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Sample records for sun protection long-term

  1. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun exposure. The start of summer is when UV rays can cause the most skin damage. Use sun protection, even on cloudy days. Clouds and haze don't protect you from the sun. Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas ...

  2. Ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum: long term follow-up highlights the role of DNA repair in protection from sun damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian P; Thompson, Amy H; Bishop, Rachel J; Clayton, Janine A; Chan, Chi-Chao; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Zein, Wadih M; Tamura, Deborah; Khan, Sikandar G.; Ueda, Takahiro; Boyle, Jennifer; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Imoto, Kyoko; Inui, Hiroki; Moriwaki, Shin-Ichi; Emmert, Steffen; Iliff, Nicholas T.; Bradford, Porcia; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2013-01-01

    Objective Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in DNA repair genes. Clinical manifestations of XP include mild to extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation resulting in inflammation and neoplasia in sun-exposed areas of the skin, mucous membranes, and ocular surfaces. This report describes the ocular manifestations of XP in patients systematically evaluated in the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. Design Retrospective Observational Case Series Participants Eighty-seven participants, aged 1.3 to 63.4 years, referred to the National Eye Institute for examination from 1964 to 2011. Eighty-three had XP, 3 had XP/Cockayne Syndrome complex, and 1 had XP/trichothiodystrophy complex. Methods Complete, age- and developmental stage-appropriate ophthalmic examination. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity; eyelid, ocular surface and lens pathology; tear film and tear production measures; and cytological analysis of conjunctival surface swabs. Results Of the 87 patients, 91% had at least one ocular abnormality. The most common abnormalities were conjunctivitis (51%), corneal neovascularization (44%), dry eye (38%), corneal scarring (26%), ectropion (25%), blepharitis (23%), conjunctival melanosis (20%), and cataracts (14%). Thirteen percent of patients had some degree of visual axis impingement and 5% had no light perception in one or both eyes. Ocular surface cancer or a history of ocular surface cancer was present in 10% of patients. Patients with an acute sunburning skin phenotype were less likely to develop conjunctival melanosis and ectropion but more likely to develop neoplastic ocular surface lesions than non-burning patients. Some patients also showed signs of limbal stem cell deficiency. Conclusions Our longitudinal study reports the ocular status of the largest group of XP patients systematically examined at one facility over an extended period of time. Structural eyelid abnormalities, neoplasms of

  3. Aspects of long-term variability in sun and stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skumanich, A.; Eddy, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of long-term solar variability is reviewed, including historical data and the tree-ring record of radiocarbon. Epochs of suppressed activity like the Maunder Minimum are shown to be frequent occurences of the last several thousand years, but without no obvious period of recurrence. Weak evidence exists for the 11-year cycle as early as Medieval times, although with insufficient accuracy to establish long-term phase stability. (orig.)

  4. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  5. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  6. Sun Protection for Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Shafie Pour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ultraviolet exposure results in premature skin aging (photoaging, dyspigmentation, sallow color, textural changes, loss of elasticity, and premalignant actinic keratoses. UVB radiation is mainly responsible for acute damages such as sunburn, and long-term damage including melanoma. Today the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced skin cancer is a major issue worldwide. History of sun exposure and sunburns are the most important behavioral risks. Childhood sun exposure is considered as a substantial risk because a child’s skin has a thinner stratum corneum, lower levels of protective melanin, and a higher surface area to body-mass-ratio. Thus, protection against UVR in childhood is essential. Research has shown that people who have had a sunburn in childhood or were in the sun unprotected are more likely to have skin cancer. In this article, we review the literature to address the protection of children against sun and skin cancer.

  7. Long-term radial-velocity variations of the Sun as a star: The HARPS view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, A. F.; Molaro, P.; Monaco, L.; Haywood, R. D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Stellar radial velocities play a fundamental role in the discovery of extrasolar planets and the measurement of their physical parameters as well as in the study of stellar physical properties. Aims: We investigate the impact of the solar activity on the radial velocity of the Sun using the HARPS spectrograph to obtain measurements that can be directly compared with those acquired in the extrasolar planet search programmes. Methods: We used the Moon, the Galilean satellites, and several asteroids as reflectors to measure the radial velocity of the Sun as a star and correlated this velocity with disc-integrated chromospheric and magnetic indexes of solar activity that are similar to stellar activity indexes. We discuss in detail the systematic effects that affect our measurements and the methods to account for them. Results: We find that the radial velocity of the Sun as a star is positively correlated with the level of its chromospheric activity at ~95 percent significance level. The amplitude of the long-term variation measured in the 2006-2014 period is 4.98 ± 1.44 m/s, which is in good agreement with model predictions. The standard deviation of the residuals obtained by subtracting a linear best fit is 2.82 m/s and is due to the rotation of the reflecting bodies and the intrinsic variability of the Sun on timescales shorter than the activity cycle. A correlation with a lower significance is detected between the radial velocity and the mean absolute value of the line-of-sight photospheric magnetic field flux density. Conclusions: Our results confirm similar correlations found in other late-type main-sequence stars and provide support to the predictions of radial velocity variations induced by stellar activity based on current models.

  8. Long-Term Variability of the Sun in the Context of Solar-Analog Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Ricky

    2018-06-01

    The Sun is the best observed object in astrophysics, but despite this distinction the nature of its well-ordered generation of magnetic field in 11-year activity cycles remains a mystery. In this work, we place the solar cycle in a broader context by examining the long-term variability of solar analog stars within 5% of the solar effective temperature, but varied in rotation rate and metallicity. Emission in the Fraunhofer H & K line cores from singly-ionized calcium in the lower chromosphere is due to magnetic heating, and is a proven proxy for magnetic flux on the Sun. We use Ca H & K observations from the Mount Wilson Observatory HK project, the Lowell Observatory Solar Stellar Spectrograph, and other sources to construct composite activity time series of over 100 years in length for the Sun and up to 50 years for 26 nearby solar analogs. Archival Ca H & K observations of reflected sunlight from the Moon using the Mount Wilson instrument allow us to properly calibrate the solar time series to the S-index scale used in stellar studies. We find the mean solar S-index to be 5–9% lower than previously estimated, and the amplitude of activity to be small compared to active stars in our sample. A detailed look at the young solar analog HD 30495, which rotates 2.3 times faster than the Sun, reveals a large amplitude ~12-year activity cycle and an intermittent short-period variation of 1.7 years, comparable to the solar variability time scales despite its faster rotation. Finally, time series analyses of the solar analog ensemble and a quantitative analysis of results from the literature indicate that truly Sun-like cyclic variability is rare, and that the amplitude of activity over both long and short timescales is linearly proportional to the mean activity. We conclude that the physical conditions conducive to a quasi-periodic magnetic activity cycle like the Sun’s are rare in stars of approximately the solar mass, and that the proper conditions may be restricted

  9. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Ding, W.L.; Huang, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand

  10. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure Anyone working outdoors is exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, even on cloudy ... nausea, and fatigue. In addition to the skin, eyes can become sunburned. Sunburned eyes become red, dry, ...

  11. Long-term coherent periodicities in the mean magnetic field of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.A.; Levitsky, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate periodic variations of the magnetic field of the Sun as a star, the authors have used the mean field measurements made in Crimea, Mt. Wilson, and Stanford observatories; in total N = 5783 daily values were available for the time interval 1968 - 1981. In essence, these data offer a unique possibility to study the Sun as a variable magnetic star. (Auth.)

  12. Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  14. PROTECTION FROM COSMIC RADIATION IN LONG-TERM MANNED SPACEFLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Durante

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current space programs are shifting toward planetary exploration, and in particular towards human missions to the moon and Mars. Space radiation, comprised of energetic protons and heavy nuclei, has been shown to produce distinct biological damage compared to radiation on Earth, leading to large uncertainties in the projection of health risks. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Unfortunately, passive (bulk shielding is currently unable to provide adequate protection, because cosmic rays have very high energy and nuclear fragmentation in the absorbers produce light fragments. Material science could provide new materials with better shielding properties for space radiation. Active (magnetic shielding could be an interesting alternative, pending technical improvements.

  15. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-09-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand-alone solar-powered LED lighting systems. The field test in the particular days shows that the 1A-3P tracking PV can generate 35.8% more electricity than the fixed PV in a partly-cloudy weather with daily-total solar irradiation HT=11.7MJ/m2day, or 35.6% in clear weather with HT=18.5MJ/m2day. This indicates that the present 1A-3P tracking PV can perform very close to a dual-axis continuous tracking PV (Kacira et al., 2004). The long-term outdoor test results have shown that the increase of daily power generation of 1A-3P tracking PV increases with increasing daily-total solar irradiation. The increase of monthly-total power generation for 1A-3P sun tracking PV is between 18.5-28.0%. The total power generation increase in the test period from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, is 23.6% in Taipei (an area of low solar energy resource). The long-term performance of the present 1X-3P tracking PV is shown very close to the 1-axis continuous tracking PV in Taiwan (Chang, 2009). If the 1A-3P tracking PV is used in the area of high solar energy resource with yearly-average HT>17MJ/m2day, the increase of total long-term power generation with respect to fixed PV will be higher than 37.5%. This is very close to that of dual-axis continuous tracking PV. The 1A-3P tracker can be easily mounted on the wall of a building. The cost of the whole tracker is about the same as the regular mounting cost of a conventional rooftop PV system. This means that there is no extra cost for 1A-3P PV mounted on buildings. The 1A-3P PV is quite suitable for building-integrated applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Complete long-term corrosion protection with chemical vapor deposited graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Feng; Camilli, Luca; Wang, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Despite numerous reports regarding the potential of graphene for corrosion protection, examples of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene-based anticorrosive coatings able to provide long-term protection (i.e. several months) of metals have so far been absent. Here, we present a polymer-graphene......Despite numerous reports regarding the potential of graphene for corrosion protection, examples of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene-based anticorrosive coatings able to provide long-term protection (i.e. several months) of metals have so far been absent. Here, we present a polymer......-graphene hybrid coating, comprising two single layers of CVD graphene sandwiched by three layers of polyvinyl butyral, which provides complete corrosion protection of commercial aluminum alloys even after 120 days of exposure to simulated seawater. The essential role played by graphene in the hybrid coating...

  17. Issues in summer safety: a call for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, B

    1999-01-01

    Summer is associated with vacation and time spent in the outdoors. It is also a time when parents and children need to be reminded of the dangers and long-term health effects of being exposed to hazards of the sun. It has been estimated that the regular use of sunscreen during childhood would reduce the lifetime incidence of certain types of skin cancer by 78%. Selecting a sunscreen may be a difficult task. Pediatric nurses and other health care professionals are in a pivotal position to educate both parents and children on the benefits of sun protection and offer information about strategies for enjoying a safe summer.

  18. Analysis on long-term perspectives of sustainable nuclear energy towards global warming protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, M.; Ichimura, E.; Shibata, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Wajima, T.

    1998-01-01

    Study of long-term perspectives of the nuclear power generation was made from the point of views of both CO 2 emission constraints and sustainability of nuclear energy. To this end, STREAM (Semi-empirical TRiple E Analysis Model) program, as a social model, has been developed by Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Hitachi, Ltd. Using this program, long-term world demands of primary and nuclear energy were deduced, in view of the protection against the global warming due to the CO 2 gas accumulation. The inevitable conclusion has been drawn that nuclear energy plays an indispensable role in the reduction of green house effect. Evaluations were then made on conditions that the nuclear power system would be the long-term major sustainable energy source. (author)

  19. Long-term evaluation of orbital dynamics in the Sun-planet system considering axial-tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiari, Majid; Daneshjou, Kamran

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the axial-tilt (obliquity) effect of planets on the motion of planets’ orbiter in prolonged space missions has been investigated in the presence of the Sun gravity. The proposed model is based on non-simplified perturbed dynamic equations of planetary orbiter motion. From a new point of view, in this work, the dynamic equations regarding a disturbing body in elliptic inclined three-dimensional orbit are derived. The accuracy of this non-simplified method is validated with dual-averaged method employed on a generalized Earth-Moon system. It is shown that the neglected short-time oscillations in dual-averaged technique can accumulate and propel to remarkable errors in the prolonged evolution. After validation, the effects of the planet’s axial-tilt on eccentricity, inclination and right ascension of the ascending node of the orbiter are investigated. Moreover, a generalized model is provided to study the effects of third-body inclination and eccentricity on orbit characteristics. It is shown that the planet’s axial-tilt is the key to facilitating some significant changes in orbital elements in long-term mission and short-time oscillations must be considered in accurate prolonged evaluation.

  20. Sun exposure, sun protection and sunburn among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Fioletov, Vitali

    2017-05-17

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and a history of sunburn are important risk factors for skin cancer. Sunburn is more common among men, younger age groups, and people in higher income households. Sun protection measures also vary by sex, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Associations between ambient UVR and sunburn and sun safety measures have not been quantified. A total of 53,130 respondents aged 18 or older answered a Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) module on sun safety, which was administered in six provinces from 2005 to 2014. The module contained questions about sunburn, time in the sun, and sun protection. These respondents were linked to an ambient erythemal UVR dataset representing the June-to-August mean. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine associations between population characteristics, sunburn, sun safety, time in the sun, and ambient UVR. Sunburn was reported by 33% of respondents and was more common among men, younger age groups, people who were not members of visible minorities, residents of higher income households, and individuals who were employed. On a typical summer day, a larger percentage of women than men sought shade and wore sunscreen, whereas a larger percentage of men wore a hat or long pants. As ambient summer UVR increased, women were more likely to apply sunscreen to their face, seek shade, or wear a hat (OR~1.02 to 1.09 per increase of 187 J/m² of erythemally-weighted UVR, or 5.4% of the mean); these associations were not observed among men. Findings related to sunburn and sun protection were similar to those of previous studies. The association between ambient UVR and women's precautionary measures suggests that information about UVR may influence their decision to protect their skin.

  1. Chemical protection against long term effects in mice exposed to supralethal doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisin, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Our results demonstrate that mixtures of radioprotectors increase the degree of protection against the short and the long term effects compared with that obtained with each substance given separately. The most potent mixtures of radioprotectors (AET, MEA, Cyst, GSH, 5-HT) yield for the long term survival a dose reduction factor of 2.1. Pulmonary lesions are most often the cause of death in protected mice irradiated with 13.5 Gy or more. At the time of death signs of sclerosis and atrophy in several tissues are associated with these lung lesions in most mice and increase with dose and time after exposure. The tissues most affected are the kidney, the alimentary tract, the liver and the lymphoid tissues [fr

  2. Protective effects of long-term lithium administration in a slowly progressive SMA mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, Francesca; Ferrucci, Michela; Ryskalin, Larisa; Fulceri, Federica; Lazzeri, Gloria; Calierno, Maria Teresa; Busceti, Carla L; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of lithium administration to a knock-out double transgenic mouse model (Smn-/-; SMN1A2G+/-; SMN2+/+) of Spinal Muscle Atrophy type III (SMA-III). This model is characterized by very low levels of the survival motor neuron protein, slow disease progression and motor neuron loss, which enables to detect disease-modifying effects at delayed time intervals. Lithium administration attenuates the decrease in motor activity and provides full protection from motor neuron loss occurring in SMA-III mice, throughout the disease course. In addition, lithium prevents motor neuron enlargement and motor neuron heterotopy and suppresses the occurrence of radial-like glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining in the ventral white matter of SMA-III mice. In SMA-III mice long-term lithium administration determines a dramatic increase of survival motor neuron protein levels in the spinal cord. These data demonstrate that long-term lithium administration during a long-lasting motor neuron disorder attenuates behavioural deficit and neuropathology. Since low level of survival motor neuron protein is bound to disease severity in SMA, the robust increase in protein level produced by lithium provides solid evidence which calls for further investigations considering lithium in the long-term treatment of spinal muscle atrophy.

  3. Sun protection counseling by pediatricians has little effect on parent and child sun protection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Liza; Brown, Judith; Haukness, Heather; Walsh, Lori; Robinson, June K

    2013-02-01

    To compare counseling concerning sun protection and outdoor exercise with the parent's report of the behavior of a child aged 9-16 years old. Structured interviews of medical personnel in 3 Chicago area practices elicited information about counseling methods and recommendations. In each practice, a convenience sample of parents completed a self-reported survey of their and their child's behavior. Sun protection counseling occurred more frequently than exercise counseling in all practices (P = .014). Sun protection counseling was associated with parental prompting (P = .004), performing a summer camp physical (P = .002), and the child having a sunburn (P = .003). After controlling for the child's age, sex, and skin tone, sun protection counseling was not associated with the child's use of sun protection. In multivariate analysis of the child's sun protection behavior, parental sunburns, indoor tanning in the last 12 months, perception of skin cancer risk, and sun protection self-efficacy were significant (P = .02). Children who pursued outdoor sports were twice as likely to use inadequate sun protection and sustain sunburns (CI 1.3-1.7). The child's sun protection behavior was influenced by parental sun protection, parental perception of skin cancer risk, and parental sun protection self-efficacy; therefore, sun protection for children needs to be aimed at parents as well as children. Communication with parents in a way that incorporates the principles of motivational interviewing may be more effective in promoting behavioral change than admonitions to use sunscreen. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intranasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis induces a long-term immunological memory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sun-Je; Kang, Seok-Seong; Park, Sung-Moo; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Although intranasal vaccination has been shown to be effective for the protection against inhalational anthrax, establishment of long-term immunity has yet to be achieved. Here, we investigated whether intranasal immunization with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis induces immunological memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Intranasal immunization with rPA plus cholera toxin (CT) sustained PA-specific antibody responses for 6 months in lung, nasal washes, and vaginal washes as well as serum. A significant induction of PA-specific memory B cells was observed in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and lung after booster immunization. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT remarkably generated effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the lung. PA-specific CD4(+) T cells preferentially increased the expression of Th1- and Th17-type cytokines in lung, but not in spleen or CLNs. Collectively, the intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT promoted immunologic memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments, providing long-term immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-Term Exercise Protects against Cellular Stresses in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP, redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A. and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old, old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old, and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1 to TxNiP ratio—a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles. Notably, GRP78, a key indicator of ER stress, was selectively elevated in T.A. Long-term exercise decreased TxNiP in T.A. and soleus muscles and increased the TRX-1/TxNiP ratio in soleus muscle of aged mice. Inducible HSP70 and constituent HSC70 were upregulated, whereas CHOP was reduced after exercise in soleus muscle. Thus, our data demonstrated that aging induced oxidative stress and activated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in skeletal muscle, whereas long-term wheel-running improved redox regulation, ER stress adaptation and attenuated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling. These findings suggest that life-long exercise can protect against age-related cellular stress.

  6. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Chantel E; Chow-Fraser, Gillian; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015) and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water) and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  7. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel E Markle

    Full Text Available Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015 and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  8. Hantavirus Gc induces long-term immune protection via LAMP-targeting DNA vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Bo; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Cheng, Lin-Feng; Zhang, Guan-Wen; Li, Yun; Li, Zi-Chao; Lu, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zi-Xin; Lu, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhang, Fang-Lin; Yang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted. Plasmids encoding Gc and lysosome-targeted Gc, designated pVAX-Gc and pVAX-LAMP/Gc, respectively, were constructed. Proteins of interest were identified by fluorescence microscopy following cell line transfection. Five groups of 20 female BALB/c mice were subjected to the following inoculations: inactivated HTNV vaccine, pVAX-LAMP/Gc, pVAX-Gc, and, as the negative controls, pVAX-LAMP or the blank vector pVAX1. Humoral and cellular immunity were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and 15-mer peptide enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) epitope mapping assays. Repeated immunization with pVAX-LAMP/Gc enhanced adaptive immune responses, as demonstrated by the specific and neutralizing antibody titers and increased IFN-γ production. The inactivated vaccine induced a comparable humoral reaction, but the negative controls only elicited insignificant responses. Using a mouse model of HTNV challenge, the in vivo protection conferred by the inactivated vaccine and Gc-based constructs (with/without LAMP recombination) was confirmed. Evidence of pan-epitope reactions highlighted the long-term cellular response to the LAMP-targeting strategy, and histological observations indicated the safety of the LAMP-targeting vaccines. The long-term protective immune responses induced by pVAX-LAMP/Gc may be

  9. Long-Term Protection of Genetically Ablated Rabbit Retinal Degeneration by Sustained Transscleral Unoprostone Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Nobuhiro; Koyanagi, Eri; Izumida, Yasuko; Liu, Junjun; Katsuyama, Aya; Kaji, Hirokazu; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Osumi, Noriko; Kondo, Mineo; Terasaki, Hiroko; Mashima, Yukihiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Abe, Toshiaki

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term protective effects of transscleral unoprostone (UNO) against retinal degeneration in transgenic (Tg) rabbits (Pro347Leu rhodopsin mutation). The UNO release devices (URDs) were implanted into the sclerae of Tg rabbits and ERG, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ophthalmic examinations were conducted for 40 weeks. Unoprostone metabolites in retina, choroid/RPE, aqueous humor, and plasma from wild-type (Wt) rabbits were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry evaluated the retinal distribution of big potassium (BK) channels, and RT-PCR evaluated the expressions of BK channels and m-opsin at 1 week after URD treatment. The URD released UNO at a rate of 10.2 ±1.0 μg/d, and the release rate and amount of UNO decreased during 32 weeks. Higher ERG amplitudes were observed in the URD-treated Tg rabbits compared with the placebo-URD, or nontreated controls. At 24 weeks after implantation into the URD-treated Tg rabbits, OCT images showed preservation of retinal thickness, and histologic examinations (44 weeks) showed greater thickness of outer nuclear layers. Unoprostone was detected in the retina, choroid, and plasma of Wt rabbits. Retina/plasma ratio of UNO levels were 38.0 vs. 0.68 ng UNO*hour/mL in the URD-treated group versus control (topical UNO), respectively. Big potassium channels were observed in cone, cone ON-bipolar, and rod bipolar cells. Reverse-transcriptase PCR demonstrated BK channels and m-opsins increased in URD-treated eyes. In Tg rabbits, URD use slowed the decline of retinal function for more than 32 weeks, and therefore provides a promising tool for long-term treatment of RP.

  10. Education and training in radiological protection in the Argentine region- IAEA, toward a long term commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, C.; Arbor G, A.; Bozzo, R.; Larcher, A.; Menossi, C.; Sajaroff, P.

    2006-01-01

    Training Appraisal in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources' (EduTa). This process includes the invitation to an international mission to visit the country to observe the organization and training capacities in radiological protection and safety of the radiation sources, and the later signature of an agreement of long term in order to assure the continuity of the politicians in the matter. To conclude with success this significant effort will allow to take advantage of the resources efficiently to diffuse in systematic form the last knowledge and experience of radiological protection in Spanish to the whole region of Latin America and the Caribbean. (Author)

  11. Protective clothing in the sun | Tamas | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.

  12. Age and long-term protective immunity in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R D; Thiel, B; Mukhtar, E; Sharp, P; Larson, L J

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination can provide an immune response that is similar in duration to that following a natural infection. In general, adaptive immunity to viruses develops earliest and is highly effective. Such anti-viral immune responses often result in the development of sterile immunity and the duration of immunity (DOI) is often lifelong. In contrast, adaptive immunity to bacteria, fungi or parasites develops more slowly and the DOI is generally short compared with most systemic viral infections. Sterile immunity to these infectious agents is less commonly engendered. Old dogs and cats rarely die from vaccine-preventable infectious disease, especially when they have been vaccinated and immunized as young adults (i.e. between 16 weeks and 1 year of age). However, young animals do die, often because vaccines were either not given or not given at an appropriate age (e.g. too early in life in the presence of maternally derived antibody [MDA]). More animals need to be vaccinated to increase herd (population) immunity. The present study examines the DOI for core viral vaccines in dogs that had not been revaccinated for as long as 9 years. These animals had serum antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) at levels considered protective and when challenged with these viruses, the dogs resisted infection and/or disease. Thus, even a single dose of modified live virus (MLV) canine core vaccines (against CDV, cav-2 and cpv-2) or MLV feline core vaccines (against feline parvovirus [FPV], feline calicivirus [FCV] and feline herpesvirus [FHV]), when administered at 16 weeks or older, could provide long-term immunity in a very high percentage of animals, while also increasing herd immunity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sun Protection; A risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Sun Protection differentiates itself from other texts by adopting a risk-management approach to determine whether, how, and in what circumstances, harm might be caused, and to explore the feasibility of various strategies in controlling exposure to solar UV radiation. This multi-disciplinary book covers topics from climatology through human exposure to sunlight, as well as biological and clinical effects of UV radiation to physical and chemical strategies for photoprotection.

  14. Counseling on Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Sophie J; Gottschlich, Elizabeth A; Holman, Dawn M; Watson, Meg

    2017-12-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends clinical counseling for individuals ages 10 to 24 years to decrease skin cancer risk. A national, random sample of US American Academy of Pediatrics members practicing primary care in 2002 (response rate 55%) and 2015 (response rate 43%). Surveys explored attitudes and experiences regarding sun protection counseling; indoor tanning questions were added in 2015. χ 2 tests compared demographics and counseling responses across years, and multivariable logistic regression models examined counseling predictors. More pediatricians in 2015 (34%) than in 2002 (23%) reported discussing sun protection during recent summer months with ≥75% of patients. This pattern held across all patient age groups (each P tanning at least once with 10 to 13 year-old patients; approximately half discussed this with older adolescents. Most (70%) did not know if their states had laws on minors' indoor tanning access; those stating they knew whether a law existed counseled more. Although improved, sun protection counseling rates remain low. Indoor tanning counseling can be improved. Because early-life exposure to UV radiation increases risk and clinician counseling can positively impact prevention behaviors, pediatricians have an important role in skin cancer prevention; counseling may save lives. Time constraints remain a barrier. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Long-Term Protective Immune Response Elicited by Vaccination with an Expression Genomic Library of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Fachado, Alberto; Rodriguez, Alexandro; Molina, Judith; Silvério, Jaline C.; Marino, Ana P. M. P.; Pinto, Luzia M. O.; Angel, Sergio O.; Infante, Juan F.; Traub-Cseko, Yara; Amendoeira, Regina R.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2003-01-01

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with an expression genomic library of Toxoplasma gondii induces a Th1-type immune response, with recognition of several T. gondii proteins (21 to 117 kDa) and long-term protective immunity against a lethal challenge. These results support further investigations to achieve a multicomponent anti-T. gondii DNA vaccine.

  16. Skin Tone Dissatisfaction, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Ettridge, Kerry; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the adoption of sun protection and sun exposure behaviors, the extent to which these behaviors group together, and the relationship between skin tone dissatisfaction and sun-related behaviors in South Australian adolescents (aged 12-17). A total of 2,875 secondary school students (1,461 male and 1,414 female) completed a questionnaire including questions about sun protection and sun exposure behaviors and skin tone dissatisfaction. Regular adoption of sun protection behaviors was low and ranged from 20% (wearing protective clothing) to 44% (sunscreen use). A principal components analysis identified four subgroups of sun-related behaviors: sun protection, appearance enhancement, sun avoidance, and sun exposure. Females had significantly higher skin tone dissatisfaction than males. Skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with decreased sun protection and avoidance and increased appearance enhancement and sun exposure in both males and females. Skin tone dissatisfaction plays an important role in Australian adolescents' sun-related behavior. Appearance-based interventions may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk through reduced sun exposure.

  17. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reddy, Tarylee; Mathee, Angela; Street, Renée A

    2017-09-28

    Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7%) were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%). Glare from the sun (59.7%) and excessive sweating (57.6%) were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard ( p = 0.003). In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  18. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7% were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%. Glare from the sun (59.7% and excessive sweating (57.6% were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard (p = 0.003. In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  19. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  20. Long-term potentiation protects rat hippocampal slices from the effects of acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, F F; Addae, J I; McRae, A; Stone, T W

    2001-07-13

    We have previously shown that long-term potentiation (LTP) decreases the sensitivity of glutamate receptors in the rat hippocampal CA1 region to exogenously applied glutamate agonists. Since the pathophysiology of hypoxia/ischemia involves increased concentration of endogenous glutamate, we tested the hypothesis that LTP could reduce the effects of hypoxia in the hippocampal slice. The effects of LTP on hypoxia were measured by the changes in population spike potentials (PS) or field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fepsps). Hypoxia was induced by perfusing the slice with (i) artificial CSF which had been pre-gassed with 95%N2/5% CO2; (ii) artificial CSF which had not been pre-gassed with 95% O2/5% CO2; or (iii) an oxygen-glucose deprived (OGD) medium which was similar to (ii) and in which the glucose had been replaced with sucrose. Exposure of a slice to a hypoxic medium for 1.5-3.0 min led to a decrease in the PS or fepsps; the potentials recovered to control levels within 3-5 min. Repeat exposure, 45 min later, of the same slice to the same hypoxic medium for the same duration as the first exposure caused a reduction in the potentials again; there were no significant differences between the degree of reduction caused by the first or second exposure for all three types of hypoxic media (P>0.05; paired t-test). In some of the slices, two episodes of LTP were induced 25 and 35 min after the first hypoxic exposure; this caused inhibition of reduction in potentials caused by the second hypoxic insult which was given at 45 min after the first; the differences in reduction in potentials were highly significant for all the hypoxic media used (Peffects of LTP were not prevented by cyclothiazide or inhibitors of NO synthetase compounds that have been shown to be effective in blocking the effects of LTP on the actions of exogenously applied AMPA and NMDA, respectively. The neuroprotective effects of LTP were similar to those of propentofylline, a known neuroprotective

  1. rhEPO Enhances Cellular Anti-oxidant Capacity to Protect Long-Term Cultured Aging Primary Nerve Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huqing; Fan, Jiaxin; Chen, Mengyi; Yao, Qingling; Gao, Zhen; Zhang, Guilian; Wu, Haiqin; Yu, Xiaorui

    2017-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) may protect the nervous system of animals against aging damage, making it a potential anti-aging drug for the nervous system. However, experimental evidence from natural aging nerve cell models is lacking, and the efficacy of EPO and underlying mechanism of this effect warrant further study. Thus, the present study used long-term cultured primary nerve cells to successfully mimic the natural aging process of nerve cells. Starting on the 11th day of culture, cells were treated with different concentrations of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Using double immunofluorescence labeling, we found that rhEPO significantly improved the morphology of long-term cultured primary nerve cells and increased the total number of long-term cultured primary cells. However, rhEPO did not improve the ratio of nerve cells. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to measure nerve cell activity and showed that rhEPO significantly improved the activity of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Moreover, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double immunofluorescence labeling flow cytometry revealed that rhEPO reduced the apoptotic rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) immunohistochemistry staining showed that rhEPO significantly reduced the aging rate of long-term cultured primary nerve cells. Immunochemistry revealed that rhEPO enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) abundance and reduced the intracellular malondialdehyde (MDA) level. In addition, this effect depended on the dose, was maximized at a dose of 100 U/ml and was more pronounced than that of vitamin E. In summary, this study finds that rhEPO protects long-term cultured primary nerve cells from aging in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism of this effect may be associated with the enhancement of the intracellular anti

  2. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  3. Long-term aging of a CeO2 based nanocomposite used for wood protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffan, Melanie; Masion, Armand; Labille, Jerome; Diot, Marie-Ange; Liu, Wei; Olivi, Luca; Proux, Olivier; Ziarelli, Fabio; Chaurand, Perrine; Geantet, Christophe; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Rose, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    A multi-scale methodology was used to characterize the long-term behavior and chemical stability of a CeO 2 -based nanocomposite used as UV filter in wood stains. ATR-FTIR and 13 C NMR demonstrated that the citrate coated chelates with Ce(IV) through its central carboxyl- and its α-hydroxyl- groups at the surface of the unaged nanocomposite. After 42 days under artificial daylight, the citrate completely disappeared and small amount of degradation products remained attached to the surface even after 112 days. Moreover, the release/desorption of the citrate layer led to a surface reorganization of the nano-sized CeO 2 core observed by XANES (Ce L 3 -edge). Such a surface and structural transformation of the commercialized nanocomposite could have implications in term of fate, transport, and potential impacts towards the environment. - Highlights: • Organic coating of the nano-composite is degradated after 1.5 month. • Structural reorganization of the nano-sized CeO 2 core over aging. • Potential implications in term of exposure and impact towards biological organisms. - The long-term aging of a CeO 2 nanocomposite lead to surface chemistry and structural changes in aquatic environments

  4. Zero emission targets as long-term global goals for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan; Schaeffer, Michiel; Hare, William; Meinshausen, Malte; Knutti, Reto; Alcamo, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the total amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero annual CO 2 emissions at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this concept in the negotiating text for a new global climate agreement, but confusion remains about concepts like carbon neutrality, climate neutrality, full decarbonization, and net zero carbon or net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we clarify these concepts, discuss their appropriateness to serve as a long-term global benchmark for achieving temperature targets, and provide a detailed quantification. We find that with current pledges and for a likely (>66%) chance of staying below 2 °C, the scenario literature suggests net zero CO 2 emissions between 2060 and 2070, with net negative CO 2 emissions thereafter. Because of residual non-CO 2 emissions, net zero is always reached later for total GHG emissions than for CO 2 . Net zero emissions targets are a useful focal point for policy, linking a global temperature target and socio-economic pathways to a necessary long-term limit on cumulative CO 2 emissions. (letter)

  5. Protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident: the guidance of ICRP Publication 111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies in ICRP Publication 111 (Ann. ICRP 2009, 39(3)). The prolonged exposures resulting from such events are defined as existing exposure situations and the driving principle for managing exposure situations is the optimization of protection. In conjunction with optimization, the Commission recommends the use of reference levels to restrict individual doses. To be effective, protection strategies to maintain and reduce exposure as low as reasonably achievable should include actions implemented by public authorities and private businesses, but also by the affected population itself. The process through which inhabitants living in a contaminated environment identify problems and apply their own protective actions has been named 'self-help protection' by the Commission. Such a process supposes that affected individuals are fully aware of the situation and are well informed. It is the responsibility of the authorities to establish programmes for continuous radiation monitoring, information and education of the population. The involvement of local professionals and inhabitants in the definition and implementation of protection strategies is a key factor for the sustainability of long-term rehabilitation programmes. (note)

  6. Sun Protection Practices and Sun Exposure among Children with a Parental History of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Beth A.; Lin, Tiffany; Chang, L. Cindy; Okada, Ashley; Wong, Weng Kee; Glanz, Karen; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives of melanoma survivors have a substantially higher lifetime risk for melanoma than individuals with no family history. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary modifiable risk factor for the disease. Reducing UV exposure through sun protection may be particularly important for children with a parental history of melanoma. Nonetheless, limited prior research has investigated sun protection practices and sun exposure among these children. Methods The California Cancer Registry was used to identify melanoma survivors eligible to participate in a survey to assess their children's sun protection practices and sun exposure. The survey was administered by mail, telephone, or web to Latino and non-Latino white melanoma survivors with at least one child (0–17 years; N = 324). Results Sun exposure was high and the rate of sunburn was equivalent to or higher than estimates from average risk populations. Use of sun protection was suboptimal. Latino children were less likely to wear sunscreen and hats and more likely to wear sunglasses, although these differences disappeared in adjusted analyses. Increasing age of the child was associated with lower sun protection and higher risk for sunburn whereas higher objective risk for melanoma predicted improved sun protection and a higher risk for sunburns. Perception of high barriers to sun protection was the strongest modifiable correlate of sun protection. Conclusions Interventions to improve sun protection and reduce sun exposure and sunburns in high risk children are needed. Impact Intervening in high risk populations may help reduce the burden of melanoma in the U.S. PMID:25587110

  7. History, administration, goals, values, and long-term data of Russia's strictly protected scientific nature reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Anna E. Kvashnina; Y.D. Nukhimovskya; Olin E. Jr. Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    One of the most comprehensive attempts at biodiversity conservation in Russia and the former Soviet Union has been the establishment of an extensive network of protected natural areas. Among all types of protected areas in Russia, zapovedniks (strictly protected scientific preserve) have been the most effective in protecting biodiversity at the ecosystem scale. Russia...

  8. Long-term protective immunity from an influenza virus-like particle vaccine administered with a microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Song, Jae-Min; Hwang, Hye Suk; Compans, Richard W; Prausnitz, Mark R; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2013-09-01

    Skin vaccination with influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) using microneedles has been shown to induce protection similar to or better than that induced by intramuscular immunization. In this study, we examined the long-term protective efficacy of influenza (H1N1 A/PR/8/34) VLPs after skin vaccination using microneedle patches coated with the vaccine. Microneedle vaccination of mice in the skin induced 100% protection against lethal challenge infection with influenza A/PR/8/34 virus 14 months after a single vaccine dose. Influenza virus-specific total IgG response and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titers were maintained at high levels for over 1 year after microneedle vaccination. Microneedle vaccination also induced substantial levels of lung IgG and IgA antibody responses, and antibody-secreting plasma cells from spleen and bone marrow, as well as conferring effective control of lung viral loads, resulting in complete protection 14 months after vaccination. These strong and long-lasting immune responses were enabled in part by stabilization of the vaccine by formulation with trehalose during microneedle patch fabrication. Administration of the stabilized vaccine using microneedles was especially effective at enabling strong recall responses measured 4 days after lethal virus challenge, including increased HAI and antibody-secreting cells in the spleen and reduced viral titer and inflammatory response in the lung. The results in this study indicate that skin vaccination with VLP vaccine using a microneedle patch provides long-term protection against influenza in mice.

  9. Predicting sun protection behaviors using protection motivation variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Joanne W M; Glendon, A Ian

    2014-04-01

    Protection motivation theory components were used to predict sun protection behaviors (SPBs) using four outcome measures: typical reported behaviors, previous reported behaviors, current sunscreen use as determined by interview, and current observed behaviors (clothing worn) to control for common method bias. Sampled from two SE Queensland public beaches during summer, 199 participants aged 18-29 years completed a questionnaire measuring perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, response costs, and protection motivation (PM). Personal perceived risk (similar to threat appraisal) and response likelihood (similar to coping appraisal) were derived from their respective PM components. Protection motivation predicted all four SPB criterion variables. Personal perceived risk and response likelihood predicted protection motivation. Protection motivation completely mediated the effect of response likelihood on all four criterion variables. Alternative models are considered. Strengths and limitations of the study are outlined and suggestions made for future research.

  10. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleeved shirts and long pants and skirts can provide protection from UV rays. Clothes made from tightly woven ... expected. Remember to plan ahead, and keep sun protection handy—in your car, bag, or child’s backpack. Sun Safety in Schools The Protect Your Students from Skin Cancer fact ...

  11. Improving long term oxidation protection for {gamma}-TiAl substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobzin, K.; Schlaefer, T.; Bruehl, M.; Linke, T.F. [Thermisches Spritzen, Institut fuer Oberflaechentechnik (IOT), RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Warda, T.

    2011-11-15

    In previous work, a thermal spray multilayer system consisting of Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) and MCrAlY top coat showed promising results regarding the oxidation behavior of the Gamma Titanium Aluminides substrates tested, which encouraged further research activities. Diffusion of substrate material was successfully inhibited by a ceramic Zirconia coating. A building up of a dense and stable oxide layer could be achieved by additional application of an MCrAlY top coat, leading to improved oxidation resistance and thus showing feasibility. In this work the main focus for development was put on enhancing adhesion and lowering residual stresses of the coatings in order to allow long term and cyclic testing without delamination taking place. Being a very brittle material, Gamma Titanium Aluminides require special surface treatment to enable roughening which is crucial for a strong mechanical bond between substrate and coating. Alternatives to conventional grit blasting as a standard preparation method were investigated. These were micro-abrasive blasting and blasting at elevated temperature ({approx}300-550 C) to allow a more ductile behavior. The paper will highlight the implications by means of these measures and will also show the present development status of the multilayer system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Protective effects of melatonin on long-term administration of fluoxetine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Majid; Oryan, Ahmad; Sayyari, Mansour; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Rahbarghazi, Reza

    2017-10-02

    The degree and consequence of tissue injury are highly regarded during long-term exposure to selective antidepressant fluoxetine. Melatonin has been shown to palliate different lesions by scavenging free radicals, but its role in the reduction of the fluoxetine-induced injuries has been little known. Thirty-six mature male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. The experimental rats were included as following; 24mg/kg/bw fluoxetine for 4 weeks; 1mg/kg/bw melatonin for 4 weeks; fluoxetine+1-week melatonin, fluoxetine+2-week melatonin and fluoxetine+4-week melatonin. In the current experiment, we investigated weight gain, hematological and biochemical parameters, pathological injuries and oxidative status. We noted the positive effect of melatonin in weight loss of fluoxetine-treated rats (pfluoxetine were reversed by melatonin (pfluoxetine (pfluoxetine in inducing leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and hypochromic and macrocytic anemia which was blunted by melatonin. Both RBCs and platelets indices were also corrected. Rats received melatonin in combination with fluoxetine showed a reduction in the severity of degeneration and inflammatory changes in different tissues, brain, heart, liver, lungs, testes and kidneys as compared to the fluoxetine group. Therefore, melatonin fundamentally reversed the side effects of fluoxetine in the rat model which is comparable to human medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  14. A nonintegrative lentiviral vector-based vaccine provides long-term sterile protection against malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Coutant

    Full Text Available Trials testing the RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine and radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS have shown that protective immunity against malaria can be induced and that an effective vaccine is not out of reach. However, longer-term protection and higher protection rates are required to eradicate malaria from the endemic regions. It implies that there is still a need to explore new vaccine strategies. Lentiviral vectors are very potent at inducing strong immunological memory. However their integrative status challenges their safety profile. Eliminating the integration step obviates the risk of insertional oncogenesis. Providing they confer sterile immunity, nonintegrative lentiviral vectors (NILV hold promise as mass pediatric vaccine by meeting high safety standards. In this study, we have assessed the protective efficacy of NILV against malaria in a robust pre-clinical model. Mice were immunized with NILV encoding Plasmodium yoelii Circumsporozoite Protein (Py CSP and challenged with sporozoites one month later. In two independent protective efficacy studies, 50% (37.5-62.5 of the animals were fully protected (p = 0.0072 and p = 0.0008 respectively when compared to naive mice. The remaining mice with detectable parasitized red blood cells exhibited a prolonged patency and reduced parasitemia. Moreover, protection was long-lasting with 42.8% sterile protection six months after the last immunization (p = 0.0042. Post-challenge CD8+ T cells to CSP, in contrast to anti-CSP antibodies, were associated with protection (r = -0.6615 and p = 0.0004 between the frequency of IFN-g secreting specific T cells in spleen and parasitemia. However, while NILV and RAS immunizations elicited comparable immunity to CSP, only RAS conferred 100% of sterile protection. Given that a better protection can be anticipated from a multi-antigen vaccine and an optimized vector design, NILV appear as a promising malaria vaccine.

  15. 'My child did not like using sun protection': practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Zamantimande; Albers, Patricia N; Lucas, Robyn M; Banwell, Cathy; Mathee, Angela; Wright, Caradee Y

    2017-08-25

    Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child's 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade). Most mothers (97%) liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86) reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  16. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool managers were less likely to agree that they needed to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D. Lifeguards and parents who were non-Caucasian were less likely to report that sunlight helped the body to produce vitamin D. A stronger belief about the need to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D predicted more sun exposure for lifeguards. For parents, a stronger belief that they can get enough vitamin D from foods predicted greater sun protection and a stronger belief that sunlight helps the body produce vitamin D predicted lower sun exposure. This study provides information regarding vitamin D beliefs and their association with certain sun related behaviors across different demographic groups that can inform education efforts about vitamin D and sun protection. PMID:22851950

  17. Optimizing the Long-Term Capacity Expansion and Protection of Iraqi Oil Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Patrick S

    2005-01-01

    This thesis introduces a tri-level defender-attacker-defender optimization model that prescribes how Iraq's oil infrastructure can, over time, be expanded, protected, and operated, even in the face of insurgent attacks...

  18. Long-Term Protective Effects of Methamphetamine Preconditioning Against Single-Day Methamphetamine Toxic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, A.B; Ladenheim, B; McCoy, M.T; Beauvais, G; Cai, N; Krasnova, I.N; Cadet, J.L

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with neurotoxic effects which include decreased levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the brain. We have shown that escalating METH dosing can protect against METH induced neurotoxicity in rats sacrificed within 24 hours after a toxic METH challenge. The purpose of the current study was to investigate if the protective effects of METH persisted for a long period of time. We also tested if a second challenge with a toxic dos...

  19. Long-term organ protection by doxazosin and/or quinapril as antihypertensive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Delgado, Julio; Lazaro, Alberto; Gomez-Garre, Dulcenombre; Osende, Julio I; Gonzalez-Rubio, Maria L; Herraiz, Marta; Manzarbeitia, Félix; Fortes, José; Fernandez-Cruz, Arturo; Egido, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Even with optimal blood pressure control, organ protection may also depend on the selected therapeutic regime. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to provide excellent organ protection in hypertension, and may show dose-dependent protective effects. Adrenergic alpha blockers have been associated with an increased rate of heart failure in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) and Vasodilator-Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT). This has been related to a proapoptotic effect of this drug in cardiomyocytes. Our purpose is to compare the heart and renal protection of a high quinapril dose, with a combined low quinapril dose plus doxazosin, in an animal model of chronic hypertension. Uninephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive 12-week-old rats were treated for 36 weeks with either quinapril or a combination of doxazosin plus a low quinapril dose. Tight blood pressure control was achieved with both treatments. Renal and cardiac protection was assessed by different parameters, and cardiac apoptosis was evaluated by active caspase-3, apoptotic protein and heat shock protein levels. Untreated hypertensive and normotensive rats were included as controls. Both treatments showed significant heart and renal protection compared with untreated animals. Both therapeutic regimes showed similar protection in renal and cardiac pathology, coronary media fibrosis, myocardial apoptosis and cardiac index. Proteinuria and left ventricular hypertrophy regression were significantly lower in the quinapril group compared with the combined treatment group. Blood pressure control with a high quinapril dose provided higher organ protection than a combined therapy with a lower quinapril dose. This effect was not due to a deleterious effect of doxazosin.

  20. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Strickland, Mark; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Lin, Chad

    2016-07-13

    Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals' risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day) and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14-17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity), gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  1. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pettigrew

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals’ risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Methods Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14–17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Results Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity, gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. Conclusion There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  2. Long term corrosion protection sleeve for tightly closed barrels with highly radioactive contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, R.; Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Kiesow, A.

    1986-01-01

    The application of the corrosion resistant layer on the container body is achieved by blasting plating and by a special design of weld seams on the lid or floor stopper. The corrosion protection layer completely surrounds the container, is additionally applied to the layers in the area of the lid and bottom surface of one floor or lid plate, which consists of another material as corrosion protection layer and which has a diameter a little greater than the hollow cylinder container body. (orig./PW) [de

  3. Long-term protective effects of methamphetamine preconditioning against single-day methamphetamine toxic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, A B; Ladenheim, B; McCoy, M T; Beauvais, G; Cai, N; Krasnova, I N; Cadet, J L

    2011-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with neurotoxic effects which include decreased levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the brain. We have shown that escalating METH dosing can protect against METH induced neurotoxicity in rats sacrificed within 24 hours after a toxic METH challenge. The purpose of the current study was to investigate if the protective effects of METH persisted for a long period of time. We also tested if a second challenge with a toxic dose of METH would cause further damage to monoaminergic terminals. Saline-pretreated rats showed significant METH-induced decreases in striatal DA and 5-HT levels in rats sacrificed 2 weeks after the challenge. Rats that received two METH challenges showed no further decreases in striatal DA or 5-HT levels in comparison to the single METH challenge. In contrast, METH-pretreated rats showed significant protection against METH-induced striatal DA and 5-HT depletion. In addition, the METH challenge causes substantial decreases in cortical 5-HT levels which were not further potentiated by a second drug challenge. METH preconditioning provided almost complete protection against METH -induced 5-HT depletion. These results are consistent with the idea that METH pretreatment renders the brain refractory to METH-induced degeneration of brain monoaminergic systems.

  4. Microneedle delivery of trivalent influenza vaccine to the skin induces long-term cross-protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Su-Hwa; Choi, Won-Hyung; Choi, Hyo-Jick; Goo, Tae-Won; Lee, Ju-Hie; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-12-01

    A painless self-immunization method with effective and broad cross-protection is urgently needed to prevent infections against newly emerging influenza viruses. In this study, we investigated the cross-protection efficacy of trivalent influenza vaccine containing inactivated A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) and B/Lee/40 after skin vaccination using microneedle patches coated with this vaccine. Microneedle vaccination of mice in the skin provided 100% protection against lethal challenges with heterologous pandemic strain influenza A/California/04/09, heterogeneous A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 viruses 8 months after boost immunization. Cross-reactive serum IgG antibody responses against heterologous influenza viruses A/California/04/09, A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 were induced at high levels. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were also maintained at high levels against these heterogeneous viruses. Microneedle vaccination induced substantial levels of cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in the lung and cellular immune responses, as well as cross-reactive antibody-secreting plasma cells in the spleen. Viral loads in the lung were significantly (p skin vaccination with trivalent vaccine using a microneedle array could provide protection against seasonal epidemic or new pandemic strain of influenza viruses.

  5. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  6. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  7. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  8. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  9. Long-Term Quercetin Dietary Enrichment Partially Protects Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R Spaulding

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD results from a genetic lesion in the dystrophin gene and leads to progressive muscle damage. PGC-1α pathway activation improves muscle function and decreases histopathological injury. We hypothesized that mild disease found in the limb muscles of mdx mice may be responsive to quercetin-mediated protection of dystrophic muscle via PGC-1α pathway activation. To test this hypothesis muscle function was measured in the soleus and EDL from 14 month old C57, mdx, and mdx mice treated with quercetin (mdxQ; 0.2% dietary enrichment for 12 months. Quercetin reversed 50% of disease-related losses in specific tension and partially preserved fatigue resistance in the soleus. Specific tension and resistance to contraction-induced injury in the EDL were not protected by quercetin. Given some functional gain in the soleus it was probed with histological and biochemical approaches, however, in dystrophic muscle histopathological outcomes were not improved by quercetin and suppressed PGC-1α pathway activation was not increased. Similar to results in the diaphragm from these mice, these data suggest that the benefits conferred to dystrophic muscle following 12 months of quercetin enrichment were underwhelming. Spontaneous activity at the end of the treatment period was greater in mdxQ compared to mdx indicating that quercetin fed mice were more active in addition to engaging in more vigorous activity. Hence, modest preservation of muscle function (specific tension and elevated spontaneous physical activity largely in the absence of tissue damage in mdxQ suggests dietary quercetin may mediate protection.

  10. Skin Cancer-Sun Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviors of Liver Transplant Recipients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.

  11. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  12. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  13. Sun exposure and sun protection behaviours among young adult sport competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Sheleigh; Spathonis, Kym; Eakin, Elizabeth; Gallois, Cindy; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville

    2007-06-01

    To explore the relationship between sun protection and physical activity in young adults (18-30 years) involved in four organised sports. Participants (n=237) in field hockey, soccer, tennis and surf sports completed a self-administered survey on demographic and sun-protective behaviours while playing sport. Differences in sun-protective behaviour were explored by sport and by gender. Sunburn during the previous sporting season was high (69%). There were differences between sports for sunburn, sunscreen use and reapplication of sunscreen. Lifesaving had the highest rates compared with the other three sports. Hats and sunglasses worn by participants varied significantly by sports. A greater proportion of soccer and hockey players indicated they were not allowed to wear a hat or sunglasses during competition. For all sports, competition was played mainly in the open with no shade provision for competitors while they were playing. There were some gender differences within each of the sports. Female soccer and tennis players were more likely to wear sunscreen compared with males. Female hockey players were more likely to wear a hat compared with males. Our findings highlight that there is still room for improvement in sun-protective behaviours among young adult sport competitors. There is a need for a systematic approach to sun protection in the sporting environments of young adults. Health promotion efforts to increase physical activity need to be paired with sun protection messages.

  14. Trends in sunburns, sun protection practices, and attitudes toward sun exposure protection and tanning among US adolescents, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokkinides, Vilma; Weinstock, Martin; Glanz, Karen; Albano, Jessica; Ward, Elizabeth; Thun, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Sun exposure in childhood is an important risk factor for developing skin cancer as an adult. Despite extensive efforts to reduce sun exposure among the young, there are no population-based data on trends in sunburns and sun protection practices in the young. The aim of this study was to describe nationally representative trend data on sunburns, sun protection, and attitudes related to sun exposure among US youth. Cross-sectional telephone surveys of youth aged 11 to 18 years in 1998 (N = 1196) and in 2004 (N = 1613) were conducted using a 2-stage sampling process to draw population-based samples. The surveys asked identical questions about sun protection, number of sunburns experienced, and attitudes toward sun exposure. Time trends were evaluated using pooled logistic regression analysis. In 2004, 69% of subjects reported having been sunburned during the summer, not significantly less than in 1998 (72%). There was a significant decrease in the percentage of those aged 11 to 15 years who reported sunburns and a nonsignificant increase among the 16- to 18-year-olds. The proportion of youth who reported regular sunscreen use increased significantly from 31% to 39%. Little change occurred in other recommended sun protection practices. A small reduction in sunburn frequency and modest increases in sun protection practices were observed among youth between 1998 and 2004, despite widespread sun protection campaigns. Nevertheless, the decrease in sunburns among younger teens may be cause for optimism regarding future trends. Overall, there was rather limited progress in improving sun protection practices and reducing sunburns among US youth between 1998 and 2004.

  15. Long-Term Protection against Diphtheria in the Netherlands after 50 Years of Vaccination: Results from a Seroepidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, E M; van Gageldonk, P G M; de Melker, H E; van der Klis, F R; Berbers, G A M; Mollema, L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the National Immunisation Programme (NIP) a population-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological study was performed in the Netherlands. We assessed diphtheria antitoxin levels in the general Dutch population and in low vaccination coverage (LVC) areas where a relatively high proportion of orthodox Protestants live who decline vaccination based on religious grounds. Results were compared with a nationwide seroepidemiological study performed 11 years earlier. In 2006/2007 a national serum bank was established. Blood samples were tested for diphtheria antitoxin IgG concentrations using a multiplex immunoassay for 6383 participants from the national sample (NS) and 1518 participants from LVC municipalities. A cut-off above 0.01 international units per ml (IU/ml) was used as minimum protective level. In the NS 91% of the population had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml compared to 88% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey (pdiphtheria vaccination in the NIP and 46% (vs. 37% in the 1995/1996 serosurvey, p = 0.11) of orthodox Protestants living in LVC areas had antibody levels above 0.01 IU/ml. Linear regression analysis among fully immunized individuals (six vaccinations) without evidence of revaccination indicated a continuous decline in antibodies in both serosurveys, but geometric mean antibodies remained well above 0.01 IU/ml in all age groups. The NIP provides long-term protection against diphtheria, although antibody levels decline after vaccination. As a result of natural waning immunity, a substantial proportion of individuals born before introduction of diphtheria vaccination in the NIP lack adequate levels of diphtheria antibodies. Susceptibility due to lack of vaccination is highest among strictly orthodox Protestants. The potential risk of spread of diphtheria within the geographically clustered orthodox Protestant community after introduction in the Netherlands has not disappeared, despite national long-term high vaccination coverage.

  16. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  17. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  18. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew R; McGee, Rob

    2017-01-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents' experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents' outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade) and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  19. Loss of long term protection with the inclusion of HIV pol to a DNA vaccine encoding gag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, Tamsin J; Gargett, Tessa; Yu, Wenbo; Major, Lee; Burrell, Christopher J; Wesselingh, Steven; Suhrbier, Andreas; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Gowans, Eric J

    2014-11-04

    Traditional vaccine strategies that induce antibody responses have failed to protect against HIV infection in clinical trials, and thus cell-mediated immunity is now an additional criterion. Recent clinical trials that aimed to induce strong T cell responses failed to do so. Therefore, to enhance induction of protective T cell responses, it is crucial that the optimum antigen combination is chosen. Limited research has been performed into the number of antigens selected for an HIV vaccine. This study aimed to compare DNA vaccines encoding either a single HIV antigen or a combination of two antigens, using intradermal vaccination of C57BL/6 mice. Immune assays were performed on splenocytes, and in vivo protection was examined by challenge with a chimeric virus, EcoHIV, able to infect mouse but not human leukocytes, at 10 days (short term) and 60 days (long term) post final vaccination. At 60 days there was significantly lower frequency of induced antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in the spleens of pCMVgag-pol-vaccinated mice compared with mice which received pCMVgag only. Most importantly, short term viral control of EcoHIV was similar for pCMVgag and pCMVgag-pol-vaccinated mice at day 10, but only the pCMVgag-vaccinated significantly controlled EcoHIV at day 60 compared with pCMV-vaccinated mice, showing that control was reduced with the inclusion of the HIV pol gene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide - long-term guideline value for health protection; Stickstoffdioxid - (Langzeit-)Richtwert zum Schutz der menschlichen Gesundheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Hauck, H.; Neuberger, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene

    1999-10-01

    On behalf of the Ministry of Environment the Austrian Academy of Science published guideline values for nitrogen dioxide in 1988. The scientific database concentrated on short-term effects of NO{sub 2} at that time. After checking the current literature it was clear that new data especially for long-term effects of NO{sub 2} were available which should lead to a limitation of an annual average. Two Austrian studies on children from Linz (capital of Upper Austria) showed that high long-term concentrations of NO{sub 2} were negatively associated with the flow parameters of terminal airways in spirometry (MEF{sub 25} and MEF{sub 50}) on a significant level. In addition the children showed an improvement in growth-dependent increase of lung function parameters when long-term NO{sub 2}-concentrations in the ambient air could be decreased by more than 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The most pronounced benefit could be seen when the ambient level of NO{sub 2} decreased during periods of accelerated growth. Based on these and other results summarized in this review, the Austrian Academy of Science recommended an annual average of 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for NO{sub 2} in the ambient air not to be exceeded for health protection. (orig.) [German] In Oesterreich werden von der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (OeAW) im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Jugend und Familie fuer die konventionellen Luftschadstoffe wirkungsbezogene Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen erarbeitet, die den jeweiligen Stand der (medizinischen) Wissenschaft repraesentieren. Ausgehend vom Basiswerk aus 1988 wurde 1998 eine neue Literaturstudie erstellt, die auch Publikationen der letzten Jahre umfasste. Anhand dieses neuen Datenmaterials zeigte sich, dass die Einfuehrung einer Langzeitimmissionsgrenzkonzentration aus umwelthygienischer Sicht notwendig war. In zwei Studien an Linzer Kindern konnte festgestellt werden, dass einerseits hohe NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen signifikant negativ mit den

  1. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  2. ICRP Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-Term Contaminated Areas ICRP publication 111 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Rashad, S.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to through some lights on ICRP free release publication at 4 April 2011-Internationally Known as ICRP publication 111. The title of the publication is (application of the commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency). Nuclear accidents or a radiation emergency may cause contamination. The contamination may be spread on a large area. There are people living in these areas. For many factors the people refuse to leave their homes. They want to stay along their life as in the case of the normal conditions. So, it is important to facilitate their stay and make it safe. This is not easy. But it is possible without neglect the radiation hazard. The radiation hazard is effective on the life fields. It is harmful in plants, animals, foods, water, milk and the buildings it self. With considering the radiological protection principles the living of the people for a long time could be a fact of the life and will be more easy and safe. Optimization principle has priority to apply. This publication achieves these purposes.The ICRP-111 is translated into Arabic at August 2012. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the ICRP radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translations include, ICRP-105 (radiation protection in medicine) and ICRP -113 (education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures).

  3. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  4. Effects of staff training and electronic event monitoring on long-term adherence to lung-protective ventilation recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Ixchel; Martin, Marcus; Kraus, Stefan; Bürkle, Thomas; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Schüttler, Jürgen; Toddenroth, Dennis

    2018-02-01

    To investigate long-term effects of staff training and electronic clinical decision support (CDS) on adherence to lung-protective ventilation recommendations. In 2012, group instructions and workshops at two surgical intensive care units (ICUs) started, focusing on standardized protocols for mechanical ventilation and volutrauma prevention. Subsequently implemented CDS functions continuously monitor ventilation parameters, and from 2015 triggered graphical notifications when tidal volume (V T ) violated individual thresholds. To estimate the effects of these educational and technical interventions, we retrospectively analyzed nine years of V T records from routine care. As outcome measures, we calculated relative frequencies of settings that conform to recommendations, case-specific mean excess V T , and total ICU survival. Assessing 571,478 V T records from 10,241 ICU cases indicated that adherence during pressure-controlled ventilation improved significantly after both interventions; the share of conforming V T records increased from 61.6% to 83.0% and then 86.0%. Despite increasing case severity, ICU survival remained nearly constant over time. Staff training effectively improves adherence to lung-protective ventilation strategies. The observed CDS effect seemed less pronounced, although it can easily be adapted to new recommendations. Both interventions, which futures studies could deploy in combination, promise to improve the precision of mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sun protection among Spanish beachgoers: knowledge, attitude and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p = 0.032), educational level (p < 0.0001), sunscreen use (p = 0.048) and adequate timing of the first application of sunscreens (p = 0.015) were predictors of awareness, while factors associated with a more favourable attitude were educational level (p < 0.0001) and regular use of hats (p = 0.001). Wrong beliefs mainly concern sunscreens (false safety); the attractiveness of a tanned look is the main unfavourable attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population.

  6. Protein quality control in protection against systolic overload cardiomyopathy: the long term role of small heat shock proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarapeli, Asangi R K; Horak, Kathleen; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-07-21

    Molecular chaperones represent the first line of defense of intracellular protein quality control. As a major constituent of molecular chaperones, heat shock proteins (HSP) are known to confer cardiomyocyte short-term protection against various insults and injuries. Previously, we reported that the small HSP alphaB-crystallin (CryAB) attenuates cardiac hypertrophic response in mice subjected to 2 weeks of severe pressure overload. However, the long-term role of small HSPs in cardiac hypertrophy and failure has rarely been studied. The present study investigates the cardiac responses to chronic severe pressure overload in CryAB/HSPB2 germ line ablated (KO) and cardiac-specific CryAB overexpressingtransgenic (TG) mice. Pressure overload was induced by transverse aortic constriction in KO, TG, and non-transgenic wild type (NTG) control mice and 10 weeks later molecular, cellular, and whole organ level hypertrophic responses were analyzed. As we previously described, CryAB/HSPB2 KO mice showed abnormal baseline cardiac physiology that worsened into a restrictive cardiomyopathic phenotype with aging. Severe pressure overload in these mice led to rapid deterioration of heart function and development of congestive cardiac failure. Contrary to their short term protective phenotype, CryAB TG mice showed no significant effects on cardiac hypertrophic responses and very modest improvement of hemodynamics during chronic systolic overload. These findings indicate that small HSPs CryAB and/or HSPB2 are essential to maintain cardiac structure and function but overex-pression of CryAB is not sufficient to confer a sustained protection against chronic systolic overload.

  7. Child sun protection: sun-related attitudes mediate the association between children's knowledge and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian

    2008-12-01

    To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex-year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours.

  8. Sun protection and skin self-examination in melanoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujumdar, Urvi J; Hay, Jennifer L; Monroe-Hinds, Yvette C; Hummer, Amanda J; Begg, Colin B; Wilcox, Homer B; Oliveria, Susan A; Berwick, Marianne

    2009-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with melanoma are at risk for developing recurrent and second primary disease. Skin self-examination (SSE) and sun protection are standard clinical recommendations to minimize risk. In this study we examined performance of these behaviors in individuals with melanoma drawn from the general population. Potential participants (N=148) with a first primary melanoma diagnosed in 2000 were identified through a population-based cancer registry in New Jersey, USA. One hundred and fifteen individuals participated in a 30 min telephone interview concerning behavioral adherence with SSE and sun protection, self-efficacy for performing these behaviors, and perceived risk of developing another skin cancer. We utilized logistic regression to estimate potential associations of demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors with SSE and sun protection, respectively. Seventeen percent of subjects reported performing comprehensive SSE at least once every two months and 23% engaged in regular sun protection. Utilization of SSE was related to the presence of moles (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 1.1-15) and higher SSE self-efficacy (OR=14.4, 95% CI: 1.9-112). Regular sun protection was related to older age (>60 years; OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.7), being female (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.3), and higher sun protection self-efficacy (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 1.4-18). These factors remained significant in multivariate models. In this group of primary melanoma survivors, the rates of SSE and sun protection are comparable to, but do not exceed, general population estimates. This study provides justification for further research to address barriers to prevention and control behaviors in melanoma survivors.

  9. Long-term evaluation of mucosal and systemic immunity and protection conferred by different polio booster vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuhong; Daniell, Henry

    2017-09-25

    Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) have distinct advantages and limitations. IPV does not provide mucosal immunity and introduction of IPV to mitigate consequences of circulating vaccine-derived polio virus from OPV has very limited effect on transmission and OPV campaigns are essential for interrupting wild polio virus transmission, even in developed countries with a high coverage of IPV and protected sewer systems. The problem is magnified in many countries with limited resources. Requirement of refrigeration for storage and transportation for both IPV and OPV is also a major challenge in developing countries. Therefore, we present here long-term studies on comparison of a plant-based booster vaccine, which is free of virus and cold chain with IPV boosters and provide data on mucosal and systemic immunity and protection conferred by neutralizing antibodies. Mice were primed subcutaneously with IPV and boosted orally with lyophilized plant cells containing 1μg or 25μg polio viral protein 1 (VP1), once a month for three months or a single booster one year after the first prime. Our results show that VP1-IgG1 titers in single or double dose IPV dropped to background levels after one year of immunization. This decrease correlated with >50% reduction in seropositivity in double dose and <10% seropositivity in single dose IPV against serotype 1. Single dose IPV offered no or minimal protection against serotype 1 and 2 but conferred protection against serotype 3. VP1-IgA titers were negligible in IPV single or double dose vaccinated mice. VP1 antigen with two plant-derived adjuvants induced significantly high level and long lasting VP1-IgG1, IgA and neutralizing antibody titers (average 4.3-6.8 log2 titers). Plant boosters with VP1 and plant derived adjuvants maintained the same level titers from 29 to 400days and conferred the same level of protection against all three serotypes throughout the duration of this study. Even during period, when

  10. Energy Efficiency in Building as a Basic Prerequisite for a Long Term Energy Strategies Realization, Environmental Protection and Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscevic, Lj.

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency in buildings at the low-energy and 'passive house' standard levels is presently the basic prerequisite for considering and formulating long term strategies, which with the task of meeting energy needs and system maintenance respond to requests of environmental protection and improvements in the context of sustainable development. Orientation to sustainable development is integrated in the development strategies of Croatia. The application of renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy in passive and active systems in the architecture is permanently confirmed by conducting energy monitoring and growing number of domestic studies, projects and realizations. The long-time research project of the European Union Cost Efficient Passive Houses as European Standards (CEPHEUS) with scientific monitoring corroborated energy and economic efficiency of such architectural designs in Germany, France, Austria, and Switzerland. Thus, the 'passive house' is proposed as a standard of residential architecture, but also of the construction of other functional types of architecture in general. The accomplished energy efficiency and verified favorable profitability of investment developed new forms of incentives to low-energy and passive architecture and relevant changes in concepts of long term energy strategies in the European Union member states. In Austria the 1000th passive house was built, and the city of Frankfurt/M brought decision regarding financing building construction through the city budget at the 'passive house' level. The new Technical Regulation on energy savings and thermal protection in Croatia, which is effectively in force as of 1 July, is a long-awaited step towards energy efficiency. Although, according to this Regulation the tolerance in energy use for space heating goes, in worst case calculation, up to 89 kWh/m2 a year, any other more favorable calculation with obligation to calculate the share of solar radiation for buildings, opens

  11. The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, Vish; Rutsch, Linda; Zwirn, Jodie; Gorham, Sue; Puleo, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of…

  12. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  13. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  14. Inactivated Influenza Vaccine That Provides Rapid, Innate-Immune-System-Mediated Protection and Subsequent Long-Term Adaptive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Brendon Y; Wong, Chinn Yi; Mifsud, Edin J; Edenborough, Kathryn M; Sekiya, Toshiki; Tan, Amabel C L; Mercuri, Francesca; Rockman, Steve; Chen, Weisan; Turner, Stephen J; Doherty, Peter C; Kelso, Anne; Brown, Lorena E; Jackson, David C

    2015-10-27

    exposure to infectious agents, while adaptive immunity takes several days to become effective. Here we show, by using a simple lipopeptide-based TLR2 agonist, that an influenza detergent-split vaccine can be made to simultaneously stimulate and amplify both systems to provide immediate antiviral protection while giving the adaptive immune system time to implement long-term immunity. Both types of immunity induced by this approach protect against vaccine-matched as well as unrelated virus strains and potentially even against strains yet to be encountered. Conferring dual functionality to influenza vaccines is beneficial for improving community protection, particularly during periods between the onset of an outbreak and the time when a vaccine becomes available or in scenarios in which mass vaccination with a strain to which the population is immunologically naive is imperative. Copyright © 2015 Chua et al.

  15. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Changes in gene expression caused by insect venom immunotherapy responsible for the long-term protection of insect venom-allergic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bruinenberg, Marcel; de Monchy, Jan; Weersma, Rinse K.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Jassem, Ewa; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.

    Background: Insect venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the only causative treatment of insect venom allergy (IVA). The immunological mechanism(s) responsible for long-term protection achieved by VIT are largely unknown. A better understanding is relevant for improving the diagnosis, prediction of

  17. Skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Medine; Yavuz, Betul; Subasi, Media; Kartal, Asiye; Celebioglu, Aysun; Kacar, Halime; Adana, Filiz; Ozyurek, Pakize; Altiparmak, Saliha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine skin cancer knowledge and sun protection behavior among nursing students. A total of 1178 nursing students in the Aegean Region of Turkey took part in this descriptive study. A score for knowledge on protection against skin cancer and a score for protective behavior against skin cancer were calculated. In this study, first year students sunbathed more in the middle of the day than fourth year students, and their knowledge of skin cancer was lower. No statistical difference was determined for protective behavior between the two groups. The knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year students were alarmingly low, but the average scores for knowledge and behavior of the fourth year university students were higher. The knowledge levels of the fourth year students were average but their protective behavior was insufficient. It was found that the knowledge levels and the levels of protective behavior of light-skinned students were higher. This study revealed that the knowledge levels and protective behavior of first year nursing students against the harmful effects of the sun and for protection against skin cancer were alarmingly low. It also showed that the knowledge levels of the fourth year nursing students were average, but that their protective behavior was very insufficient. These findings suggest that it is of extreme importance to acquire knowledge and behavior for protection against skin cancers in the education of nursing students. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  18. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  19. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  20. Changed cerebral microcirculation in a long-term period following irradiation under the conditions of gammaphos protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnikova, E D; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Ehjdus, L Kh [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1983-07-01

    A study was made of the influence of prophylactic administration of gammaphos (300 mg/kg) on radiation alterations in the system of cerebral microcirculation of rats in a long-term period following local irradiation of doses of 40-60 Gy. It has been shown that the number of animals with severe vascular injuries and the degree of these injuries lessen. Gammaphos administration weakens a decrease in the mean number of vessels and an increase in their average size caused by irradiation.

  1. Mediation analysis of decisional balance, sun avoidance and sunscreen use in the precontemplation and preparation stages for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Mediation analyses of sun protection were conducted testing structural equation models using longitudinal data with three waves. An effect was said to be mediated if the standardised path between processes of change, decisional balance and sun protection outcomes was significant. Longitudinal models of sun protection using data from individuals in the precontemplation (N = 964) and preparation (N = 463) stages who participated of an expert system intervention. Nine processes of change for sun protection, decisional balance constructs of sun protection (pros and cons), sun avoidance behaviour and sunscreen use. With the exception of two processes in the preparation stage, processes of change predicted the pros (r = .126-.614), and the pros predicted the outcomes (r = .181-.272). Three models with the cons as mediator in the preparation stage, and none in the precontemplation stage, showed a mediated relationship between processes and outcomes. In general, mediation analyses found both the process of change-to-pros and pros-to-behaviour paths significant for both precontemplation and preparation stages, and for both sun avoidance and sunscreen use outcomes. Findings provide support for the importance of assessing the role of underlying risk cognitions in improving sun protection adherence.

  2. Sun protection policies and practices in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Jopson, Janet A; Gray, Andrew

    2012-02-10

    For schools with primary age students, to report the percentages meeting specific requirements of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP). Schools were randomly selected, within geographic regions, from the Ministry of Education schools database. A questionnaire, mailed to school principals, assessed schools regarding 12 criteria for accreditation: policy, information, hats, 'play in the shade', sunscreen, clothing, role modelling, curriculum, planning, rescheduling, shade provision and review. Post-stratification weights (for achieving each criterion) were used to compensate for oversampling within some regions and differential response rates between regions, using the number of schools per region. 388 schools (representative in socioeconomic decile, size and type) participated. Less than 4% fully met accreditation criteria. Clothing (42%), curriculum delivery and shade (each 54%) requirements were met by the fewest schools. Staff role modelling (92%) was the most commonly met. Schools with uniforms tended to have more protective clothing expectations. Ongoing promotion is needed to consolidate gains and encourage comprehensive sun protection through policies, practices, environment and curriculum. Staff role modelling requirements may be strengthened by implementing existing occupational guidelines for mitigating UVR hazards. There is a need to further assist schools, particularly regarding sun protective clothing, curriculum delivery and environmental shade.

  3. Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; Flander, L B; Cook, C N

    2015-02-01

    Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with sun protection compliance: results from a nationwide cross-sectional evaluation of 2215 patients from a dermatological consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, U; Thellier, S; Sibaud, V; Taïeb, C; Mery, S; Paul, C; Meyer, N

    2014-06-01

    Campaigns designed to promote sun protection often fail to induce long-term changes in behaviour. There is limited information on patients with low compliance to sun protection recommendations from dermatologists. To characterize dermatology patients at higher risk of low compliance to sun protection measures, and to investigate the relationship between sun protection behaviour, knowledge about accurate sun protection recommendations, ultraviolet (UV)-associated risks and level of UV exposure. An anonymous self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed by dermatologists to patients receiving a sunscreen prescription. Four domains were explored: sun protection behaviour, sun protection knowledge, level of UV exposure and knowledge about UV-associated risks. We modelled sun protection behaviour and determined factors associated with low compliance to sun protection measures. In total 2215 questionnaires were analysed. Patients stratified by risk who better complied with sun protection measures had a better knowledge of UV-associated risks (mean score 14·45 ± 3·20 vs. 12·75 ± 3·29 and 11·20 ± 3·80, P protection measures (mean score 12·08 ± 2·79 vs. 10·68 ± 3·11 and 9·00 ± 3·63, P protection measures also reported higher levels of sun exposure (mean score 4·24 ± 2·26 vs. 4·02 ± 2·05 and 3·34 ± 2·14, P protection behaviour were age below 20 or over 64 years, male sex, lower knowledge about accurate sun protection recommendations and UV-associated risks, and low UV exposure. This study shows the complex relationship between UV exposure, knowledge about UV-associated risks, and knowledge about sun protection recommendations and behaviour. Future skin cancer prevention programmes should focus on specific populations with low sun protection behaviour and high UV exposure. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Testing and Labelling of Sun Protective Clothing for Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, R.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest shown in the protective properties of clothing against the harmful effects of UV radiation from the sun. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising in many parts of the world, but especially in Australia and northern Europe. This is due to a number of factors including changing lifestyles, perceptions of the 'tanned image' and ozone depletion. Initial research was carried out in Australia where a test method for fabrics was formulated with a classification procedure. A number of European countries have taken up this initiative including the UK which earlier last year produced their own test method - BS 7914:1998. The European Union are now in the final stages of formulating the test method to be used by all member countries. Further work has also been carried out by BSI to investigate the complex aspects of labelling criteria in respect of garments. This has culminated in the recent publication (i.e. July 1999) of another standard - BS 7949:1999 - entitled 'Children's Clothing Requirements for Protection against Erythemally Weighted Solar Ultraviolet Radiation'. Other, more difficult parameters not yet covered in any of the published standards are still to be evaluated. These include the changes in the sun protection properties of textiles in a wet and/or stretched condition (precisely the state of many garments worn in the sun) and the requirements for products such as sun-shades and parasols where the measurement of UV reflectance is also very relevant. This current situation is reviewed and those aspects highlighted where resources for investigative research are needed, particularly by textile manufacturers and retailers. (author)

  6. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. To protect or not to protect: examining reasons for sun protection among young women at risk for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, M V; Heckman, C J; Darlow, S

    2018-03-27

    We aimed to further the understanding of the low rates of sun protection in young women at risk for skin cancer. Six-hundred-sixty-one daily diary entries were received via text message over 14 days from 56 young women at moderate to high risk of developing skin cancer. Women reported whether or not they used sun protection and also listed what their reasons were for using protection or not using sun protection each day. Multi-level modeling was used to examine the influence of study variables when predicting daily sun protection or lack of protection. The number of days in which sun protection was reported was positively associated with "habit" and "prevention" as reasons for protection and negatively associated with "not-needed" and "unprepared" as reasons for non-protection. Self-reported sun protection increased over the 14-day study period. Results of this study suggest the potential value of interventions aimed at motives for sun-protection behaviors.

  8. Surface protection of inner shells of cooling towers. Positive long-term experience with coating systems.; Oberflaechenschutz von Kuehlturminnenschalen. Positive Langzeiterfahrungen mit Beschichtungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, Peer [MC-Bauchemie Mueller GmbH und Co.KG, Bottrop (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Natural-draught cooling tower are modern power plant components with great importance for safe and reliable power supply. Due to the complex effects of operating and environmental conditions especially on the inner shell, the concrete must be protected by special resin-based surface coating systems. Parallel to the development of the power plant technology, also the coating systems are under constant improvement in order to ensure reliable and permanent protection. The positive long-term experience suggests that power plant operators may rely on a high level of safety here. (orig.)

  9. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis. We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes (562.11 and 562.13), and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06) and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008) in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98), and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86) for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively. The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  10. Long-term use of steroids protects from the development of symptomatic diverticulitis requiring hospitalization in the Asian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Shong Chang

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of diverticulitis is poorly understood. Factors such as physical inactivity, constipation, obesity, smoking, and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of diverticular disease. To evaluate whether patients exhibiting long-term steroid use are at increased risk of colonic diverticulitis.We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Data were retrospectively collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised patients diagnosed with diverticulitis, identified using inpatient discharge records using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM codes (562.11 and 562.13, and those who were administered one or more prescriptions for corticosteroids for systemic use. Control patients were matched to cases by age, sex, NSAID use, laxative drug use, and index date. We enrolled 690 patients with colonic diverticulitis and 2760 in the control group. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using conditional logistic regression.Compared with steroid nonusers, the adjusted ORs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.35-1.06 and 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64-1.008 in current steroid users and previous steroid users, respectively. In addition, the adjusted ORs were 0.55 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, 0.57 (95% CI = 0.31-0.98, and 0.44 (95% CI = 0.22-0.86 for steroid use duration more than half time by an exposure period of 90 days, 180 days, and 365 days before the claim date of colonic diverticulitis, respectively.The results indicated that long-term steroid use within one year is associated with lower risk of colonic diverticulitis.

  11. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nicola J; Balmanno, Kathryn; Cook, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  12. ERK1/2 signalling protects against apoptosis following endoplasmic reticulum stress but cannot provide long-term protection against BAX/BAK-independent cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J Darling

    Full Text Available Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER causes ER stress. Activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR acts to restore protein homeostasis or, if ER stress is severe or persistent, drive apoptosis, which is thought to proceed through the cell intrinsic, mitochondrial pathway. Indeed, cells that lack the key executioner proteins BAX and BAK are protected from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Here we show that chronic ER stress causes the progressive inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 signalling pathway. This is causally related to ER stress since reactivation of ERK1/2 can protect cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis whilst ERK1/2 pathway inhibition sensitises cells to ER stress. Furthermore, cancer cell lines harbouring constitutively active BRAFV600E are addicted to ERK1/2 signalling for protection against ER stress-induced cell death. ERK1/2 signalling normally represses the pro-death proteins BIM, BMF and PUMA and it has been proposed that ER stress induces BIM-dependent cell death. We found no evidence that ER stress increased the expression of these proteins; furthermore, BIM was not required for ER stress-induced death. Rather, ER stress caused the PERK-dependent inhibition of cap-dependent mRNA translation and the progressive loss of pro-survival proteins including BCL2, BCLXL and MCL1. Despite these observations, neither ERK1/2 activation nor loss of BAX/BAK could confer long-term clonogenic survival to cells exposed to ER stress. Thus, ER stress induces cell death by at least two biochemically and genetically distinct pathways: a classical BAX/BAK-dependent apoptotic response that can be inhibited by ERK1/2 signalling and an alternative ERK1/2- and BAX/BAK-independent cell death pathway.

  13. Formulation of a topical sun protection cream for people with albinism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to design and develop a sun protection product for people with albinism that is affordable, applicable to their specific skin condition, and provide them with the maximum sun protection possible. To achieve the required Sun Protection Factor value of > 20, simple creams were combined with ...

  14. How to Improve Adolescents' Sun Protection Behavior? Age and Gender Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…

  15. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight......-blind study in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy volunteers, 8 male and 15 female, were enrolled. The protective effect of three different doses of melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight was tested. All participants had their backs exposed to sun from 1:22 PM.......5% concentrations. CONCLUSION: Application of melatonin cream 12.5% protects against natural sunlight induced erythema....

  16. Gene therapy strategy for long-term myocardial protection using adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of heme oxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luis G; Agrawal, Reitu; Zhang, Lunan; Rezvani, Mojgan; Mangi, Abeel A; Ehsan, Afshin; Griese, Daniel P; Dell'Acqua, Giorgio; Mann, Michael J; Oyama, Junichi; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Layne, Matthew D; Perrella, Mark A; Dzau, Victor J

    2002-02-05

    Ischemia and oxidative stress are the leading mechanisms for tissue injury. An ideal strategy for preventive/protective therapy would be to develop an approach that could confer long-term transgene expression and, consequently, tissue protection from repeated ischemia/reperfusion injury with a single administration of a therapeutic gene. In the present study, we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) as a vector for direct delivery of the cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) into the rat myocardium, with the purpose of evaluating this strategy as a therapeutic approach for long-term protection from ischemia-induced myocardial injury. Human HO-1 gene (hHO-1) was delivered to normal rat hearts by intramyocardial injection. AAV-mediated transfer of the hHO-1 gene 8 weeks before acute coronary artery ligation and release led to a dramatic reduction (>75%) in left ventricular myocardial infarction. The reduction in infarct size was accompanied by decreases in myocardial lipid peroxidation and in proapoptotic Bax and proinflammatory interleukin-1beta protein abundance, concomitant with an increase in antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein level. This suggested that the transgene exerts its cardioprotective effects in part by reducing oxidative stress and associated inflammation and apoptotic cell death. This study documents the beneficial therapeutic effect of rAAV-mediated transfer, before myocardial injury, of a cytoprotective gene that confers long-term myocardial protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Our data suggest that this novel "pre-event" gene transfer approach may provide sustained tissue protection from future repeated episodes of injury and may be beneficial as preventive therapy for patients with or at risk of developing coronary ischemic events.

  17. Bias in protected-area location and its effects on long-term aspirations of biodiversity conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Oscar; Magrach, Ainhoa; Outram, Nick; Klein, Carissa Joy; Possingham, Hugh P; Di Marco, Moreno; Watson, James E M

    2018-02-01

    To contribute to the aspirations of recent international biodiversity conventions, protected areas (PAs) must be strategically located and not simply established on economically marginal lands as they have in the past. With refined international commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity to target protected areas in places of "importance to biodiversity," perhaps they may now be. We analyzed location biases in PAs globally over historic (pre-2004) and recent periods. Specifically, we examined whether the location of protected areas are more closely associated with high concentrations of threatened vertebrate species or with areas of low agricultural opportunity costs. We found that both old and new protected areas did not target places with high concentrations of threatened vertebrate species. Instead, they appeared to be established in locations that minimize conflict with agriculturally suitable lands. This entrenchment of past trends has substantial implications for the contributions these protected areas are making to international commitments to conserve biodiversity. If protected-area growth from 2004 to 2014 had strategically targeted unrepresented threatened vertebrates, >30 times more species (3086 or 2553 potential vs. 85 actual new species represented) would have been protected for the same area or the same cost as the actual expansion. With the land available for conservation declining, nations must urgently focus new protection on places that provide for the conservation outcomes outlined in international treaties. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Parental use of sun protection for their children-does skin color matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Marcus G; Nag, Shudeshna; Weinstein, Miriam

    2018-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. This study aimed to compare the frequency of ideal sun protection use between parents with lighter- and darker-skinned children and explore their attitudes and beliefs on sun safety and their choice of sun protection. Parents of children aged 6 months to 6 years completed self-administered questionnaires about sun protection practices for their children. Parents assessed their child's Fitzpatrick phototype and were divided into lighter- (Fitzpatrick phototype I-III) and darker-skinned (Fitzpatrick phototype IV-VI) groups. Sun safety guidelines from the Canadian Dermatology Association were used to qualify ideal sun protection. A total of 183 parents were included. Overall, 31 parents (17%) used ideal sun protection for their children. As their children grew older, parents were less likely to use ideal sun protection (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.53-0.90). Parents in the lighter-skinned group were more likely to use ideal sun protection for their children (odds ratio = 7.4, 95% confidence interval = 2.7-20.1), believe that sun exposure was harmful (odds ratio = 17.2, 95% confidence interval = 4.0-74.9), and perceive value in sun protection (odds ratio = 11.4, 95% confidence interval = 3.3-39.0); the darker-skinned group believed that darker skin tones provided more sun protection (odds ratio = 12.4, 95% confidence interval = 6.1-25.4). Ideal parental sun protection efforts are overall low, particularly in parents of darker-skinned children. The identified attitudes toward and beliefs about sun safety may aid in delivery of future sun protection interventions, especially in multiracial populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Long-term change of protective forest during the past four decades at Dongshan Island, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Yan, Jing; Shang, Shaoling

    2017-02-01

    The Dongshan Island is a typical protective forest area of the southeastern coastal region of China. In this work, we extract the variation of the Dongshan Island’s protective forest area since the 1970s from the remote sensing data of the LandSAT and the Chinese HJ 1A/B satellites, and we examined the possible reasons for the variation. The results showed that the maximum likelihood classification of the extracted remote sensing data of the Dongshan Island coastal protective forest had a total accuracy of 92.6%. In the last 40 years, the area of the Dongshan Island coastal protective forest experienced a waving variation of decrease (1973-1984), increase (1984-1999) and decrease (1999-2008), in which human activity was the predominant impact factor for this fluctuation pattern. Since the early 1960s to the 1980s, due to the Cultural Revolution and the later deforestation and land reclamation activities, the protective forest of Dongshan Island was severely damaged. The total area declined sharply from 2134.4 ha in 1964 to 1515.74 ha in 1984, and the northern area of the island had the most significant decrease. After 1988, the Fujian Province began to aggressively establish the coastal protective forest system, and the protective forest acreage increased significantly to 3370.22 ha in 1999, an increase of nearly 1.2 times based on the figure of 1984. In the past five years, the area of protective forest declined slightly again, mainly because of the natural aging of the protective forest ecosystem, tourism development and the booming aquaculture industry.

  20. Rock riprap design methods and their applicability to long-term protection of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.

    1982-08-01

    This report reviews the more accepted or recommended riprap design methods currently used to design rock riprap protection against soil erosion by flowing water. The basic theories used to develop the various methods are presented. The Riprap Design with Safety Factors Method is identified as the logical choice for uranium mill tailings impoundments. This method is compared to the other methods and its applicability to the protection requirements of tailings impoundments is discussed. Other design problems are identified and investigative studies recommended

  1. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Barbara; Zani, Fabio; Breasson, Ludovic; Sardi, Claudia; D'Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Choo, Min-Kyung; Provenzani, Alessandro; Park, Jin Mo; Solinas, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress, which may be implicated in the progression of obesity-related diseases. The kinase JNK1 has emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. JNK1 is also a key mediator of the oxidative stress response, which can promote cell death or survival, depending on the magnitude and context of its activation. In this article, we describe a study in which the long-term effects of JNK1 inactivation on glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in obese mice were investigated for the first time. Mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1(-/-)) were fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) for a long period. JNK1(-/-) mice fed an HFD for the long term had reduced expression of antioxidant genes in their skin, more skin oxidative damage, and increased epidermal thickness and inflammation compared with the effects in control wild-type mice. However, we also observed that the protection from obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, steatosis, and insulin resistance, conferred by JNK1 ablation, was sustained over a long period and was paralleled by decreased oxidative damage in fat and liver. We conclude that compounds targeting JNK1 activity in brain and adipose tissue, which do not accumulate in the skin, may be safer and most effective.-Becattini, B., Zani, F., Breasson, L., Sardi, C., D'Agostino, V. G., Choo, M.-K., Provenzani, A., Park, J. M., Solinas, G. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage. © FASEB.

  3. Short and long-term soy diet vs. casein protects liver steatosis independent of the arginine content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the major cause of abnormal liver function, is often associated with obesity. Arginine (ARG) plays a role in modulating body weight/fat, but there are limited data as to the role that ARG may play in soy protein’s ability to protect from liver steatosis. Th...

  4. Validity and Stability of the Decisional Balance for Sun Protection Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Qing Yin; Joseph S. Rossi; Colleen A. Redding; Andrea L. Paiva; Steven F. Babbin; Wayne F. Velicer

    2014-01-01

    The 8-item Decisional Balance for sun protection inventory (SunDB) assesses the relative importance of the perceived advantages (Pros) and disadvantages (Cons) of sun protective behaviors. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SunDB measure, including invariance of the measurement model, in a population-based sample of N = 1336 adults. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the theoretically based 2-factor (Pros, Cons) model, with high internal consistencies for each subscale...

  5. The Adults in the Making program: long-term protective stabilizing effects on alcohol use and substance use problems for rural African American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Smith, Karen

    2012-02-01

    This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. African American youths (M age, pretest = 17.7 years) were assigned randomly to the AIM (n = 174) or control (n = 173) group. Past 3-month alcohol use, past 6-month substance use problems, risk taking, and susceptibility cognitions were assessed at pretest and at 6.4, 16.6, and 27.5 months after pretest. Pretest assessments of parent-child conflict, affiliations with substance-using companions, and perceived racial discrimination were used to construct a contextual risk factor index. A protective stabilizing hypothesis was supported; the long-term efficacy of AIM in preventing escalation of alcohol use and substance use problems was greater for youths with higher pretest contextual risk scores. Consistent with a mediation-moderation hypothesis, AIM-induced reductions over time in risk taking and susceptibility cognitions were responsible for the AIM × contextual risk prevention effects on alcohol use and substance use problems. Training in developmentally appropriate protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood for rural African Americans may contribute to a self-sustaining decreased interest in alcohol use and a lower likelihood of developing substance use problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Changes in gene expression caused by insect venom immunotherapy responsible for the long-term protection of insect venom-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Bruinenberg, Marcel; de Monchy, Jan; Weersma, Rinse K; Wijmenga, Cisca; Jassem, Ewa; Elberink, Joanne N G Oude

    2011-06-01

    Insect venom immunotherapy (VIT) is the only causative treatment of insect venom allergy (IVA). The immunological mechanism(s) responsible for long-term protection achieved by VIT are largely unknown. A better understanding is relevant for improving the diagnosis, prediction of anaphylaxis, and monitoring and simplifying treatment of IVA. To find genes that are differentially expressed during the maintenance phase of VIT and after stopping, to get clues about the pathways involved in the long-term protective effect of immunotherapy. Whole genome gene expression analysis was performed on RNA samples from 50 patients treated with VIT and 43 healthy controls. Patients were divided into three groups: (1) before the start of VIT; (2) on maintenance phase of VIT for at least 3 years still receiving injections; and (3) after VIT. Of all 48,804 probes present in the array, 48,773 transcripts had sufficient data for further analysis. The list of genes that were differentially expressed (at least log2 FC > 2; P Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction of long-term protective immune responses by influenza H5N1 virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Moo Kang

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus pose a threat of eventually causing a pandemic. Early vaccination of the population would be the single most effective measure for the control of an emerging influenza pandemic.Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs produced in insect cell-culture substrates do not depend on the availability of fertile eggs for vaccine manufacturing. We produced VLPs containing influenza A/Viet Nam1203/04 (H5N1 hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix proteins, and investigated their preclinical immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Mice immunized intranasally with H5N1 VLPs developed high levels of H5N1 specific antibodies and were 100% protected against a high dose of homologous H5N1 virus infection at 30 weeks after immunization. Protection is likely to be correlated with humoral and cellular immunologic memory at systemic and mucosal sites as evidenced by rapid anamnestic responses to re-stimulation with viral antigen in vivo and in vitro.These results provide support for clinical evaluation of H5N1 VLP vaccination as a public health intervention to mitigate a possible pandemic of H5N1 influenza.

  8. Sun protection training based on a theater play for preschoolers: an effective method for imparting knowledge on sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Nadja; Stoelzel, Friederike; Garzarolli, Marlene; Herrmann, Sandra; Breitbart, Eckhard Wilhelm; Berth, Hendrik; Baumann, Michael; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Sun protection in childhood is important to reduce the risk of developing skin cancer later in life. The "Periods-of-Life-Program" for primary prevention of skin cancer introduces a combination of individual and environmental interventions for the preschool period. Within this pilot study, an intervention group received cognitive-behavioral and environmental interventions. A control group had solely received the environmental intervention, and a wait-control group received no intervention. Nursery school children (n = 80, 3 to 6 years of age) of four nursery schools were randomly assigned to these groups on school level. The ability of the cognitive-behavioral intervention (a theater play) to enhance sun protection knowledge was examined. The theater play improved knowledge over all age groups (p < .05 η(2) = .06). Age-specific analyses showed better results for children aged 5 to 6 (p < .05 η(2) = .20) compared to children aged 3 to 4 years (p = .17 η(2) = .04). In combining cognitive-behavioral and environmental interventions, the "Periods-of-Life-Program" is a promising strategy for primary prevention of skin cancer.

  9. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  10. Defining ecologically relevant scales for spatial protection with long-term data on an endangered seabird and local prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Botha, Philna; Underhill, Les G; Ryan, Peter G; van Zyl, Danie; Cockcroft, Andrew C; Crawford, Robert J M; Dyer, Bruce M; Cook, Timothée R

    2017-12-01

    Human activities are important drivers of marine ecosystem functioning. However, separating the synergistic effects of fishing and environmental variability on the prey base of nontarget predators is difficult, often because prey availability estimates on appropriate scales are lacking. Understanding how prey abundance at different spatial scales links to population change can help integrate the needs of nontarget predators into fisheries management by defining ecologically relevant areas for spatial protection. We investigated the local population response (number of breeders) of the Bank Cormorant (Phalacrocorax neglectus), a range-restricted endangered seabird, to the availability of its prey, the heavily fished west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii). Using Bayesian state-space modeled cormorant counts at 3 colonies, 22 years of fisheries-independent data on local lobster abundance, and generalized additive modeling, we determined the spatial scale pertinent to these relationships in areas with different lobster availability. Cormorant numbers responded positively to lobster availability in the regions with intermediate and high abundance but not where regime shifts and fishing pressure had depleted lobster stocks. The relationships were strongest when lobsters 20-30 km offshore of the colony were considered, a distance greater than the Bank Cormorant's foraging range when breeding, and may have been influenced by prey availability for nonbreeding birds, prey switching, or prey ecology. Our results highlight the importance of considering the scale of ecological relationships in marine spatial planning and suggest that designing spatial protection around focal species can benefit marine predators across their full life cycle. We propose the precautionary implementation of small-scale marine protected areas, followed by robust assessment and adaptive-management, to confirm population-level benefits for the cormorants, their prey, and the wider ecosystem, without

  11. Variations in status of preparation of personal protective equipment for preventing norovirus gastroenteritis in long-term care facilities for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Saori; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-12-01

    Residents of long-term care facilities are highly susceptible to norovirus gastroenteritis, and each facility is concerned about the need to implement norovirus infection control. Among control measures, personal protective equipment (PPE), such as disposable gloves and masks, plays a major role in reducing infectious spread. However, the preparation status of PPE in facilities before infection outbreaks has not been reported. The aim was to clarify the implementation status of preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis and the cost of preparing the necessary PPE in long-term care facilities. A questionnaire survey of facilities affiliated with the Kyoto Prefecture and Osaka Prefecture branches of the Japan Association of Geriatric Health Services Facilities was conducted. The survey items were the characteristics of the facility, whether preventive measures had been implemented for norovirus gastroenteritis from October through the following March in both 2009 and 2010, and the quantities and unit prices of PPE prepared for preventive measures. Twenty-six (11.2%) of 232 surveyed facilities (as of August 2011) answered the survey. Among them, 24 (92.3%) in 2009 and 25 (96.2%) in 2010 reported having implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis, while 21 facilities (80.8%) in 2009 and 22 facilities (84.6%) in 2010 had prepared PPE. The median total cost for preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures was US $2601 (range US $221-9192) in 2009 and US $3904 (range US $305-6427) in 2010. Although the results need careful interpretation because of the low response rate, most of the surveyed long-term care facilities had implemented preventive measures for norovirus gastroenteritis. However, the cost of preparing the PPE needed for the preventive measures varied among the facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Efficacy of Soil-Applied Neonicotinoid Insecticides for Long-term Protection Against Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitley, David R; Herms, Daniel A; Davis, Terrance W

    2015-10-01

    Protection of green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) from the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, by soil applications of neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and dinotefuran) was tested at five locations between 2005 and 2013. Application rate and spring versus fall application dates were evaluated in tests with neighborhood street trees and in one plantation of 65 ash trees. Insecticide treatments of ash trees at all five sites were initiated as the leading edge of the EAB invasion began to kill the first ash trees at each location. Trees were treated and evaluated at each site for 4 to 7 yr. Spring applications of imidacloprid were more efficacious than fall applications. Application rates of 0.8 g a.i./cm dbh or greater per year gave a higher level of protection and were more consistent than rates of 0.56 g a.i./cm dbh per year or less. The number of years between the first observation of canopy loss due to EAB and death of most of the control trees varied from three to seven years among test sites, depending on how many non-treated ash trees were nearby. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Novel polymer materials for protecting crew and structural elements of orbital station against microorganisms attack throughout long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yu.; Rudenko, A.; Robota, L.; Koval, E.; Savelyeva, O.; Markovskaya, L.; Veselov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Novel polyurethanes, polyamidourethanes and polyurethane foams of stable to biocorrosion were synthesized. The polymers possess fungicidal/fungistatic and bactericidal/bacteriostatic activity. After the biological tests with using of mold fungi and yeasts, polymers totally keep their main exploitation characteristics: for most of polymers coefficients of strength and elasticity keeping are equal of 100%. Most of them possess the fungicidal properties of zero balls, according to the State Standard. Life-firmness investigation of the most aggressive extremophiles: mold fungi Penicillium and Aspergillus on the polymer surfaces showed that for some samples it made up from 3 to 10 days. Some polymers possess both anti-micotic and anti-bacterial action. Based on investigation results a special technological scheme of assured human protection against microorganisms attack in specific condition of his existence are to be elaborated.

  14. Protective Effects of Long Term Administration of Zinc on Bone Metabolism Parameters in Male Wistar Rats Treated with Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Najafi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Violent poisoning by cadmium in human is created through drinks or meals which have packed in the metallic tins with cadmium plating. The symptoms of variation in the mineral metabolism of bones are observed and different conditions maybe appeared. The toxic (poisonous effect due to cadmium can be neutralized by intervening zinc. This study has been designed to investigate the protective effects of zinc for reducing the poisonous effects due to cadmium on the metabolism in the parameters related to the bone in rat. Methods In this experimental study, 48 male rats of wistar species were distributed in eight experimental groups and tested in the investigative lab of Falavarjan university. These groups were received 0.5 cc physiological serum, 0.5 mg/kg Zinc, 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg Cadmium respectively and some groups were included in those were taken all there cadmium and zinc concentrations synchronously. Blood samples were taken in a 60 days period and those factors related to the bone metabolism were measured. The data were analyzed by 2-ANOVA Ways, complementary tests through software SPSS 16. Results The results showed that 0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg doses cadmium chloride caused to increase alkaline Phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and decrease albumin as compared with control group. Also, synchronous usage of all three cadmium chloride concentrations with zinc cause to decrease alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and increase albumin concentration. In a word, the other bone parameters have been significant in different cadmium and zinc doses (P < 0.05. Conclusions Findings showed that zinc can play a protective role on the metabolism parameters related to bone against to poisoning caused by cadmium.

  15. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  16. Phenotype and specificity of T cells in primary human cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy: IL-7Rpos long-term memory phenotype is associated with protection from vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Federico; Fornara, Chiara; Jarrossay, David; Furione, Milena; Arossa, Alessia; Spinillo, Arsenio; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Gerna, Giuseppe; Sallusto, Federica; Lilleri, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the major cause of birth defects and a precise definition of the HCMV-specific T-cell response in primary infection may help define reliable correlates of immune protection during pregnancy. In this study, a high throughput method was used to define the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for four HCMV proteins in the naïve compartment of seronegative subjects and the effector/memory compartments of subjects with primary/remote HCMV infection. The naïve repertoire displayed comparable frequencies of T cells that were reactive with HCMV structural (pp65, gB and the pentamer gHgLpUL128L) and non-structural (IE-1) proteins. Whereas, following natural infection, the majority of effector/memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognized either gB or IE-1, respectively, and pp65. The pattern of T cell reactivity was comparable at early and late stages of infection and in pregnant women with primary HCMV infection transmitting or not transmitting the virus to the fetus. At an early stage of primary infection, about 50% of HCMV-reactive CD4+ T cells were long-term IL-7Rpos memory cells, while 6-12 months later, the frequency of these cells increased to 70%, approaching 100% in remote infections. In contrast, only 10-20% of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells were long-term memory cells up to 12 months after infection onset, thereafter increasing to 70% in remote infections. Interestingly, a significantly higher frequency of HCMV-specific CD4+ T cells with a long-term IL-7Rpos memory phenotype was observed in non-transmitting compared to transmitting women. These findings indicate that immunodominance in HCMV infection is not predetermined in the naïve compartment, but is the result of virus-host interactions and suggest that prompt control of HCMV infection in pregnancy is associated with the rapid development of long-term IL-7Rpos memory HCMV-specific CD4+ T cells and a low risk of virus transmission to the fetus.

  17. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress in the brain caused by the long-term intake of aspartame by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamor, Isabela A; Ourique, Giovana M; Pês, Tanise S; Saccol, Etiane M H; Bressan, Caroline A; Scheid, Taína; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Llesuy, Susana F; Partata, Wânia A; Pavanato, Maria A

    2014-09-01

    Long-term intake of aspartame at the acceptable daily dose causes oxidative stress in rodent brain mainly due to the dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. N-Acetylcysteine provides the cysteine that is required for the production of GSH, being effective in treating disorders associated with oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine treatment (150 mg kg(-1), i.p.) on oxidative stress biomarkers in rat brain after chronic aspartame administration by gavage (40 mg kg(-1)). N-Acetylcysteine led to a reduction in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, and carbonyl protein levels, which were increased due to aspartame administration. N-Acetylcysteine also resulted in an elevation of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase activities, as well as non-protein thiols, and total reactive antioxidant potential levels, which were decreased after aspartame exposure. However, N-acetylcysteine was unable to reduce serum glucose levels, which were increased as a result of aspartame administration. Furthermore, catalase and glutathione S-transferase, whose activities were reduced due to aspartame treatment, remained decreased even after N-acetylcysteine exposure. In conclusion, N-acetylcysteine treatment may exert a protective effect against the oxidative damage in the brain, which was caused by the long-term consumption of the acceptable daily dose of aspartame by rats.

  18. Short term and long term radiation protection aspects of a nuclear accident: a Cd-Rom for a better stake holders' involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Badie, M.; Brenot, J.

    2002-01-01

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the Prefet, the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the gendarmerie and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described: professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the counter-measures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho-sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities?

  19. Two doses of bovine viral diarrhea virus DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation induce long-term protective immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Lawman, Zoe; Snider, Marlene; Wilson, Don; van den Hurk, Jan V; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew

    2013-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of major importance in cattle, so there is a need for new effective vaccines. DNA vaccines induce balanced immune responses and are relatively inexpensive and thus promising for both human and veterinary applications. In this study, newborn calves with maternal antibodies were vaccinated intramuscularly (i.m.) with a BVDV E2 DNA vaccine with the TriGrid Delivery System for i.m. delivery (TDS-IM). Two doses of this vaccine spaced 6 or 12 weeks apart were sufficient to induce significant virus-neutralizing antibody titers, numbers of activated T cells, and reduction in viral shedding and clinical presentations after BVDV-2 challenge. In contrast to the placebo-treated animals, the vaccinated calves did not lose any weight, which is an excellent indicator of the well-being of an animal and has a significant economic impact. Furthermore, the interval between the two vaccinations did not influence the magnitude of the immune responses or degree of clinical protection, and a third immunization was not necessary or beneficial. Since electroporation may enhance not only the magnitude but also the duration of immunity after DNA immunization, the interval between vaccination and challenge was extended in a second trial, which showed that two doses of this E2 DNA vaccine again significantly reduced clinical disease against BVDV for several months. These results are promising and support this technology for use against infectious diseases in cattle and large species, including humans, in general.

  20. Professional skippers' sun-protection knowledge and behavior in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Olivier; Bousser, Véronique; N'goala, Brigitte; Doloir, Anatole; Quist, Danièle; Derancourt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary inquiry, conducted on Martinique Island, sought to determine professional skippers' sun-protection knowledge and behavior. Fifty-two skippers (mean age: 41 years) completed a questionnaire; 39 (75 %) had a simple sunburn over the last 6 months and 3 (6%) severe sunburn; 54 (64%) declared achieving sun protection by wearing clothes during >90% of the day. Only 17% had used sun protection >90% of the time. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  1. Sun protection education for diverse audiences: need for skin cancer pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L.; Gordon, Elisa J.; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K.

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 wom...

  2. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  3. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  4. Parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding sun protection in children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Zoe; Greenfield, Sheila

    2018-02-01

    Childhood is a critical period for sun protection, when the skin is particularly susceptible to the carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet radiation. Children are dependent upon parents to implement sun protective measures. Existing qualitative research exploring parents' attitudes and beliefs underpinning children's sun protection is from Australia, which has the highest melanoma incidence rates globally, and thus benefits from widespread sun protection awareness campaigns. Parents' sun protective behaviour may, therefore, differ between Australia and the UK. This study investigates the topic in a UK context, using qualitative methodology to gain detailed insights into a relatively under-researched area. The aim of the study was to explore parents' knowledge and understanding of sun protection in children, and factors that motivate and challenge them in this area. Finally, it aimed to determine if and how ethnicity and skin type influence these attitudes and beliefs. Twenty-two semi-structured individual interviews were carried out with parents of children aged 5 years or younger, recruited from local nurseries. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged, each incorporating two to three sub-themes. 'Attitudes towards children's sun protection' refers to the fact that parents considered sun protection to be important for children, a finding which was consistent between different skin types. 'Sun protection practices' brings together several protective behaviours adopted in children and, to a lesser degree, in parents, and their associated disadvantages. 'Sun safety knowledge' refers to parents' awareness of the risks of sun exposure and the need for protection, and illustrates where gaps in knowledge exist, such as regarding the need for vitamin D, and the importance of vigilant sun protection even in the UK. Finally, 'motivating and facilitating factors' highlights motivations for sun protection in children, and factors that

  5. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G.; Higgins, P.J. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs

  6. ICRP Publication 111 - Application of the Commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, J; Bogdevitch, I; Gallego, E; Hedemann-Jensen, P; McEwan, A; Nisbet, A; Oudiz, A; Oudiz, T; Strand, P; Janssens, A; Lazo, T; Carr, Z; Sugier, A; Burns, P; Carboneras, P; Cool, D; Cooper, J; Kai, M; Lecomte, J-F; Liu, H; Massera, G; McGarry, A; Mrabit, K; Mrabit, M; Sjöblom, K-L; Tsela, A; Weiss, W

    2009-06-01

    In this report, the Commission provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas resulting from either a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency. The report considers the effects of such events on the affected population. This includes the pathways of human exposure, the types of exposed populations, and the characteristics of exposures. Although the focus is on radiation protection considerations, the report also recognises the complexity of post-accident situations, which cannot be managed without addressing all the affected domains of daily life, i.e. environmental, health, economic, social, psychological, cultural, ethical, political, etc. The report explains how the 2007 Recommendations apply to this type of existing exposure situation, including consideration of the justification and optimisation of protection strategies, and the introduction and application of a reference level to drive the optimisation process. The report also considers practical aspects of the implementation of protection strategies, both by authorities and the affected population. It emphasises the effectiveness of directly involving the affected population and local professionals in the management of the situation, and the responsibility of authorities at both national and local levels to create the conditions and provide the means favouring the involvement and empowerment of the population. The role of radiation monitoring, health surveillance, and the management of contaminated foodstuffs and other commodities is described in this perspective. The Annex summarises past experience of longterm contaminated areas resulting from radiation emergencies and nuclear accidents, including radiological criteria followed in carrying out remediation measures.

  7. Long term protection after immunization with P. berghei sporozoites correlates with sustained IFNγ responses of hepatic CD8+ memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganou-Makamdop, Krystelle; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Arens, Theo; Hermsen, Cornelus C; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Protection against P. berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS), resulting in complete intra-hepatic parasite development before killing of blood-stages by chloroquine takes place. We assessed the longevity of protective cellular immune responses by RAS and CPS P. berghei immunization of C57BL/6j mice. Strong effector and memory (T(EM)) CD8+ T cell responses were induced predominantly in the liver of both RAS and CPS immunized mice while CD4+ T cells with memory phenotype remained at base line levels. Compared to unprotected naïve mice, we found high sporozoite-specific IFNγ ex vivo responses that associated with induced levels of in vivo CD8+ T(EM) cells in the liver but not spleen. Long term evaluation over a period of 9 months showed a decline of malaria-specific IFNγ responses in RAS and CPS mice that significantly correlated with loss of protection (r(2) = 0.60, pmemory CD8+ T cells could be boosted by re-exposure to wild-type sporozoites. Our data show that sustainable protection against malaria associates with distinct intra-hepatic immune responses characterized by strong IFNγ producing CD8+ memory T cells.

  8. Long term protection after immunization with P. berghei sporozoites correlates with sustained IFNγ responses of hepatic CD8+ memory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystelle Nganou-Makamdop

    Full Text Available Protection against P. berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS, resulting in complete intra-hepatic parasite development before killing of blood-stages by chloroquine takes place. We assessed the longevity of protective cellular immune responses by RAS and CPS P. berghei immunization of C57BL/6j mice. Strong effector and memory (T(EM CD8+ T cell responses were induced predominantly in the liver of both RAS and CPS immunized mice while CD4+ T cells with memory phenotype remained at base line levels. Compared to unprotected naïve mice, we found high sporozoite-specific IFNγ ex vivo responses that associated with induced levels of in vivo CD8+ T(EM cells in the liver but not spleen. Long term evaluation over a period of 9 months showed a decline of malaria-specific IFNγ responses in RAS and CPS mice that significantly correlated with loss of protection (r(2 = 0.60, p<0.0001. The reducing IFNγ response by hepatic memory CD8+ T cells could be boosted by re-exposure to wild-type sporozoites. Our data show that sustainable protection against malaria associates with distinct intra-hepatic immune responses characterized by strong IFNγ producing CD8+ memory T cells.

  9. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  10. Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe. PMID:21338483

  11. The Validity Chlorophyll-a Estimation by Sun Induced Fluorescence in Estuarine Waters: An Analysis of Long-term (2003-2011) Water Quality Data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Madrinan, Max Jacobo; Fischer, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observation of phytoplankton concentration or chlorophyll-a is an important characteristic, critically integral to monitoring coastal water quality. However, the optical properties of estuarine and coastal waters are highly variable and complex and pose a great challenge for accurate analysis. Constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter and the overlapping and uncorrelated absorptions in the blue region of the spectrum renders the blue-green ratio algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a inaccurate. Measurement of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, on the other hand, which utilizes the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, may provide a better estimate of phytoplankton concentrations. While modelling and laboratory studies have illustrated both the utility and limitations of satellite baseline algorithms based on the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence signal, few have examined the empirical validity of these algorithms using a comprehensive long term in situ data set. In an unprecedented analysis of a long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), we assess the validity of the FLH product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) against chlorophyll ]a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions within the estuary including water depth, distance from shore and structures and eight water quality parameters. From the 39 station for which data was derived, 22 stations showed significant correlations when the FLH product was matched with in situ chlorophyll-alpha data. The correlations (r2) for individual stations within Tampa Bay ranged between 0.67 (n=28, pless than 0.01) and-0.457 (n=12, p=.016), indicating that

  12. Systems, strategies, and interventions for sustainable long-term care and protection of children with a history of living outside of family care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, John D; Goldman, Philip S; Shriberg, Janet; Hillis, Susan D; Yun, Katherine; Allison, Susannah; Light, Enid

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews the available evidence regarding the efficacy, effectiveness, ethics, and sustainability of approaches to strengthen systems to care for and protect children living outside family care in low- and middle-income countries. For trafficked children, children of and on the street, children of conflict/disaster, and institutionalized children, a systems framework approach was used to organize the topic of sustainable approaches in low- and middle-income countries and addresses the following: legislation, policies, and regulations; system structures and functions (formal and informal); and continuum of care and services. The article draws on the findings of a focal group convened by the U.S. Government Evidence Summit: Protecting Children Outside of Family Care (December 12-13, 2011, Washington, DC), tasked with reviewing the literature on systems, strategies, and interventions for sustainable long-term care and protection of children with a history of living outside of family care in low- and middle-income country contexts. The specific methodology for the review is described in the commentary paper (Higgs, Zlidar, & Balster, 2012) that accompanies these papers. For the most part, the evidence base in support of sustainable long-term care for the populations of interest is relatively weak, with some stronger but unreplicated studies. Some populations have been studied more thoroughly than others, and there are many gaps. Most of the existing studies identify population characteristics, needs, and consequences of a lack of systemic services to promote family-like care. There is some evidence of the effectiveness of laws and policies, as well as some evidence of service effectiveness, in improving outcomes for children outside of family care. Despite the weaknesses and gaps of the existing research, there is a foundation of research for going forward, which should focus on developing and implementing systems for these most vulnerable children. The

  13. Sun burn incidence and knowledge of greek elementary and high school children about sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria Ioannis; Toska, Aikaterini George; Rekleiti, Maria Dimitrios; Tsironi, Maria; Geitona, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to sun radiation and particularly its accumulation during childhood and adolescence is a significant risk factor for skin cancer development. The sun burn is particularly important. To estimate sun burn incidence in young pupils in a coastal area of Greece. Two surveys were conducted in a school population in the same district in Greece, over different periods of time, in young people 9 to 18 years old (n=2 977). Anonymous questionnaires were completed. Levels of significance were two- tailed and statistical significance was set at p=0.05. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. From the individual characteristics of the participants it was shown that the majority of them had dark hair and fair skin, whereas a significant percentage reported the existence of moles on face and their body (83.4% vs 68.1%). The sun burn incidence was high in adolescents and the younger pupils (41.9% vs 55.6%). The younger aged children who were living in an urban area had significantly higher rates of sun burn than those living in semi-urban areas (33.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.020). As far as the knowledge of pupils about the risks of sun radiation it was shown that the elementary school pupils had better knowledge than those at high school. Finally, those with better knowledge had the fewer sun burns (Mean 2.83 SD 0.87, pknowledge to the decrease of sun burn incidence is important as long as this is continuous. Therefore, the education should concern not only children but also teachers and parents in the context of continuous and systematic programs of health education.

  14. Socio demographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, V. K.; Ford, M. A.; Bass, M. A.; Vice, M. A.; Hallam, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses socio demographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the Pub Med, Psycinfo, Medline, and Eric databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years) spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  15. Long-term administration of a small molecular weight catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidant, AEOL 10150, protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, Zahid N.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Huang Jie; Day, Brian J.; Alexander, Elaine; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant

  16. Influence of age, gender, educational level and self-estimation of skin type on sun exposure habits and readiness to increase sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Anderson, C D

    2013-04-01

    Sun exposure habits and the propensity to undertake sun protection differ between individuals. Not least in primary prevention of skin cancer, aiming at reducing ultraviolet (UV) exposure, knowledge about these factors may be of importance. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a primary health care (PHC) population, the relationship between sun exposure habits/sun protection behaviour/readiness to increase sun protection and gender, age, educational level and skin UV-sensitivity. The baseline data from a previously performed RCT on skin cancer prevention was used. 415 patients, aged > 18 years, visiting a PHC centre in southern Sweden, filled-out a questionnaire mapping sun exposure, readiness to increase sun protection according to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM), and the above mentioned factors. Female gender was associated with more frequent suntanning (p protection. Subjects with low educational level reported less frequent sunscreen use than those with higher educational level, and also chose lower SPF (p skin UV-sensitivity was associated with markedly lower sun exposure (p protection. Females and subjects with high educational level reported higher readiness to increase sunscreen use than males and subjects with lower educational level (p skin type appear to be important factors affecting sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour, which supports the idea of appropriate mapping of these factors in patients in order to individualise sun protection advice according to the individual patient situation and capabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  18. Protecting Your Skin from the Sun%防晒护肤之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳君

    2006-01-01

    @@ Protecting your skin Most skin cancer can be prevented. Use the following tips to protect your skin from the sun. You may decrease your chances of developing skin cancer and help prevent wrinkles1. ● Limit your exposure to the sun, especially midday between 10 a.m.and 3 p.m. Seek shady areas,and avoid direct sunlight.

  19. Correlates of Sun Protection and Sunburn in Children of Melanoma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K; Peterson, Susan K; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Shete, Sanjay S; Lee, Jeffrey E; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Gritz, Ellen R

    2016-09-01

    Sunburns during childhood increase melanoma risk. Children of melanoma survivors are at higher risk, but little is known about their sunburn and sun protection. One study showed that almost half of melanoma survivors' children experienced sunburn in the past year. This study evaluated sunburn and sun protection in melanoma survivors' children, and relevant survivor characteristics from Social Cognitive Theory and the Health Belief Model. Melanoma survivors (N=340) were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center. Survivors completed a baseline questionnaire administered by telephone to report on the behavior of their children (N=340) as part of an RCT of a sun protection intervention. Data were collected in 2008 and analyzed in 2015. In the prior 6 months, 28% of children experienced sunburn. "Always" or "frequent" sun protection varied by behavior: sunscreen, 69%; lip balm, 15%; wide-brimmed hats, 9%; sleeved shirts, 28%; pants, 48%; sunglasses, 10%; shade, 33%; and limiting time outdoors, 45%. Survivors' sunburn and sun protection were positively associated with these outcomes in children. Correlates of sunburn also included older child age and higher risk perceptions. Correlates of sun protection behaviors included younger child age; stronger intentions, higher self-efficacy, and more positive outcome expectations about sun protection; and greater number of melanomas in survivors. Melanoma survivors may have a heightened awareness of the importance of their children's sun protection, but their children are not routinely protected. Correlates of children's sunburn and sun protection suggest subgroups of survivors to target with interventions to improve sun protection. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Real-time sun protection decisions in first-degree relatives of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Shuk, Elyse; Schofield, Elizabeth; Loeb, Rebecca; Holland, Susan; Burkhalter, Jack; Li, Yuelin

    2017-09-01

    Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer, and consistent use of sun protection is recommended to reduce risk. Yet sun protection use is generally inconsistent. Understanding the decisional factors driving sun protection choices could aid in intervention development to promote sun protection maintenance. In 59 first-degree relatives of melanoma patients, an interactive voice response system (IVRS) on participants' cell phones was used to assess twice daily (morning, afternoon) real-time sun protection usage (sunscreen, shade, hats, protective clothing) and decision factors (weather, type of activity, convenience, social support) over a 14-day summer interval where morning and afternoon outdoor exposures were anticipated. Generalized estimating equations and hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effect of demographics and decisional factors on sun protection choices over time. Sun protection use was inconsistent (e.g., 61% used sunscreen inconsistently). Most strategies were used independently, with the exception of moderate overlap of sunscreen and hat usage. Decision factors were highly relevant for sun protection. For instance, sunscreen use was related to the perception of having adequate time to apply it, whereas shade and hat usage were each related to convenience. Few findings emerged by gender, age, time of day, or year. Significant within-subject variation remained, however. The findings support continued examination of decision factors in understanding sun protection consistency in real time. Interventions where cues to action and environmental supports work together in varied settings can be developed to improve sun protection maintenance in populations at risk for this common disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Successive oral immunizations against Piscirickettsia salmonis and infectious salmon anemia virus are required to maintain a long-term protection in farmed salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan eTobar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growing demand to determine the protective status of vaccinated fish in order to prevent diseases outbreaks. A set of different parameters that include the infectious and immunological status of vaccinated salmonids from 622 Chilean farms were analyzed during 2011-2014. The aim of this study was to optimize the vaccination program of these centers through the determination of the protective state of vaccinated fish using oral immunizations. This state was measured by the association of the concentration of the immunoglobulin M (IgM in the serum and the mortality rate of vaccinated fish. Salmonids were vaccinated with different commercial mono- or polyvalent vaccines against SRS and ISAv, first by the intraperitoneal injection of oil-adjuvanted antigens and then by the stimulation of mucosal immunity using oral vaccines as booster. The results showed that high levels of specific IgM antibodies were observed after injectable vaccination, reaching a maximum concentration at 600-800 degree-days. Similar levels of antibodies were observed when oral immunizations were administrated. The high concentration of antibodies (above 2750 ng/mL for ISAv and 3500 ng/mL for SRS was maintained for a period of 800 degree-days after each vaccination procedure. In this regard, oral immunizations maintained a long-term high concentration of anti-SRS and anti-ISAv specific IgM antibodies. When the concentration of antibodies decreased below 2000 pg/mL, a window of susceptibility to SRS infection was observed in the farm, suggesting the close association between antibody levels and fish protective status. These results demonstrated that, in the field, several oral immunizations are essential to uphold a high level of specific anti-pathogens antibodies and, therefore, a protective status during the whole productive cycle.

  2. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, S.C.; Rijn, R.R. van; Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van; Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van; Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M.; Santen, H.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with 131 I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to 131 I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of 131 I - on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with 131 I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after 131 I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with 131 I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous 131 I-MIBG therapy or current T4 treatment. No

  3. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, S.C. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santen, H.M. van [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to {sup 131}I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of {sup 131}I{sup -} on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with {sup 131}I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after {sup 131}I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous {sup 131}I

  4. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter A.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Beck, Larry; Liu, Xia; Abbott, Allison; Eye, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  5. Environmental variables associated with vacationers' sun protection at warm weather resorts in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Peter A., E-mail: westone47@gmail.com [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J. [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Scott, Michael D. [Mikonics, Inc., 40 B Old Road South, Santa Fe, NM 87540 (United States); Beck, Larry [L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, San Diego State University, Room PSFA 445, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Liu, Xia [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Abbott, Allison [School of Communication, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Eye, Rachel [Klein Buendel, Inc., 1667 Cole Boulevard, Suite 225, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Background: Vacationing at sunny, warm weather locations is a risk factor for excessive solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and skin cancer. Objectives: This study examined the association of environmental variables related to UV levels with vacationers' sun protection. Methods: Vacationers at 41 summer resorts in 17 states and 1 Canadian Province were interviewed (n=3531) and observed (N=4347) during 2012 and 2013. Clothing coverage, sunglasses, and shade use were observed. Use of sunscreen and sunburns were self-reported. Environmental information was recorded by research staff or acquired from ground stations and the weather service. Results: Temperature was positively associated with sun protection behaviors; however clothing coverage was negatively associated with temperature. Cloud cover was negatively associated with sun protection, with the exception of clothing coverage which was positively associated with it. Elevation showed a mixed pattern of associations with vacationer's sun protection. Latitude of a resort was negatively associated with most sun protection behaviors, such that sun protection increased at more southerly resorts. Similarly, the farther south a vacationer traveled to the resort, the less sun protection they employed. The UV index showed a weak, positive relationship with some sun protection behaviors even when controlling for temperature. Conclusions: Vacationers appeared aware that UV is higher at southern latitudes and may learn UV is intense when living in southern regions. However, many used temperature, an unreliable cue, to judge UV intensity and seemed to adjust clothing for warmth not UV protection. Efforts are needed to help individuals make more accurate sun safety decisions. - Highlights: • Vacationers poorly monitor and protect against environmental ultraviolet radiation (UVR). • On cloudy days vacationers fail to protect against UVR. • Temperature is erroneously used by vacationers as a marker for UVR

  6. ‘My child did not like using sun protection’: practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamantimande Kunene

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. Methods To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child’s 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Results Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade. Most mothers (97% liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86 reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Conclusions Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  7. Inactivated HSV-2 in MPL/alum adjuvant provides nearly complete protection against genital infection and shedding following long term challenge and rechallenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Christopher S; Kraynyak, Kimberly A; Levinson, Michael S; Chen, Zhijiang; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Spector, Deborah H

    2012-10-12

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) infection can result in life-long recurrent genital disease, asymptomatic virus shedding, and transmission. No vaccine to date has shown significant protection clinically. Here, we used a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection to test the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of whole, formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV2) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum adjuvants. Vaccine components were administered alone or as a prime-boost immunization together with DNA vaccines encoding a truncated glycoprotein D2 (gD2t) and two conserved HSV-2 genes necessary for virus replication, UL5 (DNA helicase) and UL30 (DNA polymerase). Our results show: (1) compared with mock immunized controls, mice immunized with FI-HSV2 plus MPL/alum consistently showed protection against disease burden and total viral shedding while the mice immunized with gD2t protein with MPL/alum did not; (2) protection against genital disease and viral replication correlated with the type of boost in a prime-boost immunization with little advantage afforded by a DNA prime; (3) intramuscular (i.m.) immunization with FI-HSV2 in MPL/Alhydrogel adjuvant provided nearly complete protection against vaginal HSV-2 shedding after a lethal intravaginal (i.vag.) short-term challenge and long-term rechallenge; (4) single formulation immunization with DNA vaccines, FI-HSV2, and MPL in an aluminum phosphate (Adju-Phos) adjuvant did not increase protection relative to FI-HSV2/MPL/Adju-Phos alone; and (5) addition of MPL/alum to the FI-HSV2 was required for optimal protection against disease, viral replication, and latent virus load in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Most notably, an optimized vaccine formulation of FI-HSV2 MPL/Alhydrogel given i.m. completely protected against detectable vaginal HSV-2 shedding in the majority of animals and HSV-2 latent DNA in the DRG of all animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  9. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  10. Self-protecting nonlinear compression in a solid fiber for long-term stable ultrafast lasers at 2 μm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzki, Fabian; Gaida, Christian; Gebhardt, Martin; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2017-02-01

    Ultrashort-pulse laser systems are an enabling technology for numerous applications. The stability of such systems is especially crucial for frequency metrology and high precision spectroscopy. Thulium-based fiber lasers are an ideal starting point as a reliable and yet powerful source for the nonlinear conversion towards the mid-IR region. Recently, we have demonstrated that nonlinear self-compression in a fused silica solid-core fiber allows for few-cycle pulse duration with up to 24 MW peak power using a high-repetition rate thulium-based fiber laser system operating at around 2 μm wavelength [1]. This experiment operates near the self-focusing limit of about 24 MW for circular polarization, which increases the requirements for the system stability due to the risk of a fiber damage. Here, we present a self-protecting nonlinear compression regime allowing for long-term operation and high output-pulse stability with very similar output performance.

  11. Predicting short and long-term exercise intentions and behaviour in patients with coronary artery disease: A test of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Heather; Reida, Robert; D'Angeloa, Monika Slovinec; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morrina, Louise; Beatona, Louise; Papadakisa, Sophia; Pipe, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of protection motivation theory (PMT) in the prediction of exercise intentions and behaviour in the year following hospitalisation for coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with documented CAD (n = 787), recruited at hospital discharge, completed questionnaires measuring PMT's threat (i.e. perceived severity and vulnerability) and coping (i.e. self-efficacy, response efficacy) appraisal constructs at baseline, 2 and 6 months, and exercise behaviour at baseline, 6 and 12 months post-hospitalisation. Structural equation modelling showed that the PMT model of exercise at 6 months had a good fit with the empirical data. Self-efficacy, response efficacy, and perceived severity predicted exercise intentions, which, in turn predicted exercise behaviour. Overall, the PMT variables accounted for a moderate amount of variance in exercise intentions (23%) and behaviour (20%). In contrast, the PMT model was not reliable for predicting exercise behaviour at 12 months post-hospitalisation. The data provided support for PMT applied to short-term, but not long-term, exercise behaviour among patients with CAD. Health education should concentrate on providing positive coping messages to enhance patients' confidence regarding exercise and their belief that exercise provides health benefits, as well as realistic information about disease severity.

  12. Protective Effects of Hydrogen against Low-Dose Long-Term Radiation-Induced Damage to the Behavioral Performances, Hematopoietic System, Genital System, and Splenic Lymphocytes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 has been previously reported playing an important role in ameliorating damage caused by acute radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 on the alterations induced by low-dose long-term radiation (LDLTR. All the mice in hydrogen-treated or radiation-only groups received 0.1 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, and 2.0 Gy whole-body gamma radiation, respectively. After the last time of radiation exposure, all the mice were employed for the determination of the body mass (BM observation, forced swim test (FST, the open field test (OFT, the chromosome aberration (CA, the peripheral blood cells parameters analysis, the sperm abnormality (SA, the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, and the histopathological studies. And significant differences between the treatment group and the radiation-only groups were observed, showing that H2 could diminish the detriment induced by LDLTR and suggesting the protective efficacy of H2 in multiple systems in mice against LDLTR.

  13. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapała, Szymon; Adamski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  14. Gonadal shielding to irradiation is effective in protecting testicular growth and function in long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation during childhood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, H; Yasuda, Y; Tomita, Y; Shinagawa, T; Shimizu, T; Morimoto, T; Hattori, K; Matsumoto, M; Inoue, H; Yabe, H; Yabe, M; Shinohara, O; Kato, S

    2007-04-01

    An increasing number of long-term surviving bone marrow transplantation (BMT) recipients have recovered from their primary disease but are at risk of developing failure of endocrine organs. We investigated 30 recipients who underwent allogeneic BMT during childhood or adolescence. Testicular growth and function were evaluated by serial measurement of testicular volume, basal luteinizing hormone (LH), basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels and by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) provocative test. Puberty started spontaneously in all patients. However, all except four patients had normal testosterone levels with elevated LH, indicating partial Leydig cell dysfunction. Standard deviation scores of testicular volume at last evaluation were statistically lower in those who had received irradiation without gonadal shield compared to those with (-2.04+/-0.45 vs -0.30+/-1.17, respectively, Pgonadal irradiation. Serial measurement of testicular volume showed a tendency of growth to stop at 10 ml in those without gonadal shield. Among the 30 patients, only one patient has fathered a child after reaching spontaneous puberty. These results suggest that gonadal shield is effective to protect testicular growth and function, although the attainment of fertility is difficult to achieve.

  15. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ciapała

    Full Text Available Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics, some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  16. Validity and Stability of the Decisional Balance for Sun Protection Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qing Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 8-item Decisional Balance for sun protection inventory (SunDB assesses the relative importance of the perceived advantages (Pros and disadvantages (Cons of sun protective behaviors. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SunDB measure, including invariance of the measurement model, in a population-based sample of N=1336 adults. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the theoretically based 2-factor (Pros, Cons model, with high internal consistencies for each subscale (α≥.70. Multiple-sample CFA established that this factor pattern was invariant across multiple population subgroups, including gender, racial identity, age, education level, and stage of change subgroups. Multivariate analysis by stage of change replicated expected patterns for SunDB (Pros η2=.15, Cons η2=.02. These results demonstrate the internal and external validity and measurement stability of the SunDB instrument in adults, supporting its use in research and intervention.

  17. Freeze drying optimization of polymeric nanoparticles for ocular flurbiprofen delivery: effect of protectant agents and critical process parameters on long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Yacasi, Gladys Rosario; Calpena Campmany, Ana Cristina; Egea Gras, María Antonia; Espina García, Marta; García López, María Luisa

    2017-04-01

    The stabilization of flurbiprofen loaded poly-ɛ-caprolactone nanoparticles (FB-PɛCL-NPs) for ocular delivery under accurate freeze-drying (FD) process provides the basis for a large-scale production and its commercial development. Optimization of the FD to improve long-term stability of ocular administration's FB-PɛCL-NPs. FB-PɛCL-NPs were prepared by solvent displacement method with poloxamer 188 (P188) as stabilizer. Freezing and primary drying (PD) were studied and optimized through freeze-thawing test and FD microscopy. Design of experiments was used to accurate secondary drying (SD) conditions and components concentration. Formulations were selected according to desired physicochemical properties. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study interactions components. Optimized FB-PɛCL-NPs, stabilized with 3.5% (w/w) P188 and protected with 8% (w/w) poly(ethylene glycol), was submitted to precooling at +10 °C for 1 h, freezing at -50 °C for 4 h, PD at +5 °C and 0.140 mbar for 24 h and a SD at +45 °C during 10 h. These conditions showed 188.4 ± 1.3 nm, 0.087 ± 0.014, 85.5 ± 1.4%, 0.61 ± 0.12%, -16.4 ± 0.1 mV and 325 ± 7 mOsm/kg of average size, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, residual moisture, surface charge and osmolality, respectively. It performed a long-term stability >12 months. DSC and XRD spectra confirmed adequate chemical interaction between formulation components and showed a semi-crystalline state after FD. An optimal freeze dried ocular formulation was achieved. Evidently, the successful design of this promising colloidal system resulted from rational cooperation between a good formulation and the right conditions in the FD process.

  18. Effects of multiple viewings of an ultraviolet photo on sun protection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H I M

    2018-05-02

    To determine whether multiple viewings of one's ultraviolet (UV) facial photo differentially affects subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to a single viewing. Pretest-posttest control group. Southern California college students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to be shown their UV facial photo one time, multiple times over the course of 2 weeks, or not at all. Emotional reactions, perceived susceptibility to skin damage, and sun protection intentions were assessed immediately, and sun protection behaviors were assessed during a surprise telephonic follow-up 1 month later. Immediately after viewing a UV photo of their face, participants reported significantly greater perceived susceptibility to skin damage, greater intentions to engage in future sun protection, and more negative emotions than those who had not seen a UV photo. Moreover, 1 month later, those who had viewed their UV photo were less likely to report having sunbathed and reported significantly greater sun protection than did controls. There were no differences in sun protection behaviors between those who had been shown their UV photo only once during the initial intervention session and those who had been sent their UV photo several times thereafter. However, among those who had been sent their UV photo several times, those who reported having viewed their photo on additional occasions reported significantly greater sun protection behaviors than those who had not. Being randomly assigned to view a UV facial photo multiple times generally neither strengthened nor weakened effects on subsequent sun protection behaviors relative to being shown the photo just once. However, among those who were sent their photo and thus had the option of viewing it more often than they had been assigned to, those who chose to view their photo more frequently also engaged in more sun protection behaviors. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of Sunburn and Sun Protection of Agricultural Workers During Occupational and Recreational Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Claudine; Milon, Antoine; Koechlin, Alice; Vernez, David; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of occupational sunburn in agricultural workers and assess their occupational and recreational sun protection habits. Specific surveys of agricultural workers in Switzerland and France were conducted (N = 1538). Multivariate logistic regressions identified occupational sunburn determinants. Occupational and recreational sun protection habits were estimated and correlated. One-year occupational and recreational sunburn prevalences were 19.8% and 11.5%, respectively. Occupational sunburn increased with having a recent recreational sunburn, highly sensitive skin, young age, high perceived skin cancer risk, using sunscreen, and not wearing a hat. Correlation between protection habits during work and leisure was substantial (rs 0.5 to 0.7). Skin health knowledge was high and pro-tanning attitude moderate. Potentially modifiable sunburn determinants and suboptimal recreational and occupational sun protection practices were identified in agricultural workers. Refining and tailoring sun protection messages targeting the agricultural sector are needed.

  20. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  1. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  2. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  3. Efeitos da radiação solar crônica prolongada sobre o sistema imunológico de pescadores profissionais em Recife (PE, Brasil Effects of long-term chronic exposure to sun radiation in immunological system of commercial fishermen in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Maria de Fátima Martins de Carvalho Bezerra

    2011-04-01

    Wilcoxon statistical tests were used at a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the exposed group and the group protected due to elastosis (p = 0.03, ectasia of dermal vessels (p = 0.012 and number of cells in the epidermal layers between cones (p = 0.029. Most common among fishermen were CD45RO, CD68 + and mastocytes in the skin (p = 0.040, p <0.001, p = 0.001 and CD3CD8CD45RO in the blood (p = 0.016. CONCLUSION: The alterations suggest that long-term and chronic sun exposure promotes tolerance to ultraviolet radiation, which protects against immunosuppression.

  4. Predictors of sun protection behaviors and severe sunburn in an international online study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Kasparian, Nadine A; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Tibben, Aad; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bergman, Wilma; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Debniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmanski, Slawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A; Leachman, Sancy A; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, and primary prevention of melanoma includes avoidance of sunburn as well as adequate sun protection behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported sun protection behaviors and sunburn in users of the Internet, and to identify the demographic, clinical, and attitudinal/motivational correlates of sun protection behaviors. Self-report data were gathered on behalf of the GenoMEL consortium using an online survey available in 10 different languages, and 8,178 individuals successfully completed at least 80% of survey items, with 73% of respondents from Europe, 12% from Australia, 7% from the United States, 2% from Israel, and 6% from other countries. Half of all respondents and 27% of those with a previous melanoma reported at least one severe sunburn during the previous 12 months. The strongest factors associated with sun protection behavior were perceived barriers to protection (beta = -0.44/beta = -0.37), and respondents who reported a positive attitude toward suntans were less likely to protect (beta = -0.16/beta = -0.14). Reported use of protective clothing and shade, as well as avoidance of midday sun exposure, were more strongly related to reduced risk of sunburn than sunscreen use. Despite widespread dissemination of public health messages about the importance of sun protection, a substantial proportion of this international sample, including respondents with a previous melanoma, reported inadequate sun protection behaviors resulting in severe sunburn. Future strategies to decrease sunburn should target the practical, social, and psychological barriers associated with nonuptake of sun protection. (c)2010 AACR.

  5. Predictors of Sun Protection Behaviours and Severe Sunburn inan International on-line study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Kasparian, Nadine A.; Chang, Yu-mei; Affleck, Paul; Tibben, Aad; Aspinwall, Lisa G.; Azizi, Esther; Baron-Epel, Orna; Battistuzzi, Linda; Bergman, Wilma; Bruno, William; Chan, May; Cuellar, Francisco; Dębniak, Tadeusz; Pjanova, Dace; Ertmański, Sƚawomir; Figl, Adina; Gonzalez, Melinda; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Hocevar, Marko; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Leachman, Sancy A.; Heisele, Olita; Palmer, Jane; Peric, Barbara; Puig, Susana; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gruis, Nelleke A.; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma continues to increase in many countries, and primary prevention of melanoma includes avoidance of sunburn as well as adequate sun protection behaviour. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported sun protection behaviours and sunburn in users of the Internet, and to identify the demographic, clinical and attitudinal/motivational correlates of sun protection behaviours. Methods Self-report data were gathered on behalf of GenoMEL (www.genomel.org) using an online survey available in 10 different languages, and 8,178 individuals successfully completed at least 80% of survey items, with 73% of respondents from Europe, 12% from Australia, 7% from the USA, 2% from Israel, and 6% from other countries. Results Half of all respondents and 27% of those with a previous melanoma reported at least one severe sunburn during the previous 12 months. The strongest factors associated with sun protection behaviour were perceived barriers to protection (β=−0.44/β=−0.37), and respondents who reported a positive attitude towards suntans were less likely to protect (β=−0.16/β=−0.14). Reported use of protective clothing and shade, as well as avoidance of midday sun exposure, were more strongly related to reduced risk of sunburn than sunscreen use. Conclusions Despite widespread dissemination of public health messages about the importance of sun protection, a substantial proportion of this international sample, including respondents with a previous melanoma, reported inadequate sun protection behaviours resulting in severe sunburn. Impact Future strategies to decrease sunburn should target the practical, social and psychological barriers associated with non-uptake of sun protection. PMID:20643826

  6. ‘My child did not like using sun protection’: practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Zamantimande Kunene; Patricia N. Albers; Robyn M. Lucas; Cathy Banwell; Angela Mathee; Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. Methods To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child’s 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. ...

  7. Prevalence of sun protection behaviors in Hispanic youth residing in a high ultraviolet light environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Lisa; Miller, Kimberly A; Huh, Jimi; Peng, David H; Unger, Jennifer B; Richardson, Jean L; Allen, Martin W; Cockburn, Myles

    2018-01-01

    Although rates of late-stage melanoma are rising in Hispanics, particularly those living in high ultraviolet light environments, little is known about the prevalence of sun protective behaviors in Hispanic children. We analyzed baseline data including frequency of sunburn, sun protective behaviors, level of U.S. acculturation, and skin phototype from a cross-sectional survey of 2003 Hispanic elementary school children in Los Angeles, California, who participated in a skin cancer prevention intervention. Although the Hispanic children reported frequently engaging in some sun protective behaviors, they also had a high rate of sunburn (59%) that exceeded previous national estimates for non-Hispanic white children (43%). Fewer U.S.-acculturated children reported more frequent shade-seeking at home (P = .02), along with less shade-seeking at school (P = .001) and more sunscreen use at school (P = .02). The surprisingly high rate of sunburn in Hispanic children suggests that the way in which they are practicing sun protection is not preventing sunburns. Sun safety interventions should be targeted toward Hispanic youth to provide them with practical methods of effective sun protection, in addition to education on the risks of high sun exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Protection motivation theory and stages of change in sun protective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice-Dunn, Steven; McMath, Ben F; Cramer, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the usefulness of the stage of change model and protection motivation theory (PMT) in creating brief persuasive appeals to promote healthy sun-behavior. College women (N = 254) read one of four essays that manipulated the level of threat and coping appraisal. The transition from the precontemplation to contemplation stage was promoted by threat appraisal information, but transition from contemplation to the preparation stage occurred only when individuals were provided with both high threat and high coping information. Thus, brief communications based on PMT may create attitudes leading to behavior change when later, more intensive, interventions are introduced.

  9. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Levy-Shraga

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls.Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6 y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8 y and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8 y, Male = 67. Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires.Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82 minutes/day vs. 81±65 minutes/day; p = 0.83, while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85 minutes/day vs. 124±87 minutes/day; p = 0.02. Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02 and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01, and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures.Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed.

  10. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Cohen, Rinat; Ben Ami, Michal; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Temam, Vered; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls. Methods Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8y) and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8y, Male = 67). Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82minutes/day vs. 81±65minutes/day; p = 0.83), while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85minutes/day vs. 124±87minutes/day; p = 0.02). Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02) and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01), and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures. Conclusions Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed. PMID:26348212

  11. Using UV photoaged photography to better understand Western Australian teenagers' attitudes towards adopting sun-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra F; Westbrook, Dominique; Chang, Paul

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the viewing of a personal photoaged photograph had the capacity to alter Western Australian teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen teenagers. The teenagers' pro-tanning attitudes prior to viewing their photoaged photograph are encapsulated in the study's central theme: 'You've got to look after your skin and use sunscreen, but I always forget!'. Post-viewing their photoaged facial image many teenagers reiterated their intentions to adopt (when they remembered) skin-protective measures. However, photoaged photography did not alter other teenagers' intention to tan. NEW KNOWLEDGE: Teenagers who choose to continue to tan were aware of the long-term health risks associated with ultra-violet over-exposure. However, their desire remained strong to emulate the media promoted image of bronzed youth being popular individuals. Indeed, the social benefits of being considered attractive to their peers became an attitudinal barrier to the teenagers' adoption of skin-protective behaviours. Those teenagers who changed their pro-tanning attitudes following their viewing of their ultra-violet photoaged photograph did so because of the shock they received when they saw their sun-damaged facial image. This suggests that photoageing photography can be effective with many adolescents because it reduces the cause-and-effect delay that exists between the occurrence of sun-damage and its visual presentation in later-life. Greater effort needs to be focused on increasing teenagers' understanding of how sun-damage occurs, when it is appropriate to apply sunscreen, as well as in changing the prevailing media image of an attractive body being a tanned body.

  12. Effects of pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Henk; Ter Huurne, Ellen; Taal, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The effect of public service announcements aimed at promoting primary prevention of skin cancer may be limited by superficial cognitive processing. The use of both pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements were evaluated for their potentially beneficial effects on judgment, cognitive processing and persuasiveness. In a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design individuals were shown public service announcements that advocated the advantages of sun protection measures in different versions in which a picture was present or not present and a textual argument was present or not present. The 159 participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. In each condition, participants were shown 12 different public service announcements designed according to the condition. Participants judged each public service announcement on attractiveness, credibility, clarity of communication and the required amount of reflection. After the judgment task, they completed a questionnaire to assess knowledge, perceived advantages and disadvantages of sun protection and intended use of sun protection measures. Pictures enhanced attractiveness, but diminished comprehension. Textual arguments enhanced attractiveness, credibility and comprehension. Pictures as well as textual arguments increased knowledge of sun protection measures. Pictures and textual arguments in public service announcements positively influence the individual's perception of the advantages of sun protection methods and the advantages of their adoption.

  13. Seasonal skin darkening in Chinese women: the Shanghaiese experience of daily sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huixia; Flament, Frederic; Long, Xiaohui; Wu, Jun; Xu, Mengzhi; Leger, Didier Saint; Meaudre, Helene; Senee, Jerome; Piot, Bertrand; Bazin, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The facial skin tone of two groups of Chinese women from Shanghai was compared using standard colorimetric space techniques during a 6-month interval between January and July 2011. During the study period, one group of women (n = 40) applied a potent sun-protective cosmetic product daily, while the other group (n = 40) did not use any sun protection. The results, based on images taken using a standardized digital camera coupled to a spectroradiometer, showed that sun protection largely mitigated changes in the components of skin tone, ie, lightness, melanization, and individual typology angle parameters. The skin darkening process appeared to be reduced or prevented in the sun-protected group when compared with the control group. The sun-protected women had participated in an earlier study in 2008, which confirmed that seasonal skin darkening occurs from winter through summer in Shanghaiese women. Comparing the data obtained in the winters of 2008 and 2011, we were able to identify better the impact of 3 years of aging on the components of skin tone. Comparing data between seasons on the same women with (2011 study) and without (2008 study) sun protection highlights the role of the test product in preventing skin darkening.

  14. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, June K.; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun...

  15. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  16. Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and behavior about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection among patients attending an outpatient clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Terzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of the study was to evaluate harmful effects of sun exposure and knowledge, attitude and behaviors related to sun protection among patients attending our outpatient clinic. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 patients (171 male and 229 female aged between 16 and 89 years were included in this study. Subjects were requested to fill out a questionnaire composed of 52 questions. In the first part of the questionnaire, patients’ socio-demographic characteristics, history of sunburn, first-degree relatives with a history of skin cancer; in the second part, knowledge about harmful effects of sun and sun protection were inquired. In the third part, patient attitude and behaviors related to sun protection was evaluated. Results: Our results revealed that 69.25% of patients had satisfactory level of knowledge. While the level of knowledge was not affected by economic status, place of residence, skin type and presence of skin cancer in participants or their first-degree relatives, it was found to be increased with increasing educational level. The patients were found to prefer avoiding mid-day sun (75.5% and staying in the shade (64.8% chiefly as sun protection methods and 45.3% of patients were found to use sunscreens. Most frequently preferred sources of information about harmful effects of the sun and sun protection methods were found to be television, magazines and newspapers (76.3%, doctor’s advice and internet, respectively. Conclusion: Although a satisfactory level of knowledge about harmful effects of the sun and protection methods was found, it was observed that individuals could not convert their knowledge into the sun protection behavior

  17. A Survey of Sun Protection Policy and Education in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Buller, Mary Klein; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2006-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued recommendations for school programs to reduce skin cancer. Objective Personnel at U.S. secondary schools were surveyed to describe sun protection policy and education prior to these recommendations. Methods School principals or other personnel at 484 secondary schools in 27 cities responded to a telephone survey in January and February 2002 (response rate = 31%). Results A sun protection policy was reported at 10% of the schools but sun protection education occurred at nearly all schools (96%). Policies were more prevalent in regions with high ultraviolet radiation (pprotection was a low policy priority for U.S. schools. Sun safety education was prevalent but written materials were used infrequently. A substantial proportion of school personnel were receptive to the CDC’s advice. PMID:16488293

  18. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  19. Sun protection and low levels of vitamin D: are people concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Monika; Kimlin, Michael; Whiteman, David; Aitken, Joanne; Neale, Rachel

    2007-11-01

    Recent reports on the association between low serum vitamin D and increased risk of cancer raised concerns about possible adverse effects of primary prevention strategies for skin cancer. To evaluate if these reports may influence peoples' sun protective behavior, knowledge, and attitudes to the impact of sun protection on vitamin D. Within a population-based survey in Queensland, Australia (5,611 participants, mean age 50.7 years (range 20-75); 48.2% men), agreement with the statement that sun protection may result in not having enough vitamin D as well as factors associated with agreement were assessed. Overall, 837 (15.0%) participants agreed that sun protection may result in not having enough vitamin D, 2,163 (38.7%) neither agreed nor disagreed, and 2,591 (46.3%) disagreed with this statement. Factors associated with agreement included older age, darker skin color, and attempt to develop a suntan within the past year. These results suggest that future sun protection campaigns may need to address the issue of vitamin D and present ways to achieve sufficient vitamin D levels without increasing sun exposure at least in countries with high UV radiation throughout the year.

  20. A randomized intervention study of sun protection promotion in well-child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Lori A; Deas, Ann; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Ehrsam, Gretchen; Jones, Richard H; Dellavalle, Robert; Byers, Tim E; Morelli, Joseph

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated the behavioral impact of a skin cancer prevention program in which health care providers delivered advice and materials to parents of infants over a 3-year period from 1998 to 2001. Fourteen offices of a large managed care organization in Colorado were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. 728 infants and their parents were recruited within 6 months of birth. At intervention offices, health care providers attended orientation sessions, prompts for delivering sun protection advice were placed in medical records, and parents received sun protection packets at each well-child visit between 2 and 36 months of age. Based on provider self-report and exit interviews of parents, providers in the intervention group delivered approximately twice as much sun protection advice as providers in the control group. Annual telephone interviews of parents indicated small but statistically significant differences in parent sun protection practices favoring the intervention. Skin exams revealed no significant differences in tanning, freckling, or number of nevi. Behavioral differences between groups appeared to grow over the 3 years of follow-up. This intervention strategy was successful in increasing the delivery of sun protection advice by health care providers and resulted in changes in parents' behaviors. While the behavioral effect was probably not strong enough to reduce risk for skin cancer, the effect may increase as children age and have more opportunities for overexposure to the sun.

  1. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuxian; Xu, Feng; Yang, Chunxue; Li, Fei; Fan, Jing; Wang, Linggao; Cai, Minqiang; Zhu, Jianfeng; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women). Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products. PMID:25794187

  2. Evaluating long term forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lady, George M. [Department of Economics, College of Liberal Arts, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA), and its predecessor organizations, has published projections of U.S. energy production, consumption, distribution and prices annually for over 30 years. A natural issue to raise in evaluating the projections is an assessment of their accuracy compared to eventual outcomes. A related issue is the determination of the sources of 'error' in the projections that are due to differences between the actual versus realized values of the associated assumptions. One way to do this would be to run the computer-based model from which the projections are derived at the time the projected values are realized, using actual rather than assumed values for model assumptions; and, compare these results to the original projections. For long term forecasts, this approach would require that the model's software and hardware configuration be archived and available for many years, possibly decades, into the future. Such archival creates many practical problems; and, in general, it is not being done. This paper reports on an alternative approach for evaluating the projections. In the alternative approach, the model is run many times for cases in which important assumptions are changed individually and in combinations. A database is assembled from the solutions and a regression analysis is conducted for each important projected variable with the associated assumptions chosen as exogenous variables. When actual data are eventually available, the regression results are then used to estimate the sources of the differences in the projections of the endogenous variables compared to their eventual outcomes. The results presented here are for residential and commercial sector natural gas and electricity consumption. (author)

  3. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  4. Sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in North-Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph; Gerber, Nathalie; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Surber, Christian

    2012-02-24

    The skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is one of the highest in Europe and still on the rise. Sun protection is the main preventive measure and of utmost importance during childhood and adolescence, since sunburns within these early phases of life increase the risk of developing skin cancer in adulthood. The aim of this prospective study, the first of its kind in Switzerland, was to investigate the sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in Basel (North-Western Switzerland) and to test their knowledge about adverse health effects of solar radiation and about protective measures. Between March and April 2010, supervised classroom surveys during regular school lessons were conducted in 13 public schools using a multiple-choice questionnaire. 960 questionnaires were handed out to 48 school classes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed on the data of 887 (>90%) students from three different grades (3rd, 6th and 9th grade). Sun-related knowledge was high in one third of all respondents only and significantly depended on student's age and educational background. Although the oldest students reached the highest knowledge scores, they protected themselves the least from the sun. Sunscreen was the principal form of sun protection mentioned, but was insufficiently applied. Seeking shade and wearing clothing as protective measures were hardly used. High educational background (i.e., of the parents) was a determinant for routine use of sunscreen but was not associated with following other sun protective measures. The desire for a suntan had no impact on the use of sunscreen, but was a significant predictor for not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts when in the sun. More than half of all study participants experienced at least one sunburn during the year preceding the survey. Fair skin type, higher grade, not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts were directly associated with increased odds of

  5. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  6. Long Term Financing of Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sidharth

    2014-01-01

    Infrastructure projects, given their long life, require long term financing. The main sources of long term financings are insurance and pension funds who seek long term investments with low credit risk. However, in India household financial savings are mainly invested in bank deposits. Insurance and pension funds account for only a small percentage of household financial savings. In addition most infrastructure projects do not qualify for investment by insurance and pension funds because of t...

  7. [Knowledge about UV-radiation and sun protection: survey of adolescents and young adults in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, C; Seibold, C; Loss, J; Steinmann, A; Nagel, E

    2008-10-01

    Identifying deficits in sun protection knowledge and behavior can serve as a starting point for primary prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and behavior related to ultraviolet radiation in the population between 14 and 45 years of age in Bavaria, as well as effects of the awareness campaign "Sensible in the Sun". In two Bavarian districts, 545 individuals of the target population completed a telephone survey about risks of UV-radiation, sun protection knowledge and behavior, and effects of the campaign. Sunburn and skin cancer as adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation were named by almost every participant. When asked about protective interventions, 91% mentioned sunscreen and 45-54% clothing, limited stay in the sun and seeking shade at noon. Women were better informed than men, adults better than adolescents. 10.6% were aware of the campaign. In this group, 37.9% had been motivated to consider their sun protective behavior; 13.8% (especially women >30 years) stated they had changed their behavior because of the campaign. There were deficits in knowledge, especially about eye damage and the importance of getting slowly used to UV radiation. Physician advice, but also broadcast and print media, has an effect on UV-related knowledge.

  8. A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Harrison, S L

    2018-04-01

    National standards for clothing designed to protect the wearer from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been implemented in Australia/New Zealand, Europe and the U.S.A. Industry standards reflect the need to protect the skin by covering a considerable proportion of the potentially exposed body surface area (BSA) and by reducing UVR-transmission through fabric (the Ultraviolet Protection Factor; UPF). This research aimed to develop a new index for rating sun-protective clothing that incorporates the BSA coverage of the garment in addition to the UPF of the fabric. A mannequin model was fixed to an optical bench and marked with horizontal lines at 1-cm intervals. An algorithm (the Garment Protector Factor; GPF) was developed based on the number of lines visible on the clothed vs. unclothed mannequin and the UPF of the garment textile. This data was collected in 2015/16 and analysed in 2016. The GPF weights fabric UPF by BSA coverage above the minimum required by international sun-protective clothing standards for upper-body, lower-body and full-body garments. The GPF increases with BSA coverage of the garment and fabric UPF. Three nominal categories are proposed for the GPF: 0 ≤ GPF garments that 'meet' minimum standards; 3 ≤ GPF garments providing 'good' sun protection; and GPF ≥ 6 indicating 'excellent' protection. Adoption of the proposed rating scheme should encourage manufacturers to design sun-protective garments that exceed the minimum standard for BSA coverage, with positive implications for skin cancer prevention, consumer education and sun-protection awareness. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. The importance of short-term off-target effects in estimating the long-term renal and cardiovascular protection of angiotensin receptor blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, P A; Miao, Y; Eijkemans, M J C

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have multiple effects that may contribute to their efficacy on renal/cardiovascular outcomes. We developed and validated a risk score that incorporated short-term changes in multiple risk markers to predict the ARB effect on renal/cardiovascular outcomes.......98), in addition to being markedly more accurate than predicted RRRs based on changes in single markers. The score was validated in an independent ARB trial. Predictions of long-term renal/cardiovascular ARB effects are more accurate when considering short-term changes in multiple risk markers, challenging the use...

  10. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Heydar Rahmati Asl; Kambiz Ahmadi Angali; Marzieh Araban

    2017-01-01

    The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four mo...

  11. Aware, motivated and striving for a 'safe tan': an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M; Sniehotta, Falko F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21-62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers' knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health messages need to

  12. Sun protective behaviour and sunburn prevalence in primary and secondary schoolchildren in western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Simone; Vuadens, Anne; Levi, Fabio; Bulliard, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grades (secondary school, n = 837) in the 18 public schools of La Chaux-de-Fonds. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of sunburns and of three sun protective behaviours (sunscreen, shade, wear of covering clothes). Response rate was 91%. Sunburn prevalence over the preceding year was high (60% at least one sunburn, 30% at least two, 43% at least one severe sunburn). Younger age, fair skin, regular sunscreen use, higher sun-related knowledge and preference for a tanned skin were predictors of sunburn. Sunscreen was the most used protective measure (69%), followed by seeking shade (33%) and wearing long-sleeved shirts (32%). Decline in all protective measures was observed in older pupils and those with pro-tan attitudes. The wear of covering clothes was significantly associated with sunscreen use and seeking shade. Parental encouragement favoured sunscreen use and wearing of protective clothes. Sunscreen use as a last protective barrier against ultraviolet radiation should be better emphasised in prevention campaigns targeting children and adolescents. Multi-faceted interventions, including role models, parents and peers should help to improve children's sun protective behaviours.

  13. Protective Role of Recent and Past Long-Term Physical Activity on Age-Related Cognitive Decline: The Moderating Effect of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fontana, Iréné; Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Perrot, Alexandra

    2018-06-13

    This study aimed to investigate if the impact of both recent and long-term physical activity on age-related cognitive decline would be modified by sex. One-hundred thirty-five men (N = 67) and women (N = 68) aged 18 to 80 years completed the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and the Historical Leisure Activity Questionnaire. A composite score of cognitive functions was computed from five experimental tasks. Hierarchical regression analyses performed to test the moderating effect of recent physical activity on age-cognition relationship had not revealed significant result regardless of sex. Conversely, past long-term physical activity was found to slow down the age-related cognitive decline among women (β = 0.22, p = .03), but not men. The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging and the importance of taking into account the moderating role of sex. This article presented potential explanations for these moderators and future avenues to explore.

  14. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  15. Long-term urethral catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bruce; Dickens, Nicola

    This article discusses long-term urethral catheterisation, focusing on the relevant anatomy and physiology, indications for the procedure, catheter selection and catheter care. It is important that nurses have a good working knowledge of long-term catheterisation as the need for this intervention will increase with the rise in chronic health conditions and the ageing population.

  16. Attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of secondary school adolescents regarding protection from sun exposure: a survey in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2012-08-01

    Sun protection behavior is a proven intervention for aging skin and skin cancer prevention, especially if training on prolonged sun exposure can be performed early in life. Despite the fact that there are several study reports from multicenters in the West, there are limited data on sun protection in tropical countries where the prevalence of sunburn as well as sun protection behavior and knowledge are low. In Bangkok, sun protection behavior among adolescents is different from the studies performed in the West. Schools are key institutions in encouraging students to prevent themselves from acquiring problems of long-time sun exposure. To assess the amount of time exposed to the sun, sun protection behavior, attitudes, and knowledge about sun exposure protection among secondary school adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. This is a nonrandomized, cross-sectional survey. All students from seven secondary schools in Bangkok (public/private, male/female/coed) were recruited in to the study. A total of 10,387 students were enrolled in to the study; 6176 (59.5%) and 4211 (40.5%) students were from grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12, respectively. Male students significantly lacked proper sun-protecting behaviors when compared to the female students in the use of sunscreen (9.4% vs. 28.0%, P protecting behaviors among junior high school students were deficient when compared to high school students in the use of sunscreen (57.1% vs. 60.6%, P protection behavior among adolescents in Bangkok was poor compared to Western countries. The attitudes and general knowledge about sun protection were significantly different among male and female students from grades 7 to 9 and 10 to 12. The limitation of the study is the use of self-reported questionnaires in assessing sun exposure and protection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Population and age-group trends in weekend sun protection and sunburn over two decades of the SunSmart programme in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, J K; Warne, C D; Dobbinson, S J; Wakefield, M A; Hill, D J

    2013-01-01

    In response to the high skin cancer burden in Australia, the multicomponent, community-wide SunSmart programme has worked since 1988 to reduce excessive sun exposure.  To examine trends in key sun-protection behaviours and sunburn for the Melbourne population from 1987 to 2007, and examine for the first time patterns of change among age groups.   Representative cross-sectional weekly telephone surveys of weekend sun protection and sunburn were conducted over 11 of the summers in the period 1987-88 to 2006-07. Trends were analysed for the population and for age groups, adjusting for ambient temperature and ultraviolet radiation, which are environmental determinants of sun-related behaviour and sunburn.   The general pattern of trends suggests two distinct periods, one with rapid improvement in behaviours (more sunscreen use, less unprotected body exposure and less sunburn) from 1987-88 to 1994-95, and the second from 1997-98 to 2006-07 with fewer changes in behaviours noted. The age-group analyses showed a similar pattern of change over time across groups, with a few notable exceptions.  The similarity of the pattern of trends among age groups suggests that external influences including the SunSmart programme's activity had a relatively similar impact across the population. Sun-related behaviours continue to be amenable to change. More recent relative stability with some declines in sun protection suggests further intensive campaigns and other strategies may be needed to maintain previous successes and to achieve more universal use of sun protection. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Long-term pretreatment with desethylamiodarone (DEA) or amiodarone (AMIO) protects against coronary artery occlusion induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvay, Nikolett; Baczkó, István; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Falkay, György; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Leprán, István

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of long-term pretreatment with amiodarone (AMIO) and its active metabolite desethylamiodarone (DEA) on arrhythmias induced by acute myocardial infarction in rats. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in conscious, male, Sprague-Dawley rats by pulling a previously inserted loose silk loop around the left main coronary artery. Long-term oral pretreatment with AMIO (30 or 100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days) or DEA (15 or 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), loading dose 100 or 300 mg·kg(-1) for 3 days), was applied for 1 month before the coronary artery occlusion. Chronic oral treatment with DEA (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) resulted in a similar myocardial DEA concentration as chronic AMIO treatment (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in rats (7.4 ± 0.7 μg·g(-1) and 8.9 ± 2.2 μg·g(-1)). Both pretreatments in the larger doses significantly improved the survival rate during the acute phase of experimental myocardial infarction (82% and 64% by AMIO and DEA, respectively, vs. 31% in controls). Our results demonstrate that chronic oral treatment with DEA resulted in similar cardiac tissue levels to that of chronic AMIO treatment, and offered an equivalent degree of antiarrhythmic effect against acute coronary artery ligation induced ventricular arrhythmias in conscious rats.

  19. EC SAGE Project: Strategies and guidance for establishing a practical radiation protection culture in Europe in case of long-term radioactive contamination after a nuclear accident. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Crouail, P.; Bataille, C.; Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G.; Mercer, J.; Nisbet, A.; Sudas, A.; Zaitzev, A.; Zhukovskaya, L.; Nesterenko, V.B.; Nesterenko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of 'rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories' is a reality that overhangs widely the territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia affected by the catastrophe of Chernobyl. Thousands of people in Europe live in territories considered as contaminated areas. The SAGE project has contributed to the development of strategies and guidance for implementing and disseminating a practical radiation protection culture in Western Europe required for the management of contaminated areas following a nuclear incident or any accident having long term radiological impact. Moreover it highlighted that the involvement of stakeholders is an innovative approach that can significantly improve the quality of the answers and actions. Such an approach is pertinent and could be applied to any situation of long-term contamination at a local or national scale, in parallel to the countermeasures implemented by public authorities. The present final technical report presents the main results of the project and describes its fifth deliverables. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivet-Seyve, Mathieu; Santoro, Francine; Lachmann, Nadège

    2017-01-01

    Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF) moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners. This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3-5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability. The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female). At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44) showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days' treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial redness, did not worsen rosacea, and was easily incorporated into their skincare regimen. Half would switch to the product, and 80% of subjects would buy and recommend the product. The product was well tolerated in rosacea-prone subjects, producing objective

  1. Tanning youth: knowledge, behaviors and attitudes toward sun protection of high school students in Sakarya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiz, Tuncay M; Cinar, Nursan; Topsever, Pinar; Ucar, Fatma

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, by means of an in-school questionnaire, the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of high-school students in Sakarya, Turkey concerning sun protection and skin cancer. The knowledge and behavior scores of girls were higher than those of boys, whereas boys had better attitude scores.

  2. Melanoma Knowledge and Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviors among College Students by Gender and Skin Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…

  3. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  4. Sun Protection Preferences and Behaviors among Young Adult Males during Maximum Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K. Robinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137 responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31 participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  5. Suntans and Sun Protection in Australian Teen Media: 1999 To 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Liane J.; Lowe, John B.; Stanton, Warren R.; Clavarino, Alexandra M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the portrayal of tanned skin and sun protection in magazines, television programs, and movies popular with Australian adolescents were analyzed. Images of models in magazines (n = 1,791), regular/supporting characters in television programs (n = 867), and regular/supporting characters in cinema movies (n = 2,836) for the 12-month…

  6. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  7. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  8. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  9. Sun protection education for diverse audiences: need for skin cancer pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Yanina; Gaber, Rikki; Clayman, Marla L; Gordon, Elisa J; Friedewald, John; Robinson, June K

    2015-03-01

    Sun protection education is needed for kidney transplant recipients, whose increased risk of skin cancer could be ameliorated with sun protection. Cognitive interviews with 24 participants equally stratified among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients were performed to evaluate a sun protection education workbook. Study participants were recruited over the phone using a registry of 700 kidney transplant recipients. Participants included 12 women and 12 men with a median age of 52. In 16 of the cognitive interviews with non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanic/Latinos, pictures of skin cancer were requested by the participants in order to see the appearance of skin cancer. Kidney transplant recipients with skin of color did not consider themselves at risk to develop skin cancer and wanted to see examples of skin cancer occurring on people with skin of color. Based on these results, the workbook was modified to include pictures of squamous cell carcinoma on varying skin tones. Then, 8 participants evaluated the revised workbook in cognitive interviews and found the photographs acceptable and necessary to demonstrate the severity of skin cancer and personalize their risk of developing skin cancer. The participants progressed from having knowledge of skin cancer to believing that they could develop skin cancer because they observed skin cancers on people with their skin tone. Using pictures of skin cancers occurring on people with similar skin tone may heighten a kidney transplant recipients' sense of vulnerability and possibly improve the use of sun protection.

  10. Trends in skin cancer knowledge, sun protection practices and behaviours in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Anna; Boyle, Rhonda; Donnelly, David; Donnelly, Conan; Gordon, Sandra; McElwee, Gerry; O'Hagan, Art

    2012-06-01

    Sun exposure increases risk of skin cancer, especially melanoma, incidence of which continues to rise. Reported skin cancer knowledge and trends in sun care behaviours are documented in a UK region where there has been 20 years of sun-related health promotion campaigns. In 2000, 2004 and 2008, a 'care in the sun' module was included in the Northern Ireland (NI) Omnibus survey. Randomly selected subjects were asked to complete a sun-related questionnaire and proportions of respondents analysed by demographic and socio-economic factors, with differences tested using z-tests and the chi-squared test. Around 3623 persons responded. Skin cancer knowledge was high (97%). Sun avoidance decreased with time and was lowest among younger age groups and males. Sunscreen use was high (70%), unchanged over 8 years, and more likely among younger age groups, females, those in paid employment, and those with tertiary level education. Use of sunscreen with minimum Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 15 (a campaign message) increased from 45% to 70% (P < 0.01). Skin self-examination was infrequent (8%), less common among those aged ≥65 years, males and those with only primary or secondary level education. Messages on sunscreen use have penetrated the population well, but lower use among the unemployed suggests cost as an issue. Lack of sun avoidance in young people, especially men, poses a risk for further skin cancer increases. Low levels of reported skin self-examination in older people, men and those with lower educational attainment identify areas for further action.

  11. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers...

  12. Determinants of inadequate parental sun protection behaviour in their children--results of a cross-sectional study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, Swaantje; Bolte, Gabriele

    2014-03-01

    Unprotected sun exposure especially during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. A combined use of sun protection measures is recommended to protect children. However, the prevalence and determinants for combined use have been scarcely studied in children. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of parental sun protection behaviour. A cross-sectional survey was performed in five regions in Bavaria (Germany) during school entrance health examination (2010/2011). Parents of 4579 children (47% female, aged 5-6 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire (response 61%). Most children were regularly protected with single measures (shade (69%), clothes (80%), hat (83%), sunscreen (89%), sunglasses (20%)). However, regarding regular and combined use, >50% of children were inadequately protected. Larger family size, lower household equivalent income, darker skin and sunburn history were associated with inadequate use of different sun protection measures. The less frequent use of one sun protection measure was associated with less frequent use of the others. Child's sex, migration background, parental education and sun exposure showed inconsistent results regarding the different sun protection outcomes. Based on our results a regular, combined and correct use of multiple sun protection for children should be promoted independent of sociodemographic characteristics. Priority of shade, clothes and hat before sunscreen should be clarified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Outdoor workers and sun protection strategies: two case study examples in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite C; Stoneham, Melissa; Crane, Phil; Fleming, MaryLou; Janda, Monika; Tenkate, Thomas; Youl, Philippa; Kimlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk of developing skin cancer because they are exposed to high levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Outdoor Workers Sun Protection Project investigated sun protection strategies for high risk outdoor workers in rural and regional Australia. Fourteen workplaces (recruitment rate 37%) across four industries in rural and regional Queensland, Australia were recruited to the OWSPP. In 2011-2012, data were collected using pre- and post-intervention interviews and discussion groups. This article presents two workplaces as case study examples. The flat organisational structure of workplace 1 supported the implementation of the Sun Safety Action Plan (SSAP), whilst the hierarchical organisational nature of workplace 2 delayed implementation of the SSAP. Neither workplace had an existing sun protection policy but both workplaces adopted one. An effect related to the researchers' presence was seen in workplace 1 and to a lesser degree in workplace 2. Overt reciprocity was seen between management and workers in workplace 1 but this was not so evident in workplace 2. In both workplaces, the role of the workplace champion was pivotal to SSAP progression. These two case studies highlight a number of contextually bound workplace characteristics related to sun safety. These issues are (1) the structure of workplace, (2) policy, (3) an effect related to the researchers' presence, (4) the workplace champion and (5) reciprocity. There are several recommendations from this article. Workplace health promotion strategies for sun safety need to be contextualised to individual workplaces to take advantage of the strengths of the workplace and to build capacity.

  14. Long term complications of diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long-term complications of diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, ... other tests. All these may help you keep complications of diabetes away. You will need to check your blood ...

  15. Sun-Protection Habits of Primary Students in a Coastal Area of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saridi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the present study was to record habits and attitudes of primary school students in Greece regarding sun-protection measures. Materials and Methods. 2,163 students with an average age of 9.9 (±1.1 years, studying in 14 schools of a Greek region, constituted our sample. The SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis and significance level was set to P≤0.05. Results. Our sample had an equal gender distribution. 16% of the students belonged to the high-risk group, 70.2% of the participants lived 0–5 km away from the sea (urban area, 84.2% of the students were Greek, and 15.8% had non-Greek nationality. Half of the participants said they wear a hat when under the sun and 72% of them said they use sunscreen. 33.1% of the students said they had a sunburn last summer. Greek students as well as those who lived near the sea had better behaviour patterns regarding sun protection. Finally, children who did not use a sunscreen systematically had suffered sunburns more often than the rest. Conclusions. Health education programmes are necessary for students and parents/teachers alike, in order to raise awareness about everyday sun protection.

  16. Sun-Protection Habits of Primary Students in a Coastal Area of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saridi, M.; Toska, A.; Rekleiti, M.; Liachopoulou, A.; Wozniak, G.; Kalokairinou, A.; Birbas, K.; Souliotis, K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to record habits and attitudes of primary school students in Greece regarding sun-protection measures. Materials and Methods. 2,163 students with an average age of 9.9 (±1.1) years, studying in 14 schools of a Greek region, constituted our sample. The SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis and significance level was set toρ≤0.05. Results. Our sample had an equal gender distribution. 16% of the students belonged to the high-risk group, 70.2% of the participants lived 0-5 km away from the sea (urban area), 84.2% of the students were Greek, and 15.8% had non-Greek nationality. Half of the participants said they wear a hat when under the sun and 72% of them said they use sunscreen. 33.1% of the students said they had a sunburn last summer. Greek students as well as those who lived near the sea had better behaviour patterns regarding sun protection. Finally, children who did not use a sunscreen systematically had suffered sunburns more often than the rest. Conclusions. Health education programmes are necessary for students and parents/teachers alike, in order to raise awareness about everyday sun protection.

  17. Sun-exposure knowledge and protection behavior in a North Chinese population: a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaowei; Lian, Shi; Hao, Yongjing; Kang, Nan; Li, Shujuan; Nie, Yanjun; Zhang, Fan

    2010-08-01

    Sun exposure can cause a range of skin disorders. Skin damage can be prevented by following certain sun-protection measures. However, the majority of reported studies regarding sun-exposure knowledge and behavior have involved Caucasian populations. A self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions aimed at evaluating people's knowledge, awareness, and protection behavior regarding sun exposure, and their knowledge of sunscreens and sunscreen use. A total of 623 volunteers were enrolled, including 238 men (38.2%) and 385 women (61.8%). The percentages of correct answers regarding sun-exposure knowledge and awareness ranged from 50% to 80%. Overall, 58.8% used sunscreen as a sun-protection measure in daily life, followed by use of protective clothes (49.3%), sun umbrella (45.4%), sunglasses (45.3%), and hat (42.2%). Fifty-two percent thought that suntan was harmful or not attractive. The mean sun-protection factor (SPF) of the sunscreens used was 27.7 +/- 9.2 and the mean UVA protection grade (PA) was 2.3 +/- 0.6. Knowledge and awareness concerning the harmful effects of sun exposure are widespread among the Chinese population. Sunscreens with high SPF and PA are the most commonly used among Chinese people. Clear sex differences were observed. There is a significant difference in the attitude toward suntan between Chinese and Caucasian populations.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of sun protection and skin self-examination practices among cutaneous malignant melanoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Lessin, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about the level of engagement and correlates of sun protection and skin self-exam among individuals diagnosed with melanoma. Participants (N = 229) completed measures of skin self-exam and sun protection practice and knowledge and attitudes. Approximately eighty-four percent of patients reported engaging in skin self-examination at least once in the past year. Engagement in sun protection practices was moderate. Self-exam practice was associated with gender, physician recommendation about self-exam, and perceived benefits and barriers of self-exam. Sun protection was associated with gender, age, medical status and health care access, physician recommendation, knowledge, and a number of psychological factors. Behavioral interventions to improve skin surveillance and sun protection may benefit from an emphasis on physician education regarding self-exam and sun protection, education regarding the efficacy of sunscreen and the risks associated with sunbathing, reducing perceived barriers to self-exam and sun protection, and reducing reliance on social influences on sun protection practices.

  19. Assessment of the Academic Staff’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Habits Related to Sun Protection and Sunscreen Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Tuğba Alataş

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In recent years, the risk of cutaneous melanoma, skin cancers and photo sensitive skin diseases is increasing with the rise in unconscious sunbathe. The aim of our study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and habits of academic staff related to sun protection. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 438 academic staff participated (a response rate 30.4%. The academic staff was asked to fill out our survey of 26 questions. Results: One hundred ninety-six women (44.7% and 242 men (55.3% participated in the study. Among the sun protection methods applied by the academic staff were applying sun protection cream, using sun glasses and avoiding sunlight as the first three methods, respectively. When the academic staff’s knowledge levels of sunscreen creams, sun protection factor (SPF, ultraviolet A (UVA and ultraviolet B (UVB assessed, it was determined that 11.2% of the participants knew the definition of SPF 30. In the question about UVA and UVB, 27.9% answered correctly. Conclusion: The use of sun protective cream among the sun protection methods by the academic staff is the first place. However, it has been determined that this method of protection is not conscious and regularly. Academic staff’s knowledge of sun protective creams, SPF, UVB and UVA was found to be inadequate.

  20. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  1. Does workplace social capital protect against long-term sickness absence? Linking workplace aggregated social capital to sickness absence registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne-Sophie K; Madsen, Ida E H; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Melkevik, Ole; Bjørner, Jakob Bue; Andersen, Ingelise; Rugulies, Reiner

    2018-05-01

    Most previous prospective studies have examined workplace social capital as a resource of the individual. However, literature suggests that social capital is a collective good. In the present study we examined whether a high level of workplace aggregated social capital (WASC) predicts a decreased risk of individual-level long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Danish private sector employees. A sample of 2043 employees (aged 18-64 years, 38.5% women) from 260 Danish private-sector companies filled in a questionnaire on workplace social capital and covariates. WASC was calculated by assigning the company-averaged social capital score to all employees of each company. We derived LTSA, defined as sickness absence of more than three weeks, from a national register. We examined if WASC predicted employee LTSA using multilevel survival analyses, while excluding participants with LTSA in the three months preceding baseline. We found no statistically significant association in any of the analyses. The hazard ratio for LTSA in the fully adjusted model was 0.93 (95% CI 0.77-1.13) per one standard deviation increase in WASC. When using WASC as a categorical exposure we found a statistically non-significant tendency towards a decreased risk of LTSA in employees with medium WASC (fully adjusted model: HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.48-1.27)). Post hoc analyses with workplace social capital as a resource of the individual showed similar results. WASC did not predict LTSA in this sample of Danish private-sector employees.

  2. Long-Term Protective Effect of Lactation on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes in Women With Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Anette-G.; Wallner, Maike; Kaiser, Imme; Rossbauer, Michaela; Harsunen, Minna H.; Lachmann, Lorenz; Maier, Jörg; Winkler, Christiane; Hummel, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of developing postpartum type 2 diabetes. Strategies to prevent postpartum type 2 diabetes are important to reduce the epidemic of diabetes and its societal impact. Breastfeeding was reported to improve early postpartum glucose tolerance and reduce the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes. To investigate whether breastfeeding influences short- and long-term postpartum diabetes outcomes, women with GDM (n = 304) participating in the prospective German GDM study were followed from delivery for up to 19 years postpartum for diabetes development. All participants were recruited between 1989 and 1999. Postpartum diabetes developed in 147 women and was dependent on the treatment received during pregnancy (insulin vs. diet), BMI, and presence/absence of islet autoantibodies. Among islet autoantibody-negative women, breastfeeding was associated with median time to diabetes of 12.3 years compared with 2.3 years in women who did not breastfeed. The lowest postpartum diabetes risk was observed in women who breastfed for >3 months. On the basis of these results, we recommend that breastfeeding should be encouraged among these women because it offers a safe and feasible low-cost intervention to reduce the risk of subsequent diabetes in this high-risk population. PMID:23069624

  3. Patient awareness and sun protection behaviour following excision of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blacam, Catherine; Dermott, Clodagh Mc; Sugrue, Conor; Kilmartin, Darren; Kelly, Jack

    2017-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding disease awareness and sun protection behaviour in patients previously treated for non-melanoma skin cancer. Using a telephone-administered questionnaire, we investigated these characteristics in 250 patients in the west of Ireland who had undergone excision of basal cell carcinomas between January 2011 and December 2012. Only 28.8% of respondents knew that the lesion they had excised was a BCC and understood that there was a significant chance of developing another similar lesion in the next 3 years. Women and patients under age 65 were significantly better informed about their diagnosis than men (p = 0.021 and 0.000 respectively). The majority of patients (71.2%) knew that the overall effect of UV radiation on the skin was harmful and did employ some form of sun protection (avoid midday sun 72%; stay in shade 74%; wear hat 73.6%; wear sunscreen 72.8%). Females were statistically more likely to exercise better sun-protection behaviour (p = 0.002). While 76.8% of patients undertook some form of outdoor activity every day, only 22.8% wore sunscreen every day. Greater efforts should be made to communicate disease details and sun protection implications associated with basal cell carcinoma, especially to male patients. Improved population specific skin cancer awareness may lead to earlier detection and thus decrease both the patient morbidity and economic burden associated with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  5. Long-term avian community response to housing development at the boundary of US protected areas: Effect size increases with time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. Wood; Anna M. Pidgeon; Volker C. Radeloff; David P. Helmers; Patrick D. Culbert; Nicholas S. Keuler; Curtis H. Flather

    2015-01-01

    1. Biodiversity conservation is a primary function of protected areas. However, protected areas also attract people, and therefore, land use has intensified at the boundaries of these lands globally. In the USA, since the 1970s, housing growth at the boundaries (

  6. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  7. Sun protection and exposure behaviors among Hispanic adults in the United States: differences according to acculturation and among Hispanic subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer prevention interventions that target the growing number of U.S. Hispanics are lacking. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors (i.e., sunscreen use, shade seeking, use of sun protective clothing, and sunburns among U.S. Hispanics with sun sensitive skin, with a focus on potential differences according to acculturation and Hispanic origin. Methods The sample consisted of 1676 Hispanic adults who reported having sun sensitive skin (i.e., they would experience a sunburn if they went out in the sun for one hour without protection after several months of not being in the sun. Participants completed survey questions as part of the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were conducted in August 2012. Results Greater acculturation was linked with both risky (i.e., not wearing sun protective clothing and protective (i.e., using sunscreen sun-related practices and with an increased risk of sunburns. Sun protection and exposure behaviors also varied according to individuals’ Hispanic origin, with for example individuals of Mexican heritage having a higher rate of using sun protective clothing and experiencing sunburns than several other subgroups. Conclusions Several Hispanic subpopulations (e.g., those who are more acculturated or from certain origins represent important groups to target in skin cancer prevention interventions. Future research is needed to test culturally relevant, tailored interventions to promote sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. Such initiatives should focus on public health education and increasing healthcare provider awareness of the importance of skin cancer prevention among Hispanics.

  8. Viral-mediated Zif268 expression in the prefrontal cortex protects against gonadectomy-induced working memory, long-term memory, and social interaction deficits in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossat, Amanda M; Jourdi, Hussam; Wright, Katherine N; Strong, Caroline E; Sarkar, Ambalika; Kabbaj, Mohamed

    2017-01-06

    In humans, some males experience reductions in testosterone levels, as a natural consequence of aging or in the clinical condition termed hypogonadism, which are associated with impaired cognitive performance and mood disorder(s). Some of these behavioral deficits can be reversed by testosterone treatment. Our previous work in rats reported that sex differences in the expression of the transcription factor Zif268, a downstream target of testosterone, within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) mediates sex differences in social interaction. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effects of gonadectomy (GNX) in male rats on mPFC Zif268 expression, mood and cognitive behaviors. We also examined whether reinstitution of Zif268 in GNX rats will correct some of the behavioral deficits observed following GNX. Our results show that GNX induced a downregulation of Zif268 protein in the mPFC, which was concomitant with impaired memory in the y-maze and spontaneous object recognition test, reduced social interaction time, and depression-like behaviors in the forced swim test. Reinstitution of mPFC Zif268, using a novel adeno-associated-viral (AAV) construct, abrogated GNX-induced working memory and long-term memory impairments, and reductions in social interaction time, but not GNX-induced depression-like behaviors. These findings suggest that mPFC Zif268 exerts beneficial effects on memory and social interaction, and could be a potential target for novel treatments for behavioral impairments observed in hypogonadal and aged men with declining levels of gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Patricia M; Taylor, Julie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Childhood is a high risk time for ultraviolet induced skin damage as this age group has more time and opportunity to be outdoors in the sun. Children in Africa with the inherited condition oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) are especially vulnerable due to their lack of protective melanin. They are highly susceptible to developing skin lesions that have both cosmetic and health complications, with a high risk of developing skin cancers. The study aimed to explore the adequacy of sun protection strategies of children with albinism in order to inform future provision. Methods Community based participatory research methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies in 90 pupils with OCA (40 female and 50 male) boarding at a special school educating pupils with visual impairment in a rural area of northern South Africa. Hats worn and sunscreen preparations used were examined during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in small peer groups. The resident nurse interpreted if necessary and provided additional information on monitoring and treatment of skin lesions. Results Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year and showed skin damage despite wearing protective head gear. All except one pupil possessed at least one hat, with a mean brim width of 5.4 cm. Gender differences in sun avoidance behaviour were documented, with females seeking shade during recreational periods and males playing soccer outside. Although 38% of pupils were using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) rating, only 12% had government sponsored tubes of SPF15 cream. Government sponsored sunscreen preparations were only provided if actively sought, involving time consuming trips to regional hospitals, with inadequate availability and insufficient supply. Conclusion Children with albinism living away from home in rural areas appear to have inadequate sun protection strategies. Changes in

  10. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Julie S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood is a high risk time for ultraviolet induced skin damage as this age group has more time and opportunity to be outdoors in the sun. Children in Africa with the inherited condition oculocutaneous albinism (OCA are especially vulnerable due to their lack of protective melanin. They are highly susceptible to developing skin lesions that have both cosmetic and health complications, with a high risk of developing skin cancers. The study aimed to explore the adequacy of sun protection strategies of children with albinism in order to inform future provision. Methods Community based participatory research methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies in 90 pupils with OCA (40 female and 50 male boarding at a special school educating pupils with visual impairment in a rural area of northern South Africa. Hats worn and sunscreen preparations used were examined during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in small peer groups. The resident nurse interpreted if necessary and provided additional information on monitoring and treatment of skin lesions. Results Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year and showed skin damage despite wearing protective head gear. All except one pupil possessed at least one hat, with a mean brim width of 5.4 cm. Gender differences in sun avoidance behaviour were documented, with females seeking shade during recreational periods and males playing soccer outside. Although 38% of pupils were using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF rating, only 12% had government sponsored tubes of SPF15 cream. Government sponsored sunscreen preparations were only provided if actively sought, involving time consuming trips to regional hospitals, with inadequate availability and insufficient supply. Conclusion Children with albinism living away from home in rural areas appear to have inadequate sun protection

  11. Long term protection after immunization with P. berghei sporozoites correlates with sustained IFNgamma responses of hepatic CD8+ memory T cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nganou Makamdop, C.K.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Arens, T.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Protection against P. berghei malaria can successfully be induced in mice by immunization with both radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) arresting early during liver stage development, or sporozoites combined with chloroquine chemoprophylaxis (CPS), resulting in complete intra-hepatic parasite

  12. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, A.R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of ± 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of ±0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of ±2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  13. Error Correction and Calibration of a Sun Protection Measurement System for Textile Fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, A.R.L

    2000-07-01

    Clothing is increasingly being labelled with a Sun Protection Factor number which indicates the protection against sunburn provided by the textile fabric. This Factor is obtained by measuring the transmittance of samples of the fabric in the ultraviolet region (290-400 nm). The accuracy and hence the reliability of the label depends on the accuracy of the measurement. Some sun protection measurement systems quote a transmittance accuracy at 2%T of {+-} 1.5%T. This means a fabric classified under the Australian standard (AS/NZ 4399:1996) with an Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) of 40 would have an uncertainty of +15 or -10. This would not allow classification to the nearest 5, and a UVR protection category of 'excellent protection' might in fact be only 'very good protection'. An accuracy of {+-}0.1%T is required to give a UPF uncertainty of {+-}2.5. The measurement system then does not contribute significantly to the error, and the problems are now limited to sample conditioning, position and consistency. A commercial sun protection measurement system has been developed by Camspec Ltd which used traceable neutral density filters and appropriate design to ensure high accuracy. The effects of small zero offsets are corrected and the effect of the reflectivity of the sample fabric on the integrating sphere efficiency is measured and corrected. Fabric orientation relative to the light patch is considered. Signal stability is ensured by means of a reference beam. Traceable filters also allow wavelength accuracy to be conveniently checked. (author)

  14. The Results of the Project on Creation of Special Protection Zones in Pine Forests of the Altai Kray Based on Data from the Long-term Monitoring of Raptors’ Nesting Sites, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides the review of the condition of rare raptors’ species, nesting in strip-shaped pine forests of the Altai Kray. It also reflects negative trends for some species including the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos and the Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo Bubo due to constant felling. Criteria of selection of special protection zones of forests and zones of special protection in nature reserves in the pine forests of the Altai Kray were designed according to the results of the long-term monitoring of raptors. According to researches of 2015 zones of special protection were designed for Kamsalinsky, Mamontovsky and Kornilovsky nature reserves. Inspections conducted in all mentioned nature reserves and in Zavyalovsky nature reserve showed numerous violations of environmental legislation. Thereafter checks on compliance with the legislation in forest exploitation were initiated.

  15. Protective effects of long-term administration of Ziziphus jujuba fruit extract on cardiovascular responses in L-NAME hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbati, Reza; Bavarsad, Kosar; Rahimi, Maryam; Rakhshandeh, Hasan; Khajavi Rad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2018-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba stimulates the release of nitric oxide (NO). Because NO is involved in cardiovascular regulations, in this study the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Z. jujuba on cardiovascular responses in acute NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertensive rats were evaluated. Rats were divided into 6 group (n=6): 1) saline, 2) L-NAME received (10mg/kg) intravenously, 3) sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (50µg/kg)+L-NAME group received SNP before L-NAME and 4-6) three groups of Z. jujuba (100, 200 and 400mg/kg) that treated for four weeks and on the 28 th day, L-NAME was injected. Femoral artery and vein were cannulated for recording cardiovascular responses and drug injection, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded continuously. Maximal changes (∆) of SBP, MAP and HR were calculated and compared to control and L-NAME groups. In L-NAME group, maximal ΔSBP (L-NAME: 44.15±4.0 mmHg vs control: 0.71±2.1 mmHg) and ΔMAP (L-NAME: 40.8±4.0 mmHg vs control: 0.57±1.6 mmHg) significantly increased (p0.05). All doses of Z. jujuba attenuated maximal ∆SBP and ∆MAP induced by L-NAME but only the lowest dose (100 mg/kg) had significant effects (ΔSBP: 20.36±5.6 mmHg vs L-NAME: 44.1±4.0 mmHg and ΔMAP: 20.8±4.5 mmHg vs L-NAME: 40.8±3.8 mmHg (pL-NAME group (p>0.05). Because long-term consumption of Z. jujuba extract, especially its lowest dose, attenuated cardiovascular responses induced by L-NAME, we suggest that Z. jujuba has potential beneficial effects in prevention of hypertension induced by NO deficiency.

  16. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit-Kroner, Christel; Brumby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  17. Parent and Child Characteristics Associated with Child Sunburn and Sun Protection Among U.S. Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ashley K; Stapleton, Jerod L; Natale-Pereira, Ana M; Goydos, James S; Coups, Elliot J

    2017-05-01

    Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in U.S. Hispanics over several decades and the postdiagnosis outcomes are worse for Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Parents are influential in children's health preventive behaviors, but little is known about parental factors associated with children's skin cancer-related behaviors in the U.S. Hispanic population. The present study examined parental and child correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors (sunburns, sunbathing, sun-protective clothing use, and sunscreen use) of children of Hispanic parents. This survey study included a population-based sample of 360 U.S. Hispanic parents (44.8% male) who had a child 14 years of age or younger. Measures included parental reports of parent and child demographic characteristics, parent skin cancer knowledge and linguistic acculturation, and parent and child skin cancer-related behaviors. Approximately 28% of children and 31.9% of parents experienced at least one sunburn in the past year and approximately 29% of children and 36.7% of parents were reported to sunbathe. Moderate use of sun-protective clothing and sunscreen was reported for parents and their children. Child sun-protective clothing use and sunscreen use, sunburns, and sunbathing were associated with the corresponding behaviors of their parents. Future research should consider the role of acculturation and perceived risk in the sun protection behaviors of U.S. Hispanic children, particularly in those who report a fair skin type. Hispanic parents should be included in interventions targeting their children's skin cancer-related behaviors, and it is suggested that such interventions could also encourage parents to improve their own behaviors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepar...

  19. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  20. Contextualising institutional complementarity. : How long-term unemployment depends on active labour market policies, employment protection legislation and the economic climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, L; F. Koster (Ferry); R.J. van der Veen (Romke)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated if and how active labour market policies (ALMPs) and employment protection interact with each other in light of long‐term unemployment reduction. We argue that how well the interaction between both labour market institutions reduces long‐term unemployment depends

  1. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Rahmati Asl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four months after the intervention. In the posttest, there was a significant difference in mean score of the protection motivation theory components between the experimental and control groups. the comparison of the mean score of the components of protection motivation theory in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention showed a significant difference in all the components except for the response cost, while in the control group the mean score difference not significant. The results of this study showed that the intervention may lead to the sun exposure preventive behaviors, which reflects the effectiveness of the educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory.

  2. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be

  3. Seven-year trends in sun protection and sunburn among Australian adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Angela; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Slevin, Terry

    2013-02-01

    To examine the change in sun protective behaviours and sunburn of Australians over a seven-year period, in the context of sustained skin cancer prevention campaigns and programs. Weekly cross-sectional telephone interviews of Australians were conducted throughout summer in 2010/11 for comparison with 2003/04 and 2006/07. In 2010/11, n=1,367 adolescents (12-17 years) and n=5,412 adults (18-69 years) were interviewed about their sun-related attitudes, weekend sun protection and sunburn. Multivariate analyses adjusted for key demographics, temperature, cloud, wind and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to assess change in outcomes over time. There were consistent improvements in adolescents' and adults' attitudes, intentional tanning and incidence of sunburn over time. Behavioural changes were variable. Adults spent less time outdoors during peak UVR compared to past surveys, while adolescents were less likely to be outdoors compared with 2006/07. Sunscreen use and wearing of long sleeves increased among adults, but hat wearing decreased for both age groups, as did leg cover by adolescents since 2003/04. There has been a sustained decrease in weekend sunburn among adolescents and adults. The findings suggest improvements in skin cancer prevention attitudes of Australians over time. Australians' compliance with sun protection during summer has improved in some areas, but is still far from ideal. The sustained decrease in weekend sunburn among adolescents and adults is encouraging, but further improvements are required. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  4. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  5. Prime-booster vaccination of cattle with an influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces a long-term protective immune response against Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Kozhamkulov, Yerken; Inkarbekov, Dulat; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2016-01-20

    This study analyzed the duration of the antigen-specific humoral and T-cell immune responses and protectiveness of a recently-developed influenza viral vector Brucella abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing Brucella proteins Omp16 and L7/L12 and containing the adjuvant Montadine Gel01 in cattle. At 1 month post-booster vaccination (BV), both humoral (up to 3 months post-BV; GMT IgG ELISA titer 214±55 to 857±136, with a prevalence of IgG2a over IgG1 isotype antibodies) and T-cell immune responses were observed in vaccinated heifers (n=35) compared to control animals (n=35, injected with adjuvant/PBS only). A pronounced T-cell immune response was induced and maintained for 12 months post-BV, as indicated by the lymphocyte stimulation index (2.7±0.4 to 10.1±0.9 cpm) and production of IFN-γ (13.7±1.7 to 40.0±3.0 ng/ml) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-BV. Prime-boost vaccination provided significant protection against B. abortus infection at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (study duration) post-BV (7 heifers per time point; alpha=0.03-0.01 vs. control group). Between 57.1 and 71.4% of vaccinated animals showed no signs of B. abortus infection (or Brucella isolation) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-BV; the severity of infection, as indicated by the index of infection (P=0.0003 to Brucella colonization (P=0.03 to abortus infection was also observed among pregnant vaccinated heifers (alpha=0.03), as well as their fetuses and calves (alpha=0.01), for 12 months post-BV. Additionally, 71.4% of vaccinated heifers calved successfully whereas all pregnant control animals aborted (alpha=0.01). Prime-boost vaccination of cattle with Flu-BA induces an antigen-specific humoral and pronounced T cell immune response and most importantly provides good protectiveness, even in pregnant heifers, for at least 12 months post-BV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can an hour or two of sun protection education keep the sunburn away? Evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency's Sunwise School Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenausis Kristin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma incidence is rising at a rate faster than any other preventable cancer in the United States. Childhood exposure to ultraviolet (UV light increases risk for skin cancer as an adult, thus starting positive sun protection habits early may be key to reducing the incidence of this disease. Methods The Environmental Protection Agency's SunWise School Program, a national environmental and health education program for sun safety of children in primary and secondary schools (grades K-8, was evaluated with surveys administered to participating students and faculty. Results Pretests (n = 5,625 and posttests (n = 5,028 were completed by students in 102 schools in 42 states. Significant improvement was noted for the three knowledge variables. Intentions to play in the shade increased from 68% to 75%(p Conclusions Brief, standardized sun protection education can be efficiently interwoven into existing school curricula, and result in improvements in knowledge and positive intentions for sun protection.

  7. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  8. The relative role of cognitive and emotional reactions in mediating the effects of a social comparison sun protection intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Heike I M

    2018-02-01

    This experiment examined the cognitive and emotional impact of two social comparison-based sun protection interventions in a sample of Southern California college students (N = 223). One of the interventions employed comparison UV photos of peers who had either much more (downward social comparison) or much less (upward social comparison) skin damage than did participants themselves. The second intervention consisted of descriptive norms information suggesting that a large majority of the participants' peer group regularly protect their skin from the sun. Participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions in a 4 (Social Comparison Information: no photo vs. no comparison photos vs. upward comparison photos vs. downward comparison photos) × 2 (Descriptive Norms Information: Received vs. not received) design. Emotional reactions (e.g. worry, embarrassment, relief) and sun-related cognitive reactions (perceived susceptibility, sun protection intentions) were assessed immediately. Sun protection behaviours were assessed in a surprise telephone follow-up five weeks following the intervention. The results demonstrated that the combination of seeing photos of peers who had very little sun damage and learning that a majority of one's peers engage in regular sun protection resulted in reliably greater subsequent sun protection than all other conditions. Further, there was relatively direct evidence that both negative emotional reactions and sun protection intentions mediated this effect. These findings add to the growing literature suggesting the importance of thoroughly examining the role of emotions in health behaviour decisions. Both theory and intervention efficacy would benefit from a better understanding of the relative role of cognitions and emotions in behaviour change.

  9. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations......What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...

  10. Sun protective behaviour in renal transplant recipients. A qualitative study based on individual interviews and the Health Belief Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Haedersdal, Merete

    2010-01-01

    : The major result was the finding that patients did not perceive the threat of skin cancer as an important health problem and, therefore, did not give a high priority to sun protection, even though patients were aware of their increased risk of developing skin cancer. Moreover, negative individual attitudes......BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at high-risk of developing aggressive and potentially lethal non-melanoma skin cancer, which emphasizes the need for consistent sun protective behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that exert an influence on the sun protective behaviour of RTRs...... recommend that RTRs are informed about the potential severity of skin cancer, and about the importance of consistent sun protective behaviour....

  11. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivet-Seyve M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathieu Grivet-Seyve,1 Francine Santoro,2 Nadège Lachmann2 1Galderma Research and Development, Sophia Antipolis, France; 2Galderma Research and Development, Egerkingen, Switzerland Background/objective: Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners.Subjects and methods: This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3–5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability.Results: The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female. At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44 showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days’ treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial

  12. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumo, M.; Simbolotti, G.

    2001-01-01

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems [it

  13. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy, stored for a year (room temperature and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *; 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma; 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue. The water activities (Aw were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0, 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9 and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6. The total phenolics (TP were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts, and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts. Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts. No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts. Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples.

  14. Long-term persistence in protection and response to a hepatitis B vaccine booster among adolescents immunized in infancy in the western region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Zi; Gao, Yu-Hua; Lu, Wei; Jin, Cun-Duo; Zeng, Ying; Yan, Ling; Ding, Feng; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-04-03

    To evaluate the persistence of protection from hepatitis B (HB) vaccination among adolescents immunized with a primary series of HB vaccine as infants, and the immune response to booster doses. Healthy adolescents aged 15-17 y vaccinated with HB vaccine only at birth were enrolled. Baseline serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and anti-HBs level was measured using Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA). The rate of HBV infection was calculated. The seroprotection rate of anti-HBs (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and GMC level were used to evaluate the persistence of immunity from HB vaccination. Those with anti-HBs infants, 3 (1.7%) had HBV infection and 74 (41.1%) had anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/ml with a GMC of 145.11 mIU/ml. The remaining 103 (57.2%) with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml received a booster dose of 20 μg HB vaccine and achieved the seroprotection rate of 84% (84/100) and a GMC of 875.19 mIU/ml at one month post-booster. An additional dose of 60 μg HB vaccine was administered to the 16 adolescents with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml after the first booster. All of them obtained anti-HBs seroprotection with a GMC of 271.02 mIU/ml at 1.5 months after an additional dose. Vaccine-induced immunity persisted for up to 15-17 y in 89.3% (158/177) of participants after a primary HB vaccination in infancy. Administering a booster dose of 20μg HB vaccine elicited an anamnestic immune responses in the majority of individuals with baseline anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml.

  15. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  16. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  17. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity

    OpenAIRE

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Vončina, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethac...

  18. Use of social networking sites and associations with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure, and sun protection in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingoia, John; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Gleaves, David H; Corsini, Nadia; Wilson, Carlene

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that greater exposure to traditional media (i.e. television, film, and print) predicted skin cancer risk factors in adolescents; however, the relationship between social media usage and these outcomes remains unexplored. We examined whether social networking site (SNS) usage, and the particular manner of this use, was associated with skin tone dissatisfaction, sun exposure and sun protection among Australian adolescents. We also explored sex differences in SNS usage related to tanning. A total of 1856 South Australian secondary school students completed the Australian School Students Alcohol and Drug 2014 survey. SNS usage related to tanning comprised posting pictures, posting text, viewing pictures, viewing text and liking or sharing posts. Adolescents spent 214.56 minutes, on average, per day using SNSs. Behaviours related to tanning that involved pictures (i.e. viewing pictures, posting pictures, and liking or sharing content) were significantly associated with more skin tone dissatisfaction, more sun exposure and less sun protection. Females performed all SNS-linked behaviours more frequently than did males, with the exception of posting text. Australian adolescents spend a considerable amount of time using SNSs, and their behaviours related to tanning on these SNSs are significantly associated with skin cancer risk factors.

  19. Evaluation of Sun Protection Factor of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to evaluate the sun protection factor (SPF) of aqueous and methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe by ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy method. Aqueous and Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale having concentration of 200µg/ml and 400µg/ml was prepared respectively and the SPF values were evaluated by UV spectroscopy. In this study, it was found that aqueous extract of Zingiber officinale (200µg/ml) have SPF value about 1.44±0....

  20. Children´s sun protection need not conflict with health promoting physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Margareta; Boldemann, Cecilia; Wester, Ulf

    and vegetation influenced UV-exposure and also children´s physical activity measured with step-counters. In Malmö access to spacious outdoor play settings with vegetation decreased sunburn risk and increased physical activity during children´s free play in May - also during long stay outdoor. Results from...... Raleigh in April also indicate that vegetation is sunprotective when children play. Favourable outdoor environment may promote both sun protection and physical activity in a Nordic spring or summer climate, while for physical activity, this might not be so pronounced at a southern mid-latitude due...

  1. Psychosocial Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among U.S. Hispanic Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Coups, Elliot J.; Stapleton, Jerod L.; Manne, Sharon L.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Gordon, Marsha; Tatum, Kristina S.; Robinson, June K.; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer among U.S. Hispanics increased 1.3% annually from 1992 to 2008. However, little research has focused on skin cancer prevention among the rapidly growing Hispanic population. In this study, we examined theory-driven, psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors in a population-based sample of 787 Hispanic adults (49.6% female, mean age = 41.0 years) residing in five southern or western U.S. states. Participants completed an English- or Spanish-language onlin...

  2. [Is there an Association between Prevention Campaign Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviour of Parents for their Children? Results of a Parent Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klostermann, S; Fromme, H; Bolte, G

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study are to assess prevalence of awareness of sun protection campaigns among parents in Bavaria, Germany, to analyse the impact of sociodemographic factors on campaign knowledge and the association between parental campaign knowledge and sun protection behaviour in their children. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2010-2011 in Bavaria, Germany, with parents of 4,579 children aged 5-6 years (response rate 61%). Prevalence of knowledge of sun protection campaigns is 13% among parents in Germany and independent of sociodemographic factors. Ignorance of sun protection campaigns is associated with inadequate sun protection behaviour in children independent of sociodemographic and exposure characteristics. Awareness of sun protection campaigns is low among parents. Knowledge of adequate sun protection behaviour should be further increased at the population level in Germany independently of sociodemographic status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Long-term biodosimetry Redux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, Andre

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits and reiterates the needs, purposes and requirements of bio-dosimetric assays for long-term dose and health risk assessments. While the most crucial need for bio-dosimetric assays is to guide medical response for radiation accidents, the value of such techniques for improving our understanding of radiation health risk by supporting epidemiological (long-term health risk) studies is significant. As new cohorts of exposed persons are identified and new health risk studies are undertaken with the hopes that studying the exposed will result in a deeper understanding of radiation risk, the value of reliable dose reconstruction is underscored. The ultimate application of biodosimetry in long-term health risk studies would be to completely replace model-based dose reconstruction-a complex suite of methods for retrospectively estimating dose that is commonly fraught with large uncertainties due to the absence of important exposure-related information, as well as imperfect models. While biodosimetry could potentially supplant model-based doses, there are numerous limitations of presently available techniques that constrain their widespread application in health risk research, including limited ability to assess doses received far in the past, high cost, great inter-individual variability, invasiveness, higher than preferred detection limits and the inability to assess internal dose (for the most part). These limitations prevent the extensive application of biodosimetry to large cohorts and should be considered a challenge to researchers to develop new and more flexible techniques that meet the demands of long-term health risk research. Events in recent years, e.g. the Fukushima reactor accident and the increased threat of nuclear terrorism, underscore that any event that results in significant radiation exposures of a group of people will also produce a much larger population, exposed at lower levels, but that likewise needs (or demands) an exposure

  4. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer ( p  Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  7. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  8. Sun protection attitudes and behaviours among first generation Australians with darker skin types: results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa; Bonevski, Billie

    2015-02-01

    Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population.

  9. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  10. Brucella abortusΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD double-mutants are highly attenuated and confer long-term protective immunity against virulent Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Park, Soyeon; Kim, Kiju; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2016-01-04

    We constructed double deletion (ΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD) mutants from virulent Brucella abortus biovar 1 field isolate (BA15) by deleting the genes encoding an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter (cydC and cydD genes) and a phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase (purD). Both BA15ΔcydCΔcydD and BA15ΔcydCΔpurD double-mutants exhibited significant attenuation of virulence when assayed in murine macrophages or in BALB/c mice. Both double-mutants were readily cleared from spleens by 4 weeks post-inoculation even when inoculated at the dose of 10(8) CFU per mouse. Moreover, the inoculated mice showed no splenomegaly, which indicates that the mutants are highly attenuated. Importantly, the attenuation of in vitro and in vivo growth did not impair the ability of these mutants to confer long-term protective immunity in mice against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308. Vaccination of mice with either mutant induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and provided significantly better protection than commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. These results suggest that highly attenuated BA15ΔcydCΔcydD and BA15ΔcydCΔpurD mutants can be used effectively as potential live vaccine candidates against bovine brucellosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Parental Knowledge and Tanning Attitudes on Sun Protection Practice for Young Children in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Gefeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  12. The impact of parental knowledge and tanning attitudes on sun protection practice for young children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B

    2014-05-05

    Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement "Tanned skin is healthy skin", this was not the case for "Tanning makes me look better". Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  13. Education and training in radiological protection in the Argentine region- IAEA, toward a long term commitment; Educacion y entrenamiento en proteccion radiologica en la region Argentina- OIEA, hacia un compromiso de largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrado, C.; Arbor G, A.; Bozzo, R.; Larcher, A.; Menossi, C.; Sajaroff, P. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: cterrado@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    ;Education and Training Appraisal in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources' (EduTa). This process includes the invitation to an international mission to visit the country to observe the organization and training capacities in radiological protection and safety of the radiation sources, and the later signature of an agreement of long term in order to assure the continuity of the politicians in the matter. To conclude with success this significant effort will allow to take advantage of the resources efficiently to diffuse in systematic form the last knowledge and experience of radiological protection in Spanish to the whole region of Latin America and the Caribbean. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of Sun Protection Habits and Melanocytic Nevi of Population Screened in a Shopping Mall in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Öztürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The evaluation of sun protection habits, numbers and types of nevi in our community. Material and Method: A stand was built in a big mall in Ankara where 764 patients were screened for the presence of nevi in three working day periods during the month of May of 2005 and 2006. Lesions were evaluated with the help of digital dermatoscopy. In the study, sun protective practices, sunscreen using habits, dermatoscopic diagnosis of the lesions, numbers and the localization of the lesions were also recorded. Results: The study population consisted of 764 patients (438 female, 326 male with age ranging from 1 to 80 (33.7±13.7 years. 55.6% of them had skin type III, 47.3% had sunburn history. Most of the patients (44.1% were not using sunscreens. Hats and umbrellas (40.3% were the most common accessories used for protection. 904 lesions of 764 patients examined by dermatoscopy revealed that the most common diagnosis was nevi. Two patients were diagnosed with having cutaneous melanoma or basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Our findings have shown that the general population is not aware of the risks of sun exposure or the appropriate ways for sun protection and that there is a necessity for educational programmes or campaigns about sun protection and nevi in our general population.

  15. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sanderman, Robbert; Wardle, Jane

    2006-12-01

    Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10,161). Sun protection behavior and beliefs about the importance of sunscreen use for health were measured. There was little change in the proportion of men and women who sunbathed, but use of sun protection increased over the 10-year interval from 52% to 63% in men and 80% to 87% in women. There was wide variation in sun protection use and strength of health beliefs between countries. The association between strength of beliefs and behavior was more marked in 2000 than 1990. Sun protection behavior was positively associated with the socioeconomic background of participants. The use of sunscreen increased among educated young Europeans from several countries over the 1990s, but important sex differences remain. Awareness of the risk to health of unprotected sunbathing is high, but there is scope of strengthening attitudes to sunscreen use.

  16. Long-term control of root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  17. Hanford grout: predicting long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewart, G.H.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; McMakin, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Grouted disposal is being planned for the low-level portion of liquid radioactive wastes at the Hanford site in Washington state. The performance of the disposal system must be such that it will protect people and the environment for thousands of years after disposal. To predict whether a specific grout disposal system will comply with existing and foreseen regulations, a performance assessment (PA) is performed. Long-term PAs are conducted for a range of performance conditions. Performance assessment is an inexact science. Quantifying projected impacts is especially difficult when only scant data exist on the behavior of certain components of the disposal system over thousands of years. To develop defensible results, we are honing the models and obtaining experimental data. The combination of engineered features and PA refinements is being used to ensure that Hanford grout will meet its principal goal: to protect people and the environment in the future

  18. Long-term care: a substantive factor in financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, D A

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 percent of women will enter a nursing home at some point in their lives. About one-third of men living to age 65 will also need nursing home care. Planning for long-term care is even more important since Medicare covers very little of the cost of such care. The Indiana Partnership Plan is one program designed to help fund the long-term care costs while allowing individuals protect other financial assets.

  19. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  20. Knowledge and attitudes about Vitamin D and impact on sun protection practices among urban office workers in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan H; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Whiteman, David C; Kimlin, Michael G; Neale, Rachel E

    2010-07-01

    Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Increasing scientific and media attention to the potential health benefits of sun exposure may lead to changes in sun exposure behaviors. To provide data that might help frame public health messages, we conducted an online survey among office workers in Brisbane, Australia, to determine knowledge and attitudes about vitamin D and associations of these with sun protection practices. Of the 4,709 people invited to participate, 2,867 (61%) completed the questionnaire. This analysis included 1,971 (69%) participants who indicated that they had heard about vitamin D. Lack of knowledge about vitamin D was apparent. Eighteen percent of people were unaware of the bone benefits of vitamin D but 40% listed currently unconfirmed benefits. Over half of the participants indicated that more than 10 minutes in the sun was needed to attain enough vitamin D in summer, and 28% indicated more than 20 minutes in winter. This was significantly associated with increased time outdoors and decreased sunscreen use. People believing sun protection might cause vitamin D deficiency (11%) were less likely to be frequent sunscreen users (summer odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.75). Our findings suggest that there is some confusion about sun exposure and vitamin D, and that this may result in reduced sun-protective behavior. More information is needed about vitamin D production in the skin. In the interim, education campaigns need to specifically address the vitamin D issue to ensure that skin cancer incidence does not increase.

  1. Sun protection for preventing basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Guillermo; Nova, John; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Andrea Esperanza; Medina, Roger David; Solorzano-Restrepo, Carolina; Gonzalez, Jenny; Olmos, Miguel; Godfrey, Kathie; Arevalo-Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2016-07-25

    'Keratinocyte cancer' is now the preferred term for the most commonly identified skin cancers basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), which were previously commonly categorised as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC). Keratinocyte cancer (KC) represents about 95% of malignant skin tumours. Lifestyle changes have led to increased exposure to the sun, which has, in turn, led to a significant increase of new cases of KC, with a worldwide annual incidence of between 3% and 8%. The successful use of preventive measures could mean a significant reduction in the resources used by health systems, compared with the high cost of the treatment of these conditions. At present, there is no information about the quality of the evidence for the use of these sun protection strategies with an assessment of their benefits and risks. To assess the effects of sun protection strategies (i.e. sunscreen and barrier methods) for preventing keratinocyte cancer (that is, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) of the skin) in the general population. We searched the following databases up to May 2016: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS. We also searched five trial registries and the bibliographies of included studies for further references to relevant trials. We included randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of preventive strategies for keratinocyte cancer, such as physical barriers and sunscreens, in the general population (children and adults), which may provide information about benefits and adverse events related to the use of solar protection measures. We did not include trials focused on educational strategies to prevent KC or preventive strategies in high-risk groups. Our prespecified primary outcomes were BCC or cSCC confirmed clinically or by histopathology at any follow-up and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected studies for eligibility using

  2. Association of Indoor Tanning Frequency With Risky Sun Protection Practices and Skin Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-10-12

    Indoor tanning is prevalent among young adults and women and is associated with increased risk of melanoma. Evidence suggests that indoor tanners may be more inclined to adopt poor photoprotective practices that further increase their risk of skin cancer; however, gaps in the literature exist in young adults and by indoor tanning frequency. To examine the association between indoor tanning frequency and behaviors related to skin cancer prevention and to investigate whether these associations vary by age group or sex. Cross-sectional population-based study of US 2015 National Health Interview Survey data including 10 262 non-Hispanic white adults aged 18 to 60 years without a history of skin cancer. Rare/never use of sunscreen, protective clothing, shade; multiple sunburns within the past year; previous full-body skin examination. Of the 10 262 individuals in our study population (49% female; median age, 39 y), 787 (7.0%) reported having tanned indoors in the past year. Among individuals aged 18 to 34 years, frequent indoor tanners (≥10 times in the past year) were more likely to report never/rare use of protective clothing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49) and shade (aPR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70), compared with individuals who did not tan indoors. Among women aged 18 to 60 years, those who frequently tanned indoors were more likely to rarely/never use sunscreen (aPR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.62), protective clothing (aPR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42), and shade (aPR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.25-1.90) on a warm sunny day, as well as more likely to report multiple sunburns in the past year (aPR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45) compared with those who did not tan indoors. Individuals who tanned indoors in the past year were not significantly more likely to have undergone a previous full-body skin examination in any subpopulation examined. Individuals who tan indoors often exhibited a concurrent tendency to sunburn, avoid sun protection, and avoid skin cancer

  3. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao DY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour

  4. Development of a whole-organism model to screen new compounds for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Hsin; Wen, Chi-Chung; Yang, Zhi-Shiang; Cheng, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Jen-Ning; Ku, Chia-Chen; Wu, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Yau-Hung

    2009-01-01

    We used zebrafish as a whole-organism model to screen new compounds for sun protection activity. First of all, we designed a series of UVB exposure experiments and recorded the phenotypic changes of zebrafish embryos. Results showed that 100 mJ/cm(2) of UVB given six times separated by 30 min intervals is the best condition. Fin malformation (reduced and/or absent fin) phenotypes are the most evident consequences after exposure to UVB. Each fin was affected by UVB, including pelvic, ventral, caudal, and dorsal fin, but pelvic fin seemed to be the most sensitive target after UVB exposure. We furthermore carried out "prevention" and "treatment" experiments using green tea extract and/or (-)-epigallocatechin (EGCG) to test this whole-organism model by observing the morphological changes of all fins (especially pelvic fin) after UVB exposure. Effects of UVB, green tea extract and EGCG on fin development were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier analysis, log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Results showed that a zebrafish pelvic fin in the UVB + green tea (treatment) group is 5.51 (range from 2.39 to 14.90) times, one in the UVB + green tea (prevention) group is 7.04 (range from 3.11 to 18.92) times, and one in the 25 ppm of EGCG (prevention) group is 22.19 (range from 9.40 to 61.50) times more likely to return to normal fin than one in the UVB only group. On the basis of these observations, we believe this model is effective for screening the higher stability and lower toxicity of new compounds, such as small chemicals which are derivative from EGCG or other dietary agents for sun protection.

  5. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  6. Long-term competence restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Douglas R; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    While the United States Supreme Court's Jackson v. Indiana decision and most state statutes mandate determinations of incompetent defendants' restoration probabilities, courts and forensic clinicians continue to lack empirical evidence to guide these determinations and do not yet have a consensus regarding whether and under what circumstances incompetent defendants are restorable. The evidence base concerning the restoration likelihood of those defendants who fail initial restoration efforts is even further diminished and has largely gone unstudied. In this study, we examined the disposition of a cohort of defendants who underwent long-term competence restoration efforts (greater than six months) and identified factors related to whether these defendants were able to attain restoration and adjudicative success. Approximately two-thirds (n = 52) of the 81 individuals undergoing extended restoration efforts were eventually deemed restored to competence. Lengths of hospitalization until successful restoration are presented with implications for the reasonable length of time that restoration efforts should persist. Older individuals were less likely to be restored and successfully adjudicated, and individuals with more severe charges and greater factual legal understanding were more likely to be restored and adjudicated. The significance of these findings for courts and forensic clinicians is discussed.

  7. Uranium ... long-term confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Half way through 1983 the outlook for the world's uranium producers was far from bright if one takes a short term view. The readily accessible facts present a gloomy picture. The spot prices of uranium over the past few years decreased from a high of $42-$43/lb to a low of $17 in 1982. It now hovers between $23 and $24. the contract prices negotiated between producers and consumers are not so accessible but they do not reflect the spot price. The reasons why contractual uranium prices do not follow the usual dictates of supply and demand are related to the position in which uranium and associated power industries find themselves. There is public reaction with strong emotional overtones as well as much reduced expectations about the electric power needs of the world. Furthermore the supply of uranium is not guaranteed despite present over production. However the people in the industry, taking the medium- and long-term view, are not despondent

  8. Long-term corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdowski, G.

    1998-01-01

    The scope of this activity is to assess the long-term corrosion properties of metallic materials under consideration for fabricating waste package containers. Three classes of metals are to be assessed: corrosion resistant, intermediate corrosion resistant, and corrosion allowance. Corrosion properties to be evaluated are general, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and galvanic corrosion. The performance of these materials will be investigated under conditions that are considered relevant to the potential emplacement site. Testing in four aqueous solutions, and vapor phases above them, and at two temperatures are planned for this activity. (The environmental conditions, test metals, and matrix are described in detail in Section 3.0.) The purpose and objective of this activity is to obtain the kinetic and mechanistic information on degradation of metallic alloys currently being considered for waste package containers. This information will be used to provide assistance to (1) waste package design (metal barrier selection) (E-20-90 to E-20-92), (2) waste package performance assessment activities (SIP-PA-2), (3) model development (E-20-75 to E-20-89). and (4) repository license application

  9. Sun protection practices among offspring of women with personal or family history of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Brooks, Daniel R; Colditz, Graham A; Koh, Howard K; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2006-04-01

    Family history of skin cancer is an important determinant of skin cancer risk for offspring. No previous study of the effect of personal or family history of skin cancer on the sun protection behaviors of the offspring has been published. A retrospective study was conducted of the sun protection behaviors of the adolescent participants in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS), who were offspring of mothers from the Nurses Health Study II. Adolescents' surveys were matched with their mothers' reports of a personal or family history of skin cancer and compared with adolescents whose mothers did not report a personal or family history of skin cancer. The outcome measures were (1) occurrence of frequent sunburns during the past summer, (2) use of a tanning bed during the past year, and (3) routine use of sunscreen. Frequent sunburns were defined as the report of > or = 3 sunburns during the past summer. We compared those who reported having used a tanning bed in the past year at least once with those who reported no tanning bed use in the past year. Routine use of sunscreen was defined as a respondent who replied that he or she "always" or "often" used sunscreen with sun protection factor of 15 or more when he or she was outside for > 15 minutes on a sunny day during the past summer. General estimating equations were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for gender, age, color of untanned skin, and number of friends who were tanned. We also conducted an additional analysis restricted to children whose mothers had received a diagnosis of skin cancer in which we assessed sun protection behaviors according to the child's age and mother's age at the time of the mother's diagnosis and the number of years that had passed since the diagnosis of the mother's skin cancer. In 1999, 9943 children reported their sun protection behaviors; 8697 of their mothers had not received a diagnosis of skin cancer or reported a family history of melanoma, 463

  10. Occupational risk factors for skin cancer and the availability of sun protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Linda; Ofenloch, Robert; Surber, Christian; Diepgen, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Germany implemented a new occupational disease "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV radiation (UVR)" into the German ordinance on occupational diseases. Since primary prevention is very important, the aim of this study was to assess the provision of sun protection measures by the employers in vocational school students for outdoor professions. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the availability of sun protection measures at German workplaces and the risk of occupational sunburn by surveying 245 vocational school students working in outdoor occupations. More than 40 % of the students did not receive any sun protection measures by their employer, and 34.5 % of the students got sunburned during work. Working in the shade was a protective factor for occupational sunburn but was merely available for 23.7 % of the outdoor workers. Our study reveals a strong need for effective sun protection measures, including both administrative controls like education and personal protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

  11. Aware, motivated and striving for a ‘safe tan’: an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M.; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Birch-Machin, Mark A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21–62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers’ knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health

  12. Knowledge, perceptions and behaviours about skin cancer and sun protection among secondary school students from Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, M; Cazzaniga, S; Fargnoli, M C; Naldi, L; Peris, K

    2013-05-01

    Although sun exposure is a strong risk factor for skin cancer, tanning is very popular among adolescents. Awareness of skin cancer and sun exposure might influence sun protective behaviours in this population. To investigate the awareness of skin cancer and sun-safe practices among Italian adolescents. A questionnaire about knowledge of skin cancer, perceived severity of sun rays/skin cancer and behaviour toward sun protection was administered to 1204 secondary school students. Predictors of these three components were assessed by case-control analyses considering different combinations of answers. Multiple logistic regression models were used to this scope. The majority of participants had heard of skin cancer in the past (97.0%), correctly identified possible causes (58.6%) and names (64.2%) of skin cancers and judged appropriately the perceived danger of sunrays (70.2%) and skin cancer (80.6%). Nonetheless, students' behaviour was poor: only 13.5% stated to always use sun-safe practices and 39.1% never used any. Independent predictors of proper knowledge were: Lyceum school, and family or TV/media as information source; of appropriate perceived severity: Lyceum school, a darker skin type, and dermatologists as information source; of acceptable behaviour: female sex, a darker skin type, and dermatologists or general practitioners (GPs) as information source. Despite a fairly good knowledge about skin cancer and sun exposure, students' behaviour was unsatisfactory. Knowledge is not sufficient to produce a positive behaviour, as determinants of these two aspects are different. Dermatologists and GPs should be considered as key-figures for future multicomponent intervention strategies in this field. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°–150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to

  14. Skin Cancer Awareness and Sun Protection Behavior Before and Following Treatment Among Skin Cancer-Treated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Nourmohammad Pour, Pedram; Etesami, Ifa; Al-Asiri, Safa; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-15

    There is little known about illness perception in patients with skin tumors. We conducted this study to investigate Iranian patients' understanding of skin tumors, and to evaluate their sun-protective behavior changes after treatment of skin cancer. Patients with a skin biopsy of basal cell carcinoma were asked to complete questionnaires. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were mostly referred to our tumor clinic from rural areas. At the skin cancer perception investigation, 63% of patients did not consider their disease as a long-lasting situation. Besides, 45.4% of patients consider their illness as a serious condition which significantly affecting their lives. Our patients had a strong belief in treatment control (81%) and 81% of them also described worries about their skin cancer. The leading causes of skin cancer as assumed by patients were: history of skin cancer (37.4%), poor medical care in the past (36.4%), extreme sun exposure (31.5%), and lack of sun protection (27.5%). In regard to sun-protective behavior after treatment of skin cancer, 55.4% of patients showed no changes or even negative change in their sun-protective behavior, But 44.5% of the patients changed their sun-protective behavior in a positive way which was statically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Our study demonstrates how our patients with skin cancer perceive their disease and we need to educate our patients, considering diseases' aspects, causes and symptoms. This is of great value as dermatologists should be aware of patients' perceptions of their disease in order to improve patients' knowledge through educating more about different aspects of disease.

  15. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  16. Long-term cryogenic space storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. A.; Chronic, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Discussion of the design, fabrication and testing of a 225-cu ft spherical cryogenic storage system for long-term subcritical applications under zero-g conditions in storing subcritical cryogens for space vehicle propulsion systems. The insulation system design, the analytical methods used, and the correlation between the performance test results and analytical predictions are described. The best available multilayer insulation materials and state-of-the-art thermal protection concepts were applied in the design, providing a boiloff rate of 0.152 lb/hr, or 0.032% per day, and an overall heat flux of 0.066 Btu/sq ft hr based on a 200 sq ft surface area. A six to eighteen month cryogenic storage is provided by this system for space applications.

  17. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the

  18. User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

    2013-09-01

    Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n = 16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean = 5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety.

  19. Predicting sun-protective intentions and behaviours using the theory of planned behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt Sutton, Louise C; White, Katherine M

    2016-11-01

    To synthesise theory of planned behaviour (TPB) relationships, using meta-analysis, and test the predictive utility of the model for sun protection behaviour. Thirty-eight samples were identified via database/manual searches and academic society posts based on the criteria: measuring sun-protective intentions and/or prospective behaviour; using the TPB/theory of reasoned action as a basis of measurement; and providing bivariate correlations for at least one relevant TPB association. Sun-protective intentions and behaviours. The sample-weighted average effects were moderate-to-strong with attitudes showing the strongest association with intention (r+ = 0.494), followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = 0.451), and subjective norm (r+ = 0.419). Intentions showed a stronger association with prospective behaviour (r+ = 0.486) compared to PBC (r+ = 0.314). A total of 39% of variance in intentions and 25% of variance in behaviour were explained. Publication bias was not evident. Moderator analyses showed that TPB associations were stronger when measures specified the Target, Action, Context and Time; in non-student samples; and when follow-up exceeded two weeks. Despite recent criticism, this review shows that the TPB explains a large amount of variance in sun protection and that TPB associations are robust across different populations.

  20. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  1. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n =

  2. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate crosslinker respectively, due to theirs thermosensitivity exhibit increase in protecting activity against UV radiation when heated to 45 degrees C. The MX microspheres have higher increase in terms of UV absorbance, comparing to DX microspheres, when heated in the 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C range. Studied microspheres have high potential for application as components of sun-screens used in elevated temperatures.

  3. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kvetonova, Dana; Mynarova, Anna; Shutt, Kathryn A; Pomajbikova, Katerina; Kalousova, Barbora; Modry, David; Benavides, Julio; Todd, Angelique; Kvac, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3) (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0%) and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5%) in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%). In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%), G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5%) and C. muris TS03 (0.5%). Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best practice guidelines for all sites where increased human

  4. Prevalence of Sun Protection Use and Sunburn and Association of Demographic and Behaviorial Characteristics With Sunburn Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Ding, Helen; Guy, Gery P; Watson, Meg; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring sun protection and sunburn over time at the population level can provide valuable information about progress toward skin cancer prevention goals and inform future intervention efforts. To examine the prevalence of sun protection use (shade, sunscreen, and clothing) and sunburn and the association between sunburn and individual characteristics and health behaviors in the US population. In this cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of 31 162 US adults from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control Supplement, household interviews of civilian, noninstitutionalized US adults were conducted throughout 2015 in person and completed on the telephone when necessary. Data analysis was performed from August 16, 2016, to September 6, 2017. The prevalence of sunburn and use of sun protection and their association with demographic characteristics, sun sensitivity, and health-related behaviors and conditions using multivariable logistic regression modeling. A total of 31 162 respondents (mean [SD] age, 47.0 [0.36] years; 13 932 male [44.7%] and 17 230 female [55.3%]) were included in the analyses, with 34.2% experiencing sunburn in 2015. Sunburn prevalence was higher among younger age groups (51.2% in adults 18-29 years old; 95% CI, 48.8%-53.7%), non-Hispanic white individuals (42.5%; 95% CI, 41.2%-43.9%), and those with sun-sensitive skin (50.2%). However, sunburn was also prevalent among black (13.2%; 95% CI, 11.6%-15.1%) and Hispanic (29.7%; 95% CI, 27.6%-31.9%) individuals, demographic groups that are often considered to be at low risk of skin cancer. The most frequent sun protection behaviors were staying in the shade (37.1%; 95% CI, 36.3%-38.0%) and using sunscreen (31.5%; 95% CI, 30.7%-32.3%) followed by wearing long clothing to the ankles (28.4%; 95% CI, 27.6-29.1). Sun avoidance behaviors (seeking shade and not going in the sun) were significantly (39.5% vs 35.1%; P sunburn. Those who used self-applied sunless tanning

  5. Sun Safety at Work Canada: a multiple case-study protocol to develop sun safety and heat protection programs and policies for outdoor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Desre M; Tenkate, Thomas; Strahlendorf, Peter; Kushner, Rivka; Gardner, Audrey; Holness, D Linn

    2015-07-10

    CAREX Canada has identified solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) as the second most prominent carcinogenic exposure in Canada, and over 75 % of Canadian outdoor workers fall within the highest exposure category. Heat stress also presents an important public health issue, particularly for outdoor workers. The most serious form of heat stress is heat stroke, which can cause irreversible damage to the heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver. Although the need for sun and heat protection has been identified, there is no Canada-wide heat and sun safety program for outdoor workers. Further, no prevention programs have addressed both skin cancer prevention and heat stress in an integrated approach. The aim of this partnered study is to evaluate whether a multi-implementation, multi-evaluation approach can help develop sustainable workplace-specific programs, policies, and procedures to increase the use of UV safety and heat protection. This 2-year study is a theory-driven, multi-site, non-randomized study design with a cross-case analysis of 13 workplaces across four provinces in Canada. The first phase of the study includes the development of workplace-specific programs with the support of the intensive engagement of knowledge brokers. There will be a three-points-in-time evaluation with process and impact components involving the occupational health and safety (OHS) director, management, and workers with the goal of measuring changes in workplace policies, procedures, and practices. It will use mixed methods involving semi-structured key informant interviews, focus groups, surveys, site observations, and UV dosimetry assessment. Using the findings from phase I, in phase 2, a web-based, interactive, intervention planning tool for workplaces will be developed, as will the intensive engagement of intermediaries such as industry decision-makers to link to policymakers about the importance of heat and sun safety for outdoor workers. Solar UV and heat are both health and safety hazards

  6. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  7. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  8. Sustainability of the Dissemination of an Occupational Sun Protection Program in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Scott, Michael D.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.; Zhang, Xiao; Kane, Ilima L.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability of an occupational sun safety program, Go Sun Smart (GSS), was explored in a randomized trial, testing dissemination strategies at 68 U.S. and Canadian ski areas in 2004-2007. All ski areas received GSS from the National Ski Areas Association through a Basic Dissemination Strategy (BDS) using conference presentations and free…

  9. Pollution and Sun Exposure: a Deleterious Synergy. Mechanisms and Opportunities for Skin Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrot, Laurent

    2017-09-18

    Pollutants are highly diverse chemical entities, including gases such as ozone or nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate matter of different sizes and with different chemical constituents. PM2.5 is composed of particles that are sometimes about ten nanometres or so in size (ultrafine particles) which can be deposited in lung alveoli, translocated into capillaries and then distributed to all organs through blood circulation. PM2.5 is often associated with toxic chemicals such as heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some photo-reactive PAHs can induce strong oxidative stress under UVA exposure. Skin may thus be impacted by external influences through oxidation of some of its surface components. Moreover, internal contamination is highly probable since some pollutants present in plasma could be delivered by the circulation of the blood. In fact, aggravation of skin diseases such as atopy or eczema during peaks in pollution suggests that skin surface is not the only one to be impacted. Moreover, epidemiological data pointed to a significant correlation between exposure to pollution or cigarette smoke and early occurrence of aging markers. Oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic impairments are among the most probable mechanisms of pollution-derived dermatological hazards which might be amplified by the deleterious synergy of pollution and sun, particularly UVA. Protection strategies should thus combine surface protection (sunscreens with high UVA absorption, antioxidants preventing lipid peroxidation) and enhanced deeper skin tissue resistance to oxidative stress and inflammation, with antioxidants targeting mitochondria or the induction of natural antioxidation and detoxification such as the Nrf2 pathway. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Sun Protection and Skin Examination Practices in a Setting of High Ambient Solar Radiation: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Thompson, Bridie S; Green, Adèle C; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-09-01

    Primary prevention and early detection are integral strategies to reduce the burden of skin cancer. To describe the prevalence of sun protection and skin examination practices in a population exposed to high levels of ambient solar radiation and to identify associated factors. Cross-sectional analyses of baseline data from a prospective cohort of 40,172 adults aged 40 through 69 years from Queensland, Australia, recruited in 2011. We obtained data on all melanoma diagnoses through 2009 via record linkage with the Queensland Cancer Registry (notifications have been mandatory since 1982). We calculated prevalence proportion ratios to compare prevalence of sun protection and skin examination practices in 3 separate groups: those with a history of melanoma (group 1), those with a self-reported history of treated actinic lesions (group 2), and those without either (group 3). We used multivariate generalized linear models to identify factors associated with each practice. Participants with a previously confirmed melanoma (group 1; n = 1433) and/or treated actinic lesions (group 2; n = 24,006) were more likely than those without (group 3; n = 14,733) to report sun protection practices, including regular use of sunscreen (53.3%, 45.1%, and 38.1%, respectively) and wearing hats (74.7%, 68.2%, and 58.2%, respectively). They were also more likely to have had a whole-body skin examination by a physician in the past 3 years (93.7%, 83.4%, and 52.1%, respectively). Within all 3 groups, the strongest association with sun protection practices was with sun-sensitive skin type. Within group 3 (no history of treated skin lesions), the strongest factor associated with clinical skin examinations was self-reported nevus density at 21 years of age, whereas a family history of melanoma was a significant factor in groups 2 and 3. In this large sample exposed to high levels of ambient solar radiation, sun protection and skin examination practices were most frequent among those

  11. Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation--effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Calles, C; Benesova, T; Macaluso, F; Krutmann, J

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760-1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches human skin. While infrared radiation of longer wavelengths (IRB and IRC) does not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of the shorter wavelength (IRA) reaches the dermis. IRA radiation has been demonstrated to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least two ways: (a) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 1, and (b) by decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. IRA radiation exposure therefore induces similar biological effects to UV radiation, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different, specifically, the cellular response to IRA irradiation involves the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Effective sun protection requires specific strategies to prevent IRA radiation-induced skin damage. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Accuracy of Principal and Teacher Knowledge of School District Policies on Sun Protection in California Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Reynolds, Kim D; Berteletti, Julia; Massie, Kim; Ashley, Jeff; Buller, Mary Klein; Meenan, Richard T

    2018-01-18

    Policy is a key aspect of school-based efforts to prevent skin cancer. We explored the extent and accuracy of knowledge among principals and teachers in California public school districts about the elements specified in their district's written sun safety policy. The sample consisted of California public school districts that subscribed to the California School Boards Association, had an elementary school, adopted Board Policy 5141.7 for sun safety, and posted it online. The content of each policy was coded. Principals (n = 118) and teachers (n = 113) in elementary schools were recruited from September 2013 through December 2015 and completed a survey on sun protection policies and practices from January 2014 through April 2016. Only 38 of 117 principals (32.5%) were aware that their school district had a sun protection policy. A smaller percentage of teachers (13 of 109; 11.9%) than principals were aware of the policy (F 108 = 12.76, P < .001). We found greater awareness of the policy among principals and teachers who had more years of experience working in public education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, F 106 = 4.71, P = .03) and worked in schools with more non-Hispanic white students (OR = 7.65, F 109 = 8.61, P = .004) and fewer Hispanic students (OR = 0.28, F 109 = 4.27, P = .04). Policy adoption is an important step in implementing sun safety practices in schools, but districts may need more effective means of informing school principals and teachers of sun safety policies. Implementation will lag without clear understanding of the policy's content by school personnel.

  13. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...

  14. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  15. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  16. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  17. Analysis to long-term stability of solar cables; Untersuchungen zur Langzeitstabilitaet von Solarleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funtan, P.

    2005-07-01

    For the moment it is not possible to say anything about the long-term stability of solar cables. Own experiences shows, that the rubber solar cable H07 RN-F (of one manufacturer) is not qualified for installations, longer than 10 years. The outer isolation of the cable first shows embrittlements and later deep cracks. Microscopically analysis confirms this. Measurements of temperature in typical installation areas of solar cables also shows, that the influence of temperature, regarding aging plays not the most important role, when the cable is installed in a sun protected position. Up to now the reason of the cable destruction is not definitely clarified. Chemically analysis of a damaged and an intact part of the cable, which was installed inside of a module junction box (reduced humility), shows no differences in the chemical consistence. It seems, that it is a combinated effect of temperature and humidity. Further analysis will be performed. (orig.)

  18. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. RESULTS: We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3 (4.0%, Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0% and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5% in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%. In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%, G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5% and C. muris TS03 (0.5%. CONCLUSION: Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best

  19. Genetic Test Reporting and Counseling for Melanoma Risk in Minors May Improve Sun Protection Without Inducing Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Tammy K; Aspinwall, Lisa G; Kohlmann, Wendy; Champine, Marjan; Hauglid, Jamie; Wu, Yelena P; Scott, Emily; Cassidy, Pamela; Leachman, Sancy A

    2018-01-19

    Genetic testing of minors is advised only for conditions in which benefits of early intervention outweigh potential psychological harms. This study investigated whether genetic counseling and test reporting for the CDKN2A/p16 mutation, which confers highly elevated melanoma risk, improved sun protection without inducing distress. Eighteen minors (M age  = 12.4, SD = 1.9) from melanoma-prone families completed measures of protective behavior and distress at baseline, 1 week (distress only), 1 month, and 1 year following test disclosure. Participants and their mothers were individually interviewed on the psychological and behavioral impact of genetic testing 1 month and 1 year post-disclosure. Carriers (n = 9) and noncarriers (n = 9) reported significantly fewer sunburns and a greater proportion reported sun protection adherence between baseline and 1 year post-disclosure; results did not vary by mutation status. Anxiety symptoms remained low post-disclosure, while depressive symptoms and cancer worry decreased. Child and parent interviews corroborated these findings. Mothers indicated that genetic testing was beneficial (100%) because it promoted risk awareness (90.9%) and sun protection (81.8%) without making their children scared (89.9%); several noted their child's greater independent practice of sun protection (45.4%). In this small initial study, minors undergoing CDKN2A/p16 genetic testing reported behavioral improvements and consistently low distress, suggesting such testing may be safely implemented early in life, allowing greater opportunity for risk-reducing lifestyle changes.

  20. Physicians involved in the care of patients with high risk of skin cancer should be trained regarding sun protection measures: evidence from a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M; Rioual, E; Adamski, H; Roguedas, A-M; Misery, L; Michel, M; Chastel, F; Schmutz, J-L; Aubin, F; Marguery, M-C; Meyer, N

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge, regarding sun protection, is essential to change behaviour and to reduce sun exposure of patients at risk for skin cancer. Patient education regarding appropriate or sun protection measures, is a priority to reduce skin cancer incidence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge about sun protection and the recommendations given in a population of non-dermatologists physicians involved in the care of patients at high risk of skin cancer. This study is a cross-sectional study. Physicians were e-mailed an anonymous questionnaire evaluating the knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, sun protection and about the role of the physician in providing sun protection recommendations. Of the responders, 71.4% considered that the risk of skin cancer of their patients was increased when compared with the general population. All the responders knew that UV-radiations can contribute to induce skin cancers and 71.4% of them declared having adequate knowledge about sun protection measures. A proportion of 64.2% of them declared that they were able to give sun protection advices: using sunscreens (97.8%), wearing covering clothes (95.5%), performing regular medical skin examination (91.1%), to avoid direct sunlight exposure (77.8%), avoiding outdoor activities in the hottest midday hours (73.3%) and practising progressive exposure (44.4%). Non-dermatologist physicians reported a correct knowledge of UV-induced skin cancer risk factors. The majority of responders displayed adequate knowledge of sun protection measures and declared providing patients with sun protection recommendation on a regular basis. Several errors persisted. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. Studies on zeolite contribution to the sun protection properties of plant oil lotion rich in vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendevski, S.; Mahmudi, N.

    2012-01-01

    Sunscreen lotions rich in vitamin E provide benefit in preventing and treating sunburns. The sun protection capacity of vitamin E's lotion formulations decrease with time of light exposure. The zeolite microparticles with previously absorbed vitamin E and added after to sun protection oil lotion could be used as reservoir for replacing UV photo degraded vitamin E. In the research, the vitamin E absorption capacities of zeolite microparticles of concentration of 0.2 % w/v in plant oil mixture (Olea Europea Oil, Sunflower oil) have been studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The sedimentation and laser diffraction measurements gave broad distribution on size of the zeolite microparticles (1 μm to 15 μm) without interparticle interactions in the solution. The results showed ten-fold decrease in UV absorbance at wavelength of 292 nm in the first 30 minutes of vitamin E absorption to zeolite microparticles and a flat of release in the sunscreen lotion. (Author)

  2. Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy.

  3. Long-term effects of islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Walker, D Jane; Kay, Thomas W H

    2016-10-01

    Islet transplantation has made great progress in recent years. This is a remarkable technical feat but raises the question of what the long-term benefits and risks are for type I diabetes recipients. Graft survival continues to improve, and recent multicenter studies show that islet transplantation is particularly effective to prevent hypoglycemic events even in those who do not become insulin-independent and to achieve excellent glycemic control. Concerns include histocompatability leucocyte antigen (HLA) sensitization and other risks including from immunosuppression that islet transplantation shares with other forms of allotransplantation. Reversal of hypoglycemia unawareness and protection from severe hypoglycemia events are two of the main benefits of islet transplantation and they persist for the duration of graft function. Islet transplantation compares favorably with other therapies for those with hypoglycemia unawareness, although new technologies have not been tested head-to-head with transplantation. HLA sensitization increases with time after transplantation especially if immunosuppression is ceased and is a risk for those who may require future transplantation as well as being associated with loss of graft function.

  4. Child maltreatment: pathway to chronic and long-term conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Lazenbatt, Anne; Soliman, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The manifesto Start Well, Live Better by the UK Faculty of Public Health (Start Well, Live Better-A Manifesto for the Public's Health. London: UK Faculty of Public Health, 2014) sets out 12 compelling priorities for the protection of people's health. The focus of this document is preventative, calling for a comprehensive strategy to target a wide-ranging set of challenges to public health; however, it fails to mention child maltreatment and its negative impact on long-term health outcomes. In this article, we explore the long-term negative consequences of child maltreatment and how these can be conceptually aligned with four different characteristics of long-term health conditions. We suggest that situating child maltreatment within a long-term conditions framework could have significant advantages and implications for practice, policy and research, by strengthening a commitment across disciplines to apply evidence-based principles linked with policy and evaluation and recognizing the chronic effects of maltreatment to concentrate public, professional and government awareness of the extent and impact of the issue. We argue that a public health approach is the most effective way of focusing preventative efforts on the long-term sequelae of child maltreatment and to foster cooperation in promoting children's rights to grow and develop in a safe and caring environment free from violence and abuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  6. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-01-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  7. Prevalence and determinants of Australian adolescents' and adults' weekend sun protection and sunburn, summer 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David; Girgis, Afaf; Aitken, Joanne F; Beckmann, Kerri; Reeder, Anthony I; Herd, Natalie; Fairthorne, Andrew; Bowles, Kelly-Ann

    2008-10-01

    Reducing people's exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary strategy for skin cancer prevention. We sought to provide comprehensive national data on preventive behaviors and risk assessment for Australia. A national survey was conducted in summer 2003-2004. In 8 weekly cross-sectional surveys, adults and adolescents were interviewed about their sun protection and sunburn on the previous summer weekend. Adjustments were made for specific weather and ultraviolet radiation conditions relevant to time and location. Adolescents were relatively homogeneous in their low compliance with sun protection (significantly less use of hats, covering clothing, shade, and sunglasses than adults) on weekends, and consequently were more likely to be sunburned than adults (25% compared with 18%; odds ratio=1.80, Psunburn, as was ultraviolet radiation for adults' sunburn. Using shade, spending less time outdoors, and, for adults, wearing clothing covering were associated with reduced odds of sunburn. The study relied on self-reported behaviors and sunburn. Further improvement in Australians' sun-protective behaviors is needed.

  8. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... frequently. They have conservative capital structures with low financial leverage. They score higher on an index of long-termism in finance, investment, and employment. They survive longer. Overall, our paper supports the hypothesis that corporate time horizons are influenced by ownership structures...

  9. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a job, a volunteer commitment, or even a hobby can take a toll on long-term survivors ... people find solace in meditation, faith, humor, writing, hobbies and more. Find an outlet that you enjoy ...

  10. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  11. Long term liquidity analysis of the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Gonos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liquidity control is a very difficult and important function. If the business is not liquid in the long term, it is under threatof bankruptcy, and on the other hand surplus of the cash in hand threaten its future efficiency, because the cash in hand is a sourceof only limited profitability. Long term liquidity is related to the ability of the short term and long term liabilities payment. Articleis trying to point out to the monitoring and analyzing of the long term liquidity in the concrete business, in this case the printing industrycompany. Hereby at the end of the article mentioned monitored and analyzed liquidity is evaluated in the five years time period.

  12. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  13. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  14. Sunburn and sun protective behaviors among adults aged 18-29 years--United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Skin cancer is an important public health concern. Nonmelanoma skin cancers, comprised mainly of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, are the most common malignancies in the United States. Melanoma, although less common, is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers can be disfiguring, negatively affect quality of life, and create economic burden. Furthermore, age-adjusted incidence rates of both have increased in recent years. Different patterns of sun exposure are associated with different types of skin cancer. Continuous, chronic sun exposure, such as that observed among outdoor workers is associated with squamous cell carcinoma. Intermittent exposure, such as recreational exposure, is associated with melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Sunburn typically occurs after intermittent exposure, and the risk for melanoma increases with an increasing number of sunburns during all periods of life. Sunburn is more common among persons aged 18-29 years compared with older adults. To evaluate trends in sunburn and sun protective behaviors among persons aged 18-29 years, CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed data from the 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The results indicated that although protective behaviors such as sunscreen use, shade use, and wearing long clothing to the ankles have increased in recent years, sunburn prevalence remains high, with 50.1% of all adults and 65.6% of whites aged 18-29 years reporting at least one sunburn in the past 12 months. These results suggest that additional efforts are needed to identify and implement effective strategies targeting younger adults to improve their sun protective behaviors and prevent sunburn and ultimately skin cancer.

  15. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  16. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  17. Very long-term sequelae of craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Mark; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Michiels, Erna M C; van Veelen-Vincent, Marie-Lise C; Dallenga, Alof H G; van den Berge, J Herbert; van Rij, Carolien M; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M

    2017-06-01

    Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and generally do not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation. Cross-sectional study based on retrospective data. We studied a single-centre cohort of 128 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from 1980 onwards (63 patients with childhood-onset disease). Median follow-up since craniopharyngioma presentation was 13 years (interquartile range: 5-23 years). Initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches included gross total resection ( n  = 25), subtotal resection without radiotherapy ( n  = 44), subtotal resection with radiotherapy ( n  = 25), cyst aspiration without radiotherapy ( n  = 8), and 90 Yttrium brachytherapy ( n  = 21). Pituitary hormone deficiencies (98%), visual disturbances (75%) and obesity (56%) were the most common long-term health conditions observed. Different initial craniopharyngioma treatment approaches resulted in similar long-term health effects. Patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma experienced significantly more growth hormone deficiency, diabetes insipidus, panhypopituitarism, morbid obesity, epilepsy and psychiatric conditions compared with patients with adult-onset disease. Recurrence-/progression-free survival was significantly lower after initial craniopharyngioma treatment with cyst aspiration compared with other therapeutic approaches. Survival was similar between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma. Long-term health conditions were comparable after

  18. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  19. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  20. Long-term visual health risks from solar ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxler, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ocular exposure to the ultraviolet radiation (UV) contained in sunlight may result in long-term visual health problems. UV plays a role in the etiology of cataracts and possibly in the etiology of visual impairments associated with solar retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, ocular aging, cystoid macular edema, retinitis pigmentosa, and senile macular degeneration. The exact does relationships between known UV bioeffects and these ocular problems is, however, uncertain. Thus, there are questions about the extent to which protective measures should be taken to reduce UV exposure of the eye. This paper identifies the long-term visual health problems potentially associated with ocular exposure to solar UV; proposes worst-case assumptions for the role of solar UV in these visual problems; and recommends protective measures based on damage thresholds and worst-case assumptions

  1. Good, but Not Perfect: Parental Knowledge About Risk Factors for Skin Cancer and the Necessity of Sun Protection in Southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefeller, Olaf; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B

    2015-01-01

    The level of knowledge and awareness of skin cancer risks in parents of young children is largely unknown. The Erlangen Kindergarten study, which enrolled 3,129 parents of 3- to 6-year-old children in southern Germany, addressed this. The population-based survey found an overall high level of knowledge about skin cancer risks and strong support for the necessity of sun protection but identified two areas (role of intermittent sun exposure, sun protection on cloudy summer days) offering a target for improvement in future public health campaigns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P heel...... regardless of symptoms and had no impact on prognosis, and neither did the presence of a heel spur. Only 24% of asymptomatic patients had a normal fascia on US at long-term follow-up. A US-guided corticosteroid injection did not cause atrophy of the heel fat pad. Our observational study did not allow us...

  3. Long-term dependence in exchange rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karytinos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which exchange rates of four major currencies against the Greek Drachma exhibit long-term dependence is investigated using a R/S analysis testing framework. We show that both classic R/S analysis and the modified R/S statistic if enhanced by bootstrapping techniques can be proven very reliable tools to this end. Our findings support persistence and long-term dependence with non-periodic cycles for the Deutsche Mark and the French Franc series. In addition a noisy chaos explanation is favored over fractional Brownian motion. On the contrary, the US Dollar and British Pound were found to exhibit a much more random behavior and lack of any long-term structure.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Secondary School Female Students toward Skin Cancer and Sun Protection Behaviors in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mazloomy Mahmoodabad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin cancer is regarded as the most common cancer in most countries, whose most important risk factor is exposure to sunlight. Since prevention programs demand to be held in this regard in childhood and adolescence, this study aimed to determine the Knowledge, attitude, and performance of secondary school female students towards skin cancer and sun protection behaviors in Yazd. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 513 secondary school female students, who were selected using a stratified sampling method. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that its reliability was confirmed in Mazloomy's study via Cronbach alpha (0.81. Moreover, the study data were analyzed by descriptive statistics as well as analytic statistics using SPSS software (ver. 11.5. Results: Mean age of participants was 15/88±1/04 years. Mean and standard deviation scores of knowledge, attitude, performance were reported 12.19 ± 5.44 (total core= 37, 18.98 ± 2.26 (total core= 24 and 7.47 ± 2/51 (total core= 16 respectively. Using sunscreen (71.5% was introduced as the most prevalent sun protection behavior. A significant correlation was observed between knowledge and attitude (r= 0.350, p=0.000, as well as performance(r= 0.264, p=0.000 and age (r= 0.134, p=0.010. Conclusion: As the study findings revealed, lack of knowledge as well as undesirable sun protection behaviors except for using sunscreen supported the need to conduct school-based educational intervention.

  5. Long term planning for wind energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a planning system intended to be governed primarily by policies in statutory plans a reasonable horizon for long term planning is 10 years or longer. Because of statutory requirements, developers have no option but to pay due regard to, and take a full part in, long term planning. The paper examines the type of policies which have emerged in the last few years to cater for wind energy development. It canvasses the merits of different types of policies. Finally, it discusses the policy framework which may emerge to cater for development outside NFFO. (Author)

  6. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  7. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, N.; Kuwabara, K.

    2010-02-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called ``OPERA film'' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  8. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  9. Long term storage techniques for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.A.; Pence, D.T.; Staples, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    As new nuclear fuel reprocessing plants go on stream, the collection of fission product 85 Kr will be required to avoid potential local release problems and long-term atmospheric buildup. Storage of the collected 85 Kr for a period of at least 100 years will be necessary to allow approximately 99.9 percent decay before it is released. A program designed to develop and evaluate proposed methods for long-term storage of 85 Kr is discussed, and the results of a preliminary evaluation of three methods, high pressure steel cylinders, zeolite encapsulation, and clathrate inclusion are presented. (U.S.)

  10. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H.; Wang, Timothy S.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit UV exposure. Objective To determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. Methods We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Results Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% versus 27.0%; aPOR=1.41; 1.16–1.71), long sleeves (20.5% versus 7.7%; aPOR=1.55; 1.21–1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% versus 10.5%; aPOR=1.52; 1.24–1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% versus 33.1%; aPOR=2.11; 95% CI=1.73–2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% versus 40.7%; aPOR=0.95; 0.77–1.17). Among subjects with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Limitations Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure. Conclusion Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. PMID:27198078

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the South Clive disposal site Clive, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project South Clive disposal site in Clive, Utah. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the South Clive disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  14. Interim long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This interim long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney Disposal Site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  16. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    , the psychodynamic perspective is integrated within a multi-dimensional model that considers biological, cognitive, identity, gender and social learning factors. The analysis reveals the possibility of achieving a detailed understanding of the dynamic processes involved in the development of long-term tranquillizer...

  17. Long-Term Orientation in Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    Trust does not work in the same way across cultures. This paper presents an agent model of behavior in trade across Hofstedes cultural dimension of long-term vs. short-term orientation. The situation is based on a gaming simulation, the Trust and Tracing game. The paper investigates the

  18. Safety of long-term PPI therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been publishe...... to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment....

  19. Long term consequences of early childhood malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsey, B.H.; Hoddinott, J; Alderman, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of pre-school malnutrition on subsequent human capital formation in rural Zimbabwe using a maternal fixed effects - instrumental variables (MFE-IV) estimator with a long term panel data set. Representations of civil war and drought shocks are used to identify

  20. Financial Incentives in Long-Term Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L.H. Bakx (Pieter)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Long-term care (ltc) aims to help individuals to cope with their impairments. In my thesis, I describe ltc financing alternatives and their consequences for the allocation of ltc. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, I investigate how alternative ways

  1. Long-term outcomes of patellofemoral arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Werkman, D.M.; Barnaart, L.F.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the long-term survival of patellofemoral arthroplasty with primary diagnosis, age, sex, and body mass index. One hundred eighty-five consecutive Richards type II patellofemoral arthroplasties were performed in 161 patients with isolated patellofemoral

  2. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  3. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    number of years, leading to substantial additional federal spending. For example, the nation could experience a massive earthquake, a nuclear meltdown...budget surpluses remaining after paying down publicly held debt available for redemption . a. For comparison with the current long-term projections, CBO

  4. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  5. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  6. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  7. Rebalancing for Long-Term Investors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Joost; Kuiper, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    In this study we show that the rebalance frequency of a multi-asset portfolio has only limited impact on the utility of a long-term passive investor. Although continuous rebalancing is optimal, the loss of a suboptimal strategy corresponds to up to only 30 basis points of the initial wealth of the

  8. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J.; Marcinsky, M.; Martykan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  9. Assessment of knowledge of skin cancer prevention and its relation with sun exposure and photo protection amongst gym academy members on the south of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Mariana Rocha; Durães, Edson Souza Machado; Martignago, Beatriz Castellar de Faria; Blanco, Luiz Felipe de Oliveira; Fabris, Thiago Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent neoplasia in several parts of the world and also in Brazil. There is evidence of an increase in morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. Although the incidence of skin cancer is increasing, it is estimated that 45% of all preventable cancers worldwide are skin neoplasias. Several studies have emphasized the need for campaigns to encourage sun protection. To assess the knowledge about skin cancer prevention and its association with sun exposure and photo protection in gym members. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study during January to July 2009, including gym members of both sexes in the city of Criciuma. A self-administered questionnaire was used. The statistical analysis was conducted in a descriptive way in regards to the absolute and relative frequencies of the variables under study. Of the 317 questionnaires studied, 62% were from women and 38% from men. Skin types II and III predominated, and the average age was 27.6 years. 94.3% of the participants reported that they had heard about the risks of sun exposure, mostly in terms of skin cancer risk (80.8%). Most participants, especially women, reported some form of sun protective measure. The population studied, similar to that in other regions of Brazil and the world, is aware of the risks of excessive sun exposure and skin cancer prevention, but has not yet incorporated appropriate sun protection measures into their daily habits.

  10. Samish Indian Nation Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine Woodward; B. Beckley; K. Hagen

    2005-06-30

    The Tribes strategic energy planning effort is divided into three phases: (1) Completing an Energy Resource Assessment; (2) Developing a Long-Term Strategic Energy Plan; and (3) Preparing a Strategic Energy Implementation Plan for the Samish Homelands. The Samish Indian Nation developed a comprehensive Strategic Energy plan to set policy for future development on tribal land that consists of a long-term, integrated, systems approach to providing a framework under which the Samish Community can use resources efficiently, create energy-efficient infrastructures, and protect and enhance quality of life. Development of the Strategic Energy plan will help the Samish Nation create a healthy community that will sustain current and future generations by addressing economic, environmental, and social issues while respecting the Samish Indian Nation culture and traditions.

  11. The Long-Term Public Health Benefits of Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Colin; Lee, MiKyung; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding has many health benefits, both in the short term and the longer term, to infants and their mothers. There is an increasing number of studies that report on associations between breastfeeding and long-term protection against chronic disease. Recent research evidence is reviewed in this study, building on previous authoritative reviews. The recent World Health Organization reviews of the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding concluded that there was strong evidence for many public health benefits of breastfeeding. Cognitive development is improved by breastfeeding, and infants who are breastfed and mothers who breastfeed have lower rates of obesity. Other chronic diseases that are reduced by breastfeeding include diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, and some types of cancer. © 2015 APJPH.

  12. Focal radiation therapy combined with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade yields long-term survival and a protective antigen-specific memory response in a murine glioma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Belcaid

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen -4 (CTLA-4 blocking antibodies have demonstrated an ability to generate robust antitumor immune responses against a variety of solid tumors. 4-1BB (CD137 is expressed by activated T lymphocytes and served as a co-stimulatory signal, which promotes cytotoxic function. Here, we evaluate a combination immunotherapy regimen involving 4-1BB activation, CTLA-4 blockade, and focal radiation therapy in an immune-competent intracranial GBM model.GL261-luciferace cells were stereotactically implanted in the striatum of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with a triple therapy regimen consisted of 4-1BB agonist antibodies, CTLA-4 blocking antibodies, and focal radiation therapy using a small animal radiation research platform and mice were followed for survival. Numbers of brain-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed by FACS analysis. CD4 or CD8 depleting antibodies were administered to determine the relative contribution of T helper and cytotoxic T cells in this regimen. To evaluate the ability of this immunotherapy to generate an antigen-specific memory response, long-term survivors were re-challenged with GL261 glioma en B16 melanoma flank tumors.Mice treated with triple therapy had increased survival compared to mice treated with focal radiation therapy and immunotherapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade. Animals treated with triple therapy exhibited at least 50% long-term tumor free survival. Treatment with triple therapy resulted in a higher density of CD4+ and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Mechanistically, depletion of CD4+ T cells abrogated the antitumor efficacy of triple therapy, while depletion of CD8+ T cells had no effect on the treatment response.Combination therapy with 4-1BB activation and CTLA-4 blockade in the setting of focal radiation therapy improves survival in an orthotopic mouse

  13. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  14. Long-term selenium status in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, C.K.; Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Nichols, T.A.; Williams, A.; Dubman, I.M.; Gudino, A.; Denison, J.; Morris, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The association of sub-optimal selenium status with increased risk factors for some cancers has been reported in two recent epidemiological studies. In both studies the same threshold in selenium status was observed, below which, cancer incidence increased. To assess the use of nails as a biologic monitor to measure the long-term selenium status, an eight-year longitudinal study was undertaken with a group of 11 adult subjects, 5 women and 6 men. Selenium has been measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Differences between fingernails and toenails with be discussed. In addition, the results will be discussed in the context of the long-term stability of the nail monitor to measure selenium status during those periods when selenium determinants are static; and the changes that occur as a result of selenium supplementation. (author)

  15. Influenza in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, Louise E; Brown, Caroline S; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2017-09-01

    Long-term care facility environments and the vulnerability of their residents provide a setting conducive to the rapid spread of influenza virus and other respiratory pathogens. Infections may be introduced by staff, visitors or new or transferred residents, and outbreaks of influenza in such settings can have devastating consequences for individuals, as well as placing extra strain on health services. As the population ages over the coming decades, increased provision of such facilities seems likely. The need for robust infection prevention and control practices will therefore remain of paramount importance if the impact of outbreaks is to be minimised. In this review, we discuss the nature of the problem of influenza in long-term care facilities, and approaches to preventive and control measures, including vaccination of residents and staff, and the use of antiviral drugs for treatment and prophylaxis, based on currently available evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  17. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  18. Long-term effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Smith, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that sources of long-term damage from radiation are two-fold. People who have been exposed to doses of radiation from initial early fallout but have recovered from the acute effects may still suffer long-term damage from their exposure. Those who have not been exposed to early fallout may be exposed to delayed fallout, the hazards from which are almost exclusively from ingesting strontium, caesium and carbon isotopes present in food; the damage caused is relatively unimportant compared with that caused by the brief doses from initial radiation and early fallout. A brief discussion is presented of the distribution of delayed long-lived isotope fallout, and an outline is sketched of late biological effects, such as malignant disease, cataracts, retarded development, infertility and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  19. Long term economic relationships from cointegration maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Pereira, Carlos de B.; Leite, Vitor B. P.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-07-01

    We employ the Bayesian framework to define a cointegration measure aimed to represent long term relationships between time series. For visualization of these relationships we introduce a dissimilarity matrix and a map based on the sorting points into neighborhoods (SPIN) technique, which has been previously used to analyze large data sets from DNA arrays. We exemplify the technique in three data sets: US interest rates (USIR), monthly inflation rates and gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates.

  20. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  1. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed.

  2. Long-term economic outlook. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This review provides economic growth forecast tables for Ontario, Canada, the US, Western Europe, and Japan. Economic growth, government policy, the long-term prospects for inflation, interest rates and foreign exchange rates, trends in the Canadian dollar, and energy markets and prices are also reviewed. Data generally cover 1965-2025. Appendices give a summary of historical and forecast data. 18 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  4. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  5. Accounting of Long-Term Biological Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Mossakovskyy; Vasyl Korytnyy

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to generalization of experience in valuation of long-term biological assets of plant-growing and animal-breeding, and preparation of suggestions concerning improvement of accounting in this field. Recommendations concerning accounting of such assets are given based on the study of accounting practice at specific agricultural company during long period of time. Authors believe that fair value is applicable only if price level for agricultural products is fixed by the gov...

  6. Optimal long-term contracting with learning

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhiguo; Wei, Bin; Yu, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We introduce uncertainty into Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) to study optimal long-term contracting with learning. In a dynamic relationship, the agent's shirking not only reduces current performance but also increases the agent's information rent due to the persistent belief manipulation effect. We characterize the optimal contract using the dynamic programming technique in which information rent is the unique state variable. In the optimal contract, the optimal effort is front-loaded and decr...

  7. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  8. Inflation Hedging for Long-Term Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun K. Roache; Alexander P. Attie

    2009-01-01

    Long-term investors face a common problem-how to maintain the purchasing power of their assets over time and achieve a level of real returns consistent with their investment objectives. While inflation-linked bonds and derivatives have been developed to hedge the effects of inflation, their limited supply and liquidity lead many investors to continue to rely on the indirect hedging properties of traditional asset classes. In this paper, we assess these properties over different time horizons,...

  9. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  10. Long-Term Care Services for Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-14

    includes but is not limited to home physical , occupational, or speech therapy ; wound care; and intravenous (IV) care. A VA physician determines that a...restoring/rehabilitating the veteran’s health, such as skilled nursing care, physical therapy , occupational therapy , and IV therapy Same as HBPC... geriatric evaluation,  palliative care,  adult day health care,  homemaker/home health aide care,  respite care, Long-Term Care Services for

  11. Long term adequacy of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the adequacy of world economic uranium resources to meet requirements in the very long term, that is until at least 2025 and beyond. It does so by analysing current requirements forecasts, existing and potential production centre supply capability schedules and national resource estimates. It takes into account lead times from resource discovery to production and production rate limitations. The institutional and political issues surrounding the question of adequacy are reviewed. (author)

  12. The influence of age and gender in knowledge, behaviors and attitudes towards sun protection: a cross-sectional survey of Australian outpatient clinic attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Garbutcheon-Singh, Kieran Benjamin; Dixit, Shreya; Brown, Pam; Smith, Saxon D

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sun protection in different age groups and between men and women. A multicenter cross-sectional study using a population-based survey of 416 individuals over the age of 18 years was undertaken during 2014. Of individuals aged 18-30 years, 94% had experienced at least one episode of sunburn in the previous year. The likelihood of self-examining increased as age increased (p knowledge about sun protection and sunscreen use, and were twice as likely to know that sunscreen was denatured by heat and had an expiry date (p = 0.01). Women were more than twice as likely to put on sunscreen every day compared with men (p = 0.002). Reported barriers to sunscreen use included greasiness and forgetfulness and this was more commonly reported as age decreased (p = 0.002; p = 0.004). The younger population was less likely to use more than one modality of sun protection (p = 0.05). This study highlights a number of gender- and age-specific findings with regards to sun protection. There are knowledge, attitude, and behavior deficiencies within each demographic group that need to be specifically targeted through educational and public health efforts in order to improve general sun protection measures and decrease the incidence of skin cancers.

  13. Long-term energy futures: the critical role of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the results of a 5-year study conducted by IIASA jointly with the World Energy Council (WEC) on long term-energy perspectives. After summarizing the study's main findings, the paper addresses the crucial role of technological change in the evolution of long-term energy futures and in responding to key long-term uncertainties in the domains of energy demand growth, economics, as well as environmental protection. Based on most recent empirical and methodological findings, long-term dynamics of technological change portray a number of distinct features that need to be taken account of in technology and energy policy. First, success of innovation efforts and ultimate outcomes of technological are uncertain. Second, new, improved technologies are not a free good, but require continued dedicated efforts. Third, technological knowledge (as resulting from R and D and accumulation of experience, i.e. technological learning) exhibits characteristics of (uncertain) increasing returns. Forth, due to innovation - diffusion lags, technological interdependence, and infrastructure needs (network externalities), rates of change in large-scale energy systems are necessarily slow. This implies acting sooner rather than later as a contigency policy to respond to long-term social, economic and environmental uncertainties, most notably possible climate change. Rather than picking technological 'winners' the results of the IIASA-WEC scenario studies are seen most appropriate to guide technology and R and D portfolio analysis. Nonetheless, robust persistent patterns of technological change invariably occur across all scenarios. Examples of primising groups of technologies are given. The crucial importance of meeting long-energy demand in developing countries, assuring large-scale infrastructure investments, maintaining a strong and diversified R AND D protfolio, as well as to dvise new institutional mechnisms for technology development and diffusion for instance

  14. Primary school sun protection policies and practices 4 years after baseline—a follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I.; Jopson, Janet A.; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Before the 2005 launch of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP), 242 randomly sampled primary schools completed a mail survey about sun protection policies, practices, curriculum and environment. A 2009 follow-up included 189 (78%) and their mean Total Accreditation Score (TAS = total SSAP requirements met, range 0–12), increased by 0.8 (95% CI 0.5–1.2, P schools acknowledging input from Health Promoting Schools demonstrated a tendency towards being statistically significantly higher by 0.5 (95% CI −0.1 to 1.1, P = 0.082), but statistically significantly higher by 1.1 (95% CI 0.5–1.7, P schools acknowledging Cancer Society input. Lowest attainment was for the clothing (43%), shade (52%) and curriculum (55%) criteria. Key perceived barriers were cost, particularly of shade and limited support by parents and others. Schools which had not applied for accreditation identified lack of programme awareness and ‘other priorities’ as barriers; further information, better resourcing and training assistance as key needs. Observed positive change justifies increased support to consolidate gains and achieve sustainable universality. PMID:22907533

  15. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  16. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part I: theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun – either now or in the past, the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  17. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care: Sexuality, long term care, capacity assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literatur...

  18. Sun protection behavior and knowledge of patients attending laser clinic to prevent adverse events of laser: A Cross-sectional, Single Center, Tertiary Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempark, Therdpong; Lueangarun, Suparuj; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Panchaprateep, Ratchathorn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2018-06-08

    Limited data of sun protection knowledge in laser treatment patients exists therefore, preventative information should be provided by dermatologists to minimize harmful effects. To assess sun protection knowledge-behavior and knowledge to prevent adverse events from laser therapy among patients who visited a laser clinic at a tertiary university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. This is a self-reported questionnaire, cross-sectional survey. All participants from the Laser Clinic in KCMH were recruited into the study. A Total of 385 patients were enrolled into the study; 80.5% female participants. Patients who never received laser treatment significantly lacked proper sun protection knowledge to prevent adverse events of lasers when compared to those who previous received laser treatments regarding the application of sunscreen after laser treatment (56.6% vs 17.4%, p protection in the post laser area (41.9% vs 20.4%, p knowledge of sun protection to prevent adverse events were significantly different among the group of educational levels and previous history of laser treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Using a down-scaled bioclimate envelope model to determine long-term temporal connectivity of Garry oak (Quercus garryana) habitat in western North America: implications for protected area planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellatt, Marlow G; Goring, Simon J; Bodtker, Karin M; Cannon, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    Under the Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA), Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystems are listed as "at-risk" and act as an umbrella for over one hundred species that are endangered to some degree. Understanding Garry oak responses to future climate scenarios at scales relevant to protected area managers is essential to effectively manage existing protected area networks and to guide the selection of temporally connected migration corridors, additional protected areas, and to maintain Garry oak populations over the next century. We present Garry oak distribution scenarios using two random forest models calibrated with down-scaled bioclimatic data for British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon based on 1961-1990 climate normals. The suitability models are calibrated using either both precipitation and temperature variables or using only temperature variables. We compare suitability predictions from four General Circulation Models (GCMs) and present CGCM2 model results under two emissions scenarios. For each GCM and emissions scenario we apply the two Garry oak suitability models and use the suitability models to determine the extent and temporal connectivity of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat within protected areas from 2010 to 2099. The suitability models indicate that while 164 km(2) of the total protected area network in the region (47,990 km(2)) contains recorded Garry oak presence, 1635 and 1680 km(2) of climatically suitable Garry oak habitat is currently under some form of protection. Of this suitable protected area, only between 6.6 and 7.3% will be "temporally connected" between 2010 and 2099 based on the CGCM2 model. These results highlight the need for public and private protected area organizations to work cooperatively in the development of corridors to maintain temporal connectivity in climatically suitable areas for the future of Garry oak ecosystems.

  20. Using Google Earth to Assess Shade for Sun Protection in Urban Recreation Spaces: Methods and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, R; Wilson, N; Signal, L; Barr, M; Mackay, C; Reeder, A; Thomson, G

    2018-05-16

    Shade in public spaces can lower the risk of and sun burning and skin cancer. However, existing methods of auditing shade require travel between sites, and sunny weather conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software-Google Earth-for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools. Outcome measures included method accuracy (assessed by comparison with a subsample of field observations of 10 of the settings) and inter-rater reliability. Of the 164 activity areas identified in the 45 settings, most (83%) had no shade cover. The method identified most activity areas in playgrounds (85%) and beaches (93%) and was accurate for assessing shade over these areas (predictive values of 100%). Only 8% of activity areas at outdoor pools were identified, due to a lack of street view images. Reliability for shade cover estimates was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). Google Earth appears to be a reasonably accurate and reliable and shade audit tool for playgrounds and beaches. The findings are relevant for programmes focused on supporting the development of healthy urban open spaces.

  1. Response Across the Health-Literacy Spectrum of Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Sun-Protection Education Program Delivered on Tablet Computers: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John J; Desai, Amishi; Gordon, Elisa J

    2015-08-18

    Sun protection can reduce skin cancer development in kidney transplant recipients, who have a greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma than the general population. A culturally sensitive sun-protection program (SunProtect) was created in English and Spanish with the option of choosing audio narration provided by the tablet computer (Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 10.1). The intervention, which showed skin cancer on patients with various skin tones, explained the following scenarios: skin cancer risk, the ability of sun protection to reduce this risk, as well as offered sun-protection choices. The length of the intervention was limited to the time usually spent waiting during a visit to the nephrologist. The development of this culturally sensitive, electronic, interactive sun-protection educational program, SunProtect, was guided by the "transtheoretical model," which focuses on decision making influenced by perceptions of personal risk or vulnerability to a health threat, importance (severity) of the disease, and benefit of sun-protection behavior. Transportation theory, which holds that narratives can have uniquely persuasive effects in overcoming preconceived beliefs and cognitive biases because people transported into a narrative world will alter their beliefs based on information, claims, or events depicted, guided the use of testimonials. Participant tablet use was self-directed. Self-reported responses to surveys were entered into the database through the tablet. Usability was tested through interviews. A randomized controlled pilot trial with 170 kidney transplant recipients was conducted, where the educational program (SunProtect) was delivered through a touch-screen tablet to 84 participants. The study involved 62 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, and 48 Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between the intervention and control groups in age, sex, income, or time since

  2. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Sapra, Geeta; Patterson, Natalie L; Cemerlang, Nelly; Kiriazis, Helen; Ueyama, Tomomi; Febbraio, Mark A; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC). Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  3. Long-Term Overexpression of Hsp70 Does Not Protect against Cardiac Dysfunction and Adverse Remodeling in a MURC Transgenic Mouse Model with Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C Bernardo

    Full Text Available Previous animal studies had shown that increasing heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 using a transgenic, gene therapy or pharmacological approach provided cardiac protection in models of acute cardiac stress. Furthermore, clinical studies had reported associations between Hsp70 levels and protection against atrial fibrillation (AF. AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia presenting in cardiology clinics and is associated with increased rates of heart failure and stroke. Improved therapies for AF and heart failure are urgently required. Despite promising observations in animal studies which targeted Hsp70, we recently reported that increasing Hsp70 was unable to attenuate cardiac dysfunction and pathology in a mouse model which develops heart failure and intermittent AF. Given our somewhat unexpected finding and the extensive literature suggesting Hsp70 provides cardiac protection, it was considered important to assess whether Hsp70 could provide protection in another mouse model of heart failure and AF. The aim of the current study was to determine whether increasing Hsp70 could attenuate adverse cardiac remodeling, cardiac dysfunction and episodes of arrhythmia in a mouse model of heart failure and AF due to overexpression of Muscle-Restricted Coiled-Coil (MURC. Cardiac function and pathology were assessed in mice at approximately 12 months of age. We report here, that chronic overexpression of Hsp70 was unable to provide protection against cardiac dysfunction, conduction abnormalities, fibrosis or characteristic molecular markers of the failing heart. In summary, elevated Hsp70 may provide protection in acute cardiac stress settings, but appears insufficient to protect the heart under chronic cardiac disease conditions.

  4. Genetics perspective of UV rays and new alternatives for sun protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, E.O.; Vargas, N.; Martínez, L.M.; Agudelo, C.A.; Ortiz, I.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV), has three different wavelengths: UVA (315-400 nm), UVB (280-315 nm) and UVC (100-280 nm), which impact in different ways on the skin of human beings, and may be responsible of skin aging, burns and cancers. Currently we have multiple sunscreen alternatives, ranging from conventional physical methods to complex molecular mechanisms and inducers of cell repair as Polypodium leucotomos. The purpose of this review is to show the implications of ultraviolet rays on human beings exposed to sunlight and the protection alternatives that are available and show what is to come in photo protection towards the future. (authors) [es

  5. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-term EEG in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavont, A; Kaminska, A; Soufflet, C; Taussig, D

    2015-03-01

    Long-term video-EEG corresponds to a recording ranging from 1 to 24 h or even longer. It is indicated in the following situations: diagnosis of epileptic syndromes or unclassified epilepsy, pre-surgical evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy, follow-up of epilepsy or in cases of paroxysmal symptoms whose etiology remains uncertain. There are some specificities related to paediatric care: a dedicated pediatric unit; continuous monitoring covering at least a full 24-hour period, especially in the context of pre-surgical evaluation; the requirement of presence by the parents, technician or nurse; and stronger attachment of electrodes (cup electrodes), the number of which is adapted to the age of the child. The chosen duration of the monitoring also depends on the frequency of seizures or paroxysmal events. The polygraphy must be adapted to the type and topography of movements. It is essential to have at least an electrocardiography (ECG) channel, respiratory sensor and electromyography (EMG) on both deltoids. There is no age limit for performing long-term video-EEG even in newborns and infants; nevertheless because of scalp fragility, strict surveillance of the baby's skin condition is required. In the specific context of pre-surgical evaluation, long-term video-EEG must record all types of seizures observed in the child. This monitoring is essential in order to develop hypotheses regarding the seizure onset zone, based on electroclinical correlations, which should be adapted to the child's age and the psychomotor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Creating a Sun-Safe Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Strategies for minimizing sun exposure of campers and staff include educating campers about the sun's effect on their skin, scheduling activities when the sun is less intense, creating shade at the camp site, incorporating sun protection into camp dress code, and training staff regarding sun protection. Addresses OSHA and liability issues. (LP)

  8. Long term aspects of uranium tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1980-05-01

    This paper sets out the background issues which lead to the development of interim close-out criteria for uranium mill tailings. It places the current state-of-the-art for tailings management into both a national and international perspective and shows why such interim criteria are needed now. There are seven specific criteria proposed dealing with the need to have: passive barriers, limits on surface water recharge, durable systems, long term performance guarantees, limits to access, controls on water and airborne releases and finally to have a knowledge of exposure pathways. This paper is intended to serve as a focus for subsequent discussions with all concerned parties. (auth)

  9. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  10. Optimal Long-Term Financial Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M. DeMarzo; Michael J. Fishman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an agency model of financial contracting. We derive long-term debt, a line of credit, and equity as optimal securities, capturing the debt coupon and maturity; the interest rate and limits on the credit line; inside versus outside equity; dividend policy; and capital structure dynamics. The optimal debt-equity ratio is history dependent, but debt and credit line terms are independent of the amount financed and, in some cases, the severity of the agency problem. In our model, the ag...

  11. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, M.; Faurschou, A.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application. METHODS: Seven areas were marked on the back of 24 volunteers. One area was phototested ...

  12. Long-term care financing: lessons from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: France's model of third-party coverage for long-term services and supports (LTSS) combines a steeply income-adjusted universal public program for people 60 or older with voluntary supplemental private insurance. French and US policies differ: the former pay cash; premiums are lower; and take-up rates are higher, in part because employer sponsorship, with and without subsidization, is more common-but also because coverage targets higher levels of need and pays a smaller proportion of costs. Such inexpensive, bare-bones private coverage, especially if marketed as a supplement to a limited public benefit, would be more affordable to those Americans currently most at risk of "spending down" to Medicaid. An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States' long-term care financing reform efforts. We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income

  13. Beyond the usual suspects: target group- and behavior-specific factors add to a theory-based sun protection intervention for teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Natalie; Eid, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Sun protection standards among teenagers are low while sun exposure peaks in this age group. Study 1 explores predictors of adolescent protection intentions and exposure behavior. Study 2 tests the effectiveness of an intervention based on these predictors. Study 1(cross-sectional, N = 207, ages 15-18) and Study 2 (RCT, N = 253, ages 13-19) were conducted in schools. Path models were used to analyze data. Self-efficacy (β = .26, p motivation (β = .54, p motivation (β = .29, p health behavior theories.

  14. Evaluating the long-term management of introduced ungulates to protect the palila, an endangered bird, and its critical habitat in subalpine forest of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Banko; Steven C. Hess; Paul G. Scowcroft; Chris Farmer; James D. Jacobi; Robert M. Stephens; Richard J. Camp; David L. Leonard; Kevin W. Brinck; J. O. Juvik; S. P. Juvik

    2014-01-01

    Under the multiple-use paradigm, conflicts may arise when protection of an endangered species must compete with other management objectives. To resolve such a conflict in the Critical Habitat of the endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, palila (Loxioides bailleui), federal courts ordered the eradication of introduced ungulates responsible for damaging...

  15. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun allergy Overview Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ...

  16. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (the Gnome site). The Gnome site is approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad in Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 1). The site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test and radioisotope groundwater tracer test. The tests resulted in residual contamination and post-detonation features that require long-term oversight. Long-term responsibility for the site was transferred from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to LM on October 1, 2006. Responsibilities include surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of institutional controls (ICs) as part of the long-term stewardship of the site. Long-term stewardship is designed to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  17. Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection, and indoor tanning behaviors among Americans: review from national surveys and case studies of 3 states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Cokkinides, Vilma; Hall, H Irene; Hartman, Anne M; Saraiya, Mona; Miller, Eric; Paddock, Lisa; Glanz, Karen

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (from solar and nonsolar sources) is a risk factor for skin cancer. We sought to summarize recent estimates on sunburns, sun-protection behaviors, and indoor tanning available from national and selected statewide behavioral surveys. Estimates of the prevalence of sunburn, sun-protection behaviors, and indoor tanning by US adults, adolescents, and children collected in national surveys in 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2007 to 2009 were identified and extracted from searches of computerized databases (ie, MEDLINE and PsychINFO), reference lists, and survey World Wide Web sites. Sunburn estimates from 3 state Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance Systems were also analyzed. Latest published estimates (2005) showed that 34.4% of US adults were sunburned in the past year. Incidence of sunburns was highest among men, non-Hispanic whites, young adults, and high-income groups in national surveys. About 3 in 10 adults routinely practiced sun-protection behaviors, and women and older adults took the most precautions. Among adolescents, 69% were sunburned in the previous summer and less than 40% practiced sun protection. Approximately 60% of parents applied sunscreen and a quarter used shade to protect children. Indoor tanning was prevalent among younger adults and females. Limitations include potential recall errors and social desirability in self-report measures, and lack of current data on children. Many Americans experienced sunburns and a minority engaged in protective behaviors. Females and older adults were most vigilant about sun protection. Substantial proportions of young women and adolescents recently used indoor tanning. Future efforts should promote protective hats, clothing, and shade; motivate males and younger populations to take precautions; and convince women and adolescents to reduce indoor tanning. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of quality indicators for long-term evaluation of heavy metals content in soils of an agro-ecological protected wetland: L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Valencia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Palop, Carla

    2015-04-01

    Due to the social, economical and environmental importance of agro-ecological wetlands, strategies for periodical evaluation of their environmental quality should be developed, particularly in those areas were a mixture of land uses are supporting the survival of wildlife and migrant species as is the case of most Mediterranean coastal wetlands. The aim of this work is to develop a strategy for a long-term assessment of the environmental quality of soils in a rice-wetland: L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain, in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia. The area was officially declared as Natural Park in 1986, integrating both the traditional irrigation system and the ecological importance derived from being a Mediterranean Wetland that is now transformed to a large extent in a rice-wetland allowing the presence of a large variety of migrant spices. The methodology consisted in the monitoring of 20 sites distributed in 5 sectors in and around the natural park of potentially contrasting anthropogenic pressure and land use. Soil samples collection were instrumented in two campaigns. The first one was in 1989 (three years after the official declaration as Natural Park of the wetland), and the second 19 years later in 2008. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. To evaluate the quality of soils at each sampling date four indicators were obtained, namely, Contamination Factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Results obtained with quality indicators were further compared to obtain temporal and spatial trends using Geographical Information systems procedures. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average

  19. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  20. Craniopharyngioma in Children: Long-term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINBOK, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The survival rate for childhood craniopharyngioma has been improving, with more long-term survivors. Unfortunately it is rare for the patient to be normal, either from the disease itself or from the effects of treatment. Long-term survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma suffer a number of impairments, which include visual loss, endocrinopathy, hypothalamic dysfunction, cerebrovascular problems, neurologic and neurocognitive dysfunction. Pituitary insufficiency is present in almost 100%. Visual and hypothalamic dysfunction is common. There is a high risk of metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cerebrovascular disease, including stroke and Moyamoya syndrome. Cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional problems are prevalent. Finally, there is a higher risk of premature death among survivors of craniopharyngioma, and often this is not from tumor recurrence. It is important to consider craniopharyngioma as a chronic disease. There is no perfect treatment. The treatment has to be tailored to the individual patient to minimize dysfunction caused by tumor and treatments. So “cure” of the tumor does not mean a normal patient. The management of the patient and family needs multidisciplinary evaluation and should involve ophthalmology, endocrinology, neurosurgery, oncology, and psychology. Furthermore, it is also important to address emotional issues and social integration. PMID:26345668

  1. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  2. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Brack, H P; Geiger, F; Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  3. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  4. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  5. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  7. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  8. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Martin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  9. Long term creep behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents the findings of an experimental investigation to evaluate the long term creep behavior of concrete subjected to sustained uniaxial loads for an extended period of time at 75 0 F. The factors investigated were (1) curing time (90, 183, and 365 days); (2) curing history (as-cast and air-dried); and (3) uniaxial stress (600 and 2400 psi). The experimental investigation applied uniaxial compressive loads to cylindrical concrete specimens and measured strains with vibrating wire strain gages that were cast in the concrete specimen along the axial and radial axes. Specimens cured for 90 days prior to loading were subjected to a sustained load for a period of one year, at which time the loads were removed; the specimens which were cured for 183 or 365 days, however, were not unloaded and have been under load for 5 and 4.5 years, respectively. The effect of each of the above factors on the instantaneous and creep behavior is discussed and the long term creep behavior of the specimens cured for 183 or 365 days is evaluated. The findings of these evaluations are summarized. (17 figures, 10 tables) (U.S.)

  10. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  11. Factors affecting long-term integrity of transmission pipelines; Facteurs affectant l'integrite a long terme des gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, N.; Masuda, T.; Oguchi, N. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For upgrading long-term integrity of transmission pipelines, two types of delayed fracture in regions of mechanical damage in pipelines were investigated. Experimental and numerical studies clarified factors affecting the fatigue behavior of line pipes containing an idealized flaw under fluctuating internal pressure. To investigate fatigue cracking at mechanical damage in pipelines, degradation of fracture toughness and fatigue properties due to plastic pre-strain was also evaluated. A fracture mechanics-based study revealed conditions necessarily for initiation of hydrogen stress cracking (HSC) at a surface defect in line pipes under cathodic protection. (authors)

  12. A mechanism of midlatitude noontime foE long-term variations inferred from European observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Perrone, L.; Nusinov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    Manually scaled June noontime monthly median foE values at three European stations Rome, Juliusruh, and Slough/Chilton were used to understand the mechanism of foE long-term variations. The 11 year running mean smoothed foE manifests long-term (for some solar cycles) variations with the rising phase at the end of 1960-1985 and the falling phase after 1985. A close relationship (even in details) between (foEave)11y and (R12)11y variations with the correlation coefficient of 0.996 (absolutely significant according to Fisher F criterion) suggests that the Sun is the source of these (foEave)11y long-term variations. After removing solar activity long-term variations the residual (foEave)11y trend is very small ( 0.029% per decade) being absolutely insignificant. This means that all (foEave)11y variations are removed with one solar activity index, (R12)11y, i.e., this means that long-term variations are fully controlled by solar activity. Theory of midlatitude daytime E region tells us that long-term variations of solar EUV in two lines λ = 977 Å (CIII) and λ = 1025.7 Å (HLyβ) and X-ray radiation with λ foE long-term variations have a natural (not anthropogenic) origin related to long-term variations of solar activity. No peculiarities in relation with the last deep solar minimum in 2008-2009 have been revealed.

  13. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  14. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  15. Photoprotection and vitamin D status: a study on awareness, knowledge and attitude towards sun protection in general population from Kuwait, and its relation with vitamin D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, Nawaf; Issa, Bayoumi Ibrahim; Nair, Vasanthy

    2012-01-01

    The primary cause of skin cancers is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. And, for decades sun protection has been promoted in various public health education campaigns. Recently, however, vitamin D deficiency has been related to increased risk of skin cancers. And, skin being the primary site for the synthesis of active form of vitamin D, excessive sun protection could lead to vitamin D-deficient states. But, the results have so far been conflicting. To study the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of representative groups from the general population from Kuwait towards sun protection. And, also study the correlation of the level of sun protective measures used and vitamin D levels in these groups. The study constituted of two main parts. First part comprised a questionnaire-based survey of representative group of people aged 18 and above to assess their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards sun protection. The second part consisted of measuring serum vitamin D levels in 150 volunteers amongst the responders of the questionnaire, who had been regularly using sunscreens for at least 2 years and compare to the levels seen in 150 age and sex-matched responders of similar skin phototypes, who had never used sunscreens. Out of the total of 1044 responders, 80% of them had adequate knowledge of the beneficial and harmful effects of sun exposure, and had been using sunscreens regularly, and adopting other sun protective measures in their daily life. The levels of vitamin D were found to be deficient in both sunscreen users and those who had never used sunscreens. The difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant (60.67% vs 54.67%; P value>0.001). Population at large seems to be adequately informed about the beneficial and deleterious effects of sun exposure. Vitamin D levels are deficient in majority of our people, and there is a need to do larger surveys covering all parts of the country and give supplemental doses of vitamin D to those

  16. Photoprotection and vitamin D status: A study on awareness, knowledge and attitude towards sun protection in general population from Kuwait, and its relation with vitamin D levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Al-Mutairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary cause of skin cancers is exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation. And, for decades sun protection has been promoted in various public health education campaigns. Recently, however, vitamin D deficiency has been related to increased risk of skin cancers. And, skin being the primary site for the synthesis of active form of vitamin D, excessive sun protection could lead to vitamin D-deficient states. But, the results have so far been conflicting. Aims: To study the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of representative groups from the general population from Kuwait towards sun protection. And, also study the correlation of the level of sun protective measures used and vitamin D levels in these groups. Methods: The study constituted of two main parts. First part comprised a questionnaire-based survey of representative group of people aged 18 and above to assess their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards sun protection. The second part consisted of measuring serum vitamin D levels in 150 volunteers amongst the responders of the questionnaire, who had been regularly using sunscreens for at least 2 years and compare to the levels seen in 150 age and sex-matched responders of similar skin phototypes, who had never used sunscreens. Results: Out of the total of 1044 responders, 80% of them had adequate knowledge of the beneficial and harmful effects of sun exposure, and had been using sunscreens regularly, and adopting other sun protective measures in their daily life. The levels of vitamin D were found to be deficient in both sunscreen users and those who had never used sunscreens. The difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant (60.67% vs 54.67%; P value>0.001. Conclusion: Population at large seems to be adequately informed about the beneficial and deleterious effects of sun exposure. Vitamin D levels are deficient in majority of our people, and there is a need to do larger surveys covering all

  17. Conditioning radium needles for long term storage : Sri Lankan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith, H.L.A.; Shantha, T.H.S.; Gunaratne, M.G.J.; De Silva, U.W.K.H.; Perera, H.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Radium the first radioisotope invented by Madame Curie was used for cancer therapy for the intracavitory treatment of cervical cancers and as oral implants etc. Radium needles and other geometries were made in standard strengths and Radium therapy enjoyed a heyday during the 1st half of the 20th century. Radium-226 is a long-lived radioactive material with a half-life of 1600 years. The use of radium was abandoned in the world in 1980s with the invention of short lived radioactive materials offering remote after loading systems which minimise radiation protection and waste disposal problems associated with long lived radioactive materials. This paper reports the conditioning procedure of the spent radium sources for long term storage (less than 20 years) and transport to national/ international stores if needed. The dose received by those involved in this exercise is also discussed in terms of radiation protection. The Ra was contained for long term storage according to international radiation safety regulations with a surface dose of less than 2 mSv per hour in a conditioned package having 17.5 GBq activity and can be transported to national/international stores if needed. The highest dose received during the exercise is well within the recommended dose limits for occupational exposures (20 and 500 mSv per year) for whole body and extremities respectively

  18. A single dose of a DNA vaccine encoding apa coencapsulated with 6,6'-trehalose dimycolate in microspheres confers long-term protection against tuberculosis in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-primed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlétti, Dyego; Morais da Fonseca, Denise; Gembre, Ana Flávia; Masson, Ana Paula; Weijenborg Campos, Lívia; Leite, Luciana C C; Rodrigues Pires, Andréa; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Lopes Silva, Célio; Bonato, Vânia Luiza Deperon; Horn, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG prime DNA (Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes)-booster vaccinations have been shown to induce greater protection against tuberculosis (TB) than BCG alone. This heterologous prime-boost strategy is perhaps the most realistic vaccination for the future of TB infection control, especially in countries where TB is endemic. Moreover, a prime-boost regimen using biodegradable microspheres seems to be a promising immunization to stimulate a long-lasting immune response. The alanine proline antigen (Apa) is a highly immunogenic glycoprotein secreted by M. tuberculosis. This study investigated the immune protection of Apa DNA vaccine against intratracheal M. tuberculosis challenge in mice on the basis of a heterologous prime-boost regimen. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously primed with BCG and intramuscularly boosted with a single dose of plasmid carrying apa and 6,6'-trehalose dimycolate (TDM) adjuvant, coencapsulated in microspheres (BCG-APA), and were evaluated 30 and 70 days after challenge. This prime-boost strategy (BCG-APA) resulted in a significant reduction in the bacterial load in the lungs, thus leading to better preservation of the lung parenchyma, 70 days postinfection compared to BCG vaccinated mice. The profound effect of this heterologous prime-boost regimen in the experimental model supports its development as a feasible strategy for prevention of TB.

  19. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva......The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...

  20. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  1. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  2. Prediction of long-term creep curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kouichi

    1992-01-01

    This paper aims at discussing how to predict long-term irradiation enhanced creep properties from short-term tests. The predictive method based on the θ concept was examined by using creep data of ferritic steels. The method was successful in predicting creep curves including the tertiary creep stage as well as rupture lifetimes. Some material constants involved in the method are insensitive to the irradiation environment, and their values obtained in thermal creep are applicable to irradiation enhanced creep. The creep mechanisms of most engineering materials definitely change at the athermal yield stress in the non-creep regime. One should be aware that short-term tests must be carried out at stresses lower than the athermal yield stress in order to predict the creep behavior of structural components correctly. (orig.)

  3. The discovery of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lømo, Terje

    2003-04-29

    This paper describes circumstances around the discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP). In 1966, I had just begun independent work for the degree of Dr medicinae (PhD) in Per Andersen's laboratory in Oslo after an eighteen-month apprenticeship with him. Studying the effects of activating the perforant path to dentate granule cells in the hippocampus of anaesthetized rabbits, I observed that brief trains of stimuli resulted in increased efficiency of transmission at the perforant path-granule cell synapses that could last for hours. In 1968, Tim Bliss came to Per Andersen's laboratory to learn about the hippocampus and field potential recording for studies of possible memory mechanisms. The two of us then followed up my preliminary results from 1966 and did the experiments that resulted in a paper that is now properly considered to be the basic reference for the discovery of LTP.

  4. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    significantly associated with initiation of L-TOT in individuals with CNCP at baseline. During follow-up, L-TOT in CNCP patients increased the likelihood of negative changes in pain interference with work (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.9-43.6) and in moderate activities (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.6). The analysis of all......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...... individuals indicated a dose-response relationship between longer treatment duration and the risk of experiencing negative changes. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals on L-TOT seemed not to achieve the key goals of opioid therapy: pain relief, improved quality of life and functional capacity. SIGNIFICANCE: Long...

  5. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... a stake in 2007 in the company which at that time was named Braendstrup Maskinfabrik. He furthermore expalins how he has developed the company based on a strategic plan focusing on professionalization and outsourcing. Next, the video shows how to type Bo Fischer Larsen's replies to the questions...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  6. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than......Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...

  7. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project's burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer

  9. Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

  10. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  11. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Rationale and Safety Assessment of a Novel Intravaginal Drug-Delivery System with Sustained DL-Lactic Acid Release, Intended for Long-Term Protection of the Vaginal Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    novel avenue to modulate and protect the vaginal microbiota.

  13. Preventive Long-Term Effects of a Topical Film-Forming Medical Device with Ultra-High UV Protection Filters and DNA Repair Enzyme in Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Retrospective Study of Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Giustini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is common in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP due to a DNA repair mechanisms genetic defect. Ultraviolet (UV exposure is the main cause of increased incidence of actinic keratosis (AK, basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC observed in XP subjects. Photoprotection is therefore a mandatory strategy in order to reduce skin damage. A topical DNA repair enzyme has been shown to slow down the development of skin lesions in XP. However, there are no data regarding the effects of photoprotection combined with DNA repair strategies in this clinical setting. A film-forming medical device containing the DNA repair enzyme photolyase and very high-protection UV filters (Eryfotona AK-NMSC, Ery is currently available. We report retrospective data regarding the use of Ery in 8 patients (5 women, 3 men with a diagnosis of XP treated for at least 12 consecutive months, comparing the rate of new skin lesions (AK, BCC and SCC during active treatment with Ery and during 12 months just before the use of the product. New AK, BCC and SCC mean lesion numbers during the 1-year Ery treatment were 5, 3 and 0, respectively in comparison with 14, 6.8 and 3 lesions, respectively during the 1-year pre-treatment period. Ery use was associated with a 65% reduction in appearance of new AK lesions and with 56 and 100% reductions in the incidence of new BCC and SCC lesions, respectively. These data suggest that topical use of photoprotection and DNA repair enzyme could help lower skin cancer lesions in XP. Control prospective trials are advisable in this clinical setting.

  14. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  15. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  16. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  17. [Perioperative management of long-term medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel Kahmann, I; Ruppen, W; Lurati Buse, G; Tsakiris, D A; Bruggisser, M

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesiologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with patients who are under long-term medication. Some of these drugs can interact with anaesthetics or anaesthesia and/or surgical interventions. As a result, patients may experience complications such as bleeding, ischemia, infection or severe circulatory reactions. On the other hand, perioperative discontinuation of medication is often more dangerous. The proportion of outpatient operations has increased dramatically in recent years and will probably continue to increase. Since the implementation of DRGs (pending in Switzerland, introduced in Germany for some time), the patient enters the hospital the day before operation. This means that the referring physician as well as anesthesiologists and surgeons at an early stage must deal with issues of perioperative pharmacotherapy. This review article is about the management of the major drug classes during the perioperative period. In addition to cardiac and centrally acting drugs and drugs that act on hemostasis and the endocrine system, special cases such as immunosuppressants and herbal remedies are mentioned.

  18. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  19. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  20. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  1. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  3. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  4. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 -10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10 3 -10 8 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  5. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  6. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  7. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  8. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  9. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The