WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun protection attitudes

  1. The Impact of Parental Knowledge and Tanning Attitudes on Sun Protection Practice for Young Children in Germany

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    Olaf Gefeller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.

  2. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas that are painted white. DO ... protect the ears or sides of the face. Special clothing that protects the skin by absorbing UV ...

  3. Sun Protection

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    ... 100% UV ray protection (look for models that advertise both UVB and UVA protection). Use a broad- ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  4. Sun exposure behaviours, attitudes and protection practices among Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University Students- A survey study.

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    Othman Bahakim, Nasr Addin; Alanazi, Bader Ghanem; Alead, Mohammed Yousef; Alaql, Abdulrahman Bader; Al-Ogail, Nasser Abdulla; Alghulaydhawi, Fahad Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate sun exposure behaviours, sun protection practices, general knowledge, attitudes and awareness of University students about the benefits of sun exposure and harmful effects of too much or avoidance of sun exposure. This cross-sectional survey study was conducted in December 2014 and January2015 at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice closed questions was used. Sample was collected using cluster sampling method. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. Of the 399 participants, 200(50.1%) were men and 199(49.9%) were women. The overall mean age was 21±1.82years (range: 18-30 years). Moreover, 217(54.4%) participants intentionally exposed themselves to sun. Spending summer holidays in coastal areas was reported by 150(37.6%). Sunglasses were used by 161(40.4%) participants. Besides, 274(68.7%) participants agreed that sun exposure of 5 to 10 minutes for two or three times per week was very important; 189(47.4%) were aware of the importance of sun exposure for child health. 165(66%), knew that too much sun exposure was harmful and might cause skin cancer. Most of the participants were aware of both beneficial effects of the appropriate sun exposure and harmful effects of too much exposure or its avoidance. However, proper sun exposure practices and sun protection practices need further guidance and encouragements from health-promoting programmes.

  5. Sun protection attitudes and behaviours among first generation Australians with darker skin types: results from focus groups.

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    Bryant, Jamie; Zucca, Alison; Brozek, Irena; Rock, Vanessa; Bonevski, Billie

    2015-02-01

    Despite residing in a country that has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and sun protection practices of first generation Australian-born individuals with olive and darker skin types. Six focus groups with first generation Australian-born individuals of Asian, Mediterranean, Middle Eastern and Indian background were conducted. Participants had good knowledge of the dangers of skin cancer. Most correctly perceived darker skin types as protective and believed they were at low risk of skin cancer. Most participants could recall high profile mass media sun protection campaigns. Several participants suggested that greater representation of ethnic minorities and/or individuals with darker skin types would increase the personal relevance of campaigns. Beliefs that sun protection is not necessary on the basis of skin type highlights the need for further studies to explore fundamental differences in attitudes and practices between those with olive and darker skin and the general Australian population.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in Saudi Arabia.

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    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; AlAklabi, Aeed S; AlQahtani, Abdulla Z

    2016-11-01

    Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western). Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601) of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544) were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of the general public toward sun exposure and protection: A national survey in

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    Khalid M. AlGhamdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many international studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures. However, there are scarce data on these factors from the Middle East. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the KAP of the public toward sun exposure and sun-protection measures among Saudis. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a specially designed questionnaire was conducted on a stratified random sample of the general population in the five geographical regions of Saudi Arabia (central, eastern, northern, southern, and western. Data were collected between October 2010 and March 2011. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to relate the use of sunscreen and skin cancer awareness with various socio-demographic variables. Results: The questionnaire was distributed to 2900 Saudis. A total of 2622 questionnaires were completed, returned, and included in the data analysis, corresponding to a response rate of 90.4%. The mean (SD age of respondents was 27.8 ± 9.7 years. Fifty percent (1301/1601 of the respondents were males. Fifty-five percent (1406/2544 were aware of the association between sun exposure and skin cancer. Female, young and student respondents were more likely to be aware of the connection between sun exposure and skin cancer (p < 0.001. Likewise, respondents from the middle social class and those with higher education levels were more likely to be informed (p < 0.02. The prevalence of regular sunscreen use among study participants was only 23.7%, and female and employed respondents were more likely to use sunscreen (p < 0.001. Protective clothes were the most commonly used sun protection measure as reported by more than 90% of our participants. Conclusion: This study has shown that sun awareness and protection are generally inadequate in the Saudi population and suggests the need for health education programs.

  8. Photoprotection and vitamin D status: A study on awareness, knowledge and attitude towards sun protection in general population from Kuwait, and its relation with vitamin D levels

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    Nawaf Al-Mutairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary cause of skin cancers is exposure to ultraviolet (UV radiation. And, for decades sun protection has been promoted in various public health education campaigns. Recently, however, vitamin D deficiency has been related to increased risk of skin cancers. And, skin being the primary site for the synthesis of active form of vitamin D, excessive sun protection could lead to vitamin D-deficient states. But, the results have so far been conflicting. Aims: To study the level of awareness, knowledge and attitude of representative groups from the general population from Kuwait towards sun protection. And, also study the correlation of the level of sun protective measures used and vitamin D levels in these groups. Methods: The study constituted of two main parts. First part comprised a questionnaire-based survey of representative group of people aged 18 and above to assess their knowledge, awareness and attitude towards sun protection. The second part consisted of measuring serum vitamin D levels in 150 volunteers amongst the responders of the questionnaire, who had been regularly using sunscreens for at least 2 years and compare to the levels seen in 150 age and sex-matched responders of similar skin phototypes, who had never used sunscreens. Results: Out of the total of 1044 responders, 80% of them had adequate knowledge of the beneficial and harmful effects of sun exposure, and had been using sunscreens regularly, and adopting other sun protective measures in their daily life. The levels of vitamin D were found to be deficient in both sunscreen users and those who had never used sunscreens. The difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant (60.67% vs 54.67%; P value>0.001. Conclusion: Population at large seems to be adequately informed about the beneficial and deleterious effects of sun exposure. Vitamin D levels are deficient in majority of our people, and there is a need to do larger surveys covering all

  9. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

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    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  10. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

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    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  11. Legally Brown: Using Ethnographic Methods to Understand Sun Protection Attitudes and Behaviours among Young Australians "I Didn't Mean to Get Burnt--It Just Happened!"

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    Potente, Sofia; Coppa, Kay; Williams, Ainslie; Engels, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Sun protection is not commonly perceived as an important issue by adolescents yet this behaviour would, if adopted, confer significant lifelong protection against skin cancer. Despite the world's highest skin cancer rates, Australia remains a culture which values sun seeking, tanning and outdoor activities. This qualitative study used ethnographic…

  12. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

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    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  13. South Australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours.

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    Pakrou, N; Casson, R; Fung, S; Ferdowsi, N; Lee, G; Selva, D

    2008-06-01

    To study student's knowledge of the effects of sunlight on the eyes, as well as their sun protective behaviours. In total, 640 [corrected] students aged 13-18 years were surveyed in South Australia, during August-September 2004, using a standardized previously used survey. Scores were calculated regarding knowledge about ultraviolet light, sunlight effects on eyes, as well as eye and body protection. Risk factor scores were produced for each student. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), as well as the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results were compared to the same survey conducted in 1995 in Queensland Australia. This group demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge, similar to the 1995 survey. Students in the older age groups demonstrated significantly higher knowledge. The majority of students (74%) owned a pair of sunglasses; however, 44.5% almost never wore their glasses. The reported frequency of wearing sunglasses was significantly related to advertising, believing sunglasses protect the eyes, as well as personal, family, and peer attitudes towards wearing sunglasses. The results of our survey suggest no significant change in knowledge and behaviours of students, compared to the 1995 survey. We feel it is imperative that adolescents be made more aware of the damaging effects of sunlight and the benefits of eye protection. Health promotion campaigns should target the youth and consider that as a group, they are significantly influenced by the media, peers, and family attitudes.

  14. Occupational sun protection: workplace culture, equipment provision and outdoor workers' characteristics.

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    Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; McCool, Judith P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe outdoor workers' sun-protective practices, workplace sun-safety culture and sun-protective equipment provision; investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with sun-protective practices; and identify potential strategies for improving workers' sun protection. The present study used a clustered survey design with randomly identified employers in nine occupations. Employees provided questionnaire measures of demographics, personal characteristics (skin type, skin cancer risk perceptions, tanning attitudes, sun-exposure knowledge), personal occupational sun protection practices (exposure reduction, use of sun-protective clothing, sunscreen and shade), workplace sun-protective equipment provision and perceived workplace sun-safety culture. Summative scores were calculated for attitudes, knowledge, workplace provision and culture. A multivariable model was built with worker and workplace variables as plausible predictors of personal sun protection. In this study, 1,061 workers (69% participation) from 112 workplaces provided sufficient information for analysis. Sex, age, prioritized ethnicity, education and risk perception differed significantly between occupational groups (pworkplace sun-protection equipment provision and supportive culture. After adjustment, each one-point increase in Workplace Sun-safety Culture 2013Score (range 12 points) was associated with a 0.16 higher Personal Sun-Protection Score (pWorkplace Provision Score (range 4 points) was associated with a 0.14 higher score (pworkplace culture are promising components for the development of comprehensive programmes to improve outdoor workers' sun-protective practices.

  15. Vitamin D supply: from sun or pill? - Attitudes and recommendation on vitamin D and impact on sun protection practices among German general practitioners evaluated by the network of dermato-oncologists, Onkoderm e.V.

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    Reinhold, Uwe; Dirschka, Thomas; Hartgens, Klaus; Kirchesch, Herbert; Ostendorf, Rolf; Petering, Holger; Prieur, Hanspeter; Krähn-Senftleben, Gertraud; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-12-01

    Recommendations concerning the intake of vitamin D and/or sunlight exposure in the handling of patients with vitamin D deficiency remain a matter of debate. The present study of the German network of dermato-oncologists (Onkoderm e.V.) refers to an inquiry conducted among general practitioners on this and related issues. Based on 448 answers provided to 10 distinct questions, the consulted physicians recommended vitamin D intake (94% replies) and/or exposure to sunlight (63% replies) in their patients with vitamin D deficiency. An average of approximately 26 min daily unprotected exposure to sunlight at midday in spring and summer was recommended. Nevertheless, 91% of the physicians considered the use of creams protecting against sunlight to be judicious. However, only 54% of physicians considered it worthwhile practice to protect oneself intensively against UV radiation. This study indicates evidence of a reduction in sun protection practices. Yet, approximately 25% of the patients were considered to present vitamin D deficiency and, hence, recommendations to prevent or correct the latter situation should not be ignored. Nevertheless, we consider that there is a need to focus messages regarding sun exposure and for continued sun protection practices. These messages should specifically focus on the vitamin D issue to ensure that the incidence of skin cancer does not increase.

  16. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

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    ... clothing with a tight weave or high-SPF clothing. ■■ Wear wide-brimmed hats and sunglasses with UV protection and side panels. ■■ Take breaks in shaded areas. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National ...

  17. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

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    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  18. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    This thesis focuses on advanced modeling of the Earth albedo experienced by satellites in Earth orbit. The model of the Earth albedo maintains directional information of the Earth albedo irradiance from each partition on the Earth surface. This allows enhanced modeling of Sun sensor current outputs......-Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  19. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

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    ... How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... other options to prevent UV damage. Too Much Sun Hurts Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged ...

  20. Choosing an expected sun protection factor value.

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    Sica, John R; Caswell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection factor, SPF, is a measure of the efficacy of a topical sunscreen product; the higher the SPF, the greater the blockage of ultraviolet-induced erythema. While there are several methods to determine SPF, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) methods are unique. The FDA methods define the label SPF value as the largest whole integer after subtracting an "A" value from the mean SPF. The A value, composed of the product of the upper 5% point of the t-distribution and the standard deviation (SD), divided by √(n), where n equals the number of subjects, has a significant impact on the label SPF value. Two examples explore this impact. Development of strategies to mitigate the impact of A using expected SPF values are explored using historical clinical trial data. A more enlightened choice of expected SPF values is shown to lead to higher label SPF values.

  1. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

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    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  2. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  3. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

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    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  4. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  5. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

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    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  6. Skin cancer knowledge, attitude and behavior towards sun exposure among young adults in Lithuania

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    Ieva Laniauskaitė

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to assess young adult's knowledge about skin cancer and it’s risk factors, attitude towards sun exposure and the interactions of various behaviors in the sun.Material and methods: The anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of 750 respondents was created according to the anonymous form filled-in during the annual Euromelanoma Day campaign. Results: 708 questionnaires were filled-in correctly: 328 (46.3% by men, 380 (53.7% by women. Median of age was 21 (women – 22, men – 21. During the sunny days 93.2% of respondents sometimes seek shade, 17.5% of young adults never try to get a tan from 11a.m. to 3p.m. Sunglasses are worn in 52.4% of cases, however 63.1% of them with UV filters. 8,1% of respondents always wear T-shirts, 30.6% cover head in the beach. While sun-bathing one third (32.9% wear sun protection cream, while working or doing sports outdoors – 8.9%. Majority (57.4% apply sun protection cream when coming to the beach, 31.4% of them don't use it repeatedly. Those who knew, what is melanoma, were more likely to wear sunglasses (p=0.003 with UV filters (p=0.006, T-shirts (p=0.046, covered head (p<0.0001 and seeked shadow (p=0.002 on the beach; used sun protection cream while working ≥1 hour outdoors (p=0.001 or sunbathing (p<0.0001, and choosed a sun protection cream according to SPF value (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The data of this study showed that respondents behave careless in the sun. One third of respondents always wear sun protection cream, the majority do not know how to use it properly. More responsible behavior in the sun depends on better knowledge of skin cancer.

  7. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

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    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  8. Improving sun-safe knowledge, attitude and behaviour in parents of primary school children: a pilot study.

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    Cercato, M C; Nagore, E; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Guillén, C

    2013-03-01

    Excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood, represents one of the major skin cancer risk factors. Sun protection habits should start early in life to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and sun protection behaviour in parents (P) and in their children (C). The educational intervention addressed the parents of 131 primary school pupils in Valencia, Spain, during the school year 2007-2008. A self-administered pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was handed in during school hours to be filled in by parents. Parents' compliance was very high (88 %). At baseline, regular high-sun-protective-factor (>15) sunscreen use was common (P, 64 %; C, 95 %); wearing clothing (T-shirt: P, 34 %, C, 62 %; hat: P, 29 %, C, 64 %) and sun avoidance at midday (P, 23 %; C, 29 %) were less frequent. Almost 70 % of parents reported difficulties, mainly due to the children's refusal. A high knowledge score (median, 6/7) and a medium/high attitude score (median, 24/30) in parents were observed; however, lifetime sunburn history was generally reported (P, 88 %; C, 24 %). Factors associated with parents' knowledge were a personal history of sunburns and regularly repeating sunscreen application to children (median score: 6 vs 5; p ≤ 0.01) Predictors of a more favourable attitude were female caretakers and having daughters (median score: 30 vs 25 and 25 vs 24, respectively; p ≤ 0.01). A trend towards limited post-intervention positive changes emerged; however, sun avoidance habit decreased (35 vs 20 %, p = 0.01). Despite a high level of parents' knowledge, sun protection in children is not adequate, and sunburns are not uncommon. Unfavourable beliefs and attitudes need to be overcome and quality of messages improved to achieve sun-safe exposure in children.

  9. Predicting the sun-protective decisions of young female Australian beachgoers.

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    Robinson, Natalie G; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra; Starfelt, Louise C

    2016-08-01

    We tested the theory of planned behaviour with additional norms to predict the sun-protective decisions of young female beachgoers in Australia. Participants (N = 336) completed standard theory of planned behaviour measures and additional normative factors (group, image and personal norms). Attitude, subjective norm, and both personal and group norms predicted intention. Intention and group norm predicted follow-up behaviour. These findings provide further evidence that it is the more proximal sources of norms reflecting one's personal and referent group influences, rather than perceptions of broader societal norms about the attractiveness of tanned images, that are important in determining young women's sun-protective decisions.

  10. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

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    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  11. Demographic Differences in Sun Protection Beliefs and Behavior: A Community-Based Study in Shanghai, China

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    Shuxian Yan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We want to know the attitudes and behaviors towards UV protection and we want to analyze the difference between different Chinese demographic groups in this study. Methods: A community-based study was undertaken in Shanghai from October 2009 to January 2010. The participants, ages 20–60 years old, were screened by cluster sampling and were investigated through interviews at their own homes. Personal basic information and questions pertaining to their knowledge and attitudes towards sunlight and sun protective activities were included in the questionnaire. Results: We completed 5964 questionnaires (2794 men and 3170 women. Eighty-six percent of the respondents belonged to Fitzpatrick skin type IV. Knowledge about UV-induced risks was known by more than half of the participants. However, only one-third of the participants thought they needed sun protection in winter and indoors or in vehicles, and 27% of the participants acknowledged tanning was not favorable. The attitudes towards sun exposure varied greatly, showing significant differences based on gender, age, socioeconomic groups and skin type groups (p < 0.05. Fifty-five percent of the participants never use an umbrella under sunlight, only 26.5% of the respondents wear hats, and 21.3% of the participants applied sunscreen. Females and individuals of a younger age and higher education level were more likely to perform sun-protective behaviors than males and those of an older age and lower education level (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a deficit in the use of sun protection existing in our surveyed Chinese population, especially in males and lower socioeconomic population, which could allow for planning prevention campaigns and exploring sun-preventive products.

  12. Sun protective behaviour in renal transplant recipients. A qualitative study based on individual interviews and the Health Belief Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Jette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Haedersdal, Merete

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) are at high-risk of developing aggressive and potentially lethal non-melanoma skin cancer, which emphasizes the need for consistent sun protective behaviour. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors that exert an influence on the sun protective behaviour of RTRs...... towards the use of sunscreens and wearing hats were barriers against efficient sun protective behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the Health Belief Model can be used to identify and describe factors that influence decisions and behaviour among RTRs regarding sun protective behaviour. We......: The major result was the finding that patients did not perceive the threat of skin cancer as an important health problem and, therefore, did not give a high priority to sun protection, even though patients were aware of their increased risk of developing skin cancer. Moreover, negative individual attitudes...

  13. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  14. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  15. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  16. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based intervention to improve sun protective behaviour in adolescents ('you can still be HOT in the shade': study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most skin cancers are preventable by encouraging consistent use of sun protective behaviour. In Australia, adolescents have high levels of knowledge and awareness of the risks of skin cancer but exhibit significantly lower sun protection behaviours than adults. There is limited research aimed at understanding why people do or do not engage in sun protective behaviour, and an associated absence of theory-based interventions to improve sun safe behaviour. This paper presents the study protocol for a school-based intervention which aims to improve the sun safe behaviour of adolescents. Methods/design Approximately 400 adolescents (aged 12-17 years will be recruited through Queensland, Australia public and private schools and randomized to the intervention (n = 200 or 'wait-list' control group (n = 200. The intervention focuses on encouraging supportive sun protective attitudes and beliefs, fostering perceptions of normative support for sun protection behaviour, and increasing perceptions of control/self-efficacy over using sun protection. It will be delivered during three × one hour sessions over a three week period from a trained facilitator during class time. Data will be collected one week pre-intervention (Time 1, and at one week (Time 2 and four weeks (Time 3 post-intervention. Primary outcomes are intentions to sun protect and sun protection behaviour. Secondary outcomes include attitudes toward performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., attitudes, perceptions of normative support to sun protect (i.e., subjective norms, group norms, and image norms, and perceived control over performing sun protective behaviours (i.e., perceived behavioural control. Discussion The study will provide valuable information about the effectiveness of the intervention in improving the sun protective behaviour of adolescents.

  17. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  18. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.

  19. Sun powers Libya cathodic-protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currer, G.W.

    1982-03-22

    Well castings and part of the main 300-mile-long, 32-in diameter pipeline from Sarir to Tobruk are cathodically protected by solar power, which prevents galvanic action by applying an electric direct current of appropriate magnitude and polarity to the steel structures. They then act as cathodes and become the recipients of metallic ions. At each cathodic-protection station, the solar-generaor system consists of solar-panel arrays, electronic controls, and batteries.

  20. Sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors: testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melinda; Caputi, Peter; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build on existing understanding of adolescent sun-related behavior by combining sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors and testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Data were collected for 692 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. General linear modeling was undertaken to test the relationship of sun-related behaviors with indicators of UV exposure. Overall, the combined sun protection and sun exposing behaviors accounted for 13.8% of the variance in the number of sunburns, 28.1% of the variance in current tan and 57.5% of the variance in desired tan, respectively. Results indicated that having a strong desire for a tan was significantly associated with spending time tanning, delaying the use of sun protection, wearing brief clothing and using no sun protection; whereas the number of sunburns was significantly associated with sunscreen use, avoiding peak hours and delaying sun protection. Current tan was significantly associated with wearing sunglasses, shade use and time spent tanning. In examining sun-related behaviors among adolescents, consideration needs to be given to both sun exposing and sun protecting behaviors. This research has important implications for conceptualizing outcomes in programs designed to reduce UV exposure.

  1. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  2. Ten-year changes in sun protection behaviors and beliefs of young adults in 13 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peacey, Victoria; Steptoe, Andrew; Sandennan, Robbert; Wardle, Jane; Sanderman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Sun protection behaviors are important to the prevention of skin cancers, but little is known about changes over time in attitudes and behavior. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out among university students in thirteen European countries in 1990 (n = 10,241) and 2000 (n = 10

  3. Knowledge and attitudes of UK university students in relation to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and their sun-related behaviours: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lucy; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether knowledge about the harms of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) influences UK university students' sun-related behaviours and examine in depth their attitudes towards: sun protection, natural and artificial tanning behaviours. Design Qualitative methodology with 15 semistructured, individual interviews. Thematic analysis using the Framework Method with analyst triangulation and member validation. Setting One university in the West Midlands, UK. Participants 15 Caucasian male (n=4) and female (n=11) students, aged 18–22 years, from a UK university. Participants were recruited using convenience sampling from the university's main campus followed by purposive sampling for: gender, course and sun-related behaviours. Results Five main themes emerged: (1) knowledge of UVR; (2) sun-protection practices; (3) attitudes towards tanning; (4) external influences and (5) internal influences. All students knew the associated skin cancer risks from the sun and sunbed use, but this did not appear an important influence in their sun-related behaviours. Body image strongly motivated sun-protection practices and the desire to tan naturally or artificially, across both genders. However, participants' final decision-making appeared to be influenced by their beliefs that practising known harmful sun-related behaviours would not affect them or the perceived susceptibility to sunburn. Beliefs about sunbathing and sunscreen use prompted improper use of sun protection and inadvertently caused more harmful practices. Participants' peers, family and the media had dual roles influencing the development of attitudes towards sun protection and tanning, which contributed to how participants behaved in the sun and their engagement in tanning methods. Conclusions Knowledge about the risk of skin cancer associated with UVR did not strongly influence sun-related behaviours, whereas body image appeared as a key motivator. Attitudes towards sun protection and tanning stemmed

  4. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  5. Sun Protection Behaviors Associated with Self-Efficacy, Susceptibility, and Awareness among Uninsured Primary Care Patients Utilizing a Free Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kamimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in the United States (US. However, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sun protection vary among the general population. The purpose of this study is to examine sun protection behaviors of low-income primary care patients and assess the association between these health behaviors and the self-efficacy, susceptibility, and skin cancer awareness. Methods. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=551 completed a self-administered survey in May and June 2015. Results. Using sunscreen was the least common tactic among the participants of this study. Skin cancer awareness and self-efficacy are important to improve sun protection behaviors. Spanish speakers may have lower levels of skin care awareness compared to US born and non-US born English speakers. Male and female participants use different sun protection methods. Conclusion. It is important to increase skin cancer awareness with self-efficacy interventions as well as education on low-cost sun protection methods. Spanish speaking patients would be a target population for promoting awareness. Male and female patients would need separate gender-specific sun protection education. Future studies should implement educational programs and assess the effectiveness of the programs to further promote skin cancer prevention among underserved populations.

  6. Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively.

  7. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight, and the ......BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight......, and the optimal dosing has not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protective effect of topical treatment with three different doses of melatonin (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight. METHOD: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double......-blind study in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy volunteers, 8 male and 15 female, were enrolled. The protective effect of three different doses of melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight was tested. All participants had their backs exposed to sun from 1:22 PM...

  8. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Christensen, Karl Bang; Allen, Martin; Olsen, Anja; Bentzen, Joan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine and important were positively correlated with protective behavior. Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma, perceived benefits and importance of protection behavior was also correlated with use of protection. ‘Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15’ were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier towards sun avoidance between 12 and 15 emphasize the importance of awareness of melanoma risk and the priority of the skin cancer prevention advice. Shifting activities to outside the suns peak-hours could be an approach for structural and campaign preventive measures. Knowledge of items predicting exposure to UVR, use of protection and sunburn are important for planning of preventive interventions and melanoma research. PMID:28542543

  9. Small satellite attitude control for sun-oriented operations utilizing a momentum bias with magnetic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott M.

    1995-03-01

    The feasibility of using a three axis control, momentum bias system with magnetic actuators for sun-oriented operations is explored. Relevant equations of motion are developed for a sun-oriented coordinate system and control laws are developed for initial spacecraft capture after launch vehicle separation; reorientation from Earth oriented to a sun oriented operations mode; sun-oriented attitude control; and momentum wheel control. Simulations demonstrating the stability and time responsiveness of the system are performed. Sensor noise input tests are performed to investigate the systems susceptibility to imperfect conditions. Cross product of inertia effects are also input to test for system instability.

  10. Disturbance observer-based fuzzy control for flexible spacecraft combined attitude & sun tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth; Razoumny, Yury

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem in the presence of external disturbances and internal disturbances, caused by flexible appendages. A new method based on Pythagorean trigonometric identity is proposed to drive the solar arrays. Using the control input and attitude output, a disturbance observer is developed to estimate the lumped disturbances consisting of the external and internal disturbances, and then compensated by the disturbance observer-based controller via a feed-forward control. The stability analysis demonstrates that the desired attitude trajectories are followed even in the presence of external disturbance and internal flexible modes. The main features of the proposed control scheme are that it can be designed separately and incorporated into the baseline controller to form the observer-based control system, and the combined attitude and sun-tracking control is achieved without the conventional attitude actuators. The attitude and sun-tracking performance using the proposed strategy is evaluated and validated through numerical simulations. The proposed control solution can serve as a fail-safe measure in case of failure of the conventional attitude actuator, which triggered by automatic reconfiguration of the attitude control components.

  11. Sun protection provided by regulation school uniforms in Australian schools: an opportunity to improve personal sun protection during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is linked to excessive pigmented mole development and melanoma risk. Clothing provides a physical barrier, protecting skin from ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Extending sleeves to elbow length and shorts to knee length has been shown to significantly reduce mole acquisition in preschoolers from tropical Queensland. We used publicly available uniform images and guidelines from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.25°S, n = 43 schools), Cairns (16.87°S, n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.26°S, n = 23) in tropical Australia to objectively determine the body surface proportion covered by regulation school uniforms. Uniforms of nongovernment, large (≥800 students), urban, educationally advantaged schools with comprehensive sun protection policies covered more skin than those of government schools (63.2% vs 62.0%; P schools (63.4% vs 62.3%; P = 0.009), rural (62.7% vs 61.9%; P = 0.002) and educationally disadvantaged schools (62.8% vs 62.3%; P school uniforms covered identical body surface proportions (62.4%, P = 0.084). Although wearing regulation school uniforms is mandatory at most Australian primary schools, this opportunity to improve children's sun protection is largely overlooked. Recent evidence suggests that even encouraging minor alterations to school uniforms (e.g. slightly longer sleeves/dresses/skirts/shorts) to increase skin coverage may reduce mole acquisition and melanoma risk, especially in high-risk populations.

  12. Measuring sun exposure habits and sun protection behaviour using a comprehensive scoring instrument--an illustration of a possible model based on Likert scale scorings and on estimation of readiness to increase sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Anderson, C D

    2012-08-01

    Few attempts to present a comprehensive scoring instrument for sun exposure and protection have been made. The present paper aims to describe a possible set of questions suitable for such an instrument, comprising the most important aspects of sun exposure and protection. The material from a previously performed intervention study, using a questionnaire based on Likert scales and on the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM), was utilised. 213 primary healthcare patients filled in the questionnaire and were randomised into two groups receiving sun protection advice, in Group 1 in letter-form, and in Group 2 orally during a doctor's consultation. In the original study, increased sun protection/readiness to increase sun protection was demonstrated for several items in Group 2, at six months. To compose a comprehensive scoring instrument, five questions concerning sun exposure/protection (intentional tanning, sunscreen use, choice of SPF, number of occasions with sunburn, and time spent in the sun at midday), were selected to give a 20 point behavioural score. Similarly, four TTM-based questions (giving up sunbathing, using clothes for sun protection, using sunscreens, and staying in the shade) gave a 16 point "propensity-to-change"-score. At follow-up, increased sun protection reflected in the behavioural score occurred only in Group 2 (p Likert scale behavioural score with a TTM-based propensity-to-change-score seems promising for the creation of a questionnaire-based, comprehensive scoring instrument for sun exposure and protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge deficit, attitude and behavior scales association to objective measures of sun exposure and sunburn in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop new scales measuring knowledge and attitude about UVR and sun related behavior, and to examine their association to sun related behavior objectively measured by personal dosimetry. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV......-dosimeter for one week that measured their UVR exposure. Afterwards, they answered a questionnaire on sun-related items. We applied descriptive analysis, linear and logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between the questionnaire scales and objective UVR measures. Perceiving protection as routine...... 12 and 15' were both associated with increased risk of sunburn. Attitude towards tan was associated to both outdoor time and exposure as well as use of protection, but not to sunburn. The results regarding Knowledge deficit of UV and risk of melanoma associated to UVR exposure and Perceived barrier...

  14. Changes in Sun Tanning Attitudes and Behaviors of U.S. College Students from 1995 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.; Geschke, Kaela S.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate changes in U.S. college student sun tanning attitudes and behaviors over the last decade, participants completed sun tanning attitude and behavior surveys in 1995 (n=151) and a different sample of participants completed surveys in 2005 (n=208). Consistent with predictions, results indicated that college students were more likely to…

  15. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  16. "Earth, Sun and Moon": Computer Assisted Instruction in Secondary School Science--Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Orhan; Bilen, Kadir; Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a web-based teaching method on students' academic achievement and attitudes in the elementary education fifth grade Science and Technology unit, "System of Earth, Sun and Moon". The study was a quasi-experimental study with experimental and control groups comprising 54 fifth grade students attending…

  17. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Gillian Ann; Eagle, Lynne; Verne, Julia

    2011-03-01

    The role of the mass media in communicating health-related information to the wider population is the focus of this paper. Using the example of sun protection within the UK, we highlight some of the major challenges to raising awareness of steadily increasing melanoma rates and of effective sun protection strategies. The implications of potential barriers to official sun protection messages via conflicting messages in the media are discussed in terms of editorial on sun protection and in the way in which television programme content portrays the issues. Implications for public policy and future research conclude the paper.

  18. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K

    2014-01-01

    Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732

  19. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  20. Predicting sun-protective intentions and behaviours using the theory of planned behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfelt Sutton, Louise C; White, Katherine M

    2016-11-01

    To synthesise theory of planned behaviour (TPB) relationships, using meta-analysis, and test the predictive utility of the model for sun protection behaviour. Thirty-eight samples were identified via database/manual searches and academic society posts based on the criteria: measuring sun-protective intentions and/or prospective behaviour; using the TPB/theory of reasoned action as a basis of measurement; and providing bivariate correlations for at least one relevant TPB association. Sun-protective intentions and behaviours. The sample-weighted average effects were moderate-to-strong with attitudes showing the strongest association with intention (r+ = 0.494), followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = 0.451), and subjective norm (r+ = 0.419). Intentions showed a stronger association with prospective behaviour (r+ = 0.486) compared to PBC (r+ = 0.314). A total of 39% of variance in intentions and 25% of variance in behaviour were explained. Publication bias was not evident. Moderator analyses showed that TPB associations were stronger when measures specified the Target, Action, Context and Time; in non-student samples; and when follow-up exceeded two weeks. Despite recent criticism, this review shows that the TPB explains a large amount of variance in sun protection and that TPB associations are robust across different populations.

  1. Face-to-face Sun Protection Training and Text Messages Improve Sun Protection Behaviour in Adolescent Organ Transplant Recipients: HIPPOlino Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Michael M; Böttcher, Silke; Pape, Lars; Wagner, Gunnar; Mehls, Otto; Klaus, Günter; Laschewski, Gudrun; Barz, Mareike; Jahn, Ingeborg; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-03-01

    Adolescent organ transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing skin cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and acceptability of short messaging service-based sun protection recommendations for adolescent patients. Sun-protective knowledge and behaviour were also evaluated using standardized questionnaires and telephone interviews. Twenty-six organ transplant recipients aged 13-22 years participated in face-to-face sun protection training. Subsequently, participants received sun protection reminders via text messages for 4 weeks. Of the participants 95% reported that they checked text messages on a regular basis. Of the 26 organ transplant recipients 19 completed questionnaires before sun protection training and 4 weeks later; 16% (3/19) knew the meaning of the UV-index before training. After training, 74% (14/19) remembered that the term UV-index describes the maximum daily level of local UV radiation. Text message-based sun protection recommendations are well accepted and technically feasible in adolescent organ transplant recipients.

  2. Sociodemographic and Psychological Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among Outdoor Workers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K. Nahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at a higher risk for developing skin cancer due to their increased sun exposure. The primary objective of this review was to synthesize the current research literature that addresses sociodemographic and psychological factors related to sun protection behaviors in outdoor workers. Two additional purposes were to provide an overview of sun exposure and describe sun protection behaviors of outdoor workers. To identify the studies for this review, a methodical search was performed in the PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, and ERIC databases. Fifteen studies met the review criteria. Despite regular and prolonged sun exposure, many outdoor workers fail to engage in sufficient sun protection behaviors. Correlates of outdoor workers’ sun protection behaviors include being female, older age, being white, personal skin cancer history, time (hours/years spent at work, sun safety training, perceived prioritization of sun protection, concern about sun exposure, workplace support, families’ expectations, and familial information giving. However, limited attention is given to designing theoretically grounded studies to identify factors to inform future research. There is a need to conduct research based on solid theoretical foundations that explains the relationships among the factors in this domain.

  3. Awareness of Message Source and Its Association with the Impacts of Sun Protection Campaigns in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben J.; Bauman, Adrian E.; McKenzie, Jeanie; Thomas, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether awareness of the source of sun protection campaigns in New South Wales, Australia was associated with message recall and sun protection knowledge and behaviours. Design/methodology/approach: Telephone surveys of random samples (n = 800) of parents and other carers of children under 12 years of age were conducted before…

  4. Protecting Your Skin from the Sun%防晒护肤之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳君

    2006-01-01

    @@ Protecting your skin Most skin cancer can be prevented. Use the following tips to protect your skin from the sun. You may decrease your chances of developing skin cancer and help prevent wrinkles1. ● Limit your exposure to the sun, especially midday between 10 a.m.and 3 p.m. Seek shady areas,and avoid direct sunlight.

  5. Lip sun protection factor of a lipstick sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard, B; Ademola, J

    2001-01-01

    There is a well-documented need for effective human UVA and UVB photoprotection. Since there are important anatomical variations, the sun protection factor (SPF) of a lipstick sunscreen was measured on the anatomical site intended for use. The SPF tests were performed according to Federal US and European COLIPA guidelines. Prior to performing a test on the lip, the minimal erythemal dose (MED) of the unprotected back skin was determined. Subsequently, the sunscreen SPF was measured on the anatomical target site (lip). The evaluator was blinded with respect to scoring the SPF of each sunscreen treatment. Individual test sites were assigned to one of the following treatment conditions: (1) no treatment (MED of unprotected skin); (2) test formulation; (3) reference standard. The MED on unprotected back skin was found to be 25% lower than on unprotected lip skin. The SPF of the lipstick sunscreen was measured 2 units lower than the SPF determined in the classical way on the back skin. It was hypothesized that the higher MED of the lower lip compared with back skin was due to the adaptation of this tissue to the continuous exposure to UV radiation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Sun protection use behaviour among University students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protection use behaviour among university students from 25 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 18,687 undergraduate university students aged 18-30 years (mean age 20.8, SD=2.8) from 26 universities in 25 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 57.2% of university students reported liking to sunbathe and of those only 48.1% used sun protection when sunbathing. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age, being female, coming from a wealthy or quite well off economic family background, living in an upper middle or high income country, lighter skin tone, and other health behaviours were found to be associated with sun protection use behaviour. Low sun protection use calls for health promotion programmes to prevent unprotected sun exposure.

  7. Sun-protective behaviors in populations at high risk for skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diao DY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour

  8. Sun protection in newborns. A comparison of educational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Berwick, M; Fine, J A; Simpson, P; Jasmin, M

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of education on the sun exposure of newborns. Mothers of healthy newborns (n = 275) were enrolled in the spring of 1989 and interviewed by telephone in the fall of 1989. The mothers were divided into a control group, a low-level intervention group, and a high-level intervention group. Both the low-level and high-level interventions succeeded in reducing the amount of time the newborns were allowed to spend in direct sunlight. Both types of intervention also resulted in reduced sun exposure time for the mothers. Although the number of mothers who used sunscreen was approximately the same in all three groups, when sunscreen use was controlled for, the intervention groups spent significantly less unprotected time in the sun than the control group. The mothers and newborns in both intervention groups simply spent less time outdoors.

  9. Pigment developed to protect spacecraft/solar cells from Sun's harmful rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A pigment (phthalocyanine) is studied at the Marshall Materials and Processes Lab. The pigment has the ability to protect spacecraft against the harmful effects of the Sun's ultraviolet rays, and to increase the efficiency and life of solar cells.

  10. Relationships of sun-protection habit strength with sunscreen use during outdoor sport and physical activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawler, Sheleigh; McDermott, Liane; O'Riordan, David; Spathonis, Kym; Eakin, Elizabeth; Leslie, Evie; Gallois, Cindy; Berndt, Nadine; Owen, Neville

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to assess associations of a self-report index of sun protection habit strength with sunscreen use in sporting environments and outdoor physical activity. Participants (n = 234...

  11. Sun protective behaviour and sunburn prevalence in primary and secondary schoolchildren in western Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although solar overexposure during childhood and adolescence increases the risk of melanoma, determinants of sunburn and sun protective behaviours of Swiss children have scarcely been explored. We investigated sunburn occurrence and sun protective behaviours of schoolchildren in western Switzerland, the region with the highest incidence of melanoma in Europe. Self-reported questionnaires were administered during regular classes to pupils in 5th (primary school, n = 431), 8th and 11th grade...

  12. Dissemination of go sun smart in outdoor recreation: effect of program exposure on sun protection of guests at high-altitude ski areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, Michael D; Dignan, Mark B; Cutter, Gary R; Liu, Xia; Maloy, Julie A

    2014-09-01

    Go Sun Smart is a theory-based health communication program designed to influence sun-protection behaviors of employees and guests at high-altitude ski areas to reduce skin cancer risk. The effects of Go Sun Smart, in a Phase IV dissemination randomized posttest-only trial, on sun-protection behaviors of ski area guests are reported. Program use was assessed by on-site observation and guest message exposure, and sun protection was measured in intercept surveys at ski areas. Dissemination strategy-enhanced versus basic-was not significantly related to sun safety practices. Additional analyses examined the relation between message exposure and guests' sun safety practices. Ski areas displaying at least 6 Go Sun Smart materials in guest-only areas and 9 Go Sun Smart materials throughout the area increased guests' message exposure. Higher message exposure within the high-use ski areas was associated with improved sun protection by guests but not within the low-use ski areas. The authors underscore the importance of program implementation and message exposure on the success of evidence-based health communication efforts applied industrywide.

  13. Raising sun protection and early detection awareness among Florida high schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Shamban, Jill; O'Riordan, David L; Slygh, Carolyn; Kinney, John P; Rosenberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Changing adolescents' sun protection behaviors remains a challenge, and the need for effective interventions targeting this group is a priority, particularly in warmer climates where emphasis on appropriate sun protection remains a year-round concern. However, there has been little prospective research on the effect of school-based sun protection interventions, particularly on adolescents, especially teens aged 15 to 18. High school science students in Palm Beach County, Florida, received a seven-lesson sun protection and early detection curriculum preceded by pretests and followed with post-tests 6 months later. The main outcome measures were student knowledge and sun protection practices, including adherence to sunscreen recommendations. Of 344 students completing the baseline surveys, 184 students completed the postintervention questionnaire. Overall, there were significant improvements from baseline to follow-up for many of the knowledge questions. Greatest change scores were seen in the children's ability to correctly define the five rules of early detection of skin cancer (27-60%, pchallenges and obstacles and thus, further work is needed to better understand what combination of knowledge-based information, activity-based education, school-wide changes, and community efforts, will create a long-term systemic improvement in sun protection habits in children.

  14. Jump for the Sun II: can a Monthly Program Change Girls' and Women's Attitudes about Stem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Mary

    The Environmental Institute of the Jump for the Sun II program was designed to change middle school girls' and teachers' attitudes about doing science and who does science and to increase interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The institute consisted of an intensive, 2-week summer congress followed by monthly sessions during the academic year. Female-friendly learning environments were created for middle school students and in-service educators, focusing on topics such as life expectancies, solid waste production, transportation gridlock, beach erosion, and biodiversity. In both 1998 and 1999, one group of participants completed the program, which was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated. The quantitative results showed that the program did not improve girls' attitudes in any of the major categories under study; however, the posttest results indicated that in-service educators' attitudes improved significantly in three of the four categories (science experiences, perceptions of science and scientists, and science attitudes). The qualitative results indicated that the program positively affected some of the girls and in-service educators.

  15. Smartphone mobile application delivering personalized, real-time sun protection advice: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Mobile smartphones are rapidly emerging as an effective means of communicating with many Americans. Using mobile applications (apps), they can access remote databases, track time and location, and integrate user input to provide tailored health information. A smartphone mobile app providing personalized, real-time sun protection advice was evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The trial was conducted in 2012 and had a randomized pretest-posttest controlled design with a 10-week follow-up. Data were collected from a nationwide population-based survey panel. A sample of 604 non-Hispanic and Hispanic adults from the Knowledge Panel 18 years or older who owned an Android smartphone were enrolled. The mobile app provided advice on sun protection (ie, protection practices and risk of sunburn) and alerts (to apply or reapply sunscreen and get out of the sun), hourly UV Index, and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, the phone's time and location, and user input. Percentage of days using sun protection and time spent outdoors (days and minutes) in the midday sun and number of sunburns in the past 3 months were collected. Individuals in the treatment group reported more shade use (mean days staying in the shade, 41.0% vs 33.7%; P = .03) but less sunscreen use (mean days, 28.6% vs 34.5%; P = .048) than controls. There was no significant difference in number of sunburns in the past 3 months (mean, 0.60 in the treatment group vs 0.62 for controls; P = .87). Those who used the mobile app reported spending less time in the sun (mean days keeping time in the sun to a minimum, 60.4% for app users vs 49.3% for nonusers; P = .04) and using all protection behaviors combined more (mean days, 39.4% vs 33.8%; P = .04). The mobile app improved some sun protection. Use of the mobile app was lower than expected but associated with increased sun protection. Providing personalized advice when and where people are in the sun may help reduce sun exposure.

  16. Planning for a brighter future: a review of sun protection and barriers to behavioral change in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadlani, Chicky; Orlow, Seth J

    2008-09-15

    Skin cancer is one of the most preventable groups of malignancies; however, skin cancer incidence continues to rise in the United States. The relationship between skin cancer and ultraviolet (UV) radiation is well known. Many interventions to prevent skin cancer by reducing exposure to UV radiation have been employed throughout the United States. Studies show an increase in knowledge and awareness regarding sun exposure and skin cancer. Unfortunately, sun protection interventions are slow at effecting behavioral change. In this review, we examine current barriers facing youth today in regards to sun protection practices, appropriate age groups to target for intervention, proposed methods of sun protection, the influence of role models in changing sun protective behavior, the stages of behavioral change, and characteristics and techniques of sun protection programs that can not only increase knowledge but actually elicit changes in sun protection behavior.

  17. Examining young recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun-protective behavior: the role of group and image norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Natalie G; White, Katherine M; Hamilton, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examined the sun-protective intentions and behavior of young, Caucasian, Australian sportswomen aged between 17 and 35 years (N = 100). The study adopted a 2 x 2 experimental design, comparing group norms (supportive vs. non-supportive) and image norms (tanned vs. pale) related to sun protection and taking into account group identification with friends and peers in the sport. While no significant findings emerged involving image norms, regression analyses revealed a significant two-way interaction for group norm x identification on recreational sportswomen's intentions to engage in sun protection in the next fortnight. Participants identifying strongly with their group had stronger intentions to engage in sun protection when exposed to a norm reflecting fellow recreational sportswomen engaging in sun-protective actions in comparison to those exposed to a non-supportive group. In addition, while prior intentions to engage in sun protection were not significantly related to sun-protection behavior, post-manipulation intentions after exposure to the sun-protective information that was provided were significantly related to follow-up behavior. Overall, the findings supported the importance of group-based social influences, rather than tanned media images, on sun-protective decisions among young recreational sportswomen and provided a targeted source for intervention strategies encouraging sun safety among this at-risk group for repeated sun exposure.

  18. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, M.; Faurschou, A.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    application. The minimal erythema dose (MED) was determined 24 h after irradiation. The sun protection factor (SPF) was calculated, as MED on protected skin/MED on unprotected skin. RESULTS: The SPFs of the inorganic and organic sunscreen, respectively, were reduced by 38% and 41% after 4 h and by 55% and 58...

  19. A comprehensive approach to evaluating and classifying sun-protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, N J; Harrison, S L

    2017-09-08

    National standards for clothing designed to protect the wearer from the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have been implemented in Australia/New Zealand, Europe, and the USA. Industry standards reflect the need to protect the skin by covering a considerable proportion of the potentially exposed body surface area (BSA) and by reducing UVR-transmission through fabric (the Ultraviolet Protection Factor; UPF). This research aimed to develop a new index for rating sun-protective clothing that incorporates the BSA coverage of the garment in addition to the UPF of the fabric. A mannequin model was fixed to an optical bench and marked with horizontal lines at 1 cm intervals. An algorithm (the Garment Protector Factor; GPF) was developed based on the number of lines visible on the clothed versus unclothed mannequin and the UPF of the garment textile. This data was collected in 2015-16 and analysed in 2016. The GPF weights fabric UPF by BSA coverage above the minimum required by international sun-protective clothing standards for upper-body, lower-body and full-body garments. GPF increases with BSA coverage of the garment and fabric UPF. Three nominal categories are proposed for the GPF: 0 ≤ GPF protection; and GPF ≥ 6 indicating 'excellent' protection. Adoption of the proposed rating scheme should encourage manufacturers to design sun-protective garments that exceed the minimum standard for BSA coverage, with positive implications for skin cancer prevention, consumer education and sun-protection awareness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Recognition of skin cancer and sun protective behaviors in skin of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Chikoti M; Wesley, Naissan O; Jackson, Brooke A

    2013-09-01

    Sun protective behaviors are not as frequently practiced in skin of color as they are amongst Caucasians.1 Thus providing a reasonable assumption this behavior, or lack thereof, increases the risk of skin cancer in this skin of color populations. The aim of this study was two-fold-- the first was to understand whether patients with skin of color, when categorized by ethnicity or skin type, are able to recognize skin cancer lesions. The second was to examine the correlation between ethnicity and/or skin type and practice of sun protective behaviors. We surveyed 105 respondents presenting for various skin problems in a dermatology office in Chicago, IL. Topics covered in the survey included recognition of skin cancer appearance and choice of sun protective behaviors. We show that there is a tendency for patients to potentially recognize atypical pigmented lesions when they are "dark moles with irregular borders" or "new moles". In contrast, there is a reduced ability among darkly pigmented skin types IV to VI, to recognize non-melanoma skin cancers. We also show that in addition to ethnicity, skin type within ethnic groups may also play an influential role on the decision to protect or not protect oneself from the sun.

  1. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...

  2. Changes in Coverage of Sun Protection in the News: Threats and Opportunities from Emerging Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Makin, Jennifer; Maloney, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there have been shifts in news coverage of sun protection issues over a 12-year period in the context of an evolving skin cancer prevention agenda. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N = 552) published in the two metropolitan daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 2001 to 2012.…

  3. Effects of pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Henk; Huurne, ter Ellen; Taal, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effect of public service announcements aimed at promoting primary prevention of skin cancer may be limited by superficial cognitive processing. The use of both pictures and textual arguments in sun protection public service announcements were evaluated for their potentially beneficia

  4. Sun Protection during Snow Sports: An Analysis of Behavior and Psychosocial Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Kann, Dave; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sun protective behavior during snow sports and its psychosocial determinants. A longitudinal study was conducted among 418 Dutch adults who planned to go on a ski holiday. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire before and after their ski trip. In the baseline questionnaire several psychosocial factors were…

  5. Suntans and Sun Protection in Australian Teen Media: 1999 To 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Liane J.; Lowe, John B.; Stanton, Warren R.; Clavarino, Alexandra M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the portrayal of tanned skin and sun protection in magazines, television programs, and movies popular with Australian adolescents were analyzed. Images of models in magazines (n = 1,791), regular/supporting characters in television programs (n = 867), and regular/supporting characters in cinema movies (n = 2,836) for the 12-month…

  6. Outdoor workers and sun protection strategies: two case study examples in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite C; Stoneham, Melissa; Crane, Phil; Fleming, MaryLou; Janda, Monika; Tenkate, Thomas; Youl, Philippa; Kimlin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor workers are at risk of developing skin cancer because they are exposed to high levels of harmful ultraviolet radiation. The Outdoor Workers Sun Protection Project investigated sun protection strategies for high risk outdoor workers in rural and regional Australia. Fourteen workplaces (recruitment rate 37%) across four industries in rural and regional Queensland, Australia were recruited to the OWSPP. In 2011-2012, data were collected using pre- and post-intervention interviews and discussion groups. This article presents two workplaces as case study examples. The flat organisational structure of workplace 1 supported the implementation of the Sun Safety Action Plan (SSAP), whilst the hierarchical organisational nature of workplace 2 delayed implementation of the SSAP. Neither workplace had an existing sun protection policy but both workplaces adopted one. An effect related to the researchers' presence was seen in workplace 1 and to a lesser degree in workplace 2. Overt reciprocity was seen between management and workers in workplace 1 but this was not so evident in workplace 2. In both workplaces, the role of the workplace champion was pivotal to SSAP progression. These two case studies highlight a number of contextually bound workplace characteristics related to sun safety. These issues are (1) the structure of workplace, (2) policy, (3) an effect related to the researchers' presence, (4) the workplace champion and (5) reciprocity. There are several recommendations from this article. Workplace health promotion strategies for sun safety need to be contextualised to individual workplaces to take advantage of the strengths of the workplace and to build capacity.

  7. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  8. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  9. Nutritional approach to sun protection: a suggested complement to external strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2010-02-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancer despite the use of externally applied sun protection strategies, alongside research showing that nutrients reduce photo-oxidative damage, suggest nutritional approaches could play a beneficial role in skin cancer prevention. Penetrating photo-oxidative ultraviolet A radiation reduces skin and blood antioxidants and damages cell components, including DNA. Dietary antioxidant vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals in addition to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, and low pro-inflammatory n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have demonstrated protective properties. The presence of these elements in the traditional Greek-style Mediterranean diet may have contributed to the low rates of melanoma in the Mediterranean region despite high levels of solar radiation. This suggests a potentially relevant model for studying dietary/nutritional supplementation for lifelong internal support of sun-protection mechanisms, which could complement external strategies.

  10. Children´s sun protection need not conflict with health promoting physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Margareta; Boldemann, Cecilia; Wester, Ulf

    ABSTRACT: Preschool children´s sun exposure was measured 2009 with UV-dosimeters at nine preschools in Malmö 55°N, in southern Sweden and at two in Raleigh 36°N, North Carolina, USA at comparable seasons. Outdoor playground environment was explored how play facilities, available space and vegetat......ABSTRACT: Preschool children´s sun exposure was measured 2009 with UV-dosimeters at nine preschools in Malmö 55°N, in southern Sweden and at two in Raleigh 36°N, North Carolina, USA at comparable seasons. Outdoor playground environment was explored how play facilities, available space...... Raleigh in April also indicate that vegetation is sunprotective when children play. Favourable outdoor environment may promote both sun protection and physical activity in a Nordic spring or summer climate, while for physical activity, this might not be so pronounced at a southern mid-latitude due...

  11. Lack of adequate sun protection for children with oculocutaneous albinism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Julie S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood is a high risk time for ultraviolet induced skin damage as this age group has more time and opportunity to be outdoors in the sun. Children in Africa with the inherited condition oculocutaneous albinism (OCA are especially vulnerable due to their lack of protective melanin. They are highly susceptible to developing skin lesions that have both cosmetic and health complications, with a high risk of developing skin cancers. The study aimed to explore the adequacy of sun protection strategies of children with albinism in order to inform future provision. Methods Community based participatory research methods were employed to investigate sun protection strategies in 90 pupils with OCA (40 female and 50 male boarding at a special school educating pupils with visual impairment in a rural area of northern South Africa. Hats worn and sunscreen preparations used were examined during semi-structured face to face interviews conducted in small peer groups. The resident nurse interpreted if necessary and provided additional information on monitoring and treatment of skin lesions. Results Participants with albinism in this study were exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation throughout the year and showed skin damage despite wearing protective head gear. All except one pupil possessed at least one hat, with a mean brim width of 5.4 cm. Gender differences in sun avoidance behaviour were documented, with females seeking shade during recreational periods and males playing soccer outside. Although 38% of pupils were using a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF rating, only 12% had government sponsored tubes of SPF15 cream. Government sponsored sunscreen preparations were only provided if actively sought, involving time consuming trips to regional hospitals, with inadequate availability and insufficient supply. Conclusion Children with albinism living away from home in rural areas appear to have inadequate sun protection

  12. Signal Conditioning for the Kalman Filter: Application to Satellite Attitude Estimation with Magnetometer and Sun Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Segundo; Girón-Sierra, Jose M; Polo, Óscar R; Angulo, Manuel

    2016-10-31

    Most satellites use an on-board attitude estimation system, based on available sensors. In the case of low-cost satellites, which are of increasing interest, it is usual to use magnetometers and Sun sensors. A Kalman filter is commonly recommended for the estimation, to simultaneously exploit the information from sensors and from a mathematical model of the satellite motion. It would be also convenient to adhere to a quaternion representation. This article focuses on some problems linked to this context. The state of the system should be represented in observable form. Singularities due to alignment of measured vectors cause estimation problems. Accommodation of the Kalman filter originates convergence difficulties. The article includes a new proposal that solves these problems, not needing changes in the Kalman filter algorithm. In addition, the article includes assessment of different errors, initialization values for the Kalman filter; and considers the influence of the magnetic dipole moment perturbation, showing how to handle it as part of the Kalman filter framework.

  13. Signal Conditioning for the Kalman Filter: Application to Satellite Attitude Estimation with Magnetometer and Sun Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Esteban

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most satellites use an on-board attitude estimation system, based on available sensors. In the case of low-cost satellites, which are of increasing interest, it is usual to use magnetometers and Sun sensors. A Kalman filter is commonly recommended for the estimation, to simultaneously exploit the information from sensors and from a mathematical model of the satellite motion. It would be also convenient to adhere to a quaternion representation. This article focuses on some problems linked to this context. The state of the system should be represented in observable form. Singularities due to alignment of measured vectors cause estimation problems. Accommodation of the Kalman filter originates convergence difficulties. The article includes a new proposal that solves these problems, not needing changes in the Kalman filter algorithm. In addition, the article includes assessment of different errors, initialization values for the Kalman filter; and considers the influence of the magnetic dipole moment perturbation, showing how to handle it as part of the Kalman filter framework.

  14. In vitro sun protection factor determination of herbal oils used in cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Deep Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ultraviolet (UV absorption ability of volatile and nonvolatile herbal oils used in sunscreens or cosmetics and express the same in terms of sun protection factor (SPF values. Sun protection factor is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen; the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against the ultraviolet radiations causing sunburn. The in vitro SPF is determined according to the spectrophotometric method of Mansur et al. Hydroalcoholic dilutions of oils were prepared, and in vitro photoprotective activity was studied by UV spectrophotometric method in the range of 290-320 nm. It can be observed that the SPF values found for nonvolatile oils were in between 2 and 8; and for volatile oils, in between 1 and 7. Among the fixed oils taken, SPF value of olive oil was found to be the highest. Similarly among essential oils, SPF value of peppermint oil was found to be the highest. The study will be helpful in the selection of oils and fragrances to develop sunscreens with better safety and high SPF. Oily vehicles are more effective for producing a uniform and long-lasting film of sunscreen on the skin, and their emollient properties protect the skin against the drying effects of exposure to wind and sun. Volatile oils are used as perfumes in cosmetics.

  15. Farmers sun exposure, skin protection and public health campaigns: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Smit-Kroner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-melanoma skin cancer is a common and costly cancer in agricultural populations. Prevention and early detection are an effective way to decrease the burden of disease and associated costs. To examine sun exposure and skin protection practices in agricultural workers and farmers a thematic review of the literature between 1983 and 2014 was undertaken. Comparison between studies was complicated by differences in study design, definitions of skin protection, and analytic methods used. Farmers are the most exposed to harmful ultraviolet (UV radiation of all outdoor workers and the level of reported skin protection by farmers is suboptimal. Years of public health campaigns have failed to adequately address farmers' specific needs. Increased rates of skin cancer and subsequent higher costs are expected. Estimates of sun exposure and skin protection practice indicate that protective clothing is the most promising avenue to improve on farmers' skin protection. Early detection needs to be part of public health campaigns. This review explores the quantitative data about Australian farmers and their skin protective behaviours. We investigate what the documented measurable effect of the public health campaign Slip!Slop!Slap! has had on agricultural workers and farmers and make recommendations for future focus.

  16. Sun protection factor persistence on human skin during a day without physical activity or ultraviolet exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the sun protection factor (SPF) decreases by a constant factor to reach 55% during a day with activities. Organic sunscreens but not inorganic ones are absorbed through the skin. We wished to determine the SPF decrease caused by absorption by investigating the difference...... in SPF decreases between an organic and an inorganic sunscreen, assuming that the sunscreens are stable, and that the SPF decrease is time dependent if caused by absorption....

  17. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  18. Primary School Sun Protection Policies and Practices 4 Years after Baseline--A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I.; Jopson, Janet A.; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Before the 2005 launch of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP), 242 randomly sampled primary schools completed a mail survey about sun protection policies, practices, curriculum and environment. A 2009 follow-up included 189 (78%) and their mean Total Accreditation Score (TAS = total SSAP requirements met, range 0-12),…

  19. Primary schoolchildren’s self-reported sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours: a South African school-based study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to describe the self-reported sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of a sample of South African multi-ethnic primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and skin type as well as school sun...

  20. Sun awareness in Maltese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, S; Gauci, A Amato; Ellul, M; Scerri, L

    2004-11-01

    Studies indicate that reducing exposure to ultraviolet light during childhood and adolescence decreases the risk of skin cancer. From a young age, children need to be educated about the sun's harmful effects on the skin and how best to protect themselves. To help in the design of school-based interventions to raise sun awareness, a school survey was carried out to identify students' stereotypes and misconceptions. A total of 965 students attending Maltese secondary schools in forms 1, 2 and 3 were surveyed in May 2002, using a structured questionnaire designed to examine students' sun-related attitudes and knowledge. A high level of sun awareness among students was demonstrated, with high scores on knowledge of the effects of the sun on the skin, knowledge of skin cancer and knowledge of sun protection. Girls were clearly more knowledgeable than boys. However, of all the students surveyed, 55% thought that a suntan made them look better and 70% thought that their friends would desire a tan. These views were commoner among the older students. Skin type and hair or eye colour had no bearing on attitudes towards tanning or sun-related knowledge. The commonest misconceptions were that 'the sun is bad for your skin only when you get sunburnt' and that 'you cannot get too much sun on a cloudy day'. Deliberate suntanning was more frequently reported by girls than by boys and by students in the higher forms. Attitude change lags behind knowledge. Future school sun awareness interventions need to take into account gender and age differences in students' attitudes and perspectives. They should aim at motivating attitude change and preventive behaviour through consistent and repeated sun-education messages that are supported by a sun-conscious school environment.

  1. Perceptions of Risk of Developing Skin Cancer for Diverse Audiences: Enhancing Relevance of Sun Protection to Reduce the Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John; Gordon, Elisa J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty-five percent of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Perceptions of risk of developing skin cancer, amelioration of this risk with sun protection, and having choices among sun protection strategies may enhance sun protection use by KTRS, who are at greater risk than the general population. Thirty KTRs stratified among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Hispanic/Latinos evaluated three versions of the interactive, web-based, electronic sun protection program and suggested refinements. The sequence of content presentation prepared the participant to accept the credibility, accuracy, and relevance of the message. Beginning with informing participants that using sun protection reduces the chance of developing skin cancer made the information credible to KTRs. Showing skin cancer on all skin types and patient testimonials enhanced participants' awareness of their susceptibility to develop skin cancer and primed patients to receive their personal risk of developing skin cancer. Coupling presentation of knowledge about the benefits of sun protection in reducing the risk of developing skin cancer with the personal risk of getting the disease was essential to KTRs believing that they could influence their health outcome.

  2. UVR protection influences fructosamine level after sun exposure of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianowska, Beata; Narbutt, Joanna; Young, Antony Richard; Fendler, Wojciech; Małachowska, Beata; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Seasonal variation in glycated hemoglobin levels has been observed, and sun exposure has been considered as one of the factors associated with this relationship. Fructosamine is a short-time marker of blood protein glycation. We investigated the effect of seven days of sunbathing on blood fructosamine concentration in healthy volunteers using different ultraviolet radiation (UVR) protections. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: group A - used a UVA and UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 15), group B - used a UVB absorbing sunscreen (N = 18), and group C - followed uncontrolled sun protection habits (N = 22). Overall, the fructosamine concentration did not change after sun exposure (baseline 248.8 μmol/l, 25-75%: 238.5 to 258.8 μmol/l vs. after 247.3 μmol/l, 25-75%: 234.9 to 261.8 μmol/l, P = 0.6637). Median change of fructosamine differed significantly between groups (A: -1.90 μmol/l, 25-75%: -17.10 to 1.80 μmol/l vs. B: -3.80 μmol/l, 25-75%: -18.50 to 2.40 μmol/l vs. C: +4.05 μmol/l, 25-75%: -3.20 to 22.0 μmol/l; one-way ANOVAP = 0.0277). After age adjustment and combining groups A and B, the difference in change of fructosamine concentration was statistically significant between groups A + B (decrease) vs. group C (increase, P = 0.0193). Appropriate sunscreen use during sunbathing resulted in decreased fructosamine concentrations, while inadequate UVR protection resulted in its increase. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Assessment of Knowledge, Behaviour and Sun Protection Practices among Health Services Vocational School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Yurtseven

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the cases of skin cancer throughout the world in the last few decades. Although the mortality rate of skin cancer is relatively low, its impact on other health aspects is high and the treatment of undesired aesthetic damage is costly. According to disability-adjusted life year rates (DALY, 1.5 million days are estimated to be lost from people’s lives every year worldwide due to ultraviolet (UV radiation. The purpose of this study was to raise sun health awareness levels among health services vocational school students. A total of 414 students were included in the analysis. A questionnaire form was used to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among the survey sample. The average level of knowledge concerning the effects of the sun was found to be 8.64 ± 2.5 out of 15 points. All socio-demographic factors were analysed, but the only significant variables found were age and the possible presence of skin cancer within the immediate family (p < 0.05.

  4. Women's sun protection cognitions in response to UV photography: the role of age, cognition, and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Gerrard, Meg

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the impact of ultraviolet (UV) photography, cognition versus affect, and age on women's sun-related cognitions and a proxy measure of sun protection behavior. Participants (N = 114) were recruited via public advertisements and came to the lab to view a photo showing their UV damage. In addition, some participants received instructions to focus on either their thoughts (cognition) or feelings (affect) about their photograph before completing the survey. Women in the affect condition reported the lowest perceived vulnerability to skin cancer and highest absent/exempt beliefs (beliefs that one is unlikely to develop skin cancer if she hasn't already). Condition by age interactions showed that, among those in the cognition and control (no instructions) conditions, older women reported higher perceived vulnerability and lower absent/exempt beliefs, and took more sunscreen than younger women. However, older women reported higher absent/exempt beliefs and higher sun-risk willingness than younger women in the affect condition.

  5. SunSmart: Evaluation of a Pilot School-Based Sun Protection Intervention in Hispanic Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K. A.; Langholz, B. M.; Ly, T.; Harris, S. C.; Richardson, J. L.; Peng, D. H.; Cockburn, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rising among Hispanic populations in the United States. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a pilot sun safety educational intervention conducted from 2006 to 2012 on Hispanic early adolescents in a high ultraviolet environment. Nineteen schools with high Hispanic enrollment were recruited from urban…

  6. Modelling Local Attitudes to Protected Areas in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.

  7. Evaluation of Sun Protection Habits and Melanocytic Nevi of Population Screened in a Shopping Mall in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Öztürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The evaluation of sun protection habits, numbers and types of nevi in our community. Material and Method: A stand was built in a big mall in Ankara where 764 patients were screened for the presence of nevi in three working day periods during the month of May of 2005 and 2006. Lesions were evaluated with the help of digital dermatoscopy. In the study, sun protective practices, sunscreen using habits, dermatoscopic diagnosis of the lesions, numbers and the localization of the lesions were also recorded. Results: The study population consisted of 764 patients (438 female, 326 male with age ranging from 1 to 80 (33.7±13.7 years. 55.6% of them had skin type III, 47.3% had sunburn history. Most of the patients (44.1% were not using sunscreens. Hats and umbrellas (40.3% were the most common accessories used for protection. 904 lesions of 764 patients examined by dermatoscopy revealed that the most common diagnosis was nevi. Two patients were diagnosed with having cutaneous melanoma or basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Our findings have shown that the general population is not aware of the risks of sun exposure or the appropriate ways for sun protection and that there is a necessity for educational programmes or campaigns about sun protection and nevi in our general population.

  8. Influence de certains corps gras sur le Sun Protection Factor (SPF mesuré in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau Céline

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the knowledge on the influence of vehicle on the SPF (Sun Protection Factor, we determined in vitro the SPF from an oil-in-water (O/W emulsion containing octylmethoxycinnamate (4%. We changed the oily phase composition. The in vitro determination of SPF is based on the physical determination of the reduction of the energy in the UV range, through a film of product which has previously been spread on an adequate substrate. About 30 mg were applied on roughened PMMA plates and the transmission measurements are carried out using a spectrophotometer equipped with integrating sphere. Eighteen oily ingredients were studied. Each one of them was incorporated in the amount of 20%. It is the lanolin which appears most effective SPF booster. Then oils come blackcurrant, argan, sweet almond, sesame, groundnut, carthame and palmotene.

  9. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®), a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Cohen, Francine; Baillet, Gilles; de Ayguavives, Tito; Garcia, Paula Ortega; Krutmann, Jean; Peña-García, Pablo; Reme, Charlotte; Wolffsohn, James S

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children's eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even the retina. Sunglasses as well as clear lenses (plano and prescription) effectively reduce transmittance of UV radiation. However, an important share of the UV burden to the eye is explained by back reflection of radiation from lenses to the eye. UV radiation incident from an angle of 135°-150° behind a lens wearer is reflected from the back side of lenses. The usual antireflective coatings considerably increase reflection of UV radiation. To provide reliable labeling of the protective potential of lenses, an eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®) has been developed. It integrates UV transmission as well as UV reflectance of lenses. The E-SPF® compares well with established skin-sun protection factors and provides clear messages to eye health care providers and to lay

  10. User-centered development of a smart phone mobile application delivering personalized real-time advice on sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Lantz, Kathleen; Buller, Mary Klein

    2013-09-01

    Smart phones are changing health communication for Americans. User-centered production of a mobile application for sun protection is reported. Focus groups (n = 16 adults) provided input on the mobile application concept. Four rounds of usability testing were conducted with 22 adults to develop the interface. An iterative programming procedure moved from a specification document to the final mobile application, named Solar Cell. Adults desired a variety of sun protection advice, identified few barriers to use and were willing to input personal data. The Solar Cell prototype was improved from round 1 (seven of 12 tasks completed) to round 2 (11 of 12 task completed) of usability testing and was interoperable across handsets and networks. The fully produced version was revised during testing. Adults rated Solar Cell as highly user friendly (mean = 5.06). The user-centered process produced a mobile application that should help many adults manage sun safety.

  11. Factoring attitudes towards armed conflict risk into selection of protected areas for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammill, E.; Tulloch, A.I.T.; Possingham, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of armed conflicts in biodiverse regions poses significant challenges in achieving international conservation targets. Because attitudes towards risk vary, we assessed different strategies for protected area planning that reflected alternative attitudes towards the risk of arme...

  12. Preschool outdoor play environment may combine promotion of children´s physical activity and sun protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldemann, Cecilia; Dal, Henrik; Mårtensson, Fredrika

    2011-01-01

    in Raleigh. Trees and shrubbery integrated in children’s playscape trigger both physical activity and sun-protective behaviour in Sweden, and previous measurements in Stockholm were confirmed. Such outdoor environment should be recommended, but the role of season and climate needs to be further explored....

  13. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  14. 'It's The Sun Wot Won It': Evidence of media influence on political attitudes and voting from a UK quasi-natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2016-03-01

    Do print media significantly impact political attitudes and party identification? To examine this question, we draw on a rare quasi-natural experiment that occurred when The Sun, a right-leaning UK tabloid, shifted its support to the Labour party in 1997 and back to the Conservative party in 2010. We compared changes in party identification and political attitudes among Sun readers with non-readers and other newspaper readerships. We find that The Sun's endorsements were associated with a significant increase in readers' support for Labour in 1997, approximately 525,000 votes, and its switch back was associated with about 550,000 extra votes for the Conservatives in 2010. Although we observed changes in readers' party preference, there was no effect on underlying political preferences. The magnitude of these changes, about 2% of the popular vote, would have been unable to alter the outcome of the 1997 General Election, but may have affected the 2010 Election.

  15. Reducing Sun Exposure for Prevention of Skin Cancers: Factorial Invariance and Reliability of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Sun Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F. Babbin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Self-Efficacy Scale for Sun Protection consists of two correlated factors with three items each for Sunscreen Use and Avoidance. This study evaluated two crucial psychometric assumptions, factorial invariance and scale reliability, with a sample of adults (N=1356 participating in a computer-tailored, population-based intervention study. A measure has factorial invariance when the model is the same across subgroups. Three levels of invariance were tested, from least to most restrictive: (1 Configural Invariance (nonzero factor loadings unconstrained; (2 Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings; and (3 Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors. Strong Factorial Invariance was a good fit for the model across seven grouping variables: age, education, ethnicity, gender, race, skin tone, and Stage of Change for Sun Protection. Internal consistency coefficient Alpha and factor rho scale reliability, respectively, were .84 and .86 for Sunscreen Use, .68 and .70 for Avoidance, and .78 and .78 for the global (total scale. The psychometric evidence demonstrates strong empirical support that the scale is consistent, has internal validity, and can be used to assess population-based adult samples.

  16. Does the mycotoxin citrinin function as a sun protectant in conidia from Penicillium verrucosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størmer, F C; Sandven, P; Huitfeldt, H S; Eduard, W; Skogstad, A

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrate high concentrations of the UV absorbing mycotoxin citrinin in the outer layer of spores from three citrinin-producing strains of Penicillium verrucosum, which is released in an aqueous environment. An important function of the toxin could be to act as a sun protectant in order to create favorable conditions during the initial germination process. When spores from these strains of P. verrucosum were examined by confocal microscopy, a clearly visible fluorescent layer associated with the cell wall was observed. The strains were grown on agar plates, and the mycelial mat was washed with saline. This suspension contained at least 95% of the spores and particulate material, which was removed by filtration after counting the conidia. An aliquot of this filtrate was extracted and citrinin was purified by high pressure liquid chromatography. The absorbance at 319 nm was used to calculate the amount of UV absorbing material released from the spores. Based on the spore numbers in the suspension of the saline extract, we estimated that this material released was 1.4-4.1 pg per spore or 8-24% of the spore weight. Citrinin (and minor amounts of ochratoxin A and some other unidentificable fluorescent compounds) were observed in the filtrate when subjected to thin layer chromatography.

  17. Response Across the Health-Literacy Spectrum of Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Sun-Protection Education Program Delivered on Tablet Computers: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John J; Desai, Amishi; Gordon, Elisa J

    2015-08-18

    Sun protection can reduce skin cancer development in kidney transplant recipients, who have a greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma than the general population. A culturally sensitive sun-protection program (SunProtect) was created in English and Spanish with the option of choosing audio narration provided by the tablet computer (Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 10.1). The intervention, which showed skin cancer on patients with various skin tones, explained the following scenarios: skin cancer risk, the ability of sun protection to reduce this risk, as well as offered sun-protection choices. The length of the intervention was limited to the time usually spent waiting during a visit to the nephrologist. The development of this culturally sensitive, electronic, interactive sun-protection educational program, SunProtect, was guided by the "transtheoretical model," which focuses on decision making influenced by perceptions of personal risk or vulnerability to a health threat, importance (severity) of the disease, and benefit of sun-protection behavior. Transportation theory, which holds that narratives can have uniquely persuasive effects in overcoming preconceived beliefs and cognitive biases because people transported into a narrative world will alter their beliefs based on information, claims, or events depicted, guided the use of testimonials. Participant tablet use was self-directed. Self-reported responses to surveys were entered into the database through the tablet. Usability was tested through interviews. A randomized controlled pilot trial with 170 kidney transplant recipients was conducted, where the educational program (SunProtect) was delivered through a touch-screen tablet to 84 participants. The study involved 62 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, and 48 Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between the intervention and control groups in age, sex, income, or time since

  18. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  19. School Sun-Protection Policies: Measure Development and Assessments in 2 Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kim D.; Buller, David B.; French, Simone A.; Buller, Mary K.; Ashley, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 2002, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that schools adopt policies that reduce exposure of children to ultraviolet radiation to prevent skin cancer. We report here the development of a school sun-safety policy measure and baseline descriptive statistics from the assessment of written policies collected…

  20. A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials to Investigate the Effect of Educational Interventions on Reducing Sunburn and Improving Sun Protection Knowledge and Behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Background Skin cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in white populations throughout the world, yet, by taking adequate sun protection measures it can be prevented. This systematic review investigated the effectiveness of educational interventions on reducing sunburns and improving sun protection knowledge and behaviours in individuals of all ages. Methodology Using the electronic databases, Ovid-Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Cli...

  1. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes of Forestry Students on Nature and Protected Areas in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Efthimiou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study and academic training of citizens in issues of forest and protected areas shapes the environmentally friendly attitudes to graduates. Attitudes include public beliefs and assessments of ecosystem management activities. In education it is necessary to redefine our values and ethical norms and obligations towards man and the natural environment. The field of study and gender have an impact on environmental attitudes and behaviors of students. The protected areas are subject to ample scientific research and have educational interest. The purpose of this research is to measure attitudes on Protected Areas (PA of Forestry students in Greece. The questionnaire used as a research tool, based on the scale FVS (Forest Values Scale which is suitably adapted for PA. Based on the results of this survey it was found that the majority of the sampled students showing more biocentric attitude to Protected Areas which is largely due to the subject of their studies. With regard to gender on the positive attitude towards the environment was found to be statistically significant in favor of women. Students largely support positive environmental attitudes and found that there is a relationship between the level of knowledge about protected areas and the attitude towards the environment.

  3. Ultraviolet damage to the eye revisited: eye-sun protection factor (E-SPF®, a new ultraviolet protection label for eyewear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar-Cohen F

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Francine Behar-Cohen,1 Gilles Baillet,2 Tito de Ayguavives,2 Paula Ortega Garcia,3 Jean Krutmann,4 Pablo Peña-García,3,5 Charlotte Reme,6 James S Wolffsohn7 1French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Team 17, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, France; 2Research and Development Center, Essilor International, Saint Maur des Fossés, France; 3Department of Research, Fundacion Jorge Alio, Alicante, Spain; 4IUF Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany; 5Division of Ophthalmology, University Miguel Hernández, Alicante, Spain; 6Laboratory of Retinal Cell Biology, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Zurich, Switzerland; 7Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV radiation potentially damages the skin, the immune system, and structures of the eye. A useful UV sun protection for the skin has been established. Since a remarkable body of evidence shows an association between UV radiation and damage to structures of the eye, eye protection is important, but a reliable and practical tool to assess and compare the UV-protective properties of lenses has been lacking. Among the general lay public, misconceptions on eye-sun protection have been identified. For example, sun protection is mainly ascribed to sunglasses, but less so to clear lenses. Skin malignancies in the periorbital region are frequent, but usual topical skin protection does not include the lids. Recent research utilized exact dosimetry and demonstrated relevant differences in UV burden to the eye and skin at a given ambient irradiation. Chronic UV effects on the cornea and lens are cumulative, so effective UV protection of the eyes is important for all age groups and should be used systematically. Protection of children’s eyes is especially important, because UV transmittance is higher at a very young age, allowing higher levels of UV radiation to reach the crystalline lens and even

  4. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, Mette; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2008-01-01

    The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application.......The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application....

  5. The impact of education on adolescents’ sun behavior: Experiences from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Serbia, there have been no broad campaigns or educational programs focused on adolescents’ sun protection. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess whether an educational program would have impact on changes of attitudes and sun-protective behaviors of high school students. More specific aim was to examine whether sex and age differences in sun behavior exists. Methods. Educational program was designed to provoke changes in attitudes towards sun protection and sun behavior. The investigation was carried out in Belgrade, Serbia in two educational cycles, during spring 2007 and 2008. Sixteen- and 17-year old high schools students were targeted and assessed before and after the educational intervention by means of self-report questionnaire designed for this study (about skin types and sun behavior. The students’ attitudes towards sun protection and sun behavior before and after the educational intervention were compared and analyzed by the Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analyses. In the second educational cycle (2008 age and gender differences in sun behavior were analyzed. Results. Overall 3205 students in 2007, and 2155 students in 2008 year from 11 high schools participated. A statistically significant behavior change was observed for the use of sunglasses in 2007 - the number of students using them increased from 41.6 % to 45.6% (p<0.05. There were no significant changes in other ways of protection i.e. sunscreen use, protective clothes or staying in shade. Conclusion. Educational program had an impact, but broader activities involving schools, local communities and media are needed for significant changes in sun behavior and attitude.

  6. Protection motivation theory and alcohol use attitudes among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, C; Prentice-Dunn, S; Scogin, F

    1993-08-01

    Responses of 17 elderly persons and 20 VA inpatients with alcohol-abuse problems (all 60 yr. or older) to an Alcohol Attitude Survey administered by telephone and interview were examined. Inpatients felt more vulnerable, perceived higher costs in moderating drinking, and showed lower response efficacy. Inpatients consumed substantially more alcohol than the community-dwelling elders. Hypotheses for study were generated.

  7. Chemical analysis and in vitro UV-protection characteristics of clays traditionally used for sun protection in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlova, Ncoza C; Nevondo, Funanani T; Mwangi, Elizabeth M; Summers, Beverley; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce; Martincigh, Bice S; Mulholland, Dulcie A

    2013-06-01

    Clays have been used in southern Africa as photoprotectants by the indigenous people. Typically, two types of clay are used: one white in colour and the other red. In this work, the two clays were identified and characterized, and their in vitro SPF values measured. The clays afford a low SPF but offer broad-spectrum protection. No cutaneous side effects from the use of these clays are known. Further consideration should be given to the potential use of clays in sunscreen preparations.

  8. Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection; Aptitud mas Actitud en Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, G. R.; Sanchez, G. D.

    2003-07-01

    Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs.

  9. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivet-Seyve, Mathieu; Santoro, Francine; Lachmann, Nadège

    2017-01-01

    Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF) moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners. This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3-5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability. The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female). At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44) showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days' treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial redness, did not worsen rosacea, and was easily incorporated into their skincare regimen. Half would switch to the product, and 80% of subjects would buy and recommend the product. The product was well tolerated in rosacea-prone subjects, producing objective

  10. Changing attitudes and beliefs towards a woman's right to protect against HIV risk in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McMahon, James M

    2016-01-01

    Female empowerment and positive attitudes towards women's rights in sexual relationships have been found to be key elements of successful behaviour-based HIV prevention programmes. However, HIV prevention programmes that do not specifically engage with gender issues may also affect attitudes and beliefs towards women's rights within sexual relationships. Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health we compare measures of female empowerment and changing gender norms between intervention participants and non-participants. Results suggest that female intervention participants were more likely than non-participants to believe that: (1) women have more rights within sexual relationships in general and (2) women have the right to protect themselves against HIV risk (indicating possible increases in female self-efficacy in making HIV prevention decisions). Male intervention participants showed no substantial positive change in attitudes towards women's rights. These results highlight an important positive effect of HIV prevention programmes on women's attitudes towards their own rights.

  11. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  12. Using Appearance-Based Messages to Increase Sun Protection in Adolescent Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study of Ultraviolet Light Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recklitis, Christopher J; Bakan, Jennifer; Werchniak, Andrew E; Mahler, Heike

    2017-04-05

    Despite risk for secondary skin cancers, many adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors do not practice recommended sun protection (SP). Ultraviolet light photography (UVP), which demonstrates the negative impact of sun exposure on physical appearance, has been shown to increase SP in community AYA samples. This study of 58 AYA cancer survivors demonstrates that UVP is acceptable and not distressing to this population. Follow-up data on 23 AYAs demonstrated that those given UVP significantly improve their SP behaviors, while those receiving standard educational materials do not. Results demonstrate UVP is a promising tool for increasing SP in AYA survivors.

  13. Fator de proteção solar: significado e controvérsias Sun protection factor: meaning and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schalka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O Fator de Proteção Solar (FPS é o principal dado para quantificação da eficácia fotoprotetora de um filtro solar, sendo universalmente aceito. Seu método é baseado na determinação da Dose Eritematosa Mínima (DEM, definida como sendo a menor quantidade de energia necessária para o desencadeamento de eritema, em áreas de pele protegidas e não protegidas pelo produto em estudo. O valor do FPS é, então, calculado como a razão numérica entre a DEM da pele protegida e a da pele não protegida. A primeira publicação demonstrando um método para determinação do valor do FPS foi apresentada em 1978 pela agência norte-americana FDA, seguida por outras publicações do próprio FDA e de outras agências regulatórias internacionais. Apesar de ser considerado o método referência para quantificação da eficácia fotoprotetora de produtos tópicos, existem controvérsias na literatura acerca do método para determinação do FPS e sobre as implicações das reais condições de uso na proteção atingida na prática pelos usuáriosThe Sun Protection Factor (SPF is the most important data to quantify the effectiveness of a sunscreen, being universally accepted. The method is based on determining the minimum erythematous dose (MED, defined as the smallest amount of energy required for triggering the erythema, in areas of protected and unprotected skin. The SPF value is then calculated as the ratio between the MED of protected and unprotected skin. The first publication of a method for determining the SPF was presented in 1978 by the U.S. FDA agency, followed by other publications of FDA and other international regulatory agencies. Although considered the reference method for quantification of sunscreen efficacy of topical products, there are controversies in literature about the method for determining the SPF and the implications of the real conditions of use in the protection achieved in practice by users

  14. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivet-Seyve M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathieu Grivet-Seyve,1 Francine Santoro,2 Nadège Lachmann2 1Galderma Research and Development, Sophia Antipolis, France; 2Galderma Research and Development, Egerkingen, Switzerland Background/objective: Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners.Subjects and methods: This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3–5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability.Results: The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female. At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44 showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days’ treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial

  15. Attitudes Towards Forest Elephant Conservation Around a Protected Area in Northern Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félicien Nsonsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of local attitudes towards conservation can guide wildlife managers in the effective application of measurements to improve these perceptions. Here we conducted a quantitative questionnaire survey around a protected area in northern Congo surveying 314 households living in four villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. We investigated the impact of the benefits of a conservation project (led by an international non-governmental organisation, the experience with human-elephant conflict and the respondents' socio-economic profile on local people's attitudes towards forest elephant conservation. Using multivariate analysis, we found overall positive attitudes towards elephant conservation with more positive answers in the village where a conservation project is based. Furthermore, people employed in the conservation project stated more positive attitudes compared to logging company employees famers, natural resource users and people conducting other jobs. Experience of human elephant conflict negatively impacted people's perceptions. Socio-economic variables, such as ethnic group, education level or salary category had relatively little impact on people's responses. Qualitative statements largely supported the questionnaire results. We discuss our results in the light of the limits of attitude surveys and suggest further investigations to identify the activities needed to foster positive attitudes for elephant conservation in all villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in partnership with the logging company.

  16. Job satisfaction and its relationship to Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (RPKAP) of Iranian radiation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S S; Dabbagh, S T; Abbasi, M; Mehrdad, R

    2017-01-23

    This study aimed to find the association between job satisfaction and radiation protection knowledge, attitude and practice of medical radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this crosssectional study, 530 radiation workers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences completed a knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on protecting themselves against radiation and Job Descriptive Index as a job satisfaction measure during May to November 2014. Opportunities for promotion (84.2%) and payment (91.5%) were the most important factors for dissatisfaction. Radiation workers who were married, had more positive attitudes toward protecting themselves against radiation, and had higher level of education accounted for 15.8% of the total variance in predicting job satisfaction. In conclusion, medical radiation workers with a more positive attitude toward self-protection against radiation were more satisfied with their jobs. In radiation environments, improving staff attitudes toward their safety may be considered as a key strategy to increase job satisfaction.

  17. Reliable and simple spectrophotometric determination of sun protection factor: A case study using organic UV filter-based sunscreen products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soo In; Liu, Shuanghui; Brooks, Geoffrey J; Lanctot, Yves; Gruber, James V

    2017-08-23

    Current in vitro SPF screening method for plant oil body (oleosome)-based SPF products possesses significant inconsistency and low reliability in the SPF rating. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of spectrophotometrically determined sun protection factor (SPF) from oleosome-based SPF products. The secondary objective was the data comparison of the spectrophotometric measurements against in vivo SPF testing to establish a reliable in vitro test method as a screening assay. Octyl methoxycinnamate (UVB filter) and avobenzone (UVA filter) were loaded into safflower oil bodies and formulated into oil-in-water emulsion-based finished products. To evaluate the reliability between in vivo and spectrophotometric test methods, samples were dispatched to a clinical laboratory, and the reported SPF values were compared with spectrophotometric test results. The observed SPF from the in vivo and spectrophotometric test results demonstrated a high correlation for SPF 30 products. Proportional correlation between the two evaluation methods was observed for SPF 15 and 50 products with slightly lesser accuracy with a smaller number of population tested in the clinical studies. A reliable spectrophotometric screening method for oil body-based SPF formulas has been developed using two broadly used organic UV sunscreen actives as a case study. The results demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and reliability compared to the US FDA-guided in vivo SPF testing method. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of the physicochemical properties of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, commonly used as sun protection agents, on microvascular endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Claudia; Torrano, Adriano A.; Herrmann, Rudolf; Malissek, Marcelina; Bräuchle, Christoph; Reller, Armin; Treuel, Lennart; Hilger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Until now, the potential effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on endothelial cells are not well understood, despite their already wide usage. Therefore, the present work characterizes six TiO2 nanoparticle samples in the size range of 19 × 17 to 87 × 13 nm, which are commonly present in sun protection agents with respect to their physicochemical properties (size, shape, ζ-potential, agglomeration, sedimentation, surface coating, and surface area), their interactions with serum proteins and biological impact on human microvascular endothelial cells (relative cellular dehydrogenase activity, adenosine triphosphate content, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release). We observed no association of nanoparticle morphology with the agglomeration and sedimentation behavior and no variations of the ζ-potential (-14 to -19 mV) in dependence on the surface coating. In general, the impact on endothelial cells was low and only detectable at concentrations of 100 μg/ml. Particles containing a rutile core and having rod-like shape had a stronger effect on cell metabolism than those with anatase core and elliptical shape (relative cellular dehydrogenase activity after 72 h: 60 vs. 90 %). Besides the morphology, the nanoparticle shell constitution was found to influence the metabolic activity of the cells. Upon cellular uptake, the nanoparticles were localized perinuclearly. Considering that in the in vivo situation endothelial cells would come in contact with considerably lower nanoparticle amounts than the lowest-observable adverse effects level (100 μg/ml), TiO2 nanoparticles can be considered as rather harmless to humans under the investigated conditions.

  19. 孙中山先生怎样对待“黄祸”论?%Mr. Sun Zhong-shan's Attitude to Yellow Peril

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗福惠

    2001-01-01

    There is enough evidence to prove that Mr. Sun Zhong-shan wasonce challenged and obsessed by the idea of yellow peril. He, to some extent, had deliberated upon it and his attitude toward it had experienced three periods. General speaking, he thought that the idea of yellow peril was an excuse the European and American powers exploited which was intended to divide China and struggle for hegemony over Asia. Mr. Sun Zhong-shan emphasized that China would open to the outside world after the revolution and meanwhile develop its economy to benefit not only the Chinese but also the whole human beings. During h is later years, Mr. Sun Zhong-shan persisted in anti-imperialism, abolishing all unequal treaties, standing together with all oppressed nations and states and preserving human justice and world peace.%有足够的资料证明孙中山先生曾遇到“黄祸”论的挑战和困扰,对此他也有所考虑和回应。他的回应态度可分为三个阶段,集中起来就是:中国和亚洲大多数国家一直受欧美列强的欺凌,而“黄祸”论正是列强分割中国、争霸亚洲的借口。他强调中国爱好和平,革命成功后会实行“开放主义”;而开发富源和发展经济,不仅能养活自己,还会为人类造福。晚年他坚决主张反对帝国主义,废除一切不平等条约,与一切受压迫的民族和国家互相扶助,维护人类正义与世界和平。他关于未来的战争不是“人种”之战,而是“受屈者”与“横暴者”之战的观点尤其精辟。

  20. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  1. Sun-protective Behaviors of Student Spectators at Inter-school Swimming Carnivals in a Tropical Region of High Ambient Solar Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Turner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans and Australia (particularly in Queensland has the highest incidence globally. Sunlight is a known skin carcinogen and reflects off water, exacerbating the risk of sunburn. In 1988, the SunSmart Program was developed to promote sun-protection to Australian children. Within a decade, it evolved to include a voluntary national accreditation program for schools, known as the SunSmart Schools (SSS Program. Additionally, in 2008, it became compulsory for primary schoolchildren attending Queensland government-funded schools to wear a shirt during all water-based activities, except when competing. We observed the proportion of student spectators from 41 Townsville (latitude 19.3°S primary schools (65.9% SSS wearing hats at inter-school swimming carnivals in 2009-2011 and 2015 and the proportion wearing a shirt. Overall, a median of 30.7% student spectators from each school wore a hat (max 46.2% [2009]; min 18% [2015] and 77.3% wore a shirt (max 95.8% [2009]; min 74.5% [2015], suggesting that hats are under-utilized. Students from non-government (private schools were twice as likely as students from government schools to wear a hat (41% vs 18.2% p=0.003. Neither the hat nor the shirt-wearing behaviors of student spectators were significantly influenced by their school’s size (number of students, educational advantage, sun-protection policy score or SunSmart status, indicating that other socio-economic factors, not assessed here, may have influenced the results. Our findings suggest that the mandatory swim-shirt policy introduced in 2008 was very effective, especially initially. However, monitoring and feedback of results to schools may be needed to maintain high levels of compliance in the longer-term. Schoolchildren attending swimming carnivals should not rely on sunscreen or shade alone to protect against direct and reflected-sunlight, and need prompting to put a hat and shirt back on immediately after

  2. Predicting Intention to Take Protective Measures During Haze: The Roles of Efficacy, Threat, Media Trust, and Affective Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Trisha T C; Bautista, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The annual Southeast Asian haze pollution raises public health concerns in this region. Based on a modified extended parallel process model, this study examines efficacy (self-efficacy and response efficacy) and perceived threat (susceptibility and severity) and incorporates new constructs of media trust and affective attitude. Results from a Web survey of 410 undergraduate students in Singapore show that response efficacy to seek haze-related information mediates the association between perceived self-efficacy and intention to take protective measures during haze. Moreover, self-efficacy is negatively associated with affective attitude (e.g., fear and worry) toward haze-related health problems. Next, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility are positively associated with response efficacy and affective attitude. Affective attitude toward haze is a stronger predictor than response efficacy for behavioral intention. Finally, trust in new media is positively associated with young Singaporeans' affective attitude, which positively affects their behavioral intention to take protective measures.

  3. Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

    2013-08-01

    Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Cassini Attitude Control Fault Protection Design: Launch to End of Prime Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) Fault Protection (FP) has been successfully supporting operations for over 10 years from launch through the end of the prime mission. Cassini's AACS FP is complex, containing hundreds of error monitors and thousands of tunable parameters. Since launch there have been environmental, hardware, personnel and mission event driven changes which have required AACS FP to adapt and be robust to a variety of scenarios. This paper will discuss the process of monitoring, maintaining and updating the AACS FP during Cassini's lengthy prime mission as well as provide some insight into lessons learned during tour operations.

  5. Cassini Attitude Control Fault Protection Design: Launch to End of Prime Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem (AACS) Fault Protection (FP) has been successfully supporting operations for over 10 years from launch through the end of the prime mission. Cassini's AACS FP is complex, containing hundreds of error monitors and thousands of tunable parameters. Since launch there have been environmental, hardware, personnel and mission event driven changes which have required AACS FP to adapt and be robust to a variety of scenarios. This paper will discuss the process of monitoring, maintaining and updating the AACS FP during Cassini's lengthy prime mission as well as provide some insight into lessons learned during tour operations.

  6. Client Violence and Its Negative Impacts on Work Attitudes of Child Protection Workers Compared to Community Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of client violence toward child protection workers and its negative impacts on the work attitudes of those workers compared with community service workers in South Korea. This study is based on the assumption that child protection workers are more vulnerable to violence than are community service workers…

  7. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  8. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  9. Solar ultraviolet radiation in South Africa and sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among South African adults: pilot study results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available While some sun exposure induces a sense of well-being and synthesis of vitamin D excess sun exposure has been associated with skin cancer, immune suppression and ocular cataracts. In South Africa, approximately 30% of all histologically...

  10. Assessment of the main factors impacting community members’ attitudes towards tourism and protected areas in six southern African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Snyman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa, many early conservation efforts from the late 1800s and early 1900s either displaced local communities or restricted their access to natural resources. This naturally affected community attitudes towards protected areas and efforts were later made to rectify growing tensions. In the last few decades of the 20th century, these efforts led to conservation and ecotourism models that increasingly included communities in the decision-making and benefit-sharing process in order to garner their support. Although the results of these policies were mixed, it is clear that the future success of conservation and, consequently, ecotourism in many areas will depend on the attitudes and behaviour of communities living in or adjacent to protected areas. Managing and understanding community expectations and attitudes under varying socio-economic circumstances will lead to more efficient, equitable and sustainable community-based conservation and ecotourism models. This study was based on 1400 community interview schedules conducted in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe, allowing for an accurate comparison of attitudes across countries, protected areas and communities. The results highlighted important demographic and socio-economic factors to consider in terms of understanding the attitudes of those living in and around protected areas. Suggestions were put forward for managing community relationships and garnering long-term support for protected areas and ecotourism. Conservation implications: It was observed that, in general, community members living in or adjacent to conservation areas in southern Africa have an understanding and appreciation of the importance of conservation. Formal education was found to positively impact attitudes and human–wildlife conflict negatively impacted attitudes, highlighting important policy focus areas.

  11. Factors Influencing the Safety Behavior of German Equestrians: Attitudes towards Protective Equipment and Peer Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina-Maria Ikinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Human interactions with horses entail certain risks. Although the acceptance and use of protective gear is increasing, a high number of incidents and very low or inconsistent voluntary use of safety equipment are reported. While past studies have examined factors influencing the use of safety gear, they have explored neither their influence on the overall safety behavior, nor their relative influence in relation to each other. The aim of the present study is to fill this gap. We conducted an online survey with 2572 participants. By means of a subsequent multiple regression analysis, we explored 23 different variables in view of their influence on the protective behavior of equestrians. In total, we found 17 variables that exerted a significant influence. The results show that both having positive or negative attitudes towards safety products as well as the protective behavior of other horse owners or riding pupils from the stable have the strongest influence on the safety behavior of German equestrians. We consider such knowledge to be important for both scientists and practitioners, such as producers of protective gear or horse sport associations who might alter safety behavior in such a way that the number of horse-related injuries decreases in the long term.

  12. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  13. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  14. Systematic and Iterative Development of a Smartphone App to Promote Sun-Protection Among Holidaymakers: Design of a Prototype and Results of Usability and Acceptability Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M; Sniehotta, Falko F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Olivier, Patrick; Araújo-Soares, Vera

    2017-06-12

    Sunburn and intermittent exposure to ultraviolet rays are risk factors for melanoma. Sunburn is a common experience during holidays, making tourism settings of particular interest for skin cancer prevention. Holidaymakers are a volatile populations found at different locations, which may make them difficult to reach. Given the widespread use of smartphones, evidence suggests that this might be a novel, convenient, scalable, and feasible way of reaching the target population. The main objective of this study was to describe and appraise the process of systematically developing a smartphone intervention (mISkin app) to promote sun-protection during holidays. The iterative development process of the mISkin app was conducted over four sequential stages: (1) identify evidence on the most effective behavior change techniques (BCTs) used (active ingredients) as well as theoretical predictors and theories, (2) evidence-based intervention design, (3) co-design with users of the mISkin app prototype, and (4) refinement of the app. Each stage provided key findings that were subsequently used to inform the design of the mISkin app. The sequential approach to development integrates different strands of evidence to inform the design of an evidence-based intervention. A systematic review on previously tested interventions to promote sun-protection provided cues and constraints for the design of this intervention. The development and design of the mISkin app also incorporated other sources of information, such as other literature reviews and experts' consultations. The developed prototype of the mISkin app was evaluated by engaging potential holidaymakers in the refinement and further development of the mISkin app through usability (ease-of-use) and acceptability testing of the intervention prototype. All 17 participants were satisfied with the mISkin prototype and expressed willingness to use it. Feedback on the app was integrated in the optimization process of the mISkin app

  15. Analysing the components of attitude in a function of improving consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are the starting point and the focus of all activities of companies that want to survive in the long term and do business profitably on the market. However, even in the most developed economies in the world do not have all the companies awareness about the importance of social responsible business and ethical marketing. Therefore there is a need for institutional protection of consumers from unfer and unethical business of companies, on the one hand, but on the other hand, they have to encourage themselves to be more involved in the protection of their rights. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of the components of consumer attitude about the degree of protection of consumer rights in the Republic of Serbia in order to conclude on which way consumers can be encouraged to participate more actively in the exercise of rights. The aim of this study is to determine whether the cognitive, affective and behavioral component of the attitude are intercorelated and to what extent, and whether cognitive or affective component has dominant influence on forming behavioral component of the consumer attitude. Based on the results of the research about the corelation and influence of the analyzed components of the attitude we draw conclusions on which way it can be possible to affect on the consumer intention to be more engaged in its rights protection as well as on which way it can be possible to improve the consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia, generally speaking.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of Radiographers about the Principles of Radiation Protection and Following Protective Standards in Medical Imaging Centers of Hospitals in Fasa in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alipoor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Although ionizing radiation is effective in the diagnosis of illnesses, it is dangerous from the perspective of protection for patients and radiographers working in radiology sections. Therefore, knowledge, understanding, and application of radiation protection can play an important role. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the radiation protection principles in radiation workers in medical imaging centers and hospitals in Fasa, Fars, Iran. Materials & Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional one among all 50 radiation workers employed in radiology departments of this city. A questionnaire was the means of evaluation which contained demographic information and questions about the knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiology staff regarding the radiation protection. All of the completed questionnaires were analyzed, using SPSS19 software. Results: Radiographers’ participation rate was 100%, and the mean score of knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiation workers in the field of radiation protection was 42.36, 62.4, and 48.54, respectively. Depending on the degree of their knowledge, there was no statistically significant difference between the radiographers’ age, gender, and work experience, and the relationship between the following factors was not substantial. Conclusion: The results showed that by increasing the level of education, the awareness of radiation workers increases, too. To raise awareness of radiation protection for radiation workers, it is better to hold training courses.

  17. Risk and protective factors for disturbed eating in adolescent girls - aspects of perfectionism and attitudes to eating and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aila Gustafsson, Sanna; Edlund, Birgitta; Kjellin, Lars; Norring, Claes

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine the role of personal standards, self-evaluation, perceived benefits of thinness and attitudes to eating and weight in the development of healthy versus disturbed eating in adolescent girls. In a longitudinal study, girls who participated in two assessments, four to five years apart, were divided into three groups according to the attitudes to eating that they manifested at the second evaluation: those with disturbed eating patterns (DE-group, n = 49), those with intermediate concerns about eating (IE-group, n = 260) and those with healthy eating attitudes (HE-group, n = 120). Variables concerning attitudes to eating and weight and physical self-evaluation emerged as risk factors, whereas personal standards or self-evaluation in general did not. Protective factors were a low BMI, healthy eating attitudes, an accepting attitude towards body size and a positive self-evaluation, particularly with regard to physical and psychological characteristics. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of early risk and protective factors for eating disturbances in girls.

  18. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  19. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The Effects of Perceived Normative Pressure and Observability of Behavior on Intention to Perform Sun Protection and Nutrition Behaviors on Behalf of Young Children among Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nehama

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes research on two normative concepts thought to impact health behaviors: injunctive and descriptive norms. The study tests whether the extent to which the same health behavior is enacted in an observable or non-observable setting will lead to variation in normative influence on parent intention. In on-line experiments conducted in winter 2009, 467 participants were randomized to a behavioral scenario in which the health behavior was described as occurring in an observable or non-observable setting. For sun protection behaviors, observability primed the influence of descriptive norms on intention. For nutrition behaviors, observability primed the influence of injunctive norms on intention. Across both conditions, observability of the behavioral scenario increased the strength of the association between norms and intention.

  1. The Effects of Perceived Normative Pressure and Observability of Behavior on Intention to Perform Sun Protection and Nutrition Behaviors on Behalf of Young Children among Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nehama

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes research on two normative concepts thought to impact health behaviors: injunctive and descriptive norms. The study tests whether the extent to which the same health behavior is enacted in an observable or non-observable setting will lead to variation in normative influence on parent intention. In on-line experiments conducted in winter 2009, 467 participants were randomized to a behavioral scenario in which the health behavior was described as occurring in an observable or non-observable setting. For sun protection behaviors, observability primed the influence of descriptive norms on intention. For nutrition behaviors, observability primed the influence of injunctive norms on intention. Across both conditions, observability of the behavioral scenario increased the strength of the association between norms and intention. PMID:24610959

  2. Epidemiology of noise-induced tinnitus and the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Gilles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise exposure in a young population. In addition the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection were evaluated in order to explain the use/non-use of hearing protection in a young population. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 3892 high school students (mean age: 16.64 years old, SD: 1.29 years. The prevalence of temporary and permanent tinnitus was assessed. In addition the 'Youth Attitudes to Noise Scale' and the 'Beliefs About Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss' were used in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporary noise-induced tinnitus and permanent tinnitus in high school students was respectively 74.9% and 18.3%. An increasing prevalence of temporary tinnitus with age was present. Most students had a 'neutral attitude' towards loud music and the use of hearing protection was minimal (4.7%. The limited use of hearing protection is explained by a logistic regression analysis showing the relations between certain parameters and the use of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very high prevalence of tinnitus in such a young population, the rate of hearing protection use and the knowledge about the risks of loud music is extremely low. Future preventive campaigns should focus more on tinnitus as a warning signal for noise-induced damage and emphasize that also temporary symptoms can result in permanent noise-induced damage.

  3. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  4. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  5. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  6. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  7. Environmental attitudes of stakeholders and their perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts: a case study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Miao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    Large numbers of people living in and around protected areas are highly dependent on the natural resources. However, simply excluding them from the area management has always inevitably resulted in conflicts. We conducted a case study of the Protected Area of Jinyun Mountain (PJM) in China to evaluate social context variables, environmental attitudes, and perceptions regarding protected area-community conflicts. Data were collected through questionnaire surveys administered to four stakeholder groups (i.e. local farmers, government staff, business persons, and tourists). A total of 112 questionnaires were completed in December 2008, after the Sichuan Earthquake. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, social context (gender, race, age, income, and education level), protected area-community conflicts, and environmental attitudes. The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scores, which were employed to evaluate environmental attitudes, differed significantly among the stakeholder groups (Pnature's balance did the highest. Evaluation of the protected area-community relationship indicated that harmony and conflict both exist in the PJM, but have different forms among different stakeholders, and seem to be opposite between government staff and local farmers. Among the indexes, tourism primarily contributed to the harmonious aspect, while collection of NTFPs did to the conflicting one. Conflict scores were positively related to age and negatively related to education level. Respondents with higher NEP scores were more partial to the park management. Besides, the respondents with higher annual incomes tended to support the policy of harmonizing the relationship and lessening the harm of local communities to the area. To promote proenvironmental attitudes and alleviate the protected area-community conflicts, we recommend improving environmental education, establishing community co-management, and launching substitute sources of cash for traditional cultivation. Copyright 2010

  8. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  9. Health Education Specialists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Jessica; Hanson, Carl L; Magnusson, Brianna; Neiger, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The changing landscape of health care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may provide new opportunities for health education specialists (HES). The purpose of this study was to survey HES in the United States on their knowledge and attitudes of the ACA and assess their perceptions of job growth under the law. A random sample of 220 (36% response rate) certified HES completed a 53-item cross sectional survey administered online through Qualtrics. Findings were compared to public opinion on health care reform. HES are highly favorable of the law (70%) compared to the general public (23%). A total of 85% of respondents were able to list a provision of the ACA, and most (81%) thought the ACA would be successful at increasing insured Americans. Over half (64.6%) believe job opportunities will increase. Those who viewed the law favorably were significantly more likely to score better on a knowledge scale related to the ACA. HES understand publicized provisions but are uncertain about common myths and specific provisions related to Title IV, "Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health." Directed and continuing education to HES regarding the ACA is warranted. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, and reported use of hearing protection among college students: Influence of youth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Kearney, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students. A 44-item online survey was completed by 2,151 college students (aged 17 years and above) to assess the attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms related to noise exposure, and use of hearing protection around noisy activities. Among the participants, 39.6% experienced at least one hearing symptom, with ear pain as the most frequently reported (22.5%). About 80% of the participants were involved in at least one noise activity, out of which 41% reported the use of hearing protection. A large majority of those with ear pain, hearing loss, permanent tinnitus, and noise sensitivity was involved in attending a sporting event, which was the most reported noisy activity. The highest reported hearing protection use was in the use of firearms, and the lowest in discos/ dances. The reported use of hearing protection is associated with having at least one hearing symptom but the relationship is stronger with tinnitus, hearing loss, and ear pain (χ² = 30.5-43.5, Pstudent health services, involving student groups in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness and prevention, and establishing noise level limitations for all on-campus events.

  11. A cluster randomized trial to evaluate a health education programme "Living with Sun at School".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Garnier, Hélène; Pereira, Bruno; Césarini, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Over-exposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancers, particularly when exposure occurs during childhood. School teachers can play an active role in providing an education programme that can help prevent this. "Living with the Sun," (LWS) is a sun safety education program for school children based on a handy guide for classroom activities designed to improve children's knowledge, but moreover to positively modify their sun safety attitudes and behaviours. The goal of our study was to determine the effectiveness of this programme by examining children's knowledge, attitude and sun exposure behaviours prior to and after the completion of the programme. We carried out a cluster randomised trial in which the classes were randomly assigned to one of two groups; one using the LWS programme and another that didn't, serving as the control. Data was collected before completion of the programme and an additional three times in the year after completion. The 70 participating classes (1,365 schoolchildren) were distributed throughout France. Statistical analysis confirmed that knowledge of sun risk increased significantly in the LWS classes (p < 0.001). Both groups positively changed their attitudes when considering the best sun protection, but the LWS group proved to consistently be more convinced (p = 0.04). After the summer holidays, differences between the two groups decreased throughout the year but stayed globally significant. We also observed some significant behaviour modification during the holidays. For instance, the LWS group applied sunscreen more frequently than the control group, and were more likely to wear a hat (72% versus 59%) and use a sun umbrella on the beach (75% versus 64%).

  12. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  13. The impact of natural sunlight exposure on the UVB-sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and UVA protection factor (UVA-PF) of a UVA/UVB SPF 50 sunscreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas J; Herndon, James H; Colón, Luz E; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-02-01

    To compare the functional stability of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 as measured by its ultraviolet B sun protection factor (UVB-SPF) and ultraviolet A protection factor (UVA-PF) values following exposure to natural sunlight versus the UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values of unexposed product. These two randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded, single-center trials were conducted according to the methods outlined in the 2007 Proposed Amendment to the Final Monograph, “Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use.” Sunscreen samples were applied to glass plates and exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the form of natural sunlight in four minimal erythemal doses (MED) ranging from 2–6 MED (42–36 mJ/cm2). Three test sites were identified on the back of each study subject. Exposed sunscreen (one of four doses), unexposed sunscreen, and a UVB-SPF 15 control sunscreen were applied to the three test sites in a randomized fashion, followed by UV irradiation of incremental doses. Erythema and pigment darkening responses were assessed immediately following UV exposure and again 16–24 hours (erythema) or three to 24 hours (pigment darkening) after exposure. UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values were calculated for the exposed and unexposed samples. The calculated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values for all test samples (exposed and unexposed) were >50 and >9, respectively, which were greater than the stated UVB-SPF and UVA-PF values on the product label. No differences were observed between the exposed and unexposed samples in UVB-SPF or UVA-PF. The UVA and UVB protection using standard evaluation techniques of Cetaphil UVA/UVB Defense SPF 50 remains stable despite exposure of the sunscreen to natural sunlight containing UVB ranging from 2–16 MED (41–336 mJ/cm2) and coexistent UVA.

  14. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Hobbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one’s overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.

  15. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  16. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Evaluate a Health Education Programme “Living with Sun at School”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Over-exposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancers, particularly when exposure occurs during childhood. School teachers can play an active role in providing an education programme that can help prevent this. “Living with the Sun,” (LWS is a sun safety education program for school children based on a handy guide for classroom activities designed to improve children’s knowledge, but moreover to positively modify their sun safety attitudes and behaviours. The goal of our study was to determine the effectiveness of this programme by examining children’s knowledge, attitude and sun exposure behaviours prior to and after the completion of the programme. We carried out a cluster randomised trial in which the classes were randomly assigned to one of two groups; one using the LWS programme and another that didn’t, serving as the control. Data was collected before completion of the programme and an additional three times in the year after completion. The 70 participating classes (1,365 schoolchildren were distributed throughout France. Statistical analysis confirmed that knowledge of sun risk increased significantly in the LWS classes (p < 0.001. Both groups positively changed their attitudes when considering the best sun protection, but the LWS group proved to consistently be more convinced (p = 0.04. After the summer holidays, differences between the two groups decreased throughout the year but stayed globally significant. We also observed some significant behaviour modification during the holidays. For instance, the LWS group applied sunscreen more frequently than the control group, and were more likely to wear a hat (72% versus 59% and use a sun umbrella on the beach (75% versus 64%.

  17. Attitude measurements and determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliard, J.

    Satellite attitude determination using an inertial reference system is explained. The utility of being able to determine attitude is outlined. Construction of an attitude matrix from the Euler and Cardan angles of the satellite-Earth system is illustrated. Static and dynamic analysis methods are shown. The sensors employed when using the Sun, Earth's magnetic field, the Earth, and the stars as reference direction are described.

  18. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  19. Gender Differences in Type 2 Diabetes Risk Perception, Attitude, and Protective Health Behaviors: A Study of Overweight and Obese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O.; Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Popoola, Olufemi A.; Crosslin, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has dramatically increased in the past decade and has resulted in higher rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among adolescents. Purpose: To examine whether there are gender differences in T2DM risk perception, attitude toward T2DM protective behaviors, physical activity, and…

  20. Beyond Homonegativity: Understanding Hong Kong People's Attitudes About Social Acceptance of Gay/Lesbian People, Sexual Orientation Discrimination Protection, and Same-Sex Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang

    2017-09-13

    This study examined attitudes about social acceptance, discrimination protection, and marriage equality for gay/lesbian people with a representative sample of 1,008 Hong Kong Chinese adults via a telephone survey. Despite majority endorsement of homosexuality (52.29% positive vs. 34.12% negative) and discrimination protection (50.72% favorable vs. 14.64% opposed), attitudes toward same-sex marriage diverged (32.79% favorable vs. 39.41% opposed). There was a sharp distinction in accepting gay/lesbian people as co-workers (83.57%) and friends (76.92%) versus relatives (40.19%). Having more homosexual/bisexual friends or co-workers contributed to greater endorsement of social acceptance and discrimination protection but not same-sex marriage. Age, religion, political orientation, and homonegativity consistently predicted attitudes toward social acceptance, discrimination protection, and same-sex marriage, whereas gender-role beliefs, conformity to norms, and cultural orientations had varying impacts. This article informs theory and advocacy by disentangling homonegativity from attitudes about gay/lesbian issues and highlighting the centrality of family-kinship and relative-outsider delineation in Chinese societies.

  1. Perception and attitudes of local people concerning ecosystem services of culturally protected forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H.; Bluemling, B.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally protected forests (CPFs) can be defined as forest areas preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, and these forests have been maintained for decades or even centuries without much disturbance or change. Most of them are natural

  2. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  3. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  4. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  5. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  6. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  7. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  8. Healthcare reform and the next generation: United States medical student attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M Huntoon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over one year after passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, legislators, healthcare experts, physicians, and the general public continue to debate the implications of the law and its repeal. The PPACA will have a significant impact on future physicians, yet medical student perspectives on the legislation have not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate medical students' understanding of and attitudes toward healthcare reform and the PPACA including issues of quality, access and cost. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An anonymous electronic survey was sent to medical students at 10 medical schools (total of 6982 students between October-December 2010, with 1232 students responding and a response rate of 18%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Medical students' views and attitudes regarding the PPACA and related topics, measured with Likert scale and open response items. RESULTS: Of medical students surveyed, 94.8% agreed that the existing United States healthcare system needs to be reformed, 31.4% believed the PPACA will improve healthcare quality, while 20.9% disagreed and almost half (47.7% were unsure if quality will be improved. Two thirds (67.6% believed that the PPACA will increase access, 6.5% disagreed and the remaining 25.9% were unsure. With regard to containing healthcare costs, 45.4% of participants indicated that they are unsure if the provisions of the PPACA will do so. Overall, 80.1% of respondents indicated that they support the PPACA, and 78.3% also indicated that they did not feel that reform efforts had gone far enough. A majority of respondents (58.8% opposed repeal of the PPACA, while 15.0% supported repeal, and 26.1% were undecided. CONCLUSION: The overwhelming majority of medical students recognized healthcare reform is needed and expressed support for the PPACA but echoed concerns about whether it will address issues of quality or cost containment.

  9. Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem Fault Protection Challenges During Saturn Proximal Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. As part of the final extended mission, Cassini will begin an aggressive and exciting campaign of high inclination low altitude flybys within the inner most rings of Saturn, skimming Saturn's outer atmosphere, until the spacecraft is finally disposed of via planned impact with the planet. This final campaign, known as the proximal orbits, presents unique fault protection related challenges, the details of which are discussed in this paper.

  10. Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem Fault Protection Challenges During Saturn Proximal Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. As part of the final extended mission, Cassini will begin an aggressive and exciting campaign of high inclination low altitude flybys within the inner most rings of Saturn, skimming Saturn's outer atmosphere, until the spacecraft is finally disposed of via planned impact with the planet. This final campaign, known as the proximal orbits, presents unique fault protection related challenges, the details of which are discussed in this paper.

  11. Changes in sunburn and tanning attitudes among lifeguards over a summer season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Marieke; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Lifeguards are at increased risk of excessive sun exposure and sunburn. We sought to examine changes in: (1) sunburn frequency over a summer while controlling for sun exposure, sun protection habits, and participation in a skin cancer prevention program; and (2) tanning attitudes while controlling for participation in the program. Participants in this study were lifeguards (n = 3014) at swimming pools participating in the Pool Cool program in 2005. Lifeguards completed surveys at the beginning and end of the summer. Sequential regression analyses were used to assess changes in sunburn frequency and tanning attitudes. Sunburn frequency decreased between baseline and follow-up. Having a sunburn over the summer was significantly predicted by baseline sunburn history, ethnicity, skin cancer risk, and sun exposure. The tanning attitude, "People are more attractive if they have a tan," was significantly predicted from baseline tanning attitude and ethnicity. The second tanning attitude, "It helps to have a good base suntan," was significantly predicted by baseline tanning attitude, ethnicity, basic/enhanced group, and moderate skin cancer risk. Self-reported data and limited generalizability to lifeguards at other outdoor pools are limitations. The findings showed that previous sunburn history is an important predictor of sunburn prospectively. In addition, a more risky tanning attitude is an important predictor of future attitudes toward tanning. Active involvement in targeted prevention programs may help to increase preventive behavior and health risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J; Witteman, Cilia L M; Del Valle, Jorge F; Hayes, David

    2015-11-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case characteristic (mother's wish with regard to removal), practitioner characteristic (child welfare attitudes), and protective system context (four countries: Israel, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland and Spain); and three dependent factors: substantiation of maltreatment, risk assessment, and intervention recommendation. The sample consisted of 828 practitioners from four countries. Participants were presented with a vignette of a case of alleged child maltreatment and were asked to determine whether maltreatment was substantiated, assess risk and recommend an intervention using structured instruments. Participants' child welfare attitudes were assessed. The case characteristic of mother's wish with regard to removal had no impact on judgments and decisions. In contrast, practitioners' child welfare attitudes were associated with substantiation, risk assessments and recommendations. There were significant country differences on most measures. The findings support most of the predictions derived from the JUDPIC model. The significant differences between practitioners from different countries underscore the importance of context in child protection decision making. Training should enhance practitioners' awareness of the impact that their attitudes and the context in which they are embedded have on their judgments and decisions.

  13. Sun exposure and sun protection habits in high school students from a city south of the country Práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio de uma cidade do sul do país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Dupont

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective solar protection is an uncommon practice among young people, increasing the likelihood of sunburn, sunstroke and skin cancers. This fact is more significant in the south of Brazil, where the prevalence of white skinned population is larger, being more prone to sun damage. OBJECTIVES: To study the practices of sun exposure and sun protection in high school students from the city of Carlos Barbosa - RS. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving 775 students, enrolled on the first half of 2010, who had signed the consent form. We used a non-identifiable, self-administered questionnaire, with questions about related topics. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square or Fisher exact and t-Student tests. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under the number 2010-115H. RESULTS: Most students are exposed to the sun at the more critical periods, remaining exposed for more than an hour. Five hundred and seventy-six students (74,3% reported using sunscreen, but less than 10% did it during all months of the year. Female teenagers are most likely to use sunscreen (p FUNDAMENTOS: A proteção solar efetiva é uma prática incomum entre os jovens, aumentando a probabilidade de queimaduras solares, insolações e cânceres de pele. Esse fato é mais significativo na Região Sul do Brasil, onde a prevalência da população branca é maior, sendo mais propensa aos danos causados pelo sol. OBJETIVOS: Estudar as práticas de exposição e proteção solar em estudantes do ensino médio da cidade de Carlos Barbosa, RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, envolvendo 775 estudantes matriculados no primeiro semestre de 2010, que tiveram o termo de consentimento assinado. Utilizou-se um questionário não identificável, autoaplicável, com perguntas abordando tópicos relacionados ao tema. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher e o teste t-Student. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comit

  14. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  15. Toward a theory of farmer conservation attitudes: Dual interests and willingness to take action to protect water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Floress; Silvestre García de Jalón; Sarah P. Church; Nicholas Babin; Jessica D. Ulrich-Schad; Linda S. Prokopy

    2017-01-01

    Water quality in the Midwestern United States is threatened as a result of agricultural runoff. Based on self-reported data from a survey of farmers in Indiana, we aim to provide a better understanding of how awareness of water quality problems, farm-as-business attitudes, and stewardship attitudes are related to each other and willingness to improve water quality....

  16. Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (RP-KAP) as Predictors of Job Stress Among Radiation Workers in Tehran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S Shohreh; Taghizadeh Dabbagh, Sima; Abbasi, Mahya; Mehrdad, Ramin

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to occupational stress, but relatively little or no research has been conducted on the influence of knowledge, attitude, and practice of radiation protection (RP-KAP) on job stress among radiation workers. This study aims to assess job stress among health care workers in Iran who are occupationally exposed to radiation in order to determine the effects of KAP on self-protection against radiation on their job stress. The population in this descriptive cross-sectional study comprised 670 healthcare workers, including 428 staff with a degree in radiology and 242 other medical personnel who were working in 16 hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Tehran, Iran. The census method was used to sample the workers. In total, 264 staff with a degree in radiology and 149 other medical personnel completed the job content questionnaire (JCQ) and the RP-KAP questionnaire from May to November 2014. The prevalence rate of job stress was 22.5% based on calculation formulas and possible scores on the JCQ. Sex, RP-knowledge, attitude, practice, and in-service training predicted 41.8% of the variance in job stress. According to the results of the binary logistic regression, workers with higher scores on knowledge (OR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.75 - 0.90), attitude (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63 - 0.82), and practice (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72 - 0.86) and those who had participated in training programs had significantly lower rates of job stress (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.93). The effects of RP knowledge, attitude, and practice on job stress were significant. In order to reduce job stress in radiation environments, ongoing training programs related to self-care and protection principles are recommended.

  17. Effects of the novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-encapsulated organic ultraviolet (UV) filters on the UV absorbance and in vitro sun protection factor (SPF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pey-Shiuan; Huang, Lan-Ni; Guo, Yi-Cing; Lin, Chih-Chien

    2014-02-05

    Sunscreens are thought to protect skin from many of the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) light and the photostability of sunscreens is thus an important concern in their application. Therefore, to discover new UV filters or to modify well-known UV filters are presents an important way for development of sunscreens. In this study, we presented several novel poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) encapsulated organic UV filters, including encapsulated benzophenone-3 (TB-MS), avobenzone (TA-MS), octyl methoxycinnamate (TO-MS) and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (TD-MS). Our results have demonstrated that PMMA-encapsulated UV filters have improved safety, photoprotective ability and photostability. We proposed therefore that these PMMA-encapsulated UV filters can be used as ingredients for sunscreen products in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes and Performance of Dental Practitioners in Isfahan-Iran about Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Protection Against them in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Badrian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasing use of dental radiography makes necessitates of increasing awareness and appropriate performance about ionizing radiation protection. The present study was done with the aim of evaluation of awareness, attitude and performance levels of dental practitioners in the city of Isfahan about ionizing radiation and protection against them.Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study a questionnaire including questions for evaluating of awareness, attitude and performance levels and demographic information was distributed among 184 dentists in the city of Isfahan. The data were analyzed by means of student t test and Pearson correlation coefficient in SPSS software (α=0.05. Results: In the present study 73.2% of dentists had weak awareness level 25.6% and 1.2% of dentists had moderate and good awareness levels respectively. Twentyfour and 76 percent had good and apathetic attitudes. Ten and 4.5 percent of dentists have been using lead apron and thyroidal necklace for their patients respectively. Experience and awareness had significant inverse correlation with eachother (P=0.004, r =-0.218.Conclusion: According to the results of the presents study, the awareness of dentists was weak and academic education as well as post-graduate education is necessary.

  20. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  1. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  2. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  3. System modeling based measurement error analysis of digital sun sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; M; insong; XING; Fei; WANG; Geng; YOU; Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Stringent attitude determination accuracy is required for the development of the advanced space technologies and thus the accuracy improvement of digital sun sensors is necessary.In this paper,we presented a proposal for measurement error analysis of a digital sun sensor.A system modeling including three different error sources was built and employed for system error analysis.Numerical simulations were also conducted to study the measurement error introduced by different sources of error.Based on our model and study,the system errors from different error sources are coupled and the system calibration should be elaborately designed to realize a digital sun sensor with extra-high accuracy.

  4. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  5. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  6. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  7. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  8. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  9. With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166481.html With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk Doctor shares tips for prevention, recognition To ... skies comes a warning to protect yourself from skin cancer. "Skin cancer, like all types of cancer, is ...

  10. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  11. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  12. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  13. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  14. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  15. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  16. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  17. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  18. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  19. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  20. Micro-digital sun sensor: an imaging sensor for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Büttgen, B.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Jasen, H.; Leijtens, J.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-Digital Sun Sensor is an attitude sensor which senses relative position of micro-satellites to the sun in space. It is composed of a solar cell power supply, a RF communication block and an imaging chip which is called APS+. The APS+ integrates a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) of 512×512 pixel

  1. Attitudes and attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Gerd; Dickel, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes and attitude change remain core topics of contemporary social psychology. This selective review emphasizes work published from 2005 to 2009. It addresses constructionist and stable-entity conceptualizations of attitude, the distinction between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and implications of the foregoing for attitude change. Associative and propositional processes in attitude change are considered at a general level and in relation to evaluative conditioning. The role of bodily states and physical perceptions in attitude change is reviewed. This is followed by an integrative perspective on processing models of persuasion and the consideration of meta-cognitions in persuasion. Finally, effects of attitudes on information processing, social memory, and behavior are highlighted. Core themes cutting across the areas reviewed are attempts at integrative theorizing bringing together formerly disparate phenomena and viewpoints.

  2. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  3. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  4. Attitude Design for the LADEE Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Ken; Nickel, Craig; Sherman, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) satellite successfully completed its 148-day science investigation in a low-altitude, near-equatorial lunar orbit on April 18, 2014. The LADEE spacecraft was built, managed and operated by NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The Mission Operations Center (MOC) was located at Ames and was responsible for activity planning, command sequencing, trajectory and attitude design, orbit determination, and spacecraft operations. The Science Operations Center (SOC) was located at Goddard Space Flight Center and was responsible for science planning, data archiving and distribution. This paper details attitude design and operations support for the LADEE mission. LADEE's attitude design was shaped by a wide range of instrument pointing requirements that necessitated regular excursions from the baseline one revolution per orbit "Ram" attitude. Such attitude excursions were constrained by a number of flight rules levied to protect instruments from the Sun, avoid geometries that would result in simultaneous occlusion of LADEE's two star tracker heads, and maintain the spacecraft within its thermal and power operating limits. To satisfy LADEE's many attitude requirements and constraints, a set of rules and conventions was adopted to manage the complexity of this design challenge and facilitate the automation of ground software that generated pointing commands spanning multiple days of operations at a time. The resulting LADEE Flight Dynamics System (FDS) that was developed used Visual Basic scripts that generated instructions to AGI's Satellite Tool Kit (STK) in order to derive quaternion commands at regular intervals that satisfied LADEE's pointing requirements. These scripts relied heavily on the powerful "align and constrain" capability of STK's attitude module to construct LADEE's attitude profiles and the slews to get there. A description of the scripts and the attitude modeling they embodied is provided. One particular

  5. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  6. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  7. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types......, attitude objects are simply the things we like or dislike. Consumer researchers are mainly interested in attitude objects of two classes, products and services, including the attributes, issues, persons, communications, situations, and behaviours related to them. Research on consumer attitudes takes two...

  8. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hairong; Chen, Jiao; Zou, Lianbin; Zheng, Liefeng; Zhang, Weichao; Meng, Zhenmu; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares; Wang, Youming; Kang, Jingli; Sun, Xiangdong

    2016-11-24

    In China canine rabies poses a serious public health problem in that human mortality ranks the second highest globally. While rabies health education interventions are advocated by WHO to be critical components of modern rabies control and prevention programs, available studies have not adequately investigated the relative efficacy of their implementation in at-risk populations. This study aims to measure and compare the effect on knowledge and protective behavior towards rabies of health education interventions that include a novel Short Messaging Service via cell phone (SMS) and rabies health information sessions (IS). The study used a between-subject design involving repeated measures of rabies-related KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice). A total of 350 randomly selected villagers were randomly allocated into three intervention (SMS, IS and SMS + IS) and one control group. The content of SMS and IS covered topics about rabies prevention and route of transmission. The SMS intervention consisted of ten separate messages delivered three times two weeks after the pretest; the IS intervention was conducted once immediately after the pretest. A validated questionnaire was used to capture demographic information and KAP information. Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to contrast the effects of interventions. Our results indicate that overall SMS outperforms IS at improving knowledge and protective behavior against rabies. Our results suggest that a combined intervention of SMS and IS can result in higher scores than any of the two in isolation. The impact of SMS, IS and SMS + IS is greatest on knowledge, followed by attitude and practice scores. This study demonstrated that health communication modes based on SMS, IS and a combination of the two are all effective to improve rabies-related KAP in the short term. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of SMS as an additional tool for public health communication and promotion; further studies

  9. Drift-free solar sail formations in elliptical Sun-synchronous orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsay, Khashayar; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2017-10-01

    To study the spatial and temporal variations of plasma in the highly dynamic environment of the magnetosphere, multiple spacecraft must fly in a formation. The objective for this study is to investigate the feasibility of solar sail formation flying in the Earth-centered, Sun-synchronous orbit regime. The focus of this effort is to enable formation flying for a group of solar sails that maintain a nominally fixed Sun-pointing attitude during formation flight, solely for the purpose of precessing their orbit apse lines Sun-synchronously. A fixed-attitude solar sail formation is motivated by the difficulties in the simultaneous control of orbit and attitude in flying solar sails. First, the secular rates of the orbital elements resulting from the effects of solar radiation pressure (SRP) are determined using averaging theory for a Sun-pointing attitude sail. These averaged rates are used to analytically derive the first-order necessary conditions for a drift-free solar sail formation in Sun-synchronous orbits, assuming a fixed Sun-pointing orientation for each sail in formation. The validity of the first-order necessary conditions are illustrated by designing quasi-periodic relative motions. Next, nonlinear programming is applied to design truly drift-free two-craft solar sail formations. Lastly, analytic expressions are derived to determine the long-term dynamics and sensitivity of the formation with respect to constant attitude errors, uncertainty in orbital elements, and uncertainty in a sail's characteristic acceleration.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding solar ultraviolet exposure among medical university students in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian; Liu, Guangcong; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the health effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and sun exposure among medical university students in Northeast China, 385 subjects were investigated on October 2013 using a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire. Most of the subjects knew the effects of UVR on skin cancer (95.6%) and sunburn (92.2%), but fewer knew of the eye damage that can result from UVR (27.8% cataract and 3.1% pterygium). Correspondingly, the main purpose of adopting sun protection was considered to be 'preventing sunburn' (55.4%), but 'preventing eye damage' was the least (1.8%). In actual behaviour, the eyes received the least protection as well. Although knowing the effects of UVR on vitamin D synthesis (87.3%), 66.8% of participants never or seldom increased sun exposure. Compared to men, women were more likely to reduce sun exposure (Pexposure to maintain adequate vitamin D status while also protecting against eye damage from UVR.

  11. Attitudes and attitude change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    attitude theory. Why is this important? Attitudinal concepts can be found in every area of marketing. Concepts like ad liking, brand attitude, quality perception, product preference, perceived benefit, perceived risk, perceived value, and customer satisfaction can all be understood as particular types...... of attitudes. This is the reason why a thorough understanding of attitudes is one of the most important skills a marketer can have. That same is true in related areas such as communications research: concepts like public opinion, corporate reputation, and corporate image are nothing more than particular types...

  12. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  13. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  14. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  15. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  16. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  17. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  18. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  19. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  20. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  1. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  2. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  3. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  4. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  5. Low-power high-accuracy micro-digital sun sensor by means of a CMOS image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A micro-digital sun sensor (μDSS) is a sun detector which senses a satellite’s instant attitude angle with respect to the sun. The core of this sensor is a system-on-chip imaging chip which is referred to as APS+. The APS+ integrates a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) array of 368×368  pixels , a 12-b

  6. Cassini at Saturn Proximal Orbits - Attitude Control Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.

  7. Cassini at Saturn Proximal Orbits - Attitude Control Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn will come to an end in the spring and summer of 2017 with a series of 22 orbits that will dip inside the rings of Saturn. These are called proximal orbits and will conclude with spacecraft disposal into the atmosphere of the ringed world on September 15, 2017. These unique orbits that cross the ring plane only a few thousand kilometers above the cloud tops of the planet present new attitude control challenges for the Cassini operations team. Crossing the ring plane so close to the inner edge of the rings means that the Cassini orientation during the crossing will be tailored to protect the sensitive electronics bus of the spacecraft. This orientation will put the sun sensors at some extra risk so this paper discusses how the team prepares for dust hazards. Periapsis is so close to the planet that spacecraft controllability with RCS thrusters needs to be evaluated because of the predicted atmospheric torque near closest approach to Saturn. Radiation during the ring plane crossings will likely trigger single event transients in some attitude control sensors. This paper discusses how the attitude control team deals with radiation hazards. The angular size and unique geometry of the rings and Saturn near periapsis means that star identification will be interrupted and this paper discusses how the safe mode attitude is selected to best deal with these large bright bodies during the proximal orbits.

  8. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  9. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  10. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  11. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  12. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.; Twambly, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the larg-angle pointing performance.

  13. Analysis of the flight dynamics of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) off-sun scientific pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitone, D. S.; Klein, J. R.; Twambly, B. J.

    Algorithms are presented which were created and implemented by the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) attitude operations team to support large-angle spacecraft pointing at scientific objectives. The mission objective of the post-repair SMM satellite was to study solar phenomena. However, because the scientific instruments, such as the Coronagraph/Polarimeter (CP) and the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS), were able to view objects other than the Sun, attitude operations support for attitude pointing at large angles from the nominal solar-pointing attitudes was required. Subsequently, attitude support for SMM was provided for scientific objectives such as Comet Halley, Supernova 1987A, Cygnus X-1, and the Crab Nebula. In addition, the analysis was extended to include the reverse problem, computing the right ascension and declination of a body given the off-Sun angles. This analysis led to the computation of the orbits of seven new solar comets seen in the field-of-view (FOV) of the CP. The activities necessary to meet these large-angle attitude-pointing sequences, such as slew sequence planning, viewing-period prediction, and tracking-bias computation are described. Analysis is presented for the computation of maneuvers and pointing parameters relative to the SMM-unique, Sun-centered reference frame. Finally, science data and independent attitude solutions are used to evaluate the larg-angle pointing performance.

  14. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients attending dermatology clinics at four hospitals in Lima, Peru Exposição solar e conhecimento, atitudes e práticas de fotoproteção em pacientes de unidades ambulatoriais de dermatologia em quatro hospitais de Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Thomas-Gavelan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To establish the knowledge, about sun exposure and photoprotection in outpatients treated at the dermatology clinics in four hospitals in Lima, Peru. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving a sample of 364 patients selected using a systematic random sampling process in the four participating hospitals. The selected patients were interviewed to determine their knowledge, behavior and practices in relation to sun exposure and photoprotection. The chi-square test was used to identify any significant differences between knowledge and practices. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this sample was 45.1 ± 21.4 years. Of the 364 patients, 55.9% were women and 54.8% had skin phototype IV. The principal risks related to sun exposure were skin cancer (80.5% and sunburn (77.8%. Knowledge regarding sun protection was more evident in individuals with university/college education (pFUNDAMENTOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o conhecimento, sobre a exposição solar e fotoproteção em pacientes ambulatoriais tratados nas unidades de dermatologia de quatro hospitais em Lima, Peru. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal. A amostra foi formada por 364 pacientes originários dos quatro hospitais participantes. Os pacientes foram selecionados através de um processo de amostragem aleatória sistemática. Uma vez selecionados, os pacientes foram entrevistados para determinação do conhecimento, atitudes e práticas em relação à exposição ao sol e à fotoproteção. O teste do qui-quadrado foi usado para determinar diferenças significativas entre conhecimento e práticas. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes tinham em média 45,1±21,4 anos de idade, 55,9% eram mulheres e 54,8% tinham pele fototipo IV. Os principais riscos relacionados à exposição solar foram câncer de pele (80,5% e queimaduras solares (77,8%. Participantes com nível universitário apresentaram maior conhecimento sobre prote

  16. Conservation status of Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus in Nagaland State, North-East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejay Sethy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We carried out survey in a total 16 villages locating in and around the different protected areas in Nagaland. Out of 265 respondent 69 (28.2% respondents confirmed the presence of sun bear by direct sighting and indirect evidences in 2 PAs of Nagaland. Overall status of sun bear was found to be low and rare in and around Pas. In the Nagaland states, human population is constantly on the increase and as a result, there are increasing biotic pressure on protected areas and reserve forests. The potential tropical rainforest habitats of sun bear should be well protected and management action for improvement these habitats should be taken up on priority. Livestock grazing should be restricted in forest areas. Presence of sun bears has been confirmed in the Itanki and Fakim National Parks of Nagaland, but it showed patchy distribution. Both direct and indirect evidences (scats, claw marks and foot prints of sun bears were observed by inhabitants of these areas. Sun bears were reported to be sighted and indirect evidences were seen by inhabitants of villages.Public education and awareness programmes towards conservation and natural history of sun bear must be initiated by the forest department. Study on ecology and management of sun bear is also very necessary for formulation of action plan for mitigation of human-sun bear conflict and long term conservation of the species.

  17. Modeling Earth Albedo Currents on Sun Sensors for Improved Vector Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Earth albedo influences vector measurements of the solar line of sight vector, due to the induced current on in the photo voltaics of Sun sensors. Although advanced digital Sun sensors exist, these are typically expensive and may not be suited for satellites in the nano or pico-class. Previously...... for modeling Sun sensor output by incorporating the Earth albedo model is presented. This model utilizes the directional information of in the Earth albedo model, which is achieved by Earth surface partitioning. This allows accurate simulation of the Sun sensor output and the results are consistent with Ørsted...... and useful for space environment simulations, and may be utilized to improve attitude estimation algorithms applying Sun sensor vector observations....

  18. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  19. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  20. Conocimiento sobre melanoma y prácticas de protección frente al sol en pacientes del Hospital Cullen de Santa Fe, Argentina Knowledge of melanoma and sun-protective practices in patients at José M. Cullen Hospital of Santa Fe, Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Loza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Melanoma es un cáncer de piel de mortalidad alta, cuya incidencia ha aumentado mundialmente en los últimos años. El siguiente estudio está destinado a detectar el conocimiento de la población sobre melanoma y las medidas de protección frente a la radiación UV (RUV, considerando que las dos terceras partes de los casos de melanoma se asocian al sol. Objetivo general. Detectar el conocimiento sobre melanoma y las prácticas de protección solar, en pacientes que consultan en el Servicio de Dermatología e internados en Clínica Médica del Hospital José M. Cullen. Materiales y métodos. Estudio observacional, prospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo. La población abarcó 275 pacientes, entre 16 y 85 años, voluntarios del consultorio de Dermatología e internados en Clínica Médica del Hospital José M. Cullen. Mediante el programa Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0, se realizó un análisis descriptivo y la prueba de Chi cuadrado, para determinar asociación estadística, entre variables cualitativas con significancia de pBackground. Melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer, showing an increasing incidence worldwide over the past years. The aim of this study was to assess people's knowledge about melanoma, and their protective measures against UV radiation, considering that two-thirds of melanoma cases are associated to sun exposure. General objective. To assess the knowledge about melanoma and the sun protective practices in patients who attended the Department of Dermatology and in those admitted to the General Internal Medicine Unit of José M. Cullen Hospital. Material and methods. It was an observational, prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study. A sample of 275 participants aged between 16-85 years was included, composed of voluntary patients from the Department of Dermatology and inpatients from the General Internal Medicine Unit of José M. Cullen Hospital. The Statistical Package for

  1. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  2. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  3. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  4. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  5. Proteção solar para crianças: estudo preliminar sobre conhecimentos e atitudes dos pais = Sun protection for children: preliminary study on the knowledge and attitudes of parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Luana Rosa da

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudo objetivou analisar os conhecimentos e atitudes dos pais quanto as práticas de proteção solar para crianças em Araxá-MG. Materiais e Métodos: Foi uma pesquisa de campo de caráter quanti-qualitativa e exploratória, realizada por meio de entrevista, no mês de agosto de 2010, com pais ou responsáveis por alunos da quarta série do ensino fundamental. Foi realizada uma estrevista semi-estruturada abrangendo medidas de fotoproteção, conhecimento dos perigos da exposição solar e também aspectos sociais como renda familiar e escolaridade. Resultados: O período do dia de maior exposição foi entre 10 e 16 horas com 65,5%. Quanto ao tempo de exposição solar diário, notou-se que de três a quatro horas por dia foi o tempo mais relatado (33,3%. Quanto ao uso frequente de outras formas de proteção solar como: chapéu, boné, camisetas apropriadas, óculos, 66,7% afirmaram não fazer uso. Quando abordados em relação ao uso de protetor solar, 50% dos participantes relataram que as crianças não fazem o uso de protetor solar nem quando expostas a sol intenso. Conclusão: Os hábitos, cuidados e práticas de exposição solar dos pais para com seus filhos não estão adequados e o conhecimento acerca do assunto câncer da pele é dito por eles insuficiente, embora tenham noções dos perigos da exposição solar exagerada

  6. Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Spar and Sun End

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image depicts the sun end and spar of the ATM flight unit showing individual telescopes. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into a complex frame named the rack, and was protected by the solar shield.

  7. Promoting sun safety among zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J A; Lewis, E C; Eckhardt, L; Slymen, D; Belch, G; Elder, J; Engelberg, M; Eichenfield, L; Achter, A; Nichols, T; Walker, K; Kwon, H; Talosig, M; Gearen, C

    2001-09-01

    Each year, millions of children visit zoological parks, where they are exposed to long bouts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We conducted a study in the winter and replicated it in the summer to evaluate an intervention for reducing UVR exposure during the zoo visit. Each study used a nonequivalent control group design: one zoological site received the intervention and a second received evaluation only. Key outcome measures consisted of observed prevalence of hat use by exiting children (N = 8,721 and 8,524, respectively, in winter and summer studies) and purchase rates of sunscreen and hats in zoo gift shops. Intervention consisted of tip sheets for parents, children's activities, prompts, and discounts off the price of sunscreen and sun-protective hats. In the summer study, sales of both sunscreen and target hats increased significantly at the intervention site relative to the control site, whereas in the winter study, only sunscreen sales at the intervention site had a significant (relative) increase. Children's hat use increased significantly at the intervention site, but only in the winter study. The multicomponent program was effective in promoting purchases of sun-safe items, but its impact on children's hat use was inconclusive. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  8. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  9. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  10. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  11. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  12. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  13. Wiedza i deklarowane postawy rodziców wobec szczepień ochronnych dla dzieci w Warszawie i Tallinie = Knowledge and declared attitude of parents to protective vaccination for children in Warsaw and Tallin

    OpenAIRE

    Klotško, Małgorzata; Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Olejniczak, Dominik; Skonieczna, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Klotško Małgorzata, Walewska-Zielecka Bożena, Olejniczak Dominik, Skonieczna Joanna. Wiedza i deklarowane postawy rodziców wobec szczepień ochronnych dla dzieci w Warszawie i Tallinie = Knowledge and declared attitude of parents to protective vaccination for children in Warsaw and Tallin. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(12):89-98. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.35011 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2812%29%3A89-...

  14. Attitude Control System Design for the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Scott R.; Bourkland, Kristin L.; Kuo-Chia, Liu; Mason, Paul A. C.; Vess, Melissa F.; Andrews, Stephen F.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, part of the Living With a Star program, will place a geosynchronous satellite in orbit to observe the Sun and relay data to a dedicated ground station at all times. SDO remains Sun- pointing throughout most of its mission for the instruments to take measurements of the Sun. The SDO attitude control system is a single-fault tolerant design. Its fully redundant attitude sensor complement includes 16 coarse Sun sensors, a digital Sun sensor, 3 two-axis inertial reference units, 2 star trackers, and 4 guide telescopes. Attitude actuation is performed using 4 reaction wheels and 8 thrusters, and a single main engine nominally provides velocity-change thrust. The attitude control software has five nominal control modes-3 wheel-based modes and 2 thruster-based modes. A wheel-based Safehold running in the attitude control electronics box improves the robustness of the system as a whole. All six modes are designed on the same basic proportional-integral-derivative attitude error structure, with more robust modes setting their integral gains to zero. The paper details the mode designs and their uses.

  15. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.

  16. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Huy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Design: Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Results: Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively. Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively. Conclusions: This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control

  18. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  19. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  20. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  1. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  2. Evaluation of a sun safety education programme for primary school students in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph R; Gerber, Nathalie; Surber, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, with rates being especially high in Switzerland compared with other European countries. Extensive sun exposure during childhood is considered a key factor for skin carcinogenesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of a school-based sun safety education programme developed by the Swiss Cancer Leagues on primary school students' sun-related knowledge, protective behaviours and sunburn rates. In summer 2011, 1-h sun safety education sessions were held at 33 primary schools throughout the Canton of Zurich (North-Eastern Switzerland). Children in the participating school classes (first, second and third graders) answered a questionnaire on their sun-related knowledge, behaviours and sunburn experience shortly before and 1 year after the intervention. Overall, 3110 completed pretest and 1738 post-test questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The evaluation of pretest data showed considerable room for improvement in terms of sun-related knowledge, considering that merely a good half of the children were conscious that the sun may present a hazard to health. Overall, more than 95% of students benefited from the protection of sunscreen (application by parents: 73%; application by child: 66%), but only 36% stated that they generally sought shade on sunny days. After the intervention, knowledge increased considerably and significantly (P<0.0001), but there was no change in sun-protective behaviours (use of sunscreen, seeking shade). However, we observed a nonsignificant trend towards decreased sunburn rates. The brief one-time sun safety education sessions were effective in sustainably improving children's sun-related knowledge and possibly to some extent in decreasing their sunburn rates.

  3. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  4. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  5. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  6. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  7. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  8. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  9. Gain-framed messages do not motivate sun protection: a meta-analytic review of randomized trials comparing gain-framed and loss-framed appeals for promoting skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Daniel J; Wu, Daisy

    2012-06-01

    Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain--with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage.

  10. Improving the Efficacy of Appearance-Based Sun Exposure Interventions with the Terror Management Health Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kasey Lynn; Cooper, Douglas P.; Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2014-01-01

    The terror management health model (TMHM) suggests that when thoughts of death are accessible people become increasingly motivated to bolster their self-esteem relative to their health, because doing so offers psychological protection against mortality concerns. Two studies examined sun protection intentions as a function of mortality reminders and an appearance-based intervention. In Study 1, participants given a sun protection message that primed mortality and shown a UV-filtered photo of their face reported greater intentions to use sun protection on their face, and took more sunscreen samples than participants shown a regular photo of their face. In Study 2, reminders of mortality increased participants’ intentions to use facial sun protection when the UV photo was specifically framed as revealing appearance consequences of tanning, compared to when the photo was framed as revealing health consequences, or when no photo was shown. These findings extend the terror management health model, and provide preliminary evidence that appearance-based tanning interventions have a greater influence on sun protection intentions under conditions that prime thoughts of death. We discuss implications of the findings, and highlight the need for additional research examining the applicability to long-term tanning behavior. PMID:24811049

  11. Unpacking attitude certainty: attitude clarity and attitude correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, John V; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D

    2007-01-01

    Attitude certainty has been the subject of considerable attention in the attitudes and persuasion literature. The present research identifies 2 aspects of attitude certainty and provides evidence for the distinctness of the constructs. Specifically, it is proposed that attitude certainty can be conceptualized, and empirically separated, in terms of attitude clarity (the subjective sense that one knows what one's attitude is) and attitude correctness (the subjective sense that one's attitude is correct or valid). Experiment 1 uses factor analysis and correlational data to provide evidence for viewing attitude clarity and attitude correctness as separate constructs. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that attitude clarity and attitude correctness can have distinct antecedents (repeated expression and consensus feedback, respectively). Experiment 4 reveals that these constructs each play an independent role in persuasion and resistance situations. As clarity and correctness increase, attitudes become more resistant to counterattitudinal persuasive messages. These findings are discussed in relation to the existing attitude strength literature. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Translation of a Ski School Sun Safety Program to North American Ski and Snowboard Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkosz, Barbara J; Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Scott, M D; Liu, X; Cutter, G R; Dignan, M B

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion programs that develop and implement strategies to promote sun safety practices to children have the potential to reduce skin cancer occurrence later in life. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a sun safety program for employees and guests of ski areas, was distributed to determine if an enhanced dissemination strategy was more effective than a basic dissemination strategy at reaching parents at ski and snowboard schools. On-site observations of GSS use and surveys of 909 parents/caregivers with children enrolled in ski and snowboard schools at 63 ski areas were conducted and analyzed using techniques for clustered designs. No differences were identified by dissemination strategy. Greater implementation of GSS (>5 messages posted) was associated with greater parental recall, 36.6% versus 16.7%, of materials, but not greater sun protection practices. Greater recall of messages, regardless of level of implementation, resulted in greater sun protection practices including applying sunscreen (p Ski areas with more program materials appeared to reach parents with sun safety advice and thus convinced them to take more precautions for their children. Sun safety need not be at odds with children's outdoor recreation activities.

  13. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  14. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  15. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Tjønneland, Anne; Køster, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children) were recruited among...... who did not had an OR (95% CI) of 1.68 (1.25-2.35) of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing...

  16. How did the Sun affect the climate when life evolved on the Earth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Svensmark, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    started to evolve on our planet around four billion years ago. This suggestion relies on the hypothesis that the changing solar activity results in a changing influx of galactic cosmic rays to the Earth, which results in a changing low-altitude cloud coverage and thus a changing climate. Here we show how......Using kappa Ceti as a proxy for the young Sun we show that not only was the young Sun much more effective in protecting the Earth environment from galactic cosmic rays than the present day Sun; it also had flare and corona mass ejection rates up to three orders of magnitude larger than the present...

  17. How did the Sun affect the climate when life evolved on the Earth?

    CERN Document Server

    Karoff, C

    2010-01-01

    Using kappa Ceti as a proxy for the young Sun we show that not only was the young Sun much more effective in protecting the Earth environment from galactic cosmic rays than the present day Sun; it also had flare and corona mass ejection rates up to three orders of magnitude larger than the present day Sun. The reduction in the galactic cosmic ray influx caused by the young Sun's enhanced shielding capability has been suggested as a solution to what is known as the faint young Sun paradox, i.e. the fact that the luminosity of the young Sun was only around 75% of its present value when life started to evolve on our planet around four billion years ago. This suggestion relies on the hypothesis that the changing solar activity results in a changing influx of galactic cosmic rays to the Earth, which results in a changing low-altitude cloud coverage and thus a changing climate. Here we show how the larger corona mass ejection rates of the young Sun would have had an effect on the climate with a magnitude similar to...

  18. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  19. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  20. TRIGONOMETRIC SU(N) GAUDIN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model based on the quasi-classical limit of the trigonometric SU(N) chain with the periodic boundary condition.By using the quantum inverse scattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generating function of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model.

  1. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  2. Sun Jingxia Devotes Herself to Nursing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "I really didn’t expect that at my advanced age, I would be awarded the highest honor in international nursing circles," said Mme. Sun Jingxia, 81, who had just returned from Beijing where she received the Nightingale Medal. Wearing a light yellow suit, with a collar bordered in red, Sun is inhigh spirits, reminding people of the beauty of the setting sun. It is clear that Sun Jingxia has deep feelings as she looks at the medal which shows a relief of Florence Nightingale’s head. She spoke in her usual soft voice but with some excitement, "President Jiang

  3. Changes in sunburn and tanning attitudes among lifeguards over a summer season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.M.; Glanz, K.; Nehl, E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States. Lifeguards are at increased risk of excessive sun exposure and sunburn. OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine changes in: (1) sunburn frequency over a summer while controlling for sun exposure, sun protection habits, and

  4. Attitude determination for balloon-borne experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gandilo, N N; Amiri, M; Angile, F E; Benton, S J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Bryan, S A; Chiang, H C; Contaldi, C R; Crill, B P; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Dore, O P; Farhang, M; Filippini, J P; Fissel, L M; Fraisse, A A; Fukui, Y; Galitzki, N; Gambrel, A E; Golwala, S; Gudmundsson, J E; Halpern, M; Hasselfield, M; Hilton, G C; Holmes, W A; Hristov, V V; Irwin, K D; Jones, W C; Kermish, Z D; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Kuo, C L; MacTavish, C J; Mason, P V; Matthews, T G; Megerian, K G; Moncelsi, L; Morford, T A; Mroczkowski, T K; Nagy, J M; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; O'Brient, R; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Rahlin, A S; Reintsema, C D; Ruhl, J E; Runyan, M C; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Thomas, N E; Trangsrud, A; Truch, M D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Tucker, R S; Turner, A D; Ward-Thompson, D; Weber, A C; Wiebe, D V; Young, E Y

    2014-01-01

    An attitude determination system for balloon-borne experiments is presented. The system provides pointing information in azimuth and elevation for instruments flying on stratospheric balloons over Antarctica. In-flight attitude is given by the real-time combination of readings from star cameras, a magnetometer, sun sensors, GPS, gyroscopes, tilt sensors and an elevation encoder. Post-flight attitude reconstruction is determined from star camera solutions, interpolated by the gyroscopes using an extended Kalman Filter. The multi-sensor system was employed by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol), an experiment that measures polarized thermal emission from interstellar dust clouds. A similar system was designed for the upcoming flight of SPIDER, a Cosmic Microwave Background polarization experiment. The pointing requirements for these experiments are discussed, as well as the challenges in designing attitude reconstruction systems for high altitude balloon flights. ...

  5. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial of a theory-based online intervention to improve sun safety among Australian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Cathy M; White, Katherine M; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Starfelt, Louise C; Wihardjo, Kylie

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation are a significant concern in Australia which has one of the highest incidences of skin cancer in the world. Despite most skin cancers being preventable by encouraging consistent adoption of sun-protective behaviours, incidence rates are not decreasing. There is a dearth of research examining the factors involved in engaging in sun-protective behaviours. Further, online multi-behavioural theory-based interventions have yet to be explo...

  6. A Novel Multi-Aperture Based Sun Sensor Based on a Fast Multi-Point MEANSHIFT (FMMS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Fei Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With the current increased widespread interest in the development and applications of micro/nanosatellites, it was found that we needed to design a small high accuracy satellite attitude determination system, because the star trackers widely used in large satellites are large and heavy, and therefore not suitable for installation on micro/nanosatellites. A Sun sensor + magnetometer is proven to be a better alternative, but the conventional sun sensor has low accuracy, and cannot meet the requirements of the attitude determination systems of micro/nanosatellites, so the development of a small high accuracy sun sensor with high reliability is very significant. This paper presents a multi-aperture based sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS mask with 36 apertures and an active pixels sensor (APS CMOS placed below the mask at a certain distance. A novel fast multi-point MEANSHIFT (FMMS algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability, the two key performance features, of an APS sun sensor. When the sunlight illuminates the sensor, a sun spot array image is formed on the APS detector. Then the sun angles can be derived by analyzing the aperture image location on the detector via the FMMS algorithm. With this system, the centroid accuracy of the sun image can reach 0.01 pixels, without increasing the weight and power consumption, even when some missing apertures and bad pixels appear on the detector due to aging of the devices and operation in a harsh space environment, while the pointing accuracy of the single-aperture sun sensor using the conventional correlation algorithm is only 0.05 pixels.

  7. The vectorial photoelectric effect under solar irradiance and its application to sun sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Sun sensors are an integral part of the attitude and orbit control system onboard almost any spacecraft. While the majority of standard analogue sun sensors is based on photo-detectors which produce photo-currents proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle (cosine detectors), we propose an alternative scheme where the vectorial photoelectric effect is exploited to achieve a higher sensitivity of the sensed photo-current to the incidence angle. The vectorial photo-effect is investigated in detail for metal cathode detectors in a space environment. Besides long operational lifetimes without significant degradation, metal cathode detectors are insensitive to earth albedo, which may significantly reduce the errors affecting attitude measurements in low earth orbits. Sensitivity curves are calculated and trade-offs performed with the aim of optimizing the sensitivity whilst also providing currents sufficient for detection. Simple applications and detector configurations are also discussed and compared to ex...

  8. Sun-Protective Behavior | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Take Action to Protect Your Skin from the Sun | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soaking up the sun’s rays may give you a great tan, but it may increase your risk of skin cancer in the future. This is especially true if, for example, you have lighter skin or a family history of skin cancer. Any change to the color of your skin indicates damage from ultraviolet (UV) rays, which can lead to skin cancer. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), skin cancer is most common type of cancer diagnosed in the United States. Statistics from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) show that only 2 percent of all skin cancers are melanoma, but melanoma is the cause of most skin cancer–related deaths. Skin cancer is composed of basal and squamous cells, and begins in the outer layer of the skin.

  10. Factors Affecting Students' Attitudes toward Toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomažic, Iztok; Šorgo, Andrej

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups; however, attitudes and emotions toward them are mostly negative. One of the efforts, as a part of the cognitive dimension of nature protection, should be in the shifting of negative attitudes toward amphibians to positive ones. The purpose of this study was reevaluation of the Toad Attitude…

  11. Regina vs Hubbs: Determining the Sun's Position

    CERN Document Server

    Samra, Raminder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Here I determined the Sun's position as an expert witness for crown counsel. From my calculations I found the Sun's location in the sky was such that it could not impede the driver's vision, as a result it could not have been the reason for the accused to be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

  12. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Patla, Bijunath

    2007-01-01

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

  13. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  14. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  15. Conservation status of Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) in Nagaland State, North-East India

    OpenAIRE

    Janmejay Sethy; Chauhan, N. P. S.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out survey in a total 16 villages locating in and around the different protected areas in Nagaland. Out of 265 respondent 69 (28.2%) respondents confirmed the presence of sun bear by direct sighting and indirect evidences in 2 PAs of Nagaland. Overall status of sun bear was found to be low and rare in and around Pas. In the Nagaland states, human population is constantly on the increase and as a result, there are increasing biotic pressure on protected areas and reserve forests. Th...

  16. Attitude control system of the Delfi-n3Xt satellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, J.; Choukroun, D.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the development of the attitude control algorithms that will be implemented on board of the Delfi-n3xt nanosatellite, which is to be launched in 2013. One of the mission objectives is to demonstrate Sun pointing and three axis stabilization. The attitude control modes and

  17. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  18. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  19. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  20. A highly accurate wireless digital sun sensor based on profile detecting and detector multiplexing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Minsong; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    The advancing growth of micro- and nano-satellites requires miniaturized sun sensors which could be conveniently applied in the attitude determination subsystem. In this work, a profile detecting technology based high accurate wireless digital sun sensor was proposed, which could transform a two-dimensional image into two-linear profile output so that it can realize a high update rate under a very low power consumption. A multiple spots recovery approach with an asymmetric mask pattern design principle was introduced to fit the multiplexing image detector method for accuracy improvement of the sun sensor within a large Field of View (FOV). A FOV determination principle based on the concept of FOV region was also proposed to facilitate both sub-FOV analysis and the whole FOV determination. A RF MCU, together with solar cells, was utilized to achieve the wireless and self-powered functionality. The prototype of the sun sensor is approximately 10 times lower in size and weight compared with the conventional digital sun sensor (DSS). Test results indicated that the accuracy of the prototype was 0.01° within a cone FOV of 100°. Such an autonomous DSS could be equipped flexibly on a micro- or nano-satellite, especially for highly accurate remote sensing applications.

  1. Ambiguity attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs; Keren, Gideon; Wu, George

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the experimental literature on ambiguity attitudes, focusing on three topics. First, it considers various approaches to operationalize ambiguity in experiments. Second, the chapter reviews basic findings in the field regarding the prevalence of ambiguity aversion and ambiguity s

  2. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  3. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  4. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  5. The Jovian period in the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".

  6. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasson, Jean L.; Hendrickx, Olivier; Marin, Jean-Luc

    2017-07-01

    The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  7. The potential protective effects of erythropoietin and estrogen on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha I. Hussien

    2015-12-30

    Dec 30, 2015 ... Conclusion: It seems that EPO could protect the kidney against RIR, while this protective effect ... EPO is an essential growth factor of hemopoietic progeni- ...... Jerald Mahesh, Kuncha Madhusudana, Rachamalla Shyam Sun-.

  8. Protective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on ultraviolet b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) on ultraviolet B ... protection, sun screen lotion may be inadequate for preventing all UV ..... p59Fyn is a crucial factor influencing dedifferentiation and.

  9. Spacecraft attitude determination using the earth's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David G.

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented by which the attitude of a low-Earth orbiting spacecraft may be determined using a vector magnetometer, a digital Sun sensor, and a mathematical model of the Earth's magnetic field. The method is currently being implemented for the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (as a backup for the failing star trackers) as a way to determine roll gyro drift.

  10. Finding the lost siblings of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Feltzing, Sofia; Ruchti, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a spectral analysis on 18 stars solar sibling candidate. We found that only one one of the candidateshas solar metallicity and at the same time might have an age comparable to that of the Sun.

  11. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  12. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  13. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  14. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  15. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  16. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  17. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  18. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  19. Orientation in birds. The sun compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K; Ganzhorn, J U; Ranvaud, R

    1991-01-01

    The sun compass was discovered by G. Kramer in caged birds showing migratory restlessness. Subsequent experiments with caged birds employing directional training and clock shifts, carried out by Hoffman and Schmidt-Koenig, showed that the sun azimuth is used, and the sun altitude ignored. In the laboratory, McDonald found the accuracy to be +/- 3 degrees(-)+/- 5 degrees. According to Hoffmann and Schmidt-Koenig, caged birds trained at medium northern latitudes were able to allow for the sun's apparent movement north of the arctic circle, but not in equatorial and trans-equatorial latitudes. In homing experiments, and employing clock shifts, Schmidt-Koenig demonstrated that the sun compass is used by homing pigeons during initial orientation. This finding is the principal evidence for the existence of a map-and-compass navigational system. Pigeons living in equatorial latitudes utilize the sun compass even under the extreme solar conditions of equinox, achieving angular resolution of about 3 degrees in homing experiments. According to preliminary analyses, the homing pigeons' ephemerides are retarded by several weeks (Ranvaud, Schmidt-Koenig, Ganzhorn et al.).

  20. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  1. Determinação do fator de proteção solar (FPS in vitro e in vivo de emulsões com óleo de andiroba (Carapa guianensis In vitro and in vivo determinations of sun protection factor (SPF of emulsions with andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ferrari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo de andiroba extraído da Carapa guianensis tem apresentado considerável interesse pelas indústrias farmacêutica e cosmética devido a suas propriedades antiinflamatória e repelente de insetos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade fotoprotetora in vitro e in vivo do óleo de andiroba. Emulsões estáveis do tipo O/A foram preparadas com o metoxicinamato de etilhexila aditivadas ou não com óleo de andiroba. As características organolépticas foram avaliadas através de análises macroscópicas e o tipo de emulsão pelo teste de diluição. O FPS in vitro foi determinado pelo método espectrofotométrico desenvolvido por Mansur, e o teste in vivo de acordo com a metodologia padronizada pela Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Não houve diferença estatística entre as formulações, demonstrando que o óleo de andiroba não apresentou atividade fotoprotetora.The andiroba oil extracted of Carapa guianensis has attracted considerable interest by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries because of its anti-inflammatory and insect repellent properties. This research evaluated the in vitro and in vivo andiroba oil photoprotection activity. Stable O/W emulsions with ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate were prepared with and without andiroba oil. These emulsions were assessed by evaluating several parameters such as macroscopic analysis and organoleptic aspects, emulsion type by diluition test and in vitro and in vivo determinations of Sun Protect Factor (SPF. The in vitro SPF was determined according to the spectrophotometric method developed by Mansur. The in vivo SPF values were determined according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA method. There was not statistical difference among the formulations, demonstrating that the andiroba oil did not present photoprotective activity.

  2. Effect of hair color and sun sensitivity on nevus counts in white children in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G; Byers, Tim E; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Crane, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    It has been widely reported that individuals with a light phenotype (ie, light hair color, light base skin color, and propensity to burn) have more nevi and are at greater risk for developing skin cancer. No studies have systematically investigated how phenotypic traits may interact in relation to nevus development. We sought to systematically examine whether any combinations of phenotype are associated with a greater or lesser risk for nevus development in white children. In the summer of 2007, 654 children were examined to determine full body nevus counts, skin color by colorimetry, and hair and eye color by comparison with charts. Interviews of parents were conducted to capture sun sensitivity, sun exposure, and sun protection practices. Among 9-year-old children with sun sensitivity rating type II (painful burn/light tan), those with light hair had lower nevus counts than did those with dark hair (P value for interaction = .03). This relationship was independent of eye color, presence of freckling, sex, usual daily sun exposure, sunburn in 2004 to 2007, sun protection index, and waterside vacation sun exposure. The difference in nevus counts was further determined to be specific to small nevi (<2 mm) and nevi in intermittently exposed body sites. Geographic and genetic differences in other study populations may produce different results. The standard acceptance that dark phenotype is a marker for low melanoma risk and light phenotype a marker for high risk may need to be reevaluated. In non-Hispanic white children, dark-haired individuals who burn readily and then tan slightly are more prone to nevus development, and may therefore be a previously underrecognized high-risk group for melanoma. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  4. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  5. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48% compared to females (46%. Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  7. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  8. The Spectrum of Darkonium in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  9. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  10. The sun since the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  11. 'My Sun' and 'Guided by the Moon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baillie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available My Sun and Guided by the Moon (2012 show the heavily pregnant artist with her swollen belly covered in gold and silver leaf. The work is suggestive that the connectivity experienced by an expectant mother, extends outwards, even as far as her relationship with the cosmos. The 'sun' portrait was taken on a bright September morning, and its partner image, the following October, on the night of a full moon. Female cycles and the importance of time passing during a pregnancy are referenced. Interestingly, bearing in mind that the artist gave birth to a son in November, creating the 'moon' portrait felt like a familiar, empowering and yet isolated expression of selfhood, whilst the 'sun/son' version exuded the energy of a collaboration, and stimulated feelings of joy, liberation and potentiality. By seeming contradiction, the boy was born on a full moon, exactly a month to the day that Guided by the Moon was taken.

  12. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rasson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  13. Tanning in solarium – knowledge, attitudes and Polish habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Torzewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tanning devices are sources of UVA and UVB radiation. UV exposure can cause damage to the cornea of the eye, skin burns and even skin cancer. Appropriate use of solarium requires adequate knowledge of health effects resulting from the excessive use of sunbeds. The aim of the study was to examine knowledge, attitudes and habits in the solarium use. Material and methods. The study was based on our own questionnaire distributed among the citizens of a city located in Łódź Province. The study group consisted of 135 adults, mostly women and people with secondary and vocational education. Participants of the study were asked to answer specific questions included in the questionnaire concerning the knowledge of UV radiation, attitudes and the behaviour in the solarium. Results. 36% of the respondents were going to the solarium. 38% of the respondents weren’t going at all. Every fourth respondent used to go to the solarium in the past, however gave up this type of tanning for some reasons. Protecting goggles were used only by 18% of the respondents. 94% of the respondents never asked the service about CE certificates for the sunbeds intended for use. Conclusions. People tanning in the solarium, in comparison to those who do not use the artificial sun, enjoy better knowledge of the ultraviolet radiation. However they do not follow the requirements of the safe tanning. They are also not interested in technical conditions of the sunbeds. People who are not tanning in the solarium are more aware of health effects caused by UV radiation. Actions promoting public awareness on negative health effects of exposure to UV radiation in the solarium are needed.

  14. 赤水河流域仁怀市生态保护态度与行为研究%A Study on the Attitudes and Behavior of Ecological Protection in Renhuai City, Chishui River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于霞; 安艳玲; 彭文博

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire were taken to explore the attitudes and behaviors of nearby villages by Chishui River. The results were as following: some villagers have low environmental awareness, which is relate to the level of education, it's need to strengthen dissemination to improve the low environmental awareness; surrounding wineries and small factories make more contributions to pollution than residents' daily life and farming; local environmental protection departments should strengthen the publicity to raise the level of environmental knowledge of residents to reduce domestic pollution, strictly control industrial pollution emissions, reduce industrial pollution, so as to maintain ecological security of Chishui River Basin.%通过调查问卷的形式探索了仁怀市赤水河两岸的村民在生态保护中的态度与行为。结果表明:沿赤水河两岸居住的部分村民的环保意识相对较低,居民的环保意识与所受教育程度有关,且居民了解环保知识的渠道单一,需要加强多渠道宣传;居民的日常生活和农耕对赤水河的污染较小,周围酒厂及小工厂的污染“贡献”较大。当地环保部门应该加强宣传,提高两岸居民的环保知识水平,减少生活污染,严格控制企业污染排放,减少工业污染,从而维护赤水河流域生态安全。

  15. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  16. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

    2003-11-14

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  17. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  18. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  19. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  20. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  1. Attitudes, social representations and social attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Robert, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper plays the role of the devil's advocate in relation to Colin Fraser's paper "attitudes, social representations and widespread beliefs". It argues for the alternative perspective which Colin identifies that social representations and social attitudes are epistemologically incompatible theories.

  2. Optimal sun-alignment techniques of large solar arrays in electric propulsion spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissinger, H. F.; Dailey, C. L.; Valgora, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Optimum sun-alignment of large solar arrays in electric propulsion spacecraft operating in earth orbit requires periodic roll motions around the thrust axis, synchronized with the apparent conical motion of the sun line. This oscillation is sustained effectively with the aid of gravity gradient torques while only a small share of the total torque is being contributed by the attitude control system. Tuning the system for resonance requires an appropriate choice of moment-of-inertia characteristics. To minimize atmospheric drag at low orbital altitudes the solar array is oriented parallel, or nearly parallel, to the flight direction. This can increase the thrust-to-drag ratio by as much as an order of magnitude. Coupled with optimal roll orientation, this feathering technique will permit use of electric propulsion effectively at low altitudes in support of space shuttle or space station activities and in spiral ascent missions.

  3. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  4. Rational SU(N) Gaudin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.

  5. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...

  6. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Community, The SunPy; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from mis...

  7. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  8. Sino-Sun Architects & Engineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sino-Sun is an A-Class state architectural design company organized by a group of experts who have returned to China after studying abroad. In the 10 yearssince its establishment, it has grown into an outstanding andwell-known design team, which has influence in the national archi-tectural design field.

  9. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  10. Isotopes Tell Sun's Origin and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, O.; Kamat, Sumeet A.; Mozina, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Modern versions of Aston's mass spectrometer enable measurements of two quantities - isotope abundances and masses - that tell the Sun's origin and operation. Isotope analyses of meteorites, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, the solar wind, and solar flares over the past 45 years indicate that fresh, poorly-mixed, supernova debris formed the solar system. The iron-rich Sun formed on the collapsed supernova core and now itself acts as a magnetic plasma diffuser, as did the precursor star, separating ions by mass. This process covers the solar surface with lightweight elements and with the lighter isotopes of each element. Running difference imaging provides supporting evidence of a rigid, iron-rich structure below the Sun's fluid outer layer of lightweight elements. Mass measurements of all 2,850 known nuclides expose repulsive interactions between neutrons that trigger neutron-emission at the solar core, followed by neutron-decay and a series of reactions that collectively generate solar luminosity, solar neutrinos, the carrier gas for solar mass separation, and an outpouring of solar-wind hydrogen from the solar surface. Neutron-emission and neutron-decay generate ~ 65% of solar luminosity; H-fusion ~ 35%, and ~ 1% of the neutron-decay product survives to depart as solar-wind hydrogen. The energy source for the Sun and other ordinary stars seems to be neutron-emission and neutron-decay, with partial fusion of the decay product, rather than simple fusion of hydrogen into helium or heavier elements.

  11. Sun Baiqiu Fights for the Human Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Baiqiu liked to read well known literature from all over the world when she was a little girl. She sympathized with the good-hearted characters and hated the greedy and the evil. She imagined that she would become like a fairy godmother, holding a magic wand and helping the poor but kind people in distress. In 1963 she graduated from Haerbin

  12. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have...

  13. Behavioral thermoregulation in Lemur catta: The significance of sunning and huddling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth A; Jablonski, Nina G; Chaplin, George; Sussman, Robert W; Kamilar, Jason M

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of body temperature poses significant problems for organisms that inhabit environments with extreme and seasonally fluctuating ambient temperatures. To help alleviate the energetic costs of autonomic responses, these organisms often thermoregulate through behavioral mechanisms. Among primates, lemurs in Madagascar experience uncharacteristically seasonal and unpredictable climates relative to other primate-rich regions. Malagasy primates are physiologically flexible, but different species use different mechanisms to influence their body temperatures. Lemur catta, the ring-tailed lemur, experiences particularly acute diurnal temperature fluctuations in its mostly open-canopy habitat in south and southwest Madagascar. Ring-tailed lemurs are also atypical among lemurs in that they appear to use both sun basking postures and huddling to maintain body temperature when ambient temperatures are cold. To our knowledge, however, no one has systematically tested whether these behaviors function in thermoregulation. We present evidence that ring-tailed lemurs use these postures as behavioral thermoregulation strategies, and that different environmental variables are associated with the use of each posture. Major predictors of sunning included ambient temperature, time of day, and season. Specifically, L. catta consistently assumed sunning postures early after daybreak when ambient temperatures were catta tend to sun, rather than huddle, under cold weather conditions when sunning is possible. However, both sunning and huddling are important behavioral adaptations of L. catta that augment chemical thermoregulation and the absence of a dynamic, insulating pelage. Sunning and huddling help to account for the great ecological flexibility of the species, but these adaptations may be insufficient in the face of future changes in protective vegetation and temperature. Am. J. Primatol. 78:745-754, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Are the current Australian sun exposure guidelines effective in maintaining adequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael; Sun, Jiandong; Sinclair, Craig; Heward, Sue; Hill, Jane; Dunstone, Kimberley; Brodie, Alison

    2016-01-01

    An adequate vitamin D status, as measured by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration, is important in humans for maintenance of healthy bones and muscle function. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was assessed in participants from Melbourne, Australia (37.81S, 144.96E), who were provided with the current Australian guidelines on sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L). Participants were interviewed in February (summer, n=104) and August (winter, n=99) of 2013. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was examined as a function of measures of sun exposure and sun protection habits with control of key characteristics such as dietary intake of vitamin D, body mass index (BMI) and skin colour, that may modify this relationship. The mean 25(OH)D concentration in participants who complied with the current sun exposure guidelines was 67.3 nmol/L in summer and 41.9 nmol/L in winter. At the end of the study, 69.3% of participants who complied with the summer sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate, while only 27.6% of participants who complied with the winter sun exposure guidelines were 25(OH)D adequate at the end of the study. The results suggest that the current Australian guidelines for sun exposure for 25(OH)D adequacy are effective for most in summer and ineffective for most in winter. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  15. Predictive modeling and mapping of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) distribution using maximum entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Mona; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Madani, Nima; Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Bahman, Abdul Rani; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-01-01

    One of the available tools for mapping the geographical distribution and potential suitable habitats is species distribution models. These techniques are very helpful for finding poorly known distributions of species in poorly sampled areas, such as the tropics. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) is a recently developed modeling method that can be successfully calibrated using a relatively small number of records. In this research, the MaxEnt model was applied to describe the distribution and identify the key factors shaping the potential distribution of the vulnerable Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus) in one of the main remaining habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. MaxEnt results showed that even though Malaysian sun bear habitat is tied with tropical evergreen forests, it lives in a marginal threshold of bio-climatic variables. On the other hand, current protected area networks within Peninsular Malaysia do not cover most of the sun bears potential suitable habitats. Assuming that the predicted suitability map covers sun bears actual distribution, future climate change, forest degradation and illegal hunting could potentially severely affect the sun bear's population.

  16. Sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity associated with disability progression in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hooghe, M B; Haentjens, P; Nagels, G; Garmyn, M; De Keyser, J

    2012-04-01

    Sunlight and vitamin D have been inversely associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We investigated sunlight exposure and sun sensitivity in relation to disability progression in MS. We conducted a survey among persons with MS, registered by the Flemish MS society, Belgium, and stratified data according to relapsing-onset and progressive-onset MS. We used Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses with time to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 as outcome measure. Hazard ratios for the time from onset and from birth were calculated for the potentially predictive variables, adjusting for age at onset, gender and immunomodulatory treatment. 704 (51.3%) of the 1372 respondents had reached EDSS 6. In relapsing-onset MS, respondents reporting equal or higher levels of sun exposure than persons of the same age in the last 10 years had a decreased risk of reaching EDSS 6. In progressive-onset MS, increased sun sensitivity was associated with an increased hazard of reaching EDSS 6. The association of higher sun exposure with a better outcome in relapsing-onset MS may be explained by either a protective effect or reverse causality. Mechanisms underlying sun sensitivity might influence progression in progressive-onset MS.

  17. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M; Schwartz, Gary G; Koo, Jocelyn; Wang, Wei; Ingles, Sue A

    2007-12-15

    Considerable evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. This study examined associations of breast cancer with sun exposure, the principal source of vitamin D, and vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, BglI) in a population-based case-control study of Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic White women aged 35-79 years from the San Francisco Bay Area of California (1995-2003). In-person interviews were obtained for 1,788 newly diagnosed cases and 2,129 controls. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the upper underarm (a sun-protected site that measures constitutive pigmentation) and on the forehead (a sun-exposed site) using reflectometry. Biospecimens were collected for a subset of the study population (814 cases, 910 controls). A high sun exposure index based on reflectometry was associated with reduced risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light constitutive skin pigmentation (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.91). The association did not vary with VDR genotype. No associations were found for women with medium or dark pigmentation. Localized breast cancer was not associated with sun exposure or VDR genotype. This study supports the hypothesis that sunlight exposure reduces risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light skin pigmentation.

  18. Predictive modeling and mapping of Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus distribution using maximum entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Nazeri

    Full Text Available One of the available tools for mapping the geographical distribution and potential suitable habitats is species distribution models. These techniques are very helpful for finding poorly known distributions of species in poorly sampled areas, such as the tropics. Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt is a recently developed modeling method that can be successfully calibrated using a relatively small number of records. In this research, the MaxEnt model was applied to describe the distribution and identify the key factors shaping the potential distribution of the vulnerable Malayan Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus in one of the main remaining habitats in Peninsular Malaysia. MaxEnt results showed that even though Malaysian sun bear habitat is tied with tropical evergreen forests, it lives in a marginal threshold of bio-climatic variables. On the other hand, current protected area networks within Peninsular Malaysia do not cover most of the sun bears potential suitable habitats. Assuming that the predicted suitability map covers sun bears actual distribution, future climate change, forest degradation and illegal hunting could potentially severely affect the sun bear's population.

  19. The Effect of Sun Radiation on the Course of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abas Azarian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sStudies have described immunomedulatory effects of sun exposure and ultraviolet radiation on infectious and neoplastic diseases. Here the effect of exposure to low potency radiation of sun on the course of leishmaniasis in mice was studied. Materials and MethodsFifteen BALB/c mice were exposed to suberythemogenic doses of sun (mean 180 mJ/cm2/day of UVB 2 months before and 4 months after Leishmania major inoculation to food pad. Control group was kept in the sun protected environment. From 2nd to 17th week after inoculation, size of the lesion was recorded in each group weekly and at last week the parasite burden in spleen was detected. Results were compared between two groups. ResultsSeven mice from case group and 9 mice from control group survived up to last week. The mean lesion size was 0.90±0.59 cm in exposed and 4.01±3.59 cm in unexposed mice (P= 0.037. Parasite burden in spleen of case and control groups were 5.5±4.61 and 106.94±279.76 respectively (P= 0.006.ConclusionChronic exposure of BALB/c mice to suberythemogenic doses of sun suppressed skin lesion and decreased the extension of L. major to spleen.

  20. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  1. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Jacks, Stephanie K; Thielen, Scott P; Johnson, Andrea K; Brodell, Robert T; Bass, Martha A

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  2. Sun-related behaviors among individuals previously diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak K Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, the risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer is considerably higher among individuals with a previous history of this condition. Protection from ultraviolet (UV radiation is the primary evidence-based approach for minimizing this risk. This review was aimed to assess the prevalence of sun-safe behaviors in non-melanoma skin cancer survivors. Searches were conducted in six electronic databases including PubMed, Psyclnfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC and Science Direct. A narrative approach was adopted to synthesize the data. The findings demonstrated that respondents do not protect themselves optimally from UV radiation exposure. Low levels of perceived skin cancer risk, a lack of knowledge about effective sun protection strategies and the inconvenience associated with sun-safe behaviors appear to explain this finding. A note of caution is required here, as there is a potential for publication bias. Moreover, the results of this study cannot be generalized to all non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Skin cancer survivors must be educated about their increased risk of future skin cancers. Behavioral interventions must be developed to increase the adoption of skin protective behaviors in this high-risk population group.

  3. Touchless attitude correction for satellite with constant magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Hou-jun; Yang, Le-ping; Zhu, Yan-wei; Zhang, Yuan-wen; Huang, Huan

    2017-09-01

    Rescue of satellite with attitude fault is of great value. Satellite with improper injection attitude may lose contact with ground as the antenna points to the wrong direction, or encounter energy problems as solar arrays are not facing the sun. Improper uploaded command may set the attitude out of control, exemplified by Japanese Hitomi spacecraft. In engineering practice, traditional physical contact approaches have been applied, yet with a potential risk of collision and a lack of versatility since the mechanical systems are mission-specific. This paper puts forward a touchless attitude correction approach, in which three satellites are considered, one having constant dipole and two having magnetic coils to control attitude of the first. Particular correction configurations are designed and analyzed to maintain the target's orbit during the attitude correction process. A reference coordinate system is introduced to simplify the control process and avoid the singular value problem of Euler angles. Based on the spherical triangle basic relations, the accurate varying geomagnetic field is considered in the attitude dynamic mode. Sliding mode control method is utilized to design the correction law. Finally, numerical simulation is conducted to verify the theoretical derivation. It can be safely concluded that the no-contact attitude correction approach for the satellite with uniaxial constant magnetic moment is feasible and potentially applicable to on-orbit operations.

  4. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  5. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias, E-mail: emb@kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Edsjoe, Joakim, E-mail: edsjo@physto.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ohlsson, Tommy, E-mail: tommy@theophys.kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  6. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  7. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  8. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  9. Hierarchical analysis of the quiet Sun magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2014-01-01

    Standard statistical analysis of the magnetic properties of the quiet Sun rely on simple histograms of quantities inferred from maximum-likelihood estimations. Because of the inherent degeneracies, either intrinsic or induced by the noise, this approach is not optimal and can lead to highly biased results. We carry out a meta-analysis of the magnetism of the quiet Sun from Hinode observations using a hierarchical probabilistic method. This model allows us to infer the statistical properties of the magnetic field vector over the observed field-of-view consistently taking into account the uncertainties in each pixel due to noise and degeneracies. Our results point out that the magnetic fields are very weak, below 275 G with 95% credibility, with a slight preference for horizontal fields, although the distribution is not far from a quasi-isotropic distribution.

  10. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES; Bruce; William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3 size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  11. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  12. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  13. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes.

  14. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  15. Operational Art and the Rising Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-16

    shall run wild for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second or third ’Potter, p. 46; Michael Slackman, Target...attack that no american carriers in 26Joseph K. Taussig , "A Tactical View of Pearl Harbor", Paul Stillwell, ed., Air Raid: Pearl Harbor! (Annapolis, MD...Weiner, 1991. Slackman, Michael . Target: Pearl Harbor. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Stephan, John J. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun

  16. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Tian; LIM Boon-Han; LIM Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuthelevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  17. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  18. ON FELICITOUS CHARACTER OF GENERALIZED SUN-GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-hua; YAO Bing; YAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    Felicitous character of some generalized sun-graphs is investigated in this note, and furthermore the exact felicitous labellings of two classes of generalized sun-graphs are obtained by analyzing the structures of the generalized sun-graphs. And the constructed graph theory models in coding theory, communication networks, logistics and other aspects have important applications.

  19. Design and Fabrication of an Albedo Insensitive Analog Sun Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Leijtens, J.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 μm) is not included in

  20. Evaluation of cognitive and behavioral effects of peer education model-based intervention to sun safe in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been many studies that evidence the health hazards of sunlight exposure, but less study on sun safe intervention model, especially in China. Our aim was to evaluate the cognitive and behavioral effects of a peer education model-based intervention to sun safe in children.Cluster random control intervention was conducted in one district in Chongqing, China. Two primary schools, selected through stratified clustered sampling approach (two grades in each school, three classes in each grade were designated as intervention (n=304 and control schools (n=305 randomly. 36 students, selected as peer educators in intervention group, were trained for one month. Educational activities such as discussions were organized by peer educator for one month. There was no sun safe education to participants in control school during the project period. The evaluation of changes of sun safe knowledge (the primary outcome, attitude and behavior (the secondary outcome measures were conducted before intervention and at months of 0, 1 and 6 of the intervention to two groups using quantitative and qualitative methods.After the intervention, sun safe knowledge score which gained by the students from intervention group has been remarkably improved, compared to baseline survey (24.48±6.17 vs. 29.51±6.75 (P<0.001, and it kept this high level (29.02±7.96 and. 28.65±8.96, while control group students' scores have made no difference (P=0.410. Most of students have changed their sun safe behavior after the intervention.Peer education program is somewhat effective in some dimensions for improving children's understanding of sun safe knowledge and behavior.

  1. Avaliação dos cuidados de proteção solar e prevenção do câncer de pele em pré-escolares Avaluación de los cuidados de protección solar y prevención de cáncer de piel en preescolares Assessment of sun protection and skin cancer prevention among preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Batista

    2013-03-01

    todos los días del año, y 253 (70,1% usaban barreras físicas de protección solar. Niños de piel blanca usaban más filtro solar que los de piel negra, principalmente en verano (p=0,001, y solían reaplicar el producto (p=0,04. Hubo asociación positiva entre ingresos familiares altos y uso de filtro solar (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate parental care of their children's skin by using sunscreen and physical sun protection methods. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with preschool children in Tubarão, Southern Brazil. Children's parents or caregivers from randomly selected private and public schools were recruited to participate in the study, with the permission of the school directors. A self-report questionnaire was administered to the parents. The tool included data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, use of sunscreen and physical barriers for sun protection, and timing of sun exposition. Pearson's chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to examine associations between the variables of interest, being significant p<0,05. RESULTS: 361 children were studied and 228 (63.2% of them attended public schools. Skin color was predominantly white (78.8%. Of the total, 16 (4.4% used sunscreen every day and year-round, and 253 (70.1% were under physical sun protection. White-skinned children used more sunscreen than dark-skinned ones, especially in the summer (p=0.001, and they were more prone to reapply the product (p=0.04. High household income showed a positive association with daily use of sunscreen (p<0.001. Sunscreen reapplication was also associated with children attending private schools (p=0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed that the use of sunscreen among preschoolers was incorrect and insufficient.

  2. Accurate and Wide-Field-of-View MEMS-Based Sun Sensor for Industrial Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Seseña, Francisco José; Quero Reboul, José Manuel; García Ortega, Juan de la Cruz; López Tarrida, Cristina; Ortega, Pablo R; Bermejo, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, sim- ulation, and experimental results of an improved miniaturized two-axis sun sensor for industrial applications, created by adapt- ing a technology used previously in satellite applications. The sensor for each axis is composed of six photodiodes integrated in a crystalline-silicon substrate and a layer of cover glass, which is used to protect the silicon and to hold the windows. The high preci...

  3. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of ... Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. ... symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene.

  4. Adolescent religiosity and attitudes to HIV and AIDS in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kofi Nyame Amoako-Agyeman

    peoples' attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and infected persons and the adoption of lifestyles that ...... scale of response) and the horizontal axis shows individual expla- natory variable. ..... protection for all. Potential conflict between abstinence and.

  5. Watching the Sun to Improve Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Looking for stars that wobble is one of the key ways by which we detect exoplanets: the gravitational pull of planets cause tiny variations in stars radial velocities. But our ability to detect Earth twins is currently limited by our ability to distinguish between radial-velocity variations caused by exoplanets, and those caused by noise from the star itself. A team of scientists has recently proposed that the key to solving this problem may be to examine our own star.Precision Amid NoiseThe radial-velocity technique works well for detecting large planets on close orbits, but detecting an Earth twin requires being able to detect star motion on the order of 10 cm/s! This precision is hard to reach, because activity on the stellar surface i.e., sunspots, plages (bright spots), or granulation can also cause variations in the measured radial velocity for the star, obscuring the signature of a planet.Because the stars were examining arent resolved, we cant track the activity on their surfaces so how can we better understand the imprint that stellar activity has on radial-velocity measurements? A team of scientists has come up with a clever approach: examine the Sun as though it were a distant star.Wealth of InformationThe team, led by Xavier Dumusque (Branco-Weiss Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and David F. Phillips (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), has begun a project to observe the Sun with a ground-based solar telescope. The telescope observes the full disk of the Sun and feeds the data into the HARPS-N spectrograph in Spain, a spectrograph normally used for radial-velocity measurements of other stars in the hunt for exoplanets.But the team has access to other data about the Sun, too: information from satellites like the Solar Dynamics Observatory and SORCE about the solar activity and total irradiance during the time when the spectra were taken. Dumusque and collaborators have combined all of this information, during a week

  6. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  7. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  8. [Research on absolute calibration of sun channel of sun photometer using laser raster scanning method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bing

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a new calibration method of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of sun channel of sun photometer was developed. A tunable laser was used as source and a standard tranfer detector, calibrated against cryogenic absolute radiometer, was used to measure laser beam power. By raster scanning of a single collimated laser beam to generate the uniform irradiance field at the plane of effective aperture stop of sun photometer, the absolute irradiance responsivity of center wavelength of the 870 nm unpolarized sun channels of sun photometer was obtained accurately. The relative spectral irradiance responsivity of corresponding channel was obtained by using lamp-monochromator system and then used to acquire the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity in the laboratory. On the basis of the above results, the top-of-the-atmosphere responsive constant V0 was obtained by integration with extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance data. Comparing the calibration result with that from GSFC, NASA in 2009, the difference is only 3.75%. In the last, the uncertainties of calibration were evaluated and reached to 2.06%. The principle feasibility of the new method was validated.

  9. Effects of motives on reactions to safe sun messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Trefor; Ingledew, David K; Parkinson, John A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether appearance motive for sun exposure, which strongly predicts exposure behaviour, would predict reactions to safe sun messages. In a survey with an embedded experiment, 245 individuals completed measures of motives, read a safe sun message framed by incentive (appearance/health), tone (directive/nondirective) and valence (gain/loss), then completed measures of reactions. For participants high in appearance motive, an appearance-nondirective message was most persuasive. Regardless of individual's appearance motive, appearance messages produced lower reactance if phrased using nondirective language. To maximise persuasion and minimise reactance in individuals most motivated to sun expose, safe sun messages should focus on appearance using nondirective language.

  10. The Sun's interior structure and dynamics, and the solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Broomhall, A -M; Howe, R; Norton, A A; Thompson, M J

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's internal structure and dynamics can be studied with helioseismology, which uses the Sun's natural acoustic oscillations to build up a profile of the solar interior. We discuss how solar acoustic oscillations are affected by the Sun's magnetic field. Careful observations of these effects can be inverted to determine the variations in the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior as the solar cycle progresses. Observed variations in the structure and dynamics can then be used to inform models of the solar dynamo, which are crucial to our understanding of how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and maintained.

  11. Pico-satellite Autonomous Navigation with Magnetometer and Sun Sensor Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ke; WANG Hao; TU Binjie; JIN Zhonghe

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a near-Earth satellite orbit estimation method for pico-satellite applications with light-weight and low-power requirements.The method provides orbit information autonomously from magnetometer and sun sensor, with an extended Kalman filter (EKF).Real-time position/velocity parameters are estimated with attitude independently from two quantities: the measured magnitude of the Earth's magnetic field, and the measured dot product of the magnetic field vector and the sun vector.To guarantee the filter's effectiveness, it is recommended that the sun sensor should at least have the same level of accuracy as magnetometer.Furthermore, to reduce filter's computation expense, simplification methods in EKF's Jacobian calculations are introduced and testified, and a polynomial model for fast magnetic field calculation is developed.With these methods,50% of the computation expense in dynamic model propagation and 80% of the computation burden in measurement model calculation can be reduced.Tested with simulation data and compared with original magnetometer-only methods, filter achieves faster convergence and higher accuracy by 75% and 30% respectively, and the suggested simplification methods are proved to be harmless to filter's estimation performance.

  12. Human-Sun Bears Conflict in Mizoram, North East India: Impact and Conservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus and humans in Mizoram state. We carried out informal interview in 40 villages out of 60 villages covered, locating in and around the protected areas of Mizoram, North-eastern state, during 2008 to 2010. In total, there were 33 human casualties by sun bear during 2000-2010. Males were attacked (n=26, 78.8% and female were attacked (n=7, 21.2%. Injuries were caused to face, nose, eyes, neck, hand and legs. Mark yearly variation of human sun bear casualties, the highest casualties (24.1% during the year of 2002 and less casualties (3.0% during the 2006. Bear attacks were recorded in all the seasons, but maximum cases occurred during autumn and winter months. During December, November, September, April, October and August 27.3 %, 21.2 %, 12.1 %, 9.1% and 6.1 % casualties respectively occurred. Out of 33 cases, victims were mainly in the age group of 31-40 years (45.5 %, followed by 21-30 years (33.3 %, and 41-50 years (12.1 %. Bear accounted for only 6.1 % and 3.0 % cases in the age group of 11-20 years and 51> years respectively. Information on sun bear attacks on human beings and circumstances are presented and discussed. Maximum cases i.e. 21 (63.6 % occurred in forests, followed by 9 (27. 3 % cases in crop fields and 3 (9.1% cases in the vicinity of villages. These victims were involved in cattle grazing, farming or crop protection or moving in forests or vicinity of villages or non-timber forest produce collection. Most of these incidents occurred during morning, evening and night time when bears remained most active. Recommendations have been made for reducing conflict and conservation of sun bear.

  13. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  14. The Apsidal Precession for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By nodal regression and apsidal precession, the Earth flattering at satellite low Earth orbits (LEO is manifested. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun. Nodal regression is orbit feature utilized for circular orbits to be Sun synchronized. A sun¬-synchronized orbit lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Sun direction. In the low Earth Sun synchronized circular orbits are suited the satellites that accomplish their photo imagery missions. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the respective orbital altitudes the inclination window for the Sun synchronization to be attained is determined. The apsidal precession represents major axis shift, respectively the argument of perigee deviation. The apsidal precession simulation, for inclination window of sun synchronized orbital altitudes, is provided through this paper.

  15. Grand Challenges in the Physics of the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The study of stellar structure and evolution is one of the main building blocks of astrophysics, and the Sun has an importance both as the star that is most amenable to detailed study and as the star that has by far the biggest impact on the Earth and near-Earth environment through its radiative and particulate outputs. Over the past decades, studies of stars and of the Sun have become somewhat separate. But in recent years, the rapid advances in asteroseismology, as well as the quest to better understand solar and stellar dynamos, have emphasized once again the synergy between studies of the stars and the Sun. In this article I have selected two "grand challenges" both for their crucial importance and because I thnk that these two problems are tractable to significant progress in the next decade. They are (i) understanding how solar and stellar dynamos generate magnetic field, and (ii) improving the predictability of geo-effective space weather.

  16. Carousel Trackers with 1-Sun or 3-Sun Modules for Commercial Building Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Huang, H, [JX Crystals, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The goal is lower cost solar electricity. Herein, two evolutional steps are described toward achieving this goal. The first step is to follow the sun with a solar tracker. Herein, a carousel tracker is described for mounting on commercial building flat rooftops in order to produce more kWh per kW relative to fixed PV modules. The second evolutionary improvement is to produce lower cost 3-sun CPV modules where two thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon material is replaced by less expensive mirror material. This paper describes the performance and durability of two prototype installations demonstrating these evolutionary innovations. In the first case, the installation and operation of 2 carousels equipped with traditional flat plate modules is described. In the second case, the operation of a carousel equipped with new 3-sun CPV modules is described. Both systems have been operating as expected for several months through the winter of 2007.

  17. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  18. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  19. The protection of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) towards acetaminophen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (APAP)-induced liver toxicity remains the key factor limiting the clinical application of APAP, ... Aims: To investigate the protection mechanism of glycyrrhetinic acid towards APAP-induced .... Liu A, Tanaka N, Sun L, Guo B, Kim JH, Krausz.

  20. [Skin, sun exposure and vitamin D: facts and controversies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccia, M-T

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin D plays a clearly defined role in phosphorus, calcium and bone metabolism. In addition to its effects on cellular proliferation and differentiation, and on immunity, it appears to exert other action, poorly understood to date, on human physiology and disease. A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated a protective role of sun exposure with regard to the incidence of certain immune diseases and cancer, and upon the related mortality rates. Furthermore, over the last 10 years, studies have purported to find levels judged "inadequate" in numerous populations, and, in the absence of any strict scientific arguments, a correlation was established by certain authors between supposedly "inadequate" levels, sun exposure and risk of cancer. However, analysis of the literature shows that there is in fact no precise and consensual definition of normal ranges and that the notion of inadequacy was created artificially using assay techniques lacking in sensitivity and reproducibility. Photosynthesis of vitamin D can in fact be considered perfectly adequate in the majority of populations. However, greater care is needed with elderly subjects and with subjects exposed very little to sunlight. Current studies show that the means of photoprotection used in everyday life do not adversely affect such photosynthesis. In the event of documented vitamin D deficiency, oral supplements should be given, and exposure to natural or artificial UV radiation should not be prescribed. Ultraviolet radiation has been shown to be carcinogenic and responsible for the onset of most skin cancers, and the population must be warned against misleading advertising from the tanning industry. Care should also be taken with regard to the potential harmful effects of inappropriate vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitude-dependent launch window analysis for the Hubble Space Telescope Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenio, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Launch window analysis for Space Shuttle missions determines the launch times which will ensure that all payload and Shuttle requirements for the mission are met. Attitude and pointing analysis determines Shuttle Orbiter attitudes that meet various communication, viewing, and thermal requirements for the Orbiter and its payloads. Historically, launch window analysis and attitude and pointing analysis for Shuttle missions have been done separately, without directly influencing each other. However, methods have been developed to consider simultaneously dependencies between launch window and attitude and pointing requirements if they arise. These methods were developed from the launch window analysis for STS-31, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) deployment mission. To release the HST, the Orbiter attitude had to remain inertially fixed while pointing the HST at the Sun. The Orbiter release attitude and the HST release time were determined from the position of the Sun and varied with launch time and launch date. The launch window analysis for STS-31 centered on how to determine the range of launch times for a given launch date that would allow the Shuttle to release the HST and simultaneously satisfy communication, attitude, and lighting requirements for the deployment operations. Discussed here are how the HST deployment requirements determined the launch window and how the Orbiter release attitude affected the launch window.

  2. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijn, Alfred; Lites, B.; Berger, T.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Hinode Team

    2007-05-01

    We study strong flux elements in the quiet sun in the context of the nature of quiet-sun magnetism, its coupling to chromospheric, transition-region and coronal fields, and the nature of a local turbulent dynamo. Strong, kilogauss flux elements show up intermittently as small bright points in G-band and Ca II H images. Although bright points have been extensively studied in the magnetic network, internetwork magnetism has only come under scrutiny in recent years. A full spectrum of field strengths seems to be ubiquitously present in the internetwork at small spatial scales, with the stronger elements residing in intergranular lanes. De Wijn et al. (2005) found that bright points in quiet sun internetwork areas appear recurrently with varying intensity and horizontal motion within long-lived patches that outline cell patterns on mesogranular scales. They estimate that the "magnetic patches" have a mean lifetime of nine hours, much longer than granular timescales. We use multi-hour sequences of G-band and Ca II H images as well as magnetograms recorded by the Hinode satellite to follow up on their results. The larger field of view, the longer sequences, the addition of magnetograms, and the absence of atmospheric seeing allows us to better constrain the patch lifetime, to provide much improved statistics on IBP lifetime, to compare IBPs to network bright points, and to study field polarity of IBPs in patches and between nearby patches. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, build and operation of the mission.

  3. Bullen Reading Attitude Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Gertrude F.

    The Bullen Reading Attitude Measure (BRAM) is an instrument that was developed to serve as a diagnostic aid in assessing reading attitudes of elementary school children in grades one through six. The objectives of the test are to measure the subject's attitude toward reading at home or school, visiting the library, owning and buying books,…

  4. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].

  5. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  6. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  7. Dual Axis Light Sensor for Tracking Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miki; Tambo, Toyokazu

    We have developed convenient light sensors to control a platform of solar cell panel. Dual axis light sensor in the present paper has structure of 5 PD (photodiode) light sensor which is composed of 5 photodiodes attached on a frustum of pyramid(1). Light source can be captured in front of the sensor by rotating the X and Y axis as decreasing the output deviation between two pairs of outside photodiodes. We here report the mechanism of sun tacking using the dual axis 5 PD light sensor and the fundamental results performed in the dark room.

  8. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  9. Selective factors in sun-weather research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the correlations between solar wind/IMF disturbances and subsequent winter troposphere vorticity changes (denoted SV) are reviewed to investigate sun-weather relationships. Uncertainties in the research attempting to link short-term solar variations and associated changes in the lower atmosphere are discussed, and it is noted that such analyses have generally not addressed either the choice of parameters or the selective factors involved in the physical relationships existing between parameters. It is suggested that the identification of a viable mechanism scenario would require a detailed multiparameter selective factor analysis, extending to the investigation of the atmospheric data as well as the solar wind/IMF parameters.

  10. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Businger, S

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed.

  11. Sunscreen use related to UV exposure, age, sex, and occupation based on personal dosimeter readings and sun-exposure behavior diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Sandby-Møller, Jane; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2005-08-01

    To examine during what behaviors people apply sunscreen and to assess the relationship to UV exposure monitored by personal dosimetry and diaries. Open prospective observational study. University hospital. A convenience sample of 340 Danish volunteers: children, adolescents, indoor workers, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners (age range, 4-68 years). Intervention Subjects recorded sunscreen use and sun-exposure behavior in diaries and carried personal, electronic UV dosimeters, measuring time-stamped UV doses continuously, during a median of 119 days covering 346 sun-years (1 sun-year equals 1 subject participating during 1 summer season). Associations between sunscreen use and age, sex, skin type, occupation, sunburn, UV exposure doses, and behavior; and adequate application density and sun protection factor required to prevent sunburn. There were great variations in sunscreen use, which was highly correlated with risk behavior (sunbathing or exposing the upper body) (r = 0.39; P<.001). Sunscreens were used on a median of 5 days per sun-year (range, 1 day for gardeners to 16 days for sun worshippers). Ten percent of females and 41% of males never used sunscreens. Females used sunscreens more but also had more unprotected risk behavior than males (8 days vs 4 days; P<.001). Sunscreen use was not correlated with age, and children had as much unprotected risk behavior as adults. Sunscreens were used on 86% of the days with risk behavior in southern Europe vs 20% in northern Europe (P<.001). The UV doses were significantly higher on days with sunscreen (P< or = .03) and on sunburn days (P<.001). The median sun protection factor was 10.5. The sun-protecting effect corresponded to an application density of 0.5 mg/cm2. Days with sunscreen correlated not with days without risk behavior, but with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan," indicating that sunscreens were used as tanning aids to avoid sunburn.

  12. Consumer protection and grocery

    OpenAIRE

    Sklář, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with consumer protection and grocery section regulations. It's objective is to evaluate whether grocery stores stick to law while selling food and to analyze attitudes and behavior of consumers. The theoretical part deals with definition of consumer and other related concepts and with obligations of food sellers and consumer rights. The practical part consists of three parts that contain expert commentary, own research performed through grocery stores and survey tak...

  13. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  14. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  15. Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun, primarily composed of ionized hydrogen and helium, has a surface temperature of 5777~K and a radius $R_\\odot \\approx 696,000$ km. In the outer $R_\\odot/3$, energy transport is accomplished primarily by convection. Using typical convective velocities $u\\sim100\\,\\rm{m\\,s^{-1}}$ and kinematic viscosities of order $10^{-4}$ m$^{2}$s$^{-1}$, we obtain a Reynolds number $Re \\sim 10^{14}$. Convection is thus turbulent, causing a vast range of scales to be excited. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, of the convecting fluid is very low, of order $10^{-7}$\\,--\\,$10^{-4}$, so that the Rayleigh number ($\\sim Re^2 Pr$) is on the order of $10^{21}\\,-\\,10^{24}$. Solar convection thus lies in extraordinary regime of dynamical parameters, highly untypical of fluid flows on Earth. Convective processes in the Sun drive global fluid circulations and magnetic fields, which in turn affect its visible outer layers ("solar activity") and, more broadly, the heliosphere ("space weather"). The precise determination of the depth of sola...

  16. Exoplanets Clue to Sun's Curious Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    A ground-breaking census of 500 stars, 70 of which are known to host planets, has successfully linked the long-standing "lithium mystery" observed in the Sun to the presence of planetary systems. Using ESO's successful HARPS spectrograph, a team of astronomers has found that Sun-like stars that host planets have destroyed their lithium much more efficiently than "planet-free" stars. This finding does not only shed light on the lack of lithium in our star, but also provides astronomers with a very efficient way of finding stars with planetary systems. "For almost 10 years we have tried to find out what distinguishes stars with planetary systems from their barren cousins," says Garik Israelian, lead author of a paper appearing this week in the journal Nature. "We have now found that the amount of lithium in Sun-like stars depends on whether or not they have planets." Low levels of this chemical element have been noticed for decades in the Sun, as compared to other solar-like stars, and astronomers have been unable to explain the anomaly. The discovery of a trend among planet-bearing stars provides a natural explanation to this long-standing mystery. "The explanation of this 60 year-long puzzle is for us rather simple," adds Israelian. "The Sun lacks lithium because it has planets." This conclusion is based on the analysis of 500 stars, including 70 planet-hosting stars. Most of these stars were monitored for several years with ESO's High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher. This spectrograph, better known as HARPS, is attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope and is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. "This is the best possible sample available to date to understand what makes planet-bearing stars unique," says co-author Michel Mayor. The astronomers looked in particular at Sun-like stars, almost a quarter of the whole sample. They found that the majority of stars hosting planets possess less than 1% of the amount of lithium shown by most of the other stars

  17. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES Bruce William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3″ size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  18. Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

  19. Two sun-like superflare stars rotating as slow as the Sun*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Daisaku; Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two "superflare stars," KIC 9766237 and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have recently been discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 d on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have rotation periods of 21.8 d and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairly high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not detect any hint of binarity in our spectra, although more data are needed to firmly rule out the presence of an unseen low-mass companion. These results claim that the spectroscopic properties of these superflare stars are very close to those of the Sun, and support the hypothesis that the Sun might cause a superflare.

  20. Satellite Attitude Determination with Low-Cost Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, John C.

    This dissertation contributes design and data processing techniques to maximize the accuracy of low-cost attitude determination systems while removing pre-flight calibration requirements. This enables rapid development of small spacecraft to perform increasingly complex missions. The focus of this work is magnetometers and sun sensors, which are the two most common types of attitude sensors. Magnetometer measurements are degraded by the magnetic fields of nearby electronics, which traditionally limit their utility on satellites unless a boom is used to provide physical separation between the magnetometer and the satellite. This dissertation presents an on-orbit, attitude-independent method for magnetometer calibration that mitigates the effect of nearby electronics. With this method, magnetometers can be placed anywhere within the spacecraft, and as demonstrated through application to flight data, the accuracy of the integrated magnetometer is reduced to nearly that of the stand-alone magnetometer. Photodiodes are light sensors that can be used for sun sensing. An individual photodiode provides a measurement of a single sun vector component, and since orthogonal photodiodes do not provide sufficient coverage due to photodiode field-of-view limitations, there is a tradeoff between photodiode orientation and sun sensing angular accuracy. This dissertation presents a design method to optimize the photodiode configuration for sun sensing, which is also generally applicable to directional sensors. Additionally, an on-orbit calibration method is developed to estimate the photodiode scale factors and orientation, which are critical for accurate sun sensing. Combined, these methods allow a magnetometer to be placed anywhere within a spacecraft and provide an optimal design technique for photodiode placement. On-orbit calibration methods are formulated for both types of sensors that correct the sensor errors on-orbit without requiring pre-flight calibration. The calibration

  1. Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer attitude control electronics box design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, K.; Clagett, C.; Correll, T.; Gruner, T.; Quinn, T.; Shiflett, L.; Schnurr, R.; Wennersten, M.; Frederick, M.; Fox, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The attitude Control Electronics (ACE) Box is the center of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) for the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite. This unit is the single point interface for all of the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) related sensors and actuators. Commands and telemetry between the SAMPEX flight computer and the ACE Box are routed via a MIL-STD-1773 bus interface, through the use of an 80C85 processor. The ACE Box consists of the flowing electronic elements: power supply, momentum wheel driver, electromagnet driver, coarse sun sensor interface, digital sun sensor interface, magnetometer interface, and satellite computer interface. In addition, the ACE Box also contains an independent Safehold electronics package capable of keeping the satellite pitch axis pointing towards the sun. The ACE Box has dimensions of 24 x 31 x 8 cm, a mass of 4.3 kg, and an average power consumption of 10.5 W. This set of electronics was completely designed, developed, integrated, and tested by personnel at NASA GSFC. SAMPEX was launched on July 3, 1992, and the initial attitude acquisition was successfully accomplished via the analog Safehold electronics in the ACE Box. This acquisition scenario removed the excess body rates via magnetic control and precessed the satellite pitch axis to within 10 deg of the sun line. The performance of the SAMPEX ACS in general and the ACE Box in particular has been quite satisfactory.

  2. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  3. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Naomi; Geldenhuys, Sian; Gorman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight) reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity) affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial. PMID:27727191

  4. Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Fleury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant burden on global healthcare due to its high prevalence and associations with chronic health conditions. In our animal studies, ongoing exposure to low dose ultraviolet radiation (UVR, found in sunlight reduced weight gain and the development of signs of cardiometabolic dysfunction in mice fed a high fat diet. These observations suggest that regular exposure to safe levels of sunlight could be an effective means of reducing the burden of obesity. However, there is limited knowledge around the nature of associations between sun exposure and the development of obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction, and we do not know if sun exposure (independent of outdoor activity affects the metabolic processes that determine obesity in humans. In addition, excessive sun exposure has strong associations with a number of negative health consequences such as skin cancer. This means it is very important to “get the balance right” to ensure that we receive benefits without increasing harm. In this review, we detail the evidence around the cardiometabolic protective effects of UVR and suggest mechanistic pathways through which UVR could be beneficial.

  5. General Attitude Control Algorithm for Spacecraft Equipped with Star Camera and Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    A configuration consisting of a star camera, four reaction wheels and magnetorquers for momentum unloading has become standard for many spacecraft missions. This popularity has motivated numerous agencies and private companies to initiate work on the design of an imbedded attitude control system...... realized on an integrated circuit. This paper considers two issues: slew maneuver with a feature of avoiding direct exposure of the camera's CCD chip to the Sun %, three-axis attitude control and optimal control torque distribution in a reaction wheel assembly. The attitude controller is synthesized...

  6. Attitude of Lithuanian residents to confidentiality of adolescent sexual and reproductive health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Lazarus, Jeff; Zaborskis, Apolinaras

    2011-01-01

    To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents.......To assess the attitudes of Lithuanian residents towards the protection of confidentiality in the sexual and reproductive health care of adolescents....

  7. Perry, Kelvin, and the age of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    Lord Kelvin argued that the Sun had to be between 20 and 100 million years old, based on the assumption that the Sun's energy source was gravitational contraction. As everyone now knows, the Sun's actual power source is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. But Kelvin's number is based on a physical assumption for which he could give no justification: the Sun's density is approximately constant. Had Kelvin assumed instead that the Sun had a small core near a black hole radius - an assumption allowed by the knowledge of physicists at the end of the nineteenth century - he would have obtained an age for the Sun as long as 10 trillion years, completely consistent with the long time scale required for evolution. Conversely, had Kelvin accepted the geologists' time scale, he would have been forced to acknowledge the existence of very dense objects, making it easier for twentieth century astronomers to accept the existence of black holes and neutron stars.

  8. Scalar model of SU(N) glueball \\`a la Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Nonperturbative model of glueball is studied. The model is based on the nonperturbative quantization technique suggested by Heisenberg. 2- and 4-point Green functions for a gauge potential are expressed in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field describes quantum fluctuations of a subgroup $SU(n) \\subset SU(N)$, and the second one describes quantum fluctuations of coset $SU(N) / SU(n)$. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields is obtained. The coefficients for all terms in the Lagrangian are calculated, and it is shown that they depend on $\\dim SU(n), \\dim SU(N)$. It is demonstrated that spherically symmetric solution describing the glueball does exist.

  9. Sun One Portal Server体系架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇泉

    2003-01-01

    目前,门户市场上存在着国内外多种多样的产品,本文主要介绍Sun公司的Sun ONE Portal Servero Sun ONE Portal Server到目前为止,在全球拥有400多个客户,分布于金融、电信、政府、汽车、制造、教育等行业。Sun ONE Portal Server是Sun ONE的重要组成部分。首先,让我们来看看Sun ONE(Sun Open Net Environment)的

  10. Attitude Exploration Using Factor Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Raghuvanshi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Attitude is a psychological variable that contains positive or negative evaluation about people or an environment. The growing generation possesses learning skills, so if positive attitude is inculcated at the right age, it might therefore become habitual. Students in the age group 14-20 years from the city of Bikaner, India, are the target population for this study. An inventory of 30Likert-type scale statements was prepared in order to measure attitude towards the environment and matters related to conservation. The primary data is collected though a structured questionnaire, using cluster sampling technique and analyzed using the IBM SPSS 23 statistical tool. Factor analysis is used to reduce 30 variables to a smaller number of more identifiable groups of variables. Results show that students “need more regulation and voluntary participation to protect the environment”, “need conservation of water and electricity”, “are concerned for undue wastage of water”, “need visible actions to protect the environment”, “need strengthening of the public transport system”, “are a little bit ignorant about the consequences of global warming”, “want prevention of water pollution by industries”, “need changing of personal habits to protect the environment”, and “don’t have firsthand experience of global warming”. Analysis revealed that nine factors obtained could explain about 58.5% variance in the attitude of secondary school students towards the environment in the city of Bikaner, India. The remaining 39.6% variance is attributed to other elements not explained by this analysis. A global campaign for improvement in attitude about environmental issues and its utility in daily lives may boost positive youth attitudes, potentially impacting worldwide. A cross-disciplinary approach may be developed by teaching along with other related disciplines such as science, economics, and social studies etc.

  11. Radiation Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radiation Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Radiation Protection Document Library View and download EPA radiation ...

  12. Interstellar Dust Close to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C

    2012-01-01

    The low density interstellar medium (ISM) close to the Sun and inside of the heliosphere provides a unique laboratory for studying interstellar dust grains. Grain characteristics in the nearby ISM are obtained from observations of interstellar gas and dust inside of the heliosphere and the interstellar gas towards nearby stars. Comparison between the gas composition and solar abundances suggests that grains are dominated by olivines and possibly some form of iron oxide. Measurements of the interstellar Ne/O ratio by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft indicate that a high fraction of interstellar oxygen in the ISM must be depleted onto dust grains. Local interstellar abundances are consistent with grain destruction in ~150 km/s interstellar shocks, provided that the carbonaceous component is hydrogenated amorphous carbon and carbon abundances are correct. Variations in relative abundances of refractories in gas suggest variations in the history of grain destruction in nearby ISM. The large observed ...

  13. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  14. Coronal Mass Ejections: From Sun to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are gigantic expulsions of magnetized plasmas from the solar corona into the interplanetary (IP) space. CMEs spawn ~ 1015 gr of mass and reach speeds ranging between several hundred to a few thousand km/s (e.g., Gopalswamy et al. 2009; Vourlidas et al. 2010). It takes 1-5 days for a CME to reach Earth. CMEs are one of the most energetic eruptive manifestations in the solar system and are major drivers of space weather via their magnetic fields and energetic particles, which are accelerated by CME-driven shocks. In this review we give a short account of recent, mainly observational, results on CMEs from the STEREO and SDO missions which include the nature of their pre-eruptive and eruptive configurations and the CME propagation from Sun to Earth. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting capabilities in CME studies that will soon become available from new solar and heliospheric instrumentation.

  15. An Encounter between the Sun and Venus

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The astronomical event of the year will take place on Tuesday, 8 June, when Venus transits across the disk of the sun. In the framework of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations, the CERN Astronomy Club and the Orion Club invite you to attend their observation of the event on the car park of the Val-Thoiry shopping centre (France) between 7.15 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Various instruments will be set up in a special tent so that the event can be observed without any risk of damage to the eyes. As the observation of this astronomical event will depend on the weather forecast, confirmation of the above arrangements will be given on the 50th anniversary website the day before.

  16. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  17. Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.

  18. Substructure of Quiet Sun Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Andic, Aleksandra; Goode, Phillip R

    2010-01-01

    Since photospheric bright points (BPs) were first observed, there has been a question as to how are they structured. Are they just single flux tubes or a bundle of the flux-tubes? Surface photometry of the quiet Sun (QS) has achieved resolution close to 0.1" with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This resolution allowed us to detect a richer spectrum of BPs in the QS. The smallest BPs we observed with TiO 705.68 nm were 0.13", and we were able to resolve individual components in some of the BPs clusters and ribbons observed in the QS, showing that they are composed of the individual BPs. Average size of observed BPs was 0.22".

  19. Cartography of the sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of the surface of stars requires diverse skills, analysis techniques and advanced modeling, i.e. the collaboration of scientists in various specialties. This volume gives insights into new techniques allowing for the first time to obtain resolved images of stars. It takes stock of what has been achieved so far in Chile, on the ESO VLTI instrument or, in the States, on the CHARA instrument. In recent times interferometry, combined with adaptive optics has allowed to reconstruct images of stars. Besides the Sun (of course) by now five stars have been resolved in detail. In addition to interferometry, this book highlights techniques used for mapping the surfaces of stars using photometry made by space observatories; Zeeman- and Doppler Imaging; mapping the surface element abundances via spectroscopy. This book will also take stock of the best images of the  solar surface, made by connecting the differential rotation to the underlying physical parameters derived from helioseismology. Recent measureme...

  20. Sun Exposure Guidelines and Serum Vitamin D Status in Denmark: The StatusD Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Hansen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known on how vitamin D status is affected by adherence to UVB-limiting sun exposure guidelines. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between adherence to the Danish sun exposure guidelines and vitamin D status. In total, 3194 Danes (2625 adults, 569 children were recruited among the general population, and more than 92% had blood samples taken both autumn and spring. Using linear regression, we associated serum vitamin D concentrations to questionnaire responses on: seeking shade, wearing a sunhat, wearing protective clothing or using sunscreen. The odds ratio (OR of either low (<25 or 50 nmol/L or adequate/high (≥50 nmol/L vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. For adults, those who always sought shade or wore protective clothing compared to those who did not had lower levels of vitamin D (autumn concentrations for shade: 7.2 nmol/L lower (−11.0–−3.6 nmol/L; for protective clothing: 9.9 nmol/L lower (−13.6–−6.2 nmol/L. Adherence to all four guidelines was also associated with lower vitamin D concentrations (autumn: 9.7 nmol/L lower (−14.3–−5.1 nmol/L. Use of sunscreen was associated with adequate vitamin D status, as those who always sought shade compared to those who did not had an OR (95% CI of 1.68 (1.25–2.35 of having ≥50 nmol/L during both spring and autumn. No associations were found with wearing a sunhat, and there were no clear associations for children. In conclusion, adherence to the sun exposure guidelines on shade and protective clothing was associated with lower vitamin D status among Danish adults, but not children.

  1. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.

  2. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  3. The Sun Dance and the Gustafsen Lake Standoff: Healing Through Resistance and the Danger of Dismissing Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Shrubsole

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The revitalization and renewal of traditional indigenous spiritual practices have produced new forms of indigenous religiosity rooted in experience, contact and combination. This paper examines the contemporary Sun Dance, a traditional healing ritual that seeks to address pain and sickness in indigenous communities through religious practice. For some Sun Dancers in both the United States and Canada who seek freedom for indigenous peoples through radical political activism, the Sun Dance has provided courage, validity anddeeper meaning in their endeavours. However, when a highly politicized form of the ritual emerged in the non-traditional region of the British Columbia interior at Gustafsen Lake, it led the media, the state, and local elected First Nations leadership to dismiss the ritual as fraudulent. As demonstrated below, a failure to protect sacred sites and ceremonies and to understand the embodied spiritualities that accompany them can lead to violence between religious communities and the state.

  4. Attitude determination of planetary exploration rovers using solar panels characteristics and accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we propose a new attitude determination system, which we call Irradiance-based Attitude Determination (IRAD). IRAD employs the characteristics and geometry of solar panels. First, the sun vector is estimated using data from solar panels including current, voltage, temperature, and the normal vectors of each solar panel. Because these values are obtained using internal sensors, it is easy for rovers to provide redundancy for IRAD. The normal vectors are used to apply to various shapes of rovers. Second, using the gravity vector obtained from an accelerometer, the attitude of a rover is estimated using a three-axis attitude determination method. The effectiveness of IRAD is verified through numerical simulations and experiments that show IRAD can estimate all the attitude angles (roll, pitch, and yaw) within a few degrees of accuracy, which is adequate for planetary explorations.

  5. Cockpit management attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R L

    1984-10-01

    Distinctions are drawn between personality traits and attitudes. The stability of the personality and the malleability of attitudes are stressed. These concepts are related to pilot performance, especially in the areas of crew coordination and cockpit resource management. Airline pilots were administered a Cockpit Management Attitudes questionnaire; empirical data from that survey are reported and implications of the data for training in crew coordination are discussed.

  6. A Model for Protective Behavior against the Harmful Effects of Radiation based on Medical Institution Classifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok; Kwon, Deok Mun [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Moo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This study surveyed a total of 1,322 radiation technologist in health care institutions throughout Korea. This is a comparative study conducted on the levels of protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation in heath care institutions which indicated that university hospitals and general hospitals showed higher level of protective behavior than for medical practitioners. This study found university hospitals have the following 7 characteristics to manage protective behavior against the harmful effects of radiation, protective environment, self-efficacy by distinction of task , self-efficacy, expectation of the protective behavior, the number of patients, level of the education related to the protection of the harmful effects of radiation and protective attitude. While general hospitals have the following 3 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior and protective attitude. Hospitals have the following 4 characteristics protective environment, expectation of the protective behavior, protective attitude and self-efficacy and medical clinics have characteristics protective environment.

  7. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. I. Makarov; A. G. Tlatov

    2000-09-01

    A possible scenario of polar magnetic field reversal of the Sun during the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) is discussed using data of magnetic field reversals of the Sun for 1880-1991 and the 14C content variations in the bi-annual rings of the pine-trees in 1600-1730 yrs.

  8. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  9. Sun avoidance strategies at the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David R.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wallace, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope observatory is extending its night time operation to the day time. A sun avoidance strategy was therefore implemented in the control system in real-time to avoid excessive heating and damage to the secondary mirror and the prime focus. The LMT uses an "on-the-fly" trajectory generator that receives as input the target location of the telescope and in turn outputs a commanded position to the servo system. The sun avoidance strategy is also implemented "on-the-fly" where it intercepts the input to the trajectory generator and alters that input to avoid the sun. Two sun avoidance strategies were explored. The first strategy uses a potential field approach where the sun is represented as a high-potential obstacle in the telescope's workspace and the target location is represented as a low-potential goal. The potential field is repeatedly calculated as the sun and the telescope move and the telescope follows the induced force by this field. The second strategy is based on path planning using visibility graphs where the sun is represented as a polygonal obstacle and the telescope follows the shortest path from its actual position to the target location via the vertices of the sun's polygon. The visibility graph approach was chosen as the favorable strategy due to the efficiency of its algorithm and the simplicity of its computation.

  10. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  11. Wien's Law and the Temperature of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Mark L.; Katz, Debora M.; Aho, Robert; Diaz-Barriga, James; Petron, Jerome

    2002-10-01

    A simple approach is used in an attempt to determine the temperature of the sun by modeling the sun as a blackbody radiator and applying Wein's Law. Apparently excellent results are obtained, but the results are false as a consequence of two corrections which cancel out.

  12. Mr. Sun Laiyan Appointed as Administrator of CNSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced on April 23, 2004 that Mr. Sun Laiyan was appointed to be the Administrator of China National Space Administration (CNSA). Mr. Luan Enjie was announced to retire from the office. Mr. Sun Laiyan, born in October 1957, graduated from Xian Communication

  13. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    A number of species of sun and shade plants in the vegetative phase were grown in different light intensities, different light qualities (r/fr ratio) and different combinations of light intensity and nutrient supply. Sun and shade species were also grown at various plant densities and in interspecif

  14. Towards label-free evaluation of oxidative stress in human skin exposed to sun filters (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Sam; Wang, Hequn; Suita, Yusuke; Roider, Elisabeth; Fisher, David E.; Evans, Conor L.

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma, is the most common form of cancer in North America. Paradoxically, skin cancer incidence is steadily on the rise even despite the growing use of sunscreens over the past decades. One potential explanation for this discrepancy involves the sun filters in sunscreen, which are responsible for blocking harmful ultraviolet radiation. It is proposed that these agents may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the site of application, thereby generating oxidative stress in skin that gives rise to genetic mutations, which may explain the rising incidence of skin cancer. To test this hypothesis, ex vivo human skin was treated with five common chemical sun filters (avobenzone, octocrylene, homosalate, octisalate, and oxybenzone) as well as two physical sun filters (zinc oxide compounds), both with and without UV irradiation. To non-invasively evaluate oxidative stress, two-photon excitation fluorescence (2PEF) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of the skin samples were used to monitor levels of NADH and FAD, two key cofactors in cellular redox metabolism. The relative redox state of the skin was assessed based on the fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of these endogenous cofactors. While the sun filters were indeed shown to have a protective effect from UV radiation, it was observed that they also generate oxidative stress in skin, even in the absence of UV light. These results suggest that sun filter induced ROS production requires more careful study, especially in how these reactive species impact the rise of skin cancer.

  15. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  16. Protection from Ultraviolet Radiation during Childhood: The Parental Perspective in Bavaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefeller, Olaf; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B.

    2016-01-01

    During childhood, parents play a vital role in sun protection of their children. Their guidance is essential for avoiding excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a risk factor for developing skin cancer in later life. In a population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October 2011 and February 2012, we assessed how 3281 parents implemented sun protection for their three- to six-year-old children in practice. In particular, clothing, shade-seeking behavior, wearing of sunhats and sunglasses, use of sunscreens and the amount of time spent outdoors were ascertained in two settings (beach, garden/playground). The results showed that the overall level of parental sun protection for their children in the beach setting, and to a lesser extent also in the everyday outdoor setting, is relatively high. Using sunscreens with a high sun protection factor and instructing children to wear a sunhat were very common. Lesser attention was paid to sun-protective clothing, seeking the shade and wearing sunglasses. The amount of time spent outdoors during summer days was high. Therefore, the recommendation to completely avoid sun exposure during peak UV times around noon during summertime needs to be reinforced. In addition, the observed difference in the protective behavior between the beach and an everyday outdoor setting points to the necessity to encourage better sun protection for children also in outdoor activities of daily living. PMID:27754448

  17. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  18. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    This paper looked at one aspect of societal attitudes towards vocational education by conducting a survey ... services in Nigeria. Key Words: Parental Attitude, Vocational Education, Counselling, skill .... Some were 4 scale attitude questions ...

  19. Exotic World Blisters Under the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept shows a Jupiter-like planet soaking up the scorching rays of its nearby 'sun.' NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope used its heat-seeking infrared eyes to figure out that a gas-giant planet like the one depicted here is two-faced, with one side perpetually in the cold dark, and the other forever blistering under the heat of its star. The illustration portrays how the planet would appear to infrared eyes, showing temperature variations across its surface. The planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, was first discovered in 1996 around the star Upsilon Andromedae, located 40 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. This star also has two other planets orbiting farther out. Upsilon Andromedae b is what's known as a 'hot-Jupiter' planet, because it is made of gas like our Jovian giant, and it is hot, due to its tight, 4.6-day-long jaunt around its star. The toasty planet orbits at one-sixth the distance of Mercury from our own sun. It travels in a plane that is seen neither edge- nor face-on from our solar system, but somewhere in between. Scientists do not know how fast Upsilon Andromedae b is spinning on its axis, but they believe that it is tidally locked to its star, just as our locked moon forever hides its 'dark side' from Earth's view. Spitzer observed Upsilon Andromedae b at five points during the planet's trip around its star. The planet's light levels went up or down, as detected by Spitzer, depending on whether the planet's sunlit or dark side was pointed toward Earth. These data indicate that the temperature difference between the two hemispheres of the planet is about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). According to astronomers, this means that the side of the planet that faces the star is always as hot as lava, while the other side could potentially be as cold as ice. Specifically, the hot side of the planet ranges from about 1,400 to 1,650 degrees Celsius (2,550 to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and the cold side from about

  20. Epistemics and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Anand

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distribution of epistemic modals in attitude contexts in three Romance languages, as well as their potential interaction with mood selection. We show that epistemics can appear in complements of attitudes of acceptance (Stalnaker 1984, but not desideratives or directives; in addition, emotive doxastics (hope, fear and dubitatives (doubt permit epistemic possibility modals, but not their necessity counterparts. We argue that the embedding differences across attitudes indicate that epistemics are sensitive to the type of attitude an attitude predicate reports. We show that this sensitivity can be derived by adopting two types of proposals from the literature on epistemic modality and on attitude verbs: First, we assume that epistemics do not target knowledge uniformly, but rather quantify over an information state determined by the content of the embedding attitude (Hacquard 2006, 2010, Yalcin 2007. In turn, we adopt a fundamental split in the semantics of attitude verbs between ‘representational’ and ‘non-representational’ attitudes (Bolinger 1968: representational attitudes quantify over an information state (e.g., a set of beliefs for believe, which, we argue, epistemic modals can be anaphoric to. Non-representational attitudes do not quantify over an information state; instead, they combine with their complement via a comparison with contextually-provided alternatives using a logic of preference (cf. Bolinger 1968, Stalnaker 1984, Farkas 1985, Heim 1992, Villalta 2000, 2008. Finally, we argue that emotive doxastics and dubitatives have a hybrid semantics, which combines a representational component (responsible for licensing epistemic possibility modals, and a preference component (responsible for disallowing epistemic necessity modals. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.8 BibTeX info

  1. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G.; Berwick, Marianne; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health. Melanoma and its relationship to sun exposure and sunburn is not adequately addressed in most of the scientific literature. Reports of favorable health outcomes related to adequate serum 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D supplementation have been inappropriately merged, so that benefits of sun exposure other than production of vitamin D are not adequately described. This review of recent studies and their analyses consider the risks and benefits of sun exposure which indicate that insufficient sun exposure is an emerging public health problem. This review considers the studies that have shown a wide range health benefits from sun/UV exposure. These benefits include among others various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease/dementia, myopia and macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/mL or higher in the sunny season and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D. PMID:27942349

  2. Interstellar Clouds Near the Sun, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    We propose to continue a study of interstellar sight-lines with low total column densities in order to determine the nature (temperature, density, fractional ionization) of the low density gas near the Sun and within the interior of the local superbubble. IUE data, combined with previous Copernicus observations, can be used to delimit the filling factor of nearby low density warm gas, and by default restrict the filling factor of 10^6 K plasma. In the proposed program, observations of MgI and ZnII(and in one region CIV) are combined with cloud maps and ground-based NaI observations (from a separate program) to restrict gas temperature, spatial and electron densities. The Welty et al. (1986) technique for removing fixed pattern noise through observations of a template star (used to flat-field the target stars on a pixel-by-pixel basis) is used to enable 3sigma absorption line detections at the 6-9 mA level, depending on the number of exposures involved. The ultimate goal of both the IUE and ground-based program is to map out the local interstellar medium. Apart from the intrinsic interest of this problem, it will help define regions where ultraviolet sources can be observed with FUSE/Lyman at lambda<912 A.

  3. The Chemical Composition of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Martin; Grevesse, Nicolas; Sauval, A. Jacques; Scott, Pat

    2009-09-01

    The solar chemical composition is an important ingredient in our understanding of the formation, structure, and evolution of both the Sun and our Solar System. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the solar photospheric composition. In particular, we present a redetermination of the abundances of nearly all available elements, using a realistic new three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere. We have carefully considered the atomic input data and selection of spectral lines, and accounted for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) whenever possible. The end result is a comprehensive and homogeneous compilation of the solar elemental abundances. Particularly noteworthy findings are significantly lower abundances of C, N, O, and Ne compared to the widely used values of a decade ago. The new solar chemical composition is supported by a high degree of internal consistency between available abundance indicators, and by agreement with values obtained in the Solar Neighborhood and from the most pristine meteorites. There is, however, a stark conflict with standard models of the solar interior according to helioseismology, a discrepancy that has yet to find a satisfactory resolution.

  4. Framing the Sun and Buildings as Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. S. Brownson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study frames integration of Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS with the built environment, addressing on-site limitations for resource allocation in the urban context. The Sun, buildings, and solar technologies are investigated as resource systems within Ostrom’s framework of the commons and shared governance, with associated goods (as resource units appropriated from light conversion (products of daylight, heat, power, shade, money. Light is transient and unevenly distributed across the hours of the day across the year. Building surfaces utilized to convert light into useful products such as electricity are often “area-constrained” and cannot provide total power to all occupants in urban structures. Being unevenly distributed over time and being area-constrained makes the appropriated goods from the solar resource system scarce to commercial buildings and multi-family residences. Scarce commodities require management strategies to distribute the variable returns derived from technologies such as PV and solar hot water. The balance between sustainable urban communities and limited surface area to deliver solar products to all occupants will soon drive communities to consider how the solar goods are managed and allocated. Examples demonstrate management of solar resource and associated goods through collective actions of local communities via utility sponsored models, solar gardens, and crowd-sourced investment.

  5. Supersonic Magnetic Flows in the Quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, W; Berkefeld, T; Solanki, S K; Bonet, J A; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Domingo, V; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we describe some recent observations of high-speed magnetized flows in the quiet Sun granulation. These observations were carried out with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) onboard the stratospheric balloon {\\sc Sunrise}, and possess an unprecedented spatial resolution and temporal cadence. These flows were identified as highly shifted circular polarization (Stokes $V$) signals. We estimate the LOS velocity responsible for these shifts to be larger than 6 km s$^{-1}$, and therefore we refer to them as {\\it supersonic magnetic flows}. The average lifetime of the detected events is 81.3 s and they occupy an average area of about 23\\,000 km$^2$. Most of the events occur within granular cells and correspond therefore to upflows. However some others occur in intergranular lanes or bear no clear relation to the convective velocity pattern. We analyze a number of representative examples and discuss them in terms of magnetic loops, reconnection events, and convective collapse.

  6. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  7. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  8. Saturation of Stellar Winds from Young Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Kataoka, Ryuho; Kato, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tsuneta, Saku

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged)We investigate mass losses via stellar winds from sun-like main sequence stars with a wide range of activity levels. We perform forward-type magnetohydrodynamical numerical experiments for Alfven wave-driven stellar winds with a wide range of the input Poynting flux from the photosphere. Increasing the magnetic field strength and the turbulent velocity at the stellar photosphere from the current solar level, the mass loss rate rapidly increases at first owing to the suppression of the reflection of the Alfven waves. The surface materials are lifted up by the magnetic pressure associated with the Alfven waves, and the cool dense chromosphere is intermittently extended to 10-20% of the stellar radius. The densities of the corona and transition region above the chromosphere is also high, which leads to efficient radiative losses. Eventually most of the input Poynting energy from the stellar surface escapes by the radiation. As a result, there is no more sufficient energy remained for the kinetic energy...

  9. Evaluation of Project Students are Sun Safe (SASS): A University Student-Delivered Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raeann; Loescher, Lois J; Rogers, Jillian; Spartonos, Denise; Snyder, Aimee; Koch, Stephanie; Harris, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the USA and is increasing in children and young adults. Adolescents are an important target population for sun-safety interventions with ultraviolet radiation as the strongest risk factor for developing skin cancer. Schools are an ideal setting to intervene with adolescents. A novel Arizona skin cancer prevention in-class education-activity program, Project 'Students are Sun Safe' (SASS), was designed to be delivered by university students for middle school and high school students. Participant students completed the pre- and post-program tests and a satisfaction questionnaire; teachers completed reviews. The evaluation examined the program's influence on participants' sun-safety knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors; satisfaction with the program; and intent to change. After exposure to Project SASS, participants were more likely to perceive a high risk of skin cancer, report negative attitudes toward tanned skin, and answer knowledge-based questions correctly. There were minimal differences in self-reported sun-safety behaviors, though participants did report intent to change. Both participants and teachers were satisfied with the program. Project SASS appears to be an effective sun-safety program for middle school and high school students for knowledge and perceptions, and the results confirm that appropriately tailoring program components to the target population has strong potential to impact adolescent perceived susceptibility, knowledge, and behavioral intent. The strengths and weaknesses of Project SASS have many implications for public health practice, and Project SASS may hold promise to be a model for skin cancer prevention in adolescents.

  10. Asymmetrical international attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oudenhoven, JP; Askevis-Leherpeux, F; Hannover, B; Jaarsma, R; Dardenne, B

    2002-01-01

    In general, attitudes towards nations have a fair amount of reciprocity: nations either like each other are relatively indifferent to each other or dislike each other Sometimes, however international attitudes are asymmetrical. In this study, we use social identity theory in order to explain asymmet

  11. Language Learners' Acculturation Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieyan, Vahid; Orang, Maryam; Bijami, Maryam; Nejad, Maryam Sharafi; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    Learning a language involves knowledge of both linguistic competence and cultural competence. Optimal development of linguistic competence and cultural competence, however, requires a high level of acculturation attitude toward the target language culture. To this end, the present study explored the acculturation attitudes of 70 Iranian…

  12. Pornography and Attitude Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Douglas H.; Wehmer, Gerald

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a voluntary three hour exposure to erotic pictures, some of which have been defined as being legally obscene," does not lead to a change in a person's attitudes toward such materials or in attitudes toward their censorship. (Author)

  13. Precision pointing of imaging spacecraft using gyro-based attitude reference with horizon sensor updates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Venkateswaran; P S Goel; M S Siva; P Natarajan; E Krishnakumar; N K Philip

    2004-04-01

    Remote sensing satellites are required to meet stringent pointing and drift rate requirements for imaging operations. For achieving these pointing and stability requirements, continuous and accurate three-axis attitude information is required. Inertial sensors like gyros provide continuous attitude information with better short-term stability and less random errors. However, gyro measurements are affected by drifts. Hence over time, attitudes based on the gyro reference slowly diverge from the true attitudes. On the other hand, line-of-sight (LOS) sensors like horizon sensors provide attitude information with long-term stability. Their measurements however are affected by the presence of random instrumental errors and other systematic errors. The limitations of inertial and line-of-sight sensors are mutually exclusive. Hence, by optimal fusion of attitude information from both these sensors, it is possible to retain the advantages and overcome the limitations of both, thereby providing the precise attitude information required for control. This paper describes an improved earth-pointing scheme by fusion of the threeaxis attitude information from gyros and horizon sensor roll and pitch measurements along with yaw updates from the digital sun sensor. A Kalman Filter is used to estimate the three-axis attitude by online estimation and corrections of various errors from the sensor measurements. Variations in orbit rate components are also accounted for using spacecraft position and velocity measurements from the satellite positioning system. Thus precise earth-pointing is achieved.

  14. Estimating the yaw-attitude of BDS IGSO and MEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaolei; Ge, Maorong; Lou, Yidong; Shi, Chuang; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Precise knowledge and consistent modeling of the yaw-attitude of GNSS satellites are essential for high-precision data processing and applications. As the exact attitude control mechanism for the satellites of the BeiDou Satellite Navigation System (BDS) is not yet released, the reverse kinematic precise point positioning (PPP) method was applied in our study. However, we confirm that the recent precise orbit determination (POD) processing for GPS satellites could not provide suitable products for estimating BDS attitude using the reverse PPP because of the special attitude control switching between the nominal and the orbit-normal mode. In our study, we propose a modified processing schema for studying the attitude behavior of the BDS satellites. In this approach, the observations of the satellites during and after attitude switch are excluded in the POD processing, so that the estimates, which are needed in the reverse PPP, are not contaminated by the inaccurate initial attitude mode. The modified process is validated by experimental data sets and the attitude yaw-angles of the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites are estimated with an accuracy of better than . Furthermore, the results confirm that the switch is executed when the Sun elevation is about and the actual orientation is very close to its target one. Based on the estimated yaw-angles, a preliminary attitude switch model was established and reintroduced into the POD, yielding to a substantial improvement in the orbit overlap RMS.

  15. Nursing home employee attitudes towards AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvela, P D; Moore, J R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines nursing home employee attitudes toward issues related to AIDS and is based on data collected from 343 employees from 13 nursing homes in rural, small towns in sourthern Illinois during the spring of 1988. Results suggested that a large majority of the employees had negative attitudes toward people with AIDS. For example, 67% of the sample indicated that it was more important to limit the spread of AIDS rather than to protect the rights of people with AIDS. Furthermore, 42% suggested that AIDS patients should be sent to sanitariums to protect others from AIDS. Greater than half of the sample (56%) responded that they would feel uncomfortable around people with AIDS. About one third (32%) felt that being around someone with AIDS would put their health in danger, and 21% would be afraid to even take care of a family member with AIDS. With regard to job-specific AIDS attitudes, 51% indicated that health-care workers should be able to refuse to work with AIDS patients, and another 46% felt that hospitals and nursing homes should be able to refuse to admit people with AIDS. In addition to these and other results, this article presents a brief discussion concerning possible educational strategies which might be implemented in this setting to reduce the negative attitudes of these employees. Considerations are also presented for nursing home administrators, who face the problem of developing effective policies for dealing with the rising number of AIDS patients who will be admitted to their facilities.

  16. Attitudes and persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crano, William D; Prislin, Radmila

    2006-01-01

    Study of attitudes and persuasion remains a defining characteristic of contemporary social psychology. This review outlines recent advances, with emphasis on the relevance of today's work for perennial issues. We reiterate the distinction between attitude formation and change, and show its relevance for persuasion. Single- and dual-process models are discussed, as are current views on dissonance theory. Majority and minority influence are scrutinized, with special emphasis on integrative theoretical innovations. Attitude strength is considered, and its relevance to ambivalence and resistance documented. Affect, mood, and emotion effects are reviewed, especially as they pertain to fear arousal and (un)certainty. Finally, we discuss attitude-behavior consistency, perhaps the reason for our interest in attitudes in the first place, with emphasis on self-interest and the theory of planned behavior. Our review reflects the dynamism and the reach of the area, and suggests a sure and sometimes rapid accumulation of knowledge and understanding.

  17. [Impact of the women's press on the attitudes of readers toward ultraviolet radiation--a survey of law and psychology students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałajda, Karolina; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Spiewak, Radosław

    2013-08-01

    Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVA and UVB) leads to negative consequences including sunburn, carcinogenesis and photoaging. Therefore, educational campaigns promoting safe tanning and sunscreens are necessary. Helpful with this regard might be mass media including women's magazines, which for young people are important source of information on health, beauty and lifestyle. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of women's press in the attitude of non-medical students toward ultraviolet radiation (UV) as well as to analyse articles about tanning and skin protection against UV rays in selected magazines for women. The study group consisted of 68 psychology students and 60 law students (n = 128). An original author's questionnaire was used in this research, including 22 questions regarding frequency of reading articles about sunbathing, and the impact of women's press on the respondents' attitude toward suntanning. In the second part of the study 13 articles were examined from magazines "Twój Styl", "ELLE", "PANI" (years 2007-2011), which contained keywords "sun", "tanning bed", "tanning", "UV radiation". Selected articles were assessed whether they were encouraging to, or discouraging from sunbathing. A majority (63%) of respondents declared that after reading the article in women's magazines, they began to apply a sunscreen with higher SPF rate than before. Moreover, 57% refrained from using tanbeds, and 48% began to regularly check melanocytic naevi and monitor their skin after sun exposures. The analysis of the articles showed that majority of articles discouraged from the sunbathing (11 articles discouraging versus and 2 encouraging). Women's press in Poland generally promotes women's rational behavior against UV radiation and tanning.

  18. GPS/Magnetometer Based Satellite Navigation and Attitude Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack; Harman, Rick; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In recent years algorithms were developed for orbit, attitude and angular-rate determination of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites. Those algorithms rely on measurements of magnetometers, which are standard, relatively inexpensive, sensors that are normally installed on every LEO satellite. Although magnetometers alone are sufficient for obtaining the desired information, the convergence of the algorithms to the correct values of the satellite orbital parameters, position, attitude and angular velocity is very slow. The addition of sun sensors reduces the convergence time considerably. However, for many LEO satellites the sun data is not available during portions of the orbit when the spacecraft (SC) is in the earth shadow. It is here where the GPS space vehicles (SV) can provide valuable support. This is clearly demonstrated in the present paper. Although GPS measurements alone can be used to obtain SC position, velocity, attitude and angular-rate, the use of magnetometers improve the results due to the synergistic effect of sensor fusion. Moreover, it is possible to obtain these results with less than three SVs. In this paper we introduce an estimation algorithm, which is a combination of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and a Pseudo Linear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA).

  19. Catastrophic rotational braking among Sun-like stars. A model of the Sun's rotation evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoin, P.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Observations of young open clusters show a bimodal distribution of stellar rotation. In those clusters, Sun-like stars group into two main populations of fast and slow rotators. Beyond an age of approximately 600 Myr, the two populations converge towards a single sequence of slow rotators. Aims: The present study addresses the origin of this bimodal distribution and the cause of its observed evolution. Methods: New prescriptions of mass-loss rate and Alfven radius dependences on Rossby number suggested by observations are implemented in a phenomenological model of angular-momentum loss and redistribution. The obtained model is used to calculate the time evolution of a rotation-period distribution of solar-mass stars similar to that observed in the 5 Myr-old NGC 2362 open cluster. The simulated distributions at subsequent ages are compared with those of h Per, the Pleiades, M 50, M 35, and M 37. Results: The model is able to reproduce the appearance and disappearance of a bimodal rotation-period distribution in open clusters providing that a brief episode of large-angular-momentum loss is included in the early evolution of Sun-like stars. Conclusions: I argue that a transitory episode of large-angular-momentum loss occurs on Sun-like stars with Rossby numbers between 0.13 and 0.3. This phenomenon of enhanced magnetic braking by stellar wind would be mainly driven by a rapid increase of mass loss at a critical rotation rate. This scenario accounts for the bimodal distribution of stellar rotation in open clusters with ages between 20-30 Myr and approximately 600 Myr. The mass-loss rate increase could account for a significant fraction of the X-ray luminosity decay of Sun-like stars in the 0.13-0.3 Rossby number range where a transition from the saturated to the non-saturated regime of X-ray emission is observed. Observed correlations between Li abundance and rotation sequences in the Pleiades and M 34 clusters support this scenario.

  20. Quaternion normalization in spacecraft attitude determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    1993-01-01

    Attitude determination of spacecraft usually utilizes vector measurements such as Sun, center of Earth, star, and magnetic field direction to update the quaternion which determines the spacecraft orientation with respect to some reference coordinates in the three dimensional space. These measurements are usually processed by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) which yields an estimate of the attitude quaternion. Two EKF versions for quaternion estimation were presented in the literature; namely, the multiplicative EKF (MEKF) and the additive EKF (AEKF). In the multiplicative EKF, it is assumed that the error between the correct quaternion and its a-priori estimate is, by itself, a quaternion that represents the rotation necessary to bring the attitude which corresponds to the a-priori estimate of the quaternion into coincidence with the correct attitude. The EKF basically estimates this quotient quaternion and then the updated quaternion estimate is obtained by the product of the a-priori quaternion estimate and the estimate of the difference quaternion. In the additive EKF, it is assumed that the error between the a-priori quaternion estimate and the correct one is an algebraic difference between two four-tuple elements and thus the EKF is set to estimate this difference. The updated quaternion is then computed by adding the estimate of the difference to the a-priori quaternion estimate. If the quaternion estimate converges to the correct quaternion, then, naturally, the quaternion estimate has unity norm. This fact was utilized in the past to obtain superior filter performance by applying normalization to the filter measurement update of the quaternion. It was observed for the AEKF that when the attitude changed very slowly between measurements, normalization merely resulted in a faster convergence; however, when the attitude changed considerably between measurements, without filter tuning or normalization, the quaternion estimate diverged. However, when the