure and it was also seen that there are very less attitudes for the self health care. It is remarkable yet the need of sun exposure habits changes, according to the time, frequency, and timing of exposure

  16. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  17. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  18. Teaching "Empire of the Sun."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet, Fred H. van

    1990-01-01

    A Dutch teacher presents reading, film viewing, and writing activities for "Empire of the Sun," J. G. Ballard's autobiographical account of life as a boy in Shanghai and in a Japanese internment camp during World War II (the subject of Steven Spielberg's film of the same name). Includes objectives, procedures, and several literature,…

  19. The Award Winning Black Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2018-01-01

    Black Suns: An Astrophysics Adventure is a documentary film focusing on the annular and total solar eclipses of 2012. We made a different kind of astronomy documentary showing the human aspects rather than just focusing on pretty astronomy pictures. The film combines personal stories with science. Our heroes are Hakeem Oluseyi and Alphonse Sterling, who valiantly travel to study the solar corona during total solar eclipses. The goals of the film included presenting three dimensional scientists, to show their paths to becoming astrophysicists, and to show them as they collect data and work as scientists. Drama and tension surround taking data during the small window of time during totality. The Black Suns was filmed in Tokyo, Cairns, Tucson, and Melbourne Florida. Uniquely, the film began through a Kickstarter campaign to fund travel and filming in Tokyo. Many American Astronomical Society members donated to the film! Black Suns won the Jury Prize at the 2017 Art of Brooklyn Film Festival. Black Suns will be screening in full on ???.

  20. Inflammatory Effects of the Plant Protection Product Stifenia (FEN560 on Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lamotte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant defense stimulators (PDSs rely on the activation of plant innate immunity in order to protect crops against various pests. These molecules are thought to be a safer alternative to classical plant protection products. Given that innate immune systems share common features in plants and vertebrates, PDS can potentially cross-react with innate immunity of non-target organisms. To test this hypothesis, we studied effects of the commercial PDS Stifenia (FEN560, which is composed of crushed fenugreek seeds. We tested various concentrations of Stifenia (0.03–1 mg mL−1 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and checked, 20 h later, cell metabolic activity (MA using XTT assay, cell death by flow cytometry analysis, and IL-1β inflammatory cytokine released in the culture medium using ELISA. Stifenia induced a general decrease of the cell MA, which was concomitant with a dose-dependent release of IL-1β. Our results highlight the activation of human immune cells. The inflammatory effect of Stifenia was partially inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor. Accordingly, Stifenia induced the release of p20 caspase-1 fragment into the culture medium suggesting the involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, we observed that Stifenia can induce cell death. We also tested the effect of Stifenia on Zebrafish larvae. After 24 h of exposure, Stifenia induced a dose-dependent IL-1β and TNFα gene expression. The human-cell-based approach developed in this work revealed a high sensitivity concerning inflammatory properties of a plant protection product. These tests could be routinely used to screen the potential adverse effects of this type of compounds. Finally, our results suggest a potential danger of using extensively certain PDS for crop protection.

  1. Conocimiento sobre melanoma y prácticas de protección frente al sol en pacientes del Hospital Cullen de Santa Fe, Argentina Knowledge of melanoma and sun-protective practices in patients at José M. Cullen Hospital of Santa Fe, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Loza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Melanoma es un cáncer de piel de mortalidad alta, cuya incidencia ha aumentado mundialmente en los últimos años. El siguiente estudio está destinado a detectar el conocimiento de la población sobre melanoma y las medidas de protección frente a la radiación UV (RUV, considerando que las dos terceras partes de los casos de melanoma se asocian al sol. Objetivo general. Detectar el conocimiento sobre melanoma y las prácticas de protección solar, en pacientes que consultan en el Servicio de Dermatología e internados en Clínica Médica del Hospital José M. Cullen. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional, prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo. La población abarcó 275 pacientes, entre 16 y 85 años, voluntarios del consultorio de Dermatología e internados en Clínica Médica del Hospital José M. Cullen. Mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0, se realizó un análisis descriptivo y la prueba de Chi cuadrado, para determinar asociación estadística, entre variables cualitativas con significancia de pBackground. Melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer, showing an increasing incidence worldwide over the past years. The aim of this study was to assess people's knowledge about melanoma, and their protective measures against UV radiation, considering that two-thirds of melanoma cases are associated to sun exposure. General objective. To assess the knowledge about melanoma and the sun protective practices in patients who attended the Department of Dermatology and in those admitted to the General Internal Medicine Unit of José M. Cullen Hospital. Material and methods. It was an observational, prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study. A sample of 275 participants aged between 16-85 years was included, composed of voluntary patients from the Department of Dermatology and inpatients from the General Internal Medicine Unit of José M. Cullen Hospital. The Statistical Package for

  2. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svancara, Leona K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Pidgorna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10 km of both parks and refuges and those within 10 km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10 km of just refuges and counties greater than 10 km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged  2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level

  4. The Effect of China’s New Circular Collective Forest Tenure Reform on Household Non-Timber Forest Product Production in Natural Forest Protection Project Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of China’s natural forest protection project (Protection Project in 1998 changed households’ forestry production modes in project regions, and China’s new circular collective forest tenure reform (Tenure Reform has been implemented since 2003 with the goal of motivating household forestry production and increasing household income from forests. Policymakers expect that Tenure Reform could also stimulate households to engage in non-timber forest products (NTFPs production in Protection Project regions. However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of Tenure Reform on household NTFP production in Protection Project regions. To fill this gap, we built an integrative conceptual framework and estimated a corresponding structural equation model (SEM using survey data from 932 households in Protection Project regions in southwestern China. In our research framework, there are four factors, including household characteristics, labour and social capital, forestland characteristics, and the Tenure Reform, affecting household NTFP production. The results substantiate that Tenure Reform has had a significant positive effect on household NTFP production. Additionally, household and forestland characteristics have promoted household NTFP production, but quantitatively less than Tenure Reform. This report can be used to inform the government that future investment in Tenure Reform still needs to be enhanced, and policy enforcement still needs to be strengthened.

  5. IP cores design from specifications to production modeling, verification, optimization, and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Khaled Salah

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the life cycle process of IP cores, from specification to production, including IP modeling, verification, optimization, and protection. Various trade-offs in the design process are discussed, including  those associated with many of the most common memory cores, controller IPs  and system-on-chip (SoC) buses. Readers will also benefit from the author’s practical coverage of new verification methodologies. such as bug localization, UVM, and scan-chain.  A SoC case study is presented to compare traditional verification with the new verification methodologies. ·         Discusses the entire life cycle process of IP cores, from specification to production, including IP modeling, verification, optimization, and protection; ·         Introduce a deep introduction for Verilog for both implementation and verification point of view.  ·         Demonstrates how to use IP in applications such as memory controllers and SoC buses. ·         Describes a new ver...

  6. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...

  7. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  8. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  9. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  10. Photoprotection in moisturizers and daily-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, S; Fourtanier, A; Rougier, A

    2010-10-01

    During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. In skin areas regularly exposed to sun, UV-damage is superimposed to tissue degeneration resulting from chronological aging. It is, therefore, important to know if moisturizers and daily-care products containing UVA absorbers combined with UVB ones are able to prevent these skin damages. This review will summarize clinical studies evaluating this topic. These studies demonstrate that broad-spectrum protection in moisturizers or daily-care products can prevent the "silent" sub-erythemal cumulative effects of UVR from inadvertent sun exposure.

  11. Weed control by direct injection of plant protection products according to specific situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebs, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming in agriculture allows a site-specific management of the crop. The aim of plant protection is to apply plant protection products (PPP according to the site specific requirements on the field. Within the context of a research program to promote innovation, a sprayer with direct injection of plant protection products was developed. The direct injection offers site specific spraying of different individual PPP in a single pass. The sprayer prototype is equipped with a special spray boom combining three nozzle lines. In order to prevent delay times, the nozzle lines are preloaded before spraying. First results for weed control from test stand measurements and field trials showed that the injection pumps work with high accuracy. The prototype can be used without delay times site specific with up to three different herbicides. Field trials for site-specific weed control in winter wheat demonstrate the applicability of the system under practical conditions. By treatment of subareas herbicides and therefore costs could be saved. A reduction in yield compared with the conventionally treated field areas could not be ascertained. Also an efficacy reduction through washout of active ingredient from target surfaces due to simultaneous use of all three nozzle lines with up to 1050 l/ha application rate could not be detected. At high water spray rates, the efficacy effect occurs delayed. Overall, the newly developed direct injection system proved fieldabillity during the first tests. So weed control can be carried out situation-responsive, which can save herbicides and environmental impacts are reduced.

  12. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    various payloads and platforms. The conventional and commercial actuators and attitude sensors are in most cases not suited for these satellites, which again lead to new design considerations. Another important property is the launch cost, which can be kept relatively low as a result of the concept....... This fact enables students to get hands-on experience with satellite systems design and project management. This paper describes the attitude control and determination system of a Danish student satellite (DTUsat), with main focus on the two-axis MOEMS sun sensor developed. On the magnetotorquer controlled...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  13. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  14. Automatic Hotspot and Sun Glint Detection in UAV Multispectral Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Terol, Damian; Hernandez-Lopez, David; Ballesteros, Rocio; Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego

    2017-10-15

    Last advances in sensors, photogrammetry and computer vision have led to high-automation levels of 3D reconstruction processes for generating dense models and multispectral orthoimages from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images. However, these cartographic products are sometimes blurred and degraded due to sun reflection effects which reduce the image contrast and colour fidelity in photogrammetry and the quality of radiometric values in remote sensing applications. This paper proposes an automatic approach for detecting sun reflections problems (hotspot and sun glint) in multispectral images acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), based on a photogrammetric strategy included in a flight planning and control software developed by the authors. In particular, two main consequences are derived from the approach developed: (i) different areas of the images can be excluded since they contain sun reflection problems; (ii) the cartographic products obtained (e.g., digital terrain model, orthoimages) and the agronomical parameters computed (e.g., normalized vegetation index-NVDI) are improved since radiometric defects in pixels are not considered. Finally, an accuracy assessment was performed in order to analyse the error in the detection process, getting errors around 10 pixels for a ground sample distance (GSD) of 5 cm which is perfectly valid for agricultural applications. This error confirms that the precision in the detection of sun reflections can be guaranteed using this approach and the current low-cost UAV technology.

  15. Consumption of dairy products in youth, does it protect from cardio-metabolic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Bueno, Gloria

    2016-07-12

    Introduction: The high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is considered as a major global health concern and involves the onset of other comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic infl ammation and hyperinsulinemia, which are also considered as cardiovascular diseases risk factors. Several studies have observed that consumption of dairy products has a protective role on the development of cardiovascular diseases; however, the scientific evidence on this topic is very limited among children and adolescents. Objectives: To investigate the association between dairy products consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in young populations. Material and methods: The most up-to-date literature was reviewed, including some data from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. A sample of adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from 8 European cities was considered for the analysis. Results: US data showed a decrease in both number of servings and portion sizes of milk consumption. Within the HELENA study, dairy products emerged as the food group that better distinguished those adolescents at lower cardiovascular diseases risk. Among the HELENA adolescents, higher consumption of milk, yogurt and milk- and yogurt-based beverages was associated with lower body fat, lower risk for cardiovascular diseases, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions: More studies are needed to provide more evidence and to better understand the intrinsic mechanisms of the association between dairy products consumption, especially yogurt consumption, and obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases risk factors.

  16. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  17. Can the Sun replace uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-07-01

    Two asymptotic worlds, one based on solar energy, the other based on nuclear energy, are compared. The total energy demand in each case is 2,000 quads. Although the Sun can in principal supply this energy, it probably will be very expensive. If the energy were supplied entirely by breeders, the nuclear energy system would pose formidable systems problems--particularly safety and proliferation. It is suggested that in view of these possible difficulties, all options must be kept open

  18. The effect of specifi c relationship between material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sovilj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, parts and tools are increasingly made of composite materials. Realization of specifi c connection between basic material and coating is very important. The quality of coating on products, in terms of wear and resistance to destruction, has a large impact on productivity and reliability of production processes, in particular their life. In this paper, based on experimental investigations, the effect of specific relationship between the base material and coating on tribological and protective features of the product is analyzed.

  19. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  20. Integrable multi parametric SU(N) chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.

    1996-03-01

    We analyse integrable models associated to a multi parametric SU(N) R-matrix. We show that the Hamiltonians describe SU(N) chains with twisted boundary conditions and that the underlying algebraic structure is the multi parametric deformation of SU(N) enlarged by the introduction of a central element. (author). 15 refs

  1. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  2. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  3. [Replacement of dogs as research animals for the approval testing of plant protection products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Rainer J

    2006-01-01

    The replacement of animal testing using dogs for the registration of plant protection products requires a long-term step-by-step procedure. The first goal should be to achieve international agreement on using only one single study in dogs. This would result in a significant short-term reduction of the use of dogs for this purpose. The competent working groups both in the EU and the United States EPA have declared this to be their intended aim. In this context, the 90-day study is to be the preferred study from the scientific as well as the animal welfare points of view. It is proposed to set up an international expert task force within the next 12 months, which should seek to initiate a process of international harmonization of the testing requirements following the example of the International Conference of Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Medical Products, ICH. The goal should be to achieve international agreement on only one single study with dogs within the next 2 to 3 years. In addition, other valid scientific procedures, with which the use of dogs for testing can be reduced, should be critically assessed. A complete replacement of the use of dogs for plant protection product testing is suggested to take place at a later stage. This may be achieved by either deriving safety threshold values by applying a safety factor to chronic NOAEL values obtained in studies using rats for those groups of substances, for which there is evidence that the dog is the more sensitive species, or by combining the chronic rat study with other animal tests stipulated for the registration of pesticides.

  4. Corrosion protection products as a source of bisphenol A and toxicity to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Dietschweiler, Conrad; Werner, Inge; Burkhardt, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days. Two experiments were conducted, one with a 1 day and one with a 7 day curing period. Using a suite of bioassays, we tested samples for: agonistic and antagonistic effects on various mammalian nuclear receptors; inhibition of photosynthesis and growth in algae; inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence; and inhibition of water flea reproduction. Concentrations of BPA, bisphenol F and various BPA transformation products were determined by chemical analysis (LC-MS/MS). Bioassay results were evaluated using a scheme developed by DIBt (Centre of Competence for Construction, Berlin, Germany). Three products induced responses in one or more of the measured endpoints and toxicity profiles varied markedly in intensity across products. One product released high amounts of BPA which was associated with effects on nuclear receptor transactivation, requiring a more than 700-fold dilution for effect induction to fall below 20%. The same product was also the most toxic to water flea reproduction, requiring ca. 70-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. Another product was highly toxic in terms of bacterial bioluminescence, particularly after a shorter curing time, requiring a ca. 1'300-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. The third product required a 22-fold dilution for inhibition of water flea reproduction to drop below 20%. Results show that anti-corrosion coatings based on epoxy resins can be a source of toxicity to the aquatic environment

  5. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 940325S1. 11352 DDC-I DACS Sun SPARC/Solaries to Pentium PM Bare Ada Cross Compiler System, Version 4.6.4 Sun SPARCclassic = Intel Pentium (Operated as Bare Machine) Based in Xpress Desktop (Intel Product Number: XBASE6E4F-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-25

    Best Available Copy REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE _V -ONC Uft Xaf. WO -" Am u~~ ns~ 940325SI. 11352 , AVV: 94ddc5OO_3d. Compiler: DACS Sun SPARC/ aonais to...Manual for the Ada Proarammina Language, ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A, February 1983 and ISO 8652-1987. [Pro92] Ada Coupiler Validation Procedures, Version 3.1...objectives found to be irrelevant for the given Ada implementation. ISO International Organization for Standardization. LRM The Ada standard, or

  6. Sun Tzu: Theorist for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    instructing its Senior Leaders in the productiveness of this Strategic Thinking Model and ensure that future leaders are given the appropriate...the following suggestion: (1) Continue to intergrate Sun Tzu’s noteworthy strategic theories in today’s campaign plans to win the conflicts against

  7. SunShot Catalyst Prize Competition Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Catalyst Energy Innovation Prize, an open innovation program launched in 2014 by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This program aims to catalyze the rapid creation and development of products and solutions that address near-term challenges in the U.S. solar energy marketplace.

  8. Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate in cattle fed on diet containing protected protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.P.; Gupta, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism and protozoa production rate using 14 C-choline as marker were studied on 9 adult male crossbred (Tharparker x Brown Swiss) rumen fistulated animals divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). All the animals were fed concentrate mixture and wheatstraw. However, groundnut cake (GNC) in concentrate mixture was untreated in group A, 50 per cent formaldehyde treated in group B and 100 per cent formaldehyde treated in group C. Although, DM intake was similar in these groups but water intake was significantly (P<0.05) higher in control group. Total-N, ammonia-N and blood urea were significantly lower in group B and C as compared to group A. Apparent CP digestibility was not affected by addition of formaldehyde treated GNC at 50 and 100 per cent levels. However, N balances increased significantly (P<0.05) due to addition of protected protein in diet. Protozoal pool as well as production rate were significantly (P<0.01) decreased due to formaldehyde treatment of GNC protein. Thus addition of formaldehyde treated GNC in diets decreased ammonia and protozoa production but increased N retention in groups B and C. (author). 27 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Sun Safety Practices Among Schools in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; Guy, Gery P

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to the sun's UV radiation is a leading cause of skin cancer. Positive attitudes and beliefs about sun safety behavior, which would make sun protective behavior more likely, could be promoted and supported by school policies and practices. To identify school characteristics associated with having adopted practices that promote sun safety. School-level data from the February 3 to July 23, 2014, School Health Policies and Practices Study's Healthy and Safe School Environment questionnaire were analyzed. The School Health Policies and Practices Study uses a 2-stage sampling design to select a nationally representative sample of schools. All public, state-administered, Catholic, and non-Catholic private schools with any of the grades from kindergarten through 12 were eligible for inclusion. All analyses were conducted using weighted data. Prevalence of sun safety practices. In a nationally representative sample of 828 US schools, representatives of 577 schools (69.7%) responded. Overall, sun safety practices were not common among schools. The most frequent practice was having teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school (47.6%; 95% CI, 42.4%-52.9%). Few schools made sunscreen available for students to use (13.3%; 95% CI, 10.2%-17.0%), almost always or always scheduled outdoor activities to avoid times when the sun was at peak intensity (15.0%; 95% CI, 11.4%-19.6%), or asked parents to ensure that students applied sunscreen before school (16.4%; 95% CI, 12.9%-20.6%). High schools were less likely than elementary schools and middle schools to adopt several practices: for instance, 37.5% of high schools (95% CI, 29.7%-46.0%), 51.6% of middle schools (95% CI, 43.3%-59.7%), and 49.5% of elementary schools (95% CI, 42.0%-57.0%) had teachers allow time for students to apply sunscreen at school, and 11.8% of high schools (95% CI, 7.7%-17.5%), 18.2% of middle schools (95% CI, 13.3%-24.4%), and 14.7% of elementary schools (95% CI, 9.6%-21.8%) almost

  10. Sunburn protection as a function of sunscreen application thickness differs between high and low SPFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Xuemin; Lai, Wei; Yan, Tian; Wu, Yanyu; Wan, Miaojian; Yi, Jinling; Matsui, Mary S

    2012-06-01

    Sunscreens are an important component of healthy sun-protection behavior. To achieve satisfactory protection, sunscreens must be applied consistently, evenly and correctly. Consumers do not apply sunscreen properly and, therefore, do not achieve the protection indicated by the label 'sun protection factor' (SPF). The objective of the present study was to determine the actual sun(burn) protection given by a range of sunscreen application thickness levels for both low and high SPF formulas. Forty study subjects were recruited from each of three geographical regions in China. Sunscreens with label SPFs of 4, 15, 30, and 55 were tested at application levels of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/cm(2) in three laboratories using a standard SPF protocol. Sunscreens with lower SPFs (4 and 15) showed a linear dose-response relationship with application level, but higher SPF (30 and 55) product protection was exponentially related to application thickness. Sunscreen protection is not related in one uniform way to the amount of product applied to human skin. Consumers may achieve an even lower than expected sunburn protection from high SPF products than from low SPF sunscreens. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Removal of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) from Carpets Treated with Stain-protection Products by Using Carpet Cleaning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    PFCAs are found in a variety of consumer products, including, but not limited to, treated clothing and textiles, floor care products, paper containers for food, and carpets. For example, carpet that has been treated with stain-protection, carpet-care solutions, either by the manu...

  12. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  13. The study of the corrosion protection of the low-carbon steel using film-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiancului, L.; Millet, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports studies on the efficiency of the film-inhibitors that covered low-carbon steel placed in a humid medium, and also, the optimization of the working conditions to improve the resistance to corrosion. The analyzes were done in the Industrial Physical - Chemical Laboratories of INSA - Lyon by electrochemical stationary techniques. The experimental device was a potentiometer of type EGG PAR (Princeton Applied Research). It was connected with a computer and three potential electrodes introduced in a cell with NaCl 30 g/l solution to acquire the data and to process the information. The film-products used were organic hydrosoluble polymers with diphosphonic 'heads' that permit a very good absorption at the metallic surface. This research is used to protect the installations of low-carbon steel against the atmospheric and high temperature corrosion. (authors)

  14. Between the Profiles Pay Per View and the Protection of Personal Data: the Product is You

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karin CHÁVEZ VALDIVIA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps in the past was difficult to imagine that the moment in which someone could register each purchase that has been made, each book that has been read or each thing that has been said would come. That there would be companies storing data about our physical activity, behaviors, preferences and choices all the time. Most of the personal data comes from acts as daily as installing an application, completing a form, purchasing a product or requesting a service. This information provided sometimes consciously, voluntarily and with relative knowledge of the destination that will have, contrasts with situations in which data are inferred, deduced, extracted and manipulated.  In this sense, within a context in which the only access to the database has been left behind to give way to the creation of these by third parties, we wonder about the possible denaturation of the personal data and sensitive information that when get transformed in raw material through the analysis of existent connections and extraction of new data implicit in the multitude of information compiled in public or private databases, would convert  people into an essential product for the market; while the development of citizen profiles pay per view would allow predicting behaviors, selections and multiple deployments in different aspects of our lives. It is probable that in the defenselessness condition where we are now for having passed from personal space to social one and from there to the market many times without our knowledge and consent makes necessary to reconsider the current forms of protection and mechanisms of  legal protection around our personal data.

  15. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. SU(N,1) inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.; Srednicki, M.

    1985-01-01

    We present a simple model for primordial inflation in the context of SU(N, 1) no-scale n=1 supergravity. Because the model at zero temperature very closely resembles global supersymmetry, minima with negative cosmological constants do not exist, and it is easy to have a long inflationary epoch while keeping density perturbations of the right magnitude and satisfying other cosmological constraints. We pay specific attention to satisfying the thermal constraint for inflation, i.e. the existence of a high temperature minimum at the origin. (orig.)

  17. Avaliação dos cuidados de proteção solar e prevenção do câncer de pele em pré-escolares Avaluación de los cuidados de protección solar y prevención de cáncer de piel en preescolares Assessment of sun protection and skin cancer prevention among preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Batista

    2013-03-01

    todos los días del año, y 253 (70,1% usaban barreras físicas de protección solar. Niños de piel blanca usaban más filtro solar que los de piel negra, principalmente en verano (p=0,001, y solían reaplicar el producto (p=0,04. Hubo asociación positiva entre ingresos familiares altos y uso de filtro solar (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate parental care of their children's skin by using sunscreen and physical sun protection methods. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with preschool children in Tubarão, Southern Brazil. Children's parents or caregivers from randomly selected private and public schools were recruited to participate in the study, with the permission of the school directors. A self-report questionnaire was administered to the parents. The tool included data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, use of sunscreen and physical barriers for sun protection, and timing of sun exposition. Pearson's chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to examine associations between the variables of interest, being significant p<0,05. RESULTS: 361 children were studied and 228 (63.2% of them attended public schools. Skin color was predominantly white (78.8%. Of the total, 16 (4.4% used sunscreen every day and year-round, and 253 (70.1% were under physical sun protection. White-skinned children used more sunscreen than dark-skinned ones, especially in the summer (p=0.001, and they were more prone to reapply the product (p=0.04. High household income showed a positive association with daily use of sunscreen (p<0.001. Sunscreen reapplication was also associated with children attending private schools (p=0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed that the use of sunscreen among preschoolers was incorrect and insufficient.

  18. Is an ecosystem services-based approach developed for setting specific protection goals for plant protection products applicable to other chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Lorraine; Jackson, Mathew; Whale, Graham; Brown, A Ross; Hamer, Mick; Solga, Andreas; Kabouw, Patrick; Woods, Richard; Marshall, Stuart

    2017-02-15

    Clearly defined protection goals specifying what to protect, where and when, are required for designing scientifically sound risk assessments and effective risk management of chemicals. Environmental protection goals specified in EU legislation are defined in general terms, resulting in uncertainty in how to achieve them. In 2010, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a framework to identify more specific protection goals based on ecosystem services potentially affected by plant protection products. But how applicable is this framework to chemicals with different emission scenarios and receptor ecosystems? Four case studies used to address this question were: (i) oil refinery waste water exposure in estuarine environments; (ii) oil dispersant exposure in aquatic environments; (iii) down the drain chemicals exposure in a wide range of ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic); (iv) persistent organic pollutant exposure in remote (pristine) Arctic environments. A four-step process was followed to identify ecosystems and services potentially impacted by chemical emissions and to define specific protection goals. Case studies demonstrated that, in principle, the ecosystem services concept and the EFSA framework can be applied to derive specific protection goals for a broad range of chemical exposure scenarios. By identifying key habitats and ecosystem services of concern, the approach offers the potential for greater spatial and temporal resolution, together with increased environmental relevance, in chemical risk assessments. With modifications including improved clarity on terminology/definitions and further development/refinement of the key concepts, we believe the principles of the EFSA framework could provide a methodical approach to the identification and prioritization of ecosystems, ecosystem services and the service providing units that are most at risk from chemical exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. What is the sun's real potential?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joliot, P.

    2009-01-01

    The sun has colossal energy potential, yet it is barely exploited. It radiates 10,000 times more energy than man now uses. Plants only recover one thousandth of this immense energy source. A closer look at the potential of processes for using solar energy, from photovoltaics to biofuels and biomass to the 'promise' of artificial photosynthesis The sun represents an inexhaustible source of energy. It is the well from which most of the energy sources available on the earth's surface spring, excepting nuclear and geothermal energy. Among the methods capable of recovering solar energy directly, three of them are currently in use: - Producing hot water with solar collectors; - High-temperature thermal power plants (1,000 deg.C or more); - Photovoltaics. Photovoltaic electricity already represents a significant source of energy in areas with low population density. Generating such power can also help meet the basic needs of poor countries. The last two methods nevertheless require a means for storing the energy produced, a function provided by the hot water tank in the first method. What about photosynthetic reactions that convert solar energy into chemical energy? Photosynthesis not only synthesizes organic products, it also recycles carbon dioxide and regenerates oxygen, all of which are vital to maintaining life on earth. We currently expect to produce renewable energy - mainly biofuels - by converting biomass produced by photosynthesis. Plants generally store less than 1% of the sun's energy in their organic matter. This feeble energy balance can become negative when the energy spent for sowing, harvesting and processing is taken into account, especially if only a fraction of the organic matter is actually collected, as in the case of corn or rapeseed oil. The substantial amount of land and water needed to produce large quantities of biofuels would put too much strain on food crops, especially in light of the large and ever growing numbers of people suffering from

  20. Effect of feeding rumen-protected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Mateus Z; Baez, Giovanni M; Garcia-Guerra, Alvaro; Lobos, Nelson E; Guenther, Jerry N; Trevisol, Eduardo; Luchini, Daniel; Shaver, Randy D; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of daily top-dressing (individually feeding on the top of the total mixed ration) with rumen-protected methionine (RPM) from 30 ± 3 until 126 ± 3 Days in milk on productive and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows. A total of 309 lactating dairy Holstein cows (138 primiparous and 171 multiparous) were randomly assigned to treatment diets containing either RPM (21.2 g of RPM + 38.8 g of dried distillers grain; 2.34% Methionine [Met] of metabolizable protein [MP]) or Control (CON; 60 g of dried distillers grain; 1.87% Met of MP). Plasma amino acids were evaluated at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and near pregnancy diagnosis. Milk production and milk composition were evaluated monthly. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Day 28 (by Pregnancy-specific protein B [PSPB]), 32, 47, and 61 (by ultrasound) and sizes of embryonic and amniotic vesicle were determined by ultrasound on Day 33 after AI. Feeding RPM increased plasma Met at 6, 9, 12, and 18 hours after top-dressing with a peak at 12 hours (52.4 vs 26.0 μM; P maintenance in multiparous cows. Further studies are needed to confirm these responses and understand the biological mechanisms that underlie these responses as well as the timing and concentrations of circulating Met that are needed to produce this effect.

  1. A dynamic model to assess tradeoffs in power production and riverine ecosystem protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J

    2013-06-01

    Major strategic planning decisions loom as society aims to balance energy security, economic development and environmental protection. To achieve such balance, decisions involving the so-called water-energy nexus must necessarily embrace a regional multi-power plant perspective. We present here the Thermoelectric Power & Thermal Pollution Model (TP2M), a simulation model that simultaneously quantifies thermal pollution of rivers and estimates efficiency losses in electricity generation as a result of fluctuating intake temperatures and river flows typically encountered across the temperate zone. We demonstrate the model's theoretical framework by carrying out sensitivity tests based on energy, physical and environmental settings. We simulate a series of five thermoelectric plants aligned along a hypothetical river, where we find that warm ambient temperatures, acting both as a physical constraint and as a trigger for regulatory limits on plant operations directly reduce electricity generation. As expected, environmental regulation aimed at reducing thermal loads at a single plant reduces power production at that plant, but ironically can improve the net electricity output from multiple plants when they are optimally co-managed. On the technology management side, high efficiency can be achieved through the use of natural gas combined cycle plants, which can raise the overall efficiency of the aging population of plants, including that of coal. Tradeoff analysis clearly shows the benefit of attaining such high efficiencies, in terms of both limiting thermal loads that preserve ecosystem services and increasing electricity production that benefits economic development.

  2. Gain-Framed Messages Do Not Motivate Sun Protection: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Trials Comparing Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Appeals for Promoting Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Daniel J.; Wu, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain—with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage. PMID:22829794

  3. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  4. Do historical production practices and culinary heritages really matter? Food with protected geographical indications in Japan and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Gugerell

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that our four GI cases do not represent “museums of production” or overly fixed perceptions of history. However, the collective action of the producer group has resulted in dynamic local cultivation practices without restricting innovation. The GI status has rather resulted in the protection of local farmers' collective action and old varieties than in the protection of old production methods.

  5. Shortcomings of existing systems for registration and legal protection of software products and possible ways to overcome them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapidevskiy, A. V.; Petrov, A. S.; Zhmud, V. A.; Sherubneva, I. G.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reveals the shortcomings of the existing system of registration and legal protection of software products. The system has too many disadvantages and shortcomings. Explanatory examples are given. Possible ways of overcoming these shortcomings are discussed. The paper also gives possible prospects for the use of new digital technologies. Also in the paper, the information is provided about the modern software components for protecting intellectual property rights of State corporations

  6. Sun damage in ultraviolet photographs correlates with phenotypic melanoma risk factors in 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Ryan G; Asdigian, Nancy L; Aalborg, Jenny; Gonzalez, Victoria; Box, Neil F; Huff, Laura S; Barón, Anna E; Morelli, Joseph G; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Crane, Lori A; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2012-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photography has been used to motivate sun safety in behavioral interventions. The relationship between sun damage shown in UV photographs and melanoma risk has not been systematically investigated. To examine the relationship between severity of sun damage in UV photographs and phenotypic melanoma risk factors in children. UV, standard visible and cross-polarized photographs were recorded for 585 children. Computer software quantified sun damage. Full-body nevus counts, skin color by colorimetry, facial freckling, hair and eye color were collected in skin examinations. Demographic data were collected in telephone interviews of parents. Among 12-year-old children, sun damage shown in UV photographs correlated with phenotypic melanoma risk factors. Sun damage was greatest for children who were non-Hispanic white and those who had red hair, blue eyes, increased facial freckling, light skin and greater number of nevi (all P values photographs. Freckling was the strongest predictor of sun damage in visible and UV photographs. All other phenotypic melanoma risk factors were also predictors for the UV photographs. Differences in software algorithms used to score the photographs could produce different results. UV photographs portray more sun damage in children with higher risk for melanoma based on phenotype. Therefore sun protection interventions targeting those with greater sun damage on UV photographs will target those at higher melanoma risk. This study establishes reference ranges dermatologists can use to assess sun damage in their pediatric patients. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Sun - From the star to domestic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    Considered as a star and a deity, for a long period of time the Sun was thought to be another planet, whereas the word 'star' was reserved for all the brilliant points of light in the night sky. The Sun's status as a star in the sense of 'an astral body producing and emitting energy' was firmly established only at the beginning of the 20. century. Today astrophysicists are revealing more and more secrets of the fusion burning region located in its core. It is thanks to the Sun that life has appeared and evolved on Earth; it controls the cycle of 'For the last 4.6 million years the Sun has being providing us with light and heat. Today it is man's ambition to control this energy source'. The seasons and provides us with heat and light. But what exactly is the nature and origin of this prodigious energy source, with which man attempts to provide warmth and produce electricity? What is happening in this gigantic ball of fire, impossible to observe without protective glasses? And finally, how long will it continue to shine? Questions such as these took many centuries to be solved and will continue to be the subject of research for a long time to come. (authors)

  8. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cheap two axis sun following device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.; Georgiev, A.; Boudinov, H.

    2005-01-01

    A sun following system was constructed and tested. The tracker gives the possibility for automatic measuring of direct solar radiation with a phetylureum. The mechanism is operated by a digital program in the control system, situated separately from the mechanical part. The position of the sun is calculated, and the pointing errors appearing during its daily work are stored for later analysis. Additionally, in the active operation mode, the tracker uses the signal of a sun detecting linear sensor to control the pointing. Two stepper motors move the instrument platform, keeping the sun's beam at the center of the sensor. The mechanism was created at the Laboratory 'Evaluation Solar' of the Technical University Faradaic Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso, Chile. The experiments show good results. The described sun tracker gives similar results as the Swiss sun tracker INTRA at a very much lower price

  10. Application of Synthetic Mineral Alloys as Materials for Bulletproof Vests and Products for Different Objects Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ignatova.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Authors study ballistic properties of the material which has never been used for impact protection and the presented results prove that synthetic mineral alloys belong to the field of bulletproof ballistic protection and particularly to the means of objects’ protection from kinetic threats. Although the material has been described in connection with such specific embodiments as SVD and a cumulative jet, it is evident that many alternatives and modifications of their application for various protective articles are possible.

  11. SUN1 splice variants, SUN1_888, SUN1_785, and predominant SUN1_916, variably function in directional cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka, Yu; Imaizumi, Hiromasa; Imada, Junko; Katahira, Jun; Matsuura, Nariaki; Hieda, Miki

    2016-01-01

    The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relat...

  12. The shivering sun opens its heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, D.

    1976-01-01

    Recent discoveries, by various workers, of global oscillations of the Sun are summarised. The two major ways in which the Sun can vibrate, as a standing acoustic wave and as a standing gravity wave, are discussed. The recently discovered oscillations provide a new rich class of data with which to test theoretical models of the internal structure of the Sun. The implications of these new data with reference to solar models are considered. (U.K.)

  13. 78 FR 43226 - Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... effort will result in an integrated visitor and transportation management plan for the Going-to-the Sun... sustainability of the park's shuttle system, management of visitor use, and congestion and protection of natural...] Going-to-the-Sun Road Corridor Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National Park...

  14. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among...... who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25-2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing...

  15. 21 CFR 349.65 - Labeling of ophthalmic emollient drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product contains the established name of the drug(s), if any, and identifies the product as a “lubricant... the eye or to exposure to wind or sun.” (3) “For use as a protectant against further irritation or to...

  16. 21 CFR 349.60 - Labeling of ophthalmic demulcent drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product contains the established name of the drug(s), if any, and identifies the product as a “lubricant... exposure to wind or sun.” (3) “For use as a protectant against further irritation or to relieve dryness of...

  17. A randomised control crossover trial of a theory based intervention to improve sun-safe and healthy behaviours in construction workers: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioi, Amanda; Wendelboe-Nelson, Charlotte; Cowan, Sue; Cowie, Hilary; Rashid, Shahzad; Ritchie, Peter; Cherrie, Mark; Lansdown, Terry C; Cherrie, John W

    2018-02-15

    Exposure to sunlight can have both positive and negative health impacts. Excessive exposure to ultra-violet (UV) radiation from the sun can cause skin cancer, however insufficient exposure to sunlight has a detrimental effect on production of Vitamin D. In the construction industry there are onsite proactive behaviours for safety, but sun-safety remains a low priority. There is limited research on understanding the barriers to adopting sun-safe behaviours and the association this may have with Vitamin D production. This paper reports a protocol for an intervention study, using text messaging in combination with a supportive smartphone App. The intervention aims to both reduce UV exposure during months with higher UV levels and promote appropriate dietary changes to boost Vitamin D levels during months with low UV levels. Approximately 60 construction workers will be recruited across the United Kingdom. A randomised control crossover trial (RCCT) will be used to test the intervention, with randomisation at site level - i.e. participants will receive both the control (no text messages or supportive App support) and intervention (daily text messages and supportive App). Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) the intervention focuses on supporting sun-safety and healthy dietary decisions in relation to Vitamin D intake. The intervention emphasises cultivating the perception of normative support in the workplace, increasing awareness of control and self-efficacy in taking sun-protective behaviours, making healthier eating choices to boost Vitamin D, and tackling stigmas attached to image and group norms. Each study epoch will last 21 days with intervention text messages delivered on workdays only. The supportive App will provide supplementary information about sun protective behaviours and healthy dietary choices. The primary outcome measure is 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D [25(OH)D] level (obtained using blood spot sampling), which will be taken pre and post control and

  18. S1 guideline on occupational skin products: protective creams, skin cleansers, skin care products (ICD 10: L23, L24)--short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas L; Drexler, Hans; Elsner, Peter; John, Swen Malte; Schliemann, Sibylle

    2015-06-01

    Job-related hand dermatitis heads up the list of reported occupational diseases. So-called skin products - understood to mean protective creams, skin cleansers and skin care products - are used for the primary and secondary prevention of job- related hand dermatitis. In the interests of evidence-based medicine, the only preventive measures and/or occupational skin products that should be used are those whose potential uses and efficacy are underpinned by scientific research. To this end, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Berufs- und Umweltdermatologie e.V. (Working Group for Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, ABD) of the DDG (German Dermatological Society) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin (German Society for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, DGAUM) have summed up the latest scientific findings and recommendations in the updated guideline. The benefit of the combined application of protective creams and skin care products in the primary and secondary prevention of work-related contact dermatitis has been widely confirmed by recent clinical-epidemiological studies. The guideline clearly explains the necessity of demonstrating the efficacy of protective creams and cleansing products by means of in vivo methods in the sense of repetitive applications. Transferable standardised testing systems designed to examine the irritation potential and thus the compatibility of occupational skin cleansers and the reduction of irritation by protective skin creams have now been developed and validated by multicentre studies for skin protection creams and cleansers. The status of the current assessment of the safety of occupational skin products is also summarised. © 2015 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  19. Risk assessment considerations for plant protection products and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Ufer, Andreas; Hamer, Mick; Sowig, Peter; Demmig, Sandra; Dechet, Friedrich

    2018-04-28

    Some amphibians occur in agricultural landscapes during certain periods of their life cycle and consequently might be exposed to plant protection products (PPPs). While the sensitivity of aquatic life-stages is considered to be covered by the standard assessment for aquatic organisms (especially fish), the situation is less clear for terrestrial amphibian life-stages. In this paper, considerations are presented on how a risk assessment for PPPs and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians could be conducted. It discusses available information concerning the toxicity of PPPs to terrestrial amphibians, and their potential exposure to PPPs in consideration of aspects of amphibian biology. The emphasis is on avoiding additional vertebrate testing as much as possible by using exposure-driven approaches and by making use of existing vertebrate toxicity data, where appropriate. Options for toxicity testing and risk assessment are presented in a flowchart as a tiered approach, progressing from a non-testing approach, to simple worst-case laboratory testing, to extended laboratory testing, to semi-field enclosure tests and ultimately to full-scale field testing and monitoring. Suggestions are made for triggers to progress to higher tiers. Also, mitigation options to reduce the potential for exposure of terrestrial life-stages of amphibians to PPPs, if a risk were identified, are discussed. Finally, remaining uncertainties and research needs are considered by proposing a way forward (road map) for generating additional information to inform terrestrial amphibian risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatocyte growth factor protects human endothelial cells against advanced glycation end products-induced apoposis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yijun; Wang Jiahe; Zhang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form by a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and biological proteins, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed AGEs effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, we investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an anti-apoptotic factor for endothelial cells, prevents AGEs-induced apoptosis of HUVECs. HUVECs were treated with AGEs in the presence or absence of HGF. Treatment of HUVECs with AGEs changed cell morphology, decreased cell viability, and induced DNA fragmentation, leading to apoptosis. Apoptosis was induced by AGEs in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. AGEs markedly elevated Bax and decreased NF-κB, but not Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, AGEs significantly inhibited cell growth through a pro-apoptotic action involving caspase-3 and -9 activations in HUVECs. Most importantly, pretreatment with HGF protected against AGEs-induced cytotoxicity in the endothelial cells. HGF significantly promoted the expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB, while decreasing the activities of caspase-3 and -9 without affecting Bax level. Our data suggest that AGEs induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. HGF effectively attenuate AGEs-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These findings provide new perspectives in the role of HGF in cardiovascular disease

  1. Protective properties of wine products and the role of high performance liquid chromatography in the study of these properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulyanova, E V; Larionov, O G; Revina, A A; Andrievskaya, D V; Urusova, L M; Fenin, A A

    2013-01-01

    Data on the biologically active substances present in wines and wine products, the methods of their determination, and changes under chemical, radiation and other types of action are generalized. The role of high performance liquid chromatography in the studies of the protective properties of wines is demonstrated. Particular attention is devoted to problems of counterfeiting of wine products and the possibility to reveal it by using amperometric determination of the antioxidant activity. The bibliography includes 117 references

  2. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SUPERVISION OF PERPETRATORS OF EFFORT IN PRODUCING QUALITY PRODUCTS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Haris

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was explain how the substance of the law against the perpetrators of the oversight arrangements of effort in producing quality products contained in the legislation in the field of consumer protection, explain how the implementation of surveillance against perpetrators of effort in producing quality products, explain how the form of the application of the sanctions for the perpetrators of the attempt that violates the provisions of the legislation in making products that are not qualified. Research conducted in the framework of this dissertation outlines is of type socio-juridical, because in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of regulations, manual and electronic law library, relevant research results in the field of law of particular problems in the field of consumer protection and other written materials, as well as researching various legal facts about the implementation of surveillance against perpetrators of effort in producing quality products and its implications for consumer protection This is the case, the form of the application sanctions. The results showed that 1. The substance of the law against the perpetrators of the oversight arrangements of effort in producing quality products that are found in a wide range of legislation in the field of consumer protection is basically adequate. 2. surveillance of implementation against the perpetrators of the work done by the three main pillars of supervision: the Government, communities and non-governmental Consumer Protection Agency (LPKSM is not yet effective due to still having a lot of constraints. 3. The form of the application of the sanctions for the perpetrators of the attempt that violated regulations in making a quality product, it is still better to put forward sanctions administrative compared to criminal sanctions and civil penalties.

  3. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Ockleford, Colin; Adriaanse, Paulien

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks...... exposure routes for in-soil organisms and the potential direct and indirect effects is proposed. In order to address species recovery and long-term impacts of PPPs, the use of population models is also proposed....... and scientific developments. Proposals are made for specific protection goals for in-soil organisms being key drivers for relevant ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes such as nutrient cycling, soil structure, pest control and biodiversity. Considering the time-scales and biological processes related...

  4. New risk indicator approach for Operators, Workers, Bystanders and Residents for a sustainable use of plant protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacchettini, G.; Calliera, M.; Marchis, A.; Glass, R.; Ellis, C.B.; Machera, K.; Gerritsen-Ebben, R.; Spanoghe, P.; Capri, E.

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the European Union adopted the Directive on Sustainable Use of pesticides (SUD, Directive 2009/128/EC) establishing a framework for achieving a sustainable use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs) through reducing the risks and impacts of PPP use on human health and the environment,

  5. Leaching of plant protection products to field ditches in the Netherlands : development of a drainpipe scenario for arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiktak, A.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Hendriks, R.F.A.; Linden, van der A.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In the current Dutch authorisation procedure for calculating exposure of surface water organisms to plant protection products, deposition of drift is considered to be the only source. Drainage from agriclutural fields is being ignored. Because drainage may be an important source for exposure of

  6. EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, G.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Clook, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Guidance Document is intended to provide guidance for notifiers and authorities in the context of the review of plant protection products (PPPs) and their active substances under Regulation (EC) 1107/2009. The scientific opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of plant

  7. Scenarios for exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands : part 1: Field crops and downward spraying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiktak, A.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Griethuysen, van C.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Linders, J.B.H.J.; Linden, van der A.M.A.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current Dutch authorisation procedure for calculating the exposure of surface water organisms to plant protection products, drift deposition is considered to be the only source for exposure of surface water organisms. Although drift can still be considered the most important source,

  8. Coherent states related with SU(N) and SU(N,1) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Shelepin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of coherent state (CS) for symmetric presentations of groups SU(N) and SU(N,1) is plotted, its properties being investigated. Evolution of CS is considered. Relation between CS of groups SU(N) and Glauber is ascertained

  9. Does physical activity increase the risk of unsafe sun exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Bright, Margaret; Knight, Libby; Perina, Heather; Vardon, Paul; Harper, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of self-reported participation in physical activity are encouraging and beneficial for health overall. However, the implications for sun safety need to be considered, particularly in Australia, which has the highest incidence of skin cancer in the world. This study investigated the relationship between physical activity and sunburn to determine if there is a need for integration of sun safety in physical activity promotion. During the 2009/10 southern hemisphere summer, 7802 adults aged 18 to 74 years participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview survey which included a range of self-reported health measures including physical activity, sunburn, skin type, sun protection behaviour and demographic questions. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was undertaken to estimate the association between physical activity and sunburn. Those who reported doing any level of physical activity were significantly more likely to report having experienced sunburn in the past 12 months and on the last weekend, compared with those who did none, with the strongest association among those who undertook 7 hours or more. Each hour of physical activity was associated with a modest increase in the odds of experiencing sunburn in the previous 12 months (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.010-1.037) and weekend (OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.023-1.065), after adjusting for potential confounding variables. This study highlights the need for sun protection to be given more prominence in physical activity promotion in order to optimise health benefits without increasing the prevalence of sunburn and associated skin cancer risk.

  10. NURSING STUDENTSPERCEPTIONS ABOUTRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUN EXPOSURE AND SKIN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Azevedo Morégula

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the behavioral profile and the level of knowledge that nursing students have about sun exposure and protective measures that prevent skin cancer and damage due to R-UV. A descriptive quantitative study was conducted from the answers of a questionnaire applied to 72 students, undergraduate nursing course of the State University of Santa Cruz. The issues considered include the perception of students about a tanned body, the use of sunscreen and use of other protective measures and knowledge about UVIndex. Most reported using sunscreen (94.3% with SPF higher than 15 (87.5%, however, do not use correctly these protectors. As for other protective measures, the most adopted by these students was sunglasses (43.1%. Regarding the perception of the appearance of a tanned body, 55.6% considered it beautiful and 26.4% considered it beautiful and healthy, about the know l edge about UV Index, 51.4% declared to know the meaning, however, there is no information about the level of know l edge. Therefore, this study reveals that the level of knowledge and the adoption of protective measures against skin cancer and other the harmful effects of the sun are still low. It shows the necessity to include this issue in courses of undergraduate nursing programs.

  11. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  12. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  13. Green conscience: out with toxic cocktails, in with products and services to protect land, water, air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, M.

    1999-01-01

    The growing environmental consciousness, the threat of litigation and the realization that it costs less to do oil field work properly from the start than to fix mistakes later at astronomical costs, has speeded up the development of environmentally sound practices in the oil and gas industry. Environmentally 'neutral' drilling muds, cleaner flaring of 'solution' gas associated with oil, reseeding disturbed land with native grasses, and other previously uncommon practices witnessed in recent times add up to a significantly improved environmental performance of the oil and natural gas industry, a veritable 'greening' of the oil patch. Attitudes have changed from 'how do we clean up a spill when it happens' to 'how do we prevent a spill from happening'. The fear of litigation is still present, especially as a result of the new Environmental Protection Enhancement Act, but industry insiders claim that the transition to environmental consciousness began even before the Act came into being. Companies recognized that it it makes good business and economic sense to be environmentally responsible. The evolution of this new spirit of environmental awareness, and examples of the changes it has wrought in the composition of drilling muds, in drastically reducing the toxic substances and the visual and noise pollution problems of solution gas flaring, and in cleaning up land surface disturbances are described. Other major changes such as spraying topsoil piles with a neutral latex product to keep it from blowing away, steam cleaning all heavy equipment before each move to ensure that it does not transfer weeds to clean areas, treatment of contaminated sands from heavy oil projects in bacteria-laden aeration units, fertilizing and seeding three or four times a summer for two or three years until the hydrocarbon content of the soil is down to an acceptable level, are now reported to be common practices

  14. Radiological protection problems associated with parasitic X-ray emission from electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlinger, G.; Anger, K.; Billaudelle, H.; Ehlers, J.; Fendt, H.W.; Festag, J.G.; Haug, R.; Herrmann, K.H.; Klein, H.; Kossel, F.; Krebs, A.; Lauterbach, U.; Leibssle, H. Fa.; Lustig, H.; Maushart, R.; Milde, K.G.; Peter, F.; Ritter, J.; Riecke, W.D.; Rosenbaum, O.; Schiekel, M. Fa.; Schleich, F.; Schmidt, Th.; Speyer, K.; Teschke, L.; Tzschaschel, R.; Wagner, H.; Wehner, G.; Wendel, W.; Zehender, E.; Aiginoer, H.; Zakovsky, J.; Blom, G.; De backer, J.; Delhove, J.; Hublet, P.; Lejeune, P.; Misslin, A.; Nuyts, R.; Popovitch, I.; Hjardemaal, O.; Oehlenschlaeger, N.; Gonzalez Del Campo, R.; Becker, S.; Elder, R.L.; Matthews, J.D.; Sheldon, J.L.; Viitaniemi, T.J.; Aouizerate, H.; Aymeric, H.; Barthe, J.; Bermann, F.; Berthaud, Madeleine; Blanc, D.; Bory, P.; Bourrieau, J.; Bouville, A.; Bovagne, H.; Bresson, G.; Casanovas, J.; Cassanhiol, E.; Cassanhiol, E.; Chambragne, J.; Chanteur, J.; Choquet, R.; Cluchet, J.; Commanay, L.; Commanay, P.; Cros, J.L.; Dana, M.; Danna, J.; Decossas, J.L.; Delpla, M.; Destame, D.; Dieval, M.; Drouet, J.; Dubec, A.; Galy, J.; Garnier, A.; Gouerne, R.; Gras, M.; Grob, R.; Guelfucci, J.P.; Guevenoux, J.; Guichardiere, R.; Hamard, J.; Hardy, J.; Haym, J.P.; Hionette, J.; Jacob, G.; Lavie, J.M.; Levy, L.; Logre, P.; Manquene, J.; Martin, H.; Mathieu, J.; Odievre, Monique; Oustrin, J.; Palluel, P.; Patau, J.P.; Penotet, H.; Perrot, A.; Petel, M.; Peyrelavigne, A.; Peyrelavigne, Monique; Provincial, M.; Raedersdorff, J.; Renard, Cl.; Roche, L.; Roche, R.; Schaeffer, R.; Soubiran, J.; Soudain, G.; Stern, J.C.; Terrissol, M.; Tixier, M.; Vialettes, H.; Wauquier, J.M.; Casbolt, P.N.; Ciuciura, A.; Goodhew, E.G.; Jones, I.S.; O'riordan, M.C.; Speight, D.L.; Ward, P.R.; Williams, K.F.; Biro, T.; Vago, G.; Rosental, N.; Argiero, L.; Belli, M.; Boggio, M.; Carfi, N.; Garretti, S.; Loppa, A.; Parisi, A.; Susanna, A.; Ogawa, I.; Koren, K.; Aten, J.B.Th.; Barendsen, G.W.; Den Boer, A.M.; De Pijper, M.A.; Hekman, H.; Julius, H.W.; Strackee, L.; Van daatselaar, G.; Lorentzon, L.; Hadzi-Pealo, M.; Jeremio, M.; Stevanovio, Marija; Oosterkamp, W.J.; Shalmon, E.; Doyen, Diana; Goetschalkx, J.; Puel, R.

    1971-03-01

    During the past few decades there has been an increase in the production of many types of electronic devices such as rectifying tubes, thyratrons, klystrons, magnetrons, etc., containing elements capable of emitting undesirable X-radiation. These components are not only found in equipment used in industry and research laboratories, but also in devices of a more domestic nature, such as colour television sets, usually low in energy, this radiation may nevertheless constitute a health hazard for many users of such devices and may affect not only workers but even the population as a whole. The Commission of the European Communities (Euratom) felt it was desirable to review the state of the art with regard to problems of radiological protection arising in the manufacture, repair and use of such electronic equipment and to seek suitable technical and administrative solutions. In conjunction with the Centre Physique Atomique et Nucleaire of the Paul Sabatier University, the Commission held an International Symposium in Toulouse on 3-6 November 1970, which was attended by manufacturers of electronic equipment, officials of technical inspection bodies and representatives of public health and occupational safety authorities. The following items were discussed: classification and identification of sources of parasitic X-rays, methods of measuring soft X-rays, biological aspects of exposure to soft X-rays, performance standards and methods for testing and inspecting electronic equipment. The Symposium was followed attentively by 180 delegates from 21 countries and international organizations, and was concluded by a round table discussion at which the chairmen of the different sessions, assisted by experts, drew conclusions from their sessions and from the discussions, pointing up the problems which needed most urgently to be studied. This document contains the texts, in their original versions, of the papers presented at the meetings, together with the minutes of the

  15. The Sun as you never saw it before

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that

  16. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  17. Modeling diffuse sources of surface water contamination with plant protection products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, Sandra; Bock, Michael; Böhner, Jürgen; Lembrich, David

    2015-04-01

    Entries of chemical pollutants in surface waters are a serious environmental problem. Among water pollutants plant protection products (ppp) from farming practice are of major concern not only for water suppliers and environmental agencies, but also for farmers and industrial manufacturers. Lost chemicals no longer fulfill their original purpose on the field, but lead to severe damage of the environment and surface waters. Besides point-source inputs of chemical pollutants, the diffuse-source inputs from agricultural procedures play an important and not yet sufficiently studied role concerning water quality. The two most important factors for diffuse inputs are erosion and runoff. The latter usually occurs before erosion begins, and is thus often not visible in hindsight. Only if it has come to erosion, it is obvious to expect runoff in foresight at this area, too. In addition to numerous erosion models, there are also few applications to model runoff processes available. However, these conventional models utilize approximations of catchment parameters based on long-term average values or theoretically calculated concentration peaks which can only provide indications to relative amounts. Our study aims to develop and validate a simplified spatially-explicit dynamic model with high spatiotemporal resolution that enables to measure current and forecast runoff potential not only at catchment scale but field-differentiated. This method allows very precise estimations of runoff risks and supports risk reduction measures to be targeted before fields are treated. By focusing on water pathways occurring on arable land, targeted risk reduction measures like buffer strips at certain points and adapted ppp use can be taken early and pollution of rivers and other surface waters through transported pesticides, fertilizers and their products could be nearly avoided or largely minimized. Using a SAGA-based physical-parametric modeling approach, major factors influencing runoff

  18. Preliminary scoping safety analyses of the limiting design basis protected accidents for the Fast Flux Test Facility tritium production core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-l computer code is used to perform a series of analyses for the limiting protected design basis transient events given a representative tritium and medical isotope production core design proposed for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The FFTF tritium and isotope production mission will require a different core loading which features higher enrichment fuel, tritium targets, and medical isotope production assemblies. Changes in several key core parameters, such as the Doppler coefficient and delayed neutron fraction will affect the transient response of the reactor. Both reactivity insertion and reduction of heat removal events were analyzed. The analysis methods and modeling assumptions are described. Results of the analyses and comparison against fuel pin performance criteria are presented to provide quantification that the plant protection system is adequate to maintain the necessary safety margins and assure cladding integrity

  19. Alkali production associated with malolactic fermentation by oral streptococci and protection against acid, oxidative, or starvation damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiangyun; Baldeck, Jeremiah D; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Quivey, Robert G; Marquis, Robert E

    2010-07-01

    Alkali production by oral streptococci is considered important for dental plaque ecology and caries moderation. Recently, malolactic fermentation (MLF) was identified as a major system for alkali production by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. Our major objectives in the work described in this paper were to further define the physiology and genetics of MLF of oral streptococci and its roles in protection against metabolic stress damage. L-Malic acid was rapidly fermented to L-lactic acid and CO(2) by induced cells of wild-type S. mutans, but not by deletion mutants for mleS (malolactic enzyme) or mleP (malate permease). Mutants for mleR (the contiguous regulator gene) had intermediate capacities for MLF. Loss of capacity to catalyze MLF resulted in loss of capacity for protection against lethal acidification. MLF was also found to be protective against oxidative and starvation damage. The capacity of S. mutans to produce alkali from malate was greater than its capacity to produce acid from glycolysis at low pH values of 4 or 5. MLF acted additively with the arginine deiminase system for alkali production by Streptococcus sanguinis, but not with urease of Streptococcus salivarius. Malolactic fermentation is clearly a major process for alkali generation by oral streptococci and for protection against environmental stresses.

  20. Alkali production associated with malolactic fermentation by oral streptococci and protection against acid, oxidative, or starvation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiangyun; Baldeck, Jeremiah D.; Nguyen, Phuong T.M.; Quivey, Robert G.; Marquis, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Alkali production by oral streptococci is considered important for dental plaque ecology and caries moderation. Recently, malolactic fermentation (MLF) was identified as a major system for alkali production by oral streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans. Our major objectives in the work described in this paper were to further define the physiology and genetics of MLF of oral streptococci and its roles in protection against metabolic stress damage. l-Malic acid was rapidly fermented to l-lactic acid and CO2 by induced cells of wild-type S. mutans, but not by deletion mutants for mleS (malolactic enzyme) or mleP (malate permease). Mutants for mleR (the contiguous regulator gene) had intermediate capacities for MLF. Loss of capacity to catalyze MLF resulted in loss of capacity for protection against lethal acidification. MLF was also found to be protective against oxidative and starvation damage. The capacity of S. mutans to produce alkali from malate was greater than its capacity to produce acid from glycolysis at low pH values of 4 or 5. MLF acted additively with the arginine deiminase system for alkali production by Streptococcus sanguinis, but not with urease of Streptococcus salivarius. Malolactic fermentation is clearly a major process for alkali generation by oral streptococci and for protection against environmental stresses. PMID:20651853