WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun microsystems laboratories

  1. Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Sun Microsystems, Inc. is committed to open standards,a standardization system, and sharing within the information tech nology field, focusing not only on technical innovation, but also on new ideas, practices and future development.

  2. An analysis of microsystems development at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gilbert V.; Myers, David R.

    2011-06-01

    While Sandia initially was motivated to investigate emergent microsystem technology to miniaturize existing macroscale structures, present designs embody innovative approaches that directly exploit the fundamentally different material properties of a new technology at the micro- and nano-scale. Direct, hands-on experience with the emerging technology gave Sandia engineers insights that not only guided the evolution of the technology but also enabled them to address new applications that enlarged the customer base for the new technology. Sandia's early commitment to develop complex microsystems demonstrated the advantages that early adopters gain by developing an extensive design and process tool kit and a shared awareness of multiple approaches to achieve the multiple goals. As with any emergent technology, Sandia's program benefited from interactions with the larger technical community. However, custom development followed a spiral path of direct trial-and-error experience, analysis, quantification of materials properties at the micro- and nano-scale, evolution of design tools and process recipes, and an understanding of reliability factors and failure mechanisms even in extreme environments. The microsystems capability at Sandia relied on three key elements. The first was people: a mix of mechanical and semiconductor engineers, chemists, physical scientists, designers, and numerical analysts. The second was a unique facility that enabled the development of custom technologies without contaminating mainline product deliveries. The third was the arrival of specialized equipment as part of a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) enabled by the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989. Underpinning all these, the program was guided and sustained through the research and development phases by accomplishing intermediate milestones addressing direct mission needs.

  3. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  4. Microsystem Interfaces for Space

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Microsystem interfaces to the macroscopic surroundings and within the microsystems themselves are formidable challenges that this thesis makes an effort to overcome, specifically for enabling a spacecraft based entirely on microsystems. The NanoSpace-1 nanospacecraft is a full-fledged satellite design with mass below 10 kg. The high performance with respect to mass is enabled by a massive implementation of microsystem technology – the entire spacecraft structure is built from square silicon p...

  5. Microsystem Cooler Concept Developed and Being Fabricated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2005-01-01

    A patented microsystem cooler concept has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center. It incorporates diaphragm actuators to produce the Stirling refrigeration cycle within a planar configuration compatible with the thermal management of electronics, sensors, optical and radiofrequency systems, microarrays, and other microsystems. The microsystem cooler is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is conducting development testing and fabrication of a prototype under a grant from Glenn.

  6. Biomedical microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Ellis

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionEvolution of MEMSApplications of MEMSBioMEMS ApplicationsMEMS ResourcesText Goals and OrganizationMiniaturization and ScalingBioMEMS MaterialsTraditional MEMS and Microelectronic MaterialsPolymeric Materials for MEMSBiomaterialsMicrofabrication Methods and Processes for BioMEMSIntroductionMicrolithographyDopingMicromachiningWafer Bonding, Assembly, and PackagingSurface TreatmentConversion Factors for Energy and Intensity UnitsLaboratory ExercisesMicrofluidicsIntroduction and Fluid PropertiesConcepts in MicrofluidicsFluid-Transport Phenomena and PumpingFlow ControlLaboratory Exercis

  7. Electrohydrodynamic pumping in microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Antonio, E-mail: ramos@us.es [Deptartamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012-Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    The physical principles behind the electrohydrodynamic (EHD) actuation in microsystems is presented by reviewing five different EHD micropumps. These are classified into two groups: micropumps that exert electric forces in the liquid bulk and micropumps that exert forces in the diffuse double layer. This review of five EHD micropumps allows us to analyse the EHD actuation ranging from very insulating liquids to electrolytic solutions.

  8. Hyperspectral Polymer Solar Cells, Integrated Power for Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiebitz, Paul [Rochester Institute of Technology, NY (United States)

    2014-05-27

    The purpose of this research is to address a critical technology barrier to the deployment of next generation autonomous microsystems – the availability of efficient and reliable power sources. The vast majority of research on microsystems has been directed toward the development and miniaturization of sensors and other devices that enhance their intelligence, physical, and networking capabilities. However, the research into power generating and power storage technologies has not keep pace with this development. This research leveraged the capabilities of RIT’s NanoPower Research Laboratories (NPRL) in materials for advanced lithium ion batteries, nanostructured photovoltaics, and hybrid betavoltaics to develop reliable power sources for microsystems.

  9. Microsystem Cooler Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle M.; Berhane, Bruk T.; Rebello, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    A patented microsystem Stirling cooler is under development with potential application to electronics, sensors, optical and radio frequency (RF) systems, microarrays, and other microsystems. The microsystem Stirling cooler is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Primary components of the planar device include: two diaphragm actuators that replace the pistons found in traditional-scale Stirling machines; and a micro-regenerator that stores and releases thermal energy to the working gas during the Stirling cycle. The use of diaphragms eliminates frictional losses and bypass leakage concerns associated with pistons, while permitting reversal of the hot and cold sides of the device during operation to allow precise temperature control. Three candidate microregenerators were custom fabricated for initial evaluation: two constructed of porous ceramic, and one made of multiple layers of nickel and photoresist in an offset grating pattern. An additional regenerator was prepared with a random stainless steel fiber matrix commonly used in existing Stirling machines for comparison to the custom fabricated regenerators. The candidate regenerators were tested in a piezoelectric-actuated test apparatus designed to simulate the Stirling refrigeration cycle. In parallel with the regenerator testing, electrostatically-driven comb-drive diaphragm actuators for the prototype device have been designed for deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) fabrication.

  10. Infrastructure for microsystem production

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeren, Henne; Sanchez, Stefan; Elders, Job; Heideman, Rene G.

    1999-03-01

    Manufacturing of micro-systems differs from IC manufacturing because the market requires a diversity of products and lower volumes per product. In addition, a diversity of micro-technologies has been developed, including non-IC compatible processes and potentially IC compatible processes. An infrastructure for the production of micro- system devices is lacking. On one side the technology for MST is available at the universities and small university related companies. On the other side there are several small and medium enterprises and bigger companies wanting to implement MST devices in their products, but unwilling to be dependent on universities. Philips Electronics in the Netherlands and Twente MicroProducts realized this problem and have started a project to fill this gap. At this moment the basic of the infrastructure is available: OnStream BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, opened its waferfab and assembly facilities for the production of MST devices. Twente MicroProducts will take care of the design of the products and of the small-scale production. Integration of quality systems for maintenance, yield, statistical process control and production in a Manufacturing Execution System offers direct access for all people involved to all the relevant information. It also ensures quality of the products made. The available capabilities of the infrastructure in the current status are compared to the market needs. In this article, a description of a seamless Micro-System Engineering Foundry is given. A seamless organization is capable of helping the customer from design to production. Several examples are given.

  11. Microsystems - The next big thing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STINNETT,REGAN W.

    2000-05-11

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a big name for tiny devices that will soon make big changes in everyday life and the workplace. These and other types of Microsystems range in size from a few millimeters to a few microns, much smaller than a human hair. These Microsystems have the capability to enable new ways to solve problems in commercial applications ranging from automotive, aerospace, telecommunications, manufacturing equipment, medical diagnostics to robotics, and in national security applications such as nuclear weapons safety and security, battlefield intelligence, and protection against chemical and biological weapons. This broad range of applications of Microsystems reflects the broad capabilities of future Microsystems to provide the ability to sense, think, act, and communicate, all in a single integrated package. Microsystems have been called the next silicon revolution, but like many revolutions, they incorporate more elements than their predecessors. Microsystems do include MEMS components fabricated from polycrystalline silicon processed using techniques similar to those used in the manufacture of integrated electrical circuits. They also include optoelectronic components made from gallium arsenide and other semiconducting compounds from the III-V groups of the periodic table. Microsystems components are also being made from pure metals and metal alloys using the LIGA process, which utilizes lithography, etching, and casting at the micron scale. Generically, Microsystems are micron scale, integrated systems that have the potential to combine the ability to sense light, heat, pressure, acceleration, vibration, and chemicals with the ability to process the collected data using CMOS circuitry, execute an electrical, mechanical, or photonic response, and communicate either optically or with microwaves.

  12. Implantable biomedical microsystems design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Sawan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Research and innovation in areas such as circuits, microsystems, packaging, biocompatibility, miniaturization, power supplies, remote control, reliability, and lifespan are leading to a rapid increase in the range of devices and corresponding applications in the field of wearable and implantable biomedical microsystems, which are used for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling the health conditions of the human body. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental design principles and validation for implantable microsystems, as well as several major application areas. Each co

  13. Internet-Based Laboratory Activities Designed for Studying the Sun with Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.

    1998-12-01

    Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP) is a collaborative industry, university, and K-16 project bringing fascinating and dynamic images of the Sun to the public in real-time. Partners have developed an extensive public access and educational WWW site containing more than 100 pages of vibrant images with current information that focuses on movies of the X-ray output of our Sun taken by the Yohkoh Satellite. More than 5 Gb of images and movies are available on the WWW site from the Yohkoh satellite, a joint project of the Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) and NASA. Using a movie theater motif, the site was created by teams working at Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA in the Solar and Astrophysics Research Group, the Montana State University Solar Physics Research Group, and the Montana State University Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research Group with funding from the NASA Learning Technology Project (LTP) program (NASA LTP SK30G4410R). The Yohkoh Movie Theater Internet Site is found at URL: http://www.lmsal.com/YPOP/ and mirrored at URL: http://solar.physics.montana.edu/YPOP/. In addition to being able to request automated movies for any dates in a 5 Gb on-line database, the user can view automatically updated daily images and movies of our Sun over the last 72 hours. Master science teachers working with the NASA funded Yohkoh Public Outreach Project have developed nine technology-based on-line lessons for K-16 classrooms. These interdisciplinary science, mathematics, and technology lessons integrate Internet resources, real-time images of the Sun, and extensive NASA image databases. Instructors are able to freely access each of the classroom-ready activities. The activities require students to use scientific inquiry skills and manage electronic information to solve problems consistent with the emphasis of the NRC National Science Education Standards.

  14. Development of packaging technologies for microsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yu-feng; WANG Zhen-feng; WEI Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that packaging plays a very important role in developing microsystems. Packaging accounts for about 60%~80% of cost and function of a microsystem. Package is required to provide mechanical protection, media separation or coupling, signal conditioning, etc.

  15. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  16. Microsystems technologist workforce development capacity and challenges in Central New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Thor D.

    2008-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has made major investments in microsystems-related infrastructure and research staff development over the past two decades, culminating most recently in the MESA project. These investment decisions have been made based in part upon the necessity for highly reliable, secure, and for some purposes, radiation-hardened devices and subsystems for safety and sustainability of the United States nuclear arsenal and other national security applications. SNL's microsystems development and fabrication capabilities are located almost entirely within its New Mexico site, rendering their effectiveness somewhat dependent on the depth and breadth of the local microsystems workforce. Consequently, the status and development capacity of this workforce has been seen as a key personnel readiness issue in relation to the maintenance of SNL's microsystems capabilities. For this reason SNL has supported the instantiation and development of the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education, an Advanced Technology Education center funded primarily by the National Science Foundation, in order to foster the development of local training capacity for microsystems technologists. Although the SCME and the associated Manufacturing Technology program at Central New Mexico Community College have developed an effective curriculum and graduated several highly capable microsystems technologists, the future of both the center and the degree program remain uncertain due to insufficient student enrollment. The central region of New Mexico has become home to many microsystems-oriented commercial firms. As the demands of those firms for technologists evolve, SNL may face staffing problems in the future, especially if local training capacity is lost.

  17. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  18. Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldorf, Jürgen; Gessner, Wolfgang

    Since 1995 the annual international forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been held in Berlin. The event offers a unique opportunity for microsystems component developers, system suppliers and car manufacturers to show and to discuss competing technological approaches of microsystems based solutions in vehicles. The book accompanying the event has demonstrated to be an efficient instrument for the diffusion of new concepts and technology results. The present volume including the papers of the AMAA 2005 gives an overview on the state-of-the-art and outlines imminent and mid-term R&D perspectives.

  19. Silicon carbide microsystems for harsh environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wijesundara, Muthu B J

    2011-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Microsystems for Harsh Environments reviews state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) technologies that, when combined, create microsystems capable of surviving in harsh environments, technological readiness of the system components, key issues when integrating these components into systems, and other hurdles in harsh environment operation. The authors use the SiC technology platform suite the model platform for developing harsh environment microsystems and then detail the current status of the specific individual technologies (electronics, MEMS, packaging). Additionally, methods

  20. Heterogeneously integrated microsystem-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Rajen

    2008-02-26

    A microsystem-on-a-chip comprises a bottom wafer of normal thickness and a series of thinned wafers can be stacked on the bottom wafer, glued and electrically interconnected. The interconnection layer comprises a compliant dielectric material, an interconnect structure, and can include embedded passives. The stacked wafer technology provides a heterogeneously integrated, ultra-miniaturized, higher performing, robust and cost-effective microsystem package. The highly integrated microsystem package, comprising electronics, sensors, optics, and MEMS, can be miniaturized both in volume and footprint to the size of a bottle-cap or less.

  1. Design and manufacturing of active microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Hesselbach, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the design and manufacturing of microsystems as well as necessary key technologies developed within the Collaborative Research Center 516 where the focus is on active micro systems based on the electromagnetic actuator principle.

  2. Small Antennas for Wireless Micro-Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Wansch

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the topology of wireless micro-systems networks and some of their key components. In particular we will deal with the antennas: loops, helices, F-antennas, patches and dielectrically loaded antennas.

  3. CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Here is a comprehensive examination of CMOS circuits for passive wireless microsystems. Covers design challenges, fundamental issues of ultra-low power wireless communications, radio-frequency power harvesting, and advanced design techniques, and more.

  4. High performance microsystem packaging: A perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romig, A.D. Jr.; Dressendorfer, P.V.; Palmer, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The second silicon revolution will be based on intelligent, integrated microsystems where multiple technologies (such as analog, digital, memory, sensor, micro-electro-mechanical, and communication devices) are integrated onto a single chip or within a multichip module. A necessary element for such systems is cost-effective, high-performance packaging. This paper examines many of the issues associated with the packaging of integrated microsystems, with an emphasis on the areas of packaging design, manufacturability, and reliability.

  5. European Master Programs in Nanoelectronics and Microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik; Demarchi, Danilo; Nielsen, Ivan Ring

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology and Microsystems are having increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering. The advent of nanotechnology brings about new possibilities in nanoelectronics, including increasingly complex systems on chip, sophisticated technology fusion between electronic device...... been around for a number of years. This paper presents an overview of present European programs in nanoelectronics and Microsystems. Also, the services provided for universities by the EuroTraining program1 are described....

  6. Optical MEMS at Silex Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimskog, Magnus; Kaelvesten, Edvard; Svedin, Niklas

    2004-01-01

    Silex Microsystems produces Silicon Optical Benches and Silicon Optical Mirrors for a variety of customers on an international market. The core of the activity is the MEMS chip itself and the related processes. By qualifying processes Silex provides the opportunity for clients to increase the degree of development in the MEMS cores of their products. The designs are customized in order to meet the specifications for a wide customer base with even wider demands. The Silicon Optical Benches can incorporate BCB layers in order to integrate RF-lines and make it possible to design for example coils of high performance. The polysilicon resistors have been qualified to be stable within 3-ppm over 6 months at elevated temperatures. The polysilicon temperature dependence makes it possible to use the resistors in order to measure temperature and excludes thermistors from the designs. Electrical feed through vias can be incorporated to enable backside connection and simplify packaging. The Silicon Optical Mirrors are produced both as large arrays of small mirrors and smaller arrays of larger mirrors depending on applications. Also for the mirrors the incorporations of electrical vias simplify design and process issues. The pads under the mirrors are connected from backside and it is possible to avoid difficult contacting down in cavities.

  7. New EUROPRACTICE microsystem design and foundry services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.; Beernaert, Dirk; Turner, Rob

    2000-08-01

    The microsystems market for MST is predicted to grow to 38 billion dollars by the year 2002, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of this technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities. To overcome this problem, the European Commission has started the EUROPRACTICE program in 1996 with the installation of manufacturing clusters and demonstration activities to provide access to microsystems foundry services for European small and medium sized companies (SMEs). Since 1996, there has been a shift form providing 'broad technology offers' and 'raising awareness fro microsystem capabilities' to 'direct support of design needs' and 'focused services' which allow SMEs to use even complex microsystems technologies to implement their products, The third phase of EUROPRACTICE has just been launched, and contains 5 Manufacturing Clusters, 12 Designs Houses, and 7 Competence Centers, each working in different application/technology areas. The EUROPRACTICE program will be presented together with a detail description of the capabilities of the participants and information on how to access their services.

  8. pH-Taxis of Biohybrid Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Wright Carlsen, Rika; Sitti, Metin

    2015-06-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing number of studies developing bacteria and other cell-integrated biohybrid microsystems. However, the highly stochastic motion of these microsystems severely limits their potential use. Here, we present a method that exploits the pH sensing of flagellated bacteria to realize robust drift control of multi-bacteria propelled microrobots. Under three specifically configured pH gradients, we demonstrate that the microrobots exhibit both unidirectional and bidirectional pH-tactic behaviors, which are also observed in free-swimming bacteria. From trajectory analysis, we find that the swimming direction and speed biases are two major factors that contribute to their tactic drift motion. The motion analysis of microrobots also sheds light on the propulsion dynamics of the flagellated bacteria as bioactuators. It is expected that similar driving mechanisms are shared among pH-taxis, chemotaxis, and thermotaxis. By identifying the mechanism that drives the tactic behavior of bacteria-propelled microsystems, this study opens up an avenue towards improving the control of biohybrid microsystems. Furthermore, assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

  9. Results of external review Sandia microelectronics and microsystems program (September 2004).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madision, WI); Myers, David R.

    2005-08-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic assessment of the Microsystems Program at Sandia National Laboratories. An external review of this program is held approximately every 18 months to 24 months. The report from the External Review Panel serves as the basis for Sandia's ''self assessment'' and is a specific deliverable of the governance contract between Lockheed Martin and the Department of Energy. The External Review of Microelectronics and Microsystems for Fiscal Year 2004 was held September 27-29, 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The external review panel consisted of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is included as Appendix A of the attached report. The review assessed four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science, technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as ''outstanding''. The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as ''outstanding''. Operation of a major facility was rated as ''outstanding'', and the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as ''outstanding''. Sandia's Microsystems Program thus received an overall rating of ''outstanding'' [the highest possible rating].

  10. Recent Advances in Neural Recording Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Gosselin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating pace of research in neuroscience has created a considerable demand for neural interfacing microsystems capable of monitoring the activity of large groups of neurons. These emerging tools have revealed a tremendous potential for the advancement of knowledge in brain research and for the development of useful clinical applications. They can extract the relevant control signals directly from the brain enabling individuals with severe disabilities to communicate their intentions to other devices, like computers or various prostheses. Such microsystems are self-contained devices composed of a neural probe attached with an integrated circuit for extracting neural signals from multiple channels, and transferring the data outside the body. The greatest challenge facing development of such emerging devices into viable clinical systems involves addressing their small form factor and low-power consumption constraints, while providing superior resolution. In this paper, we survey the recent progress in the design and the implementation of multi-channel neural recording Microsystems, with particular emphasis on the design of recording and telemetry electronics. An overview of the numerous neural signal modalities is given and the existing microsystem topologies are covered. We present energy-efficient sensory circuits to retrieve weak signals from neural probes and we compare them. We cover data management and smart power scheduling approaches, and we review advances in low-power telemetry. Finally, we conclude by summarizing the remaining challenges and by highlighting the emerging trends in the field.

  11. MEMS & microsystems design, manufacture, and nanoscale engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Tai-Ran

    2008-01-01

    A bestselling MEMS text...now better than ever. An engineering design approach to Microelectromechanical Systems, MEMS and Microsystems remains the only available text to cover both the electrical and the mechanical aspects of the technology. In the five years since the publication of the first edition, there have been significant changes in the science and technology of miniaturization, including microsystems technology and nanotechnology. In response to the increasing needs of engineers to acquire basic knowledge and experience in these areas, this popular text has been carefully updated, including an entirely new section on the introduction of nanoscale engineering. Following a brief introduction to the history and evolution of nanotechnology, the author covers the fundamentals in the engineering design of nanostructures, including fabrication techniques for producing nanoproducts, engineering design principles in molecular dynamics, and fluid flows and heat transmission in nanoscale substances.

  12. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  13. Energy harvesting with functional materials and microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskaran, Madhu; Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    For decades, people have searched for ways to harvest energy from natural sources. Lately, a desire to address the issue of global warming and climate change has popularized solar or photovoltaic technology, while piezoelectric technology is being developed to power handheld devices without batteries, and thermoelectric technology is being explored to convert wasted heat, such as in automobile engine combustion, into electricity. Featuring contributions from international researchers in both academics and industry, Energy Harvesting with Functional Materials and Microsystems explains the growi

  14. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have unusual, bothersome skin reactions after exposure to sunlight. For severe or persistent symptoms, you may need ... m. when the sun is brightest. Avoid sudden exposure to lots of sunlight. Many people have sun allergy symptoms when they ...

  15. Modeling Strategies for Electro-Mechanical Microsystems with Uncertainty Quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannot, S.D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Microsystems are very small sensors and actuators, manufactured with the same technology as computer chips. Well known applications of these machines are the acceleration sensors in the Wii game console and the iPhone. At the micrometer length scales of microsystems the physical forces behave diffe

  16. Reduced Dimensionality Lithium Niobate Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichenfield, Matt [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The following report describes work performed under the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories October 2014 and September 2016. The work presented demonstrates the ability of Sandia Labs to develop state-of-the-art photonic devices based on thin film lithium niobate (LiNbO3 ). Section 1 provides an introduction to integrated LiNbO3 devices and motivation for developing thin film nonlinear optical systems. Section 2 describes the design, fabrication, and photonic performance of thin film optical microdisks fabricated from bulk LiNbO3 using a bulk implantation method developed at Sandia. Sections 3 and 4 describe the development of similar thin film LiNbO3 structures fabricated from LiNbO3 on insulator (LNOI) substrates and our demonstration of optical frequency conversion with state-of-the-art efficiency. Finally, Section 5 describes similar microdisk resonators fabricated from LNOI wafers with a buried metal layer, in which we demonstrate electro-optic modulation.

  17. Robust Bioinformatics Recognition with VLSI Biochip Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Jaw-Chyng L.; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2006-01-01

    A microsystem architecture for real-time, on-site, robust bioinformatic patterns recognition and analysis has been proposed. This system is compatible with on-chip DNA analysis means such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)amplification. A corresponding novel artificial neural network (ANN) learning algorithm using new sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on error backpropagation (EBP) algorithm is invented. Our results show the trained new ANN can recognize low fluorescence patterns better than the conventional sigmoidal ANN does. A differential logarithmic imaging chip is designed for calculating logarithm of relative intensities of fluorescence signals. The single-rail logarithmic circuit and a prototype ANN chip are designed, fabricated and characterized.

  18. Cost-driven design of smart microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Today's professionals are constantly striving to create sensor technology and systems with lower cost and higher efficiency. Miniaturization and standardization have become critical drivers for cost reduction in the design and development process, giving rise to a new era of smart sensors and actuators. These devices contain more components, but normally provide significant cost savings due to wider applicability and mass production. This first-of-its-kind resource presents methods for cost optimization of smart microsystems to help you select highly cost-efficient implementation variants. Wri

  19. Microsystem design framework based on tool adaptations and library developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Jean Michel; Courtois, Bernard; Rencz, Marta; Poppe, Andras; Szekely, Vladimir

    1996-09-01

    Besides foundry facilities, Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools are also required to move microsystems from research prototypes to an industrial market. This paper describes a Computer-Aided-Design Framework for microsystems, based on selected existing software packages adapted and extended for microsystem technology, assembled with libraries where models are available in the form of standard cells described at different levels (symbolic, system/behavioral, layout). In microelectronics, CAD has already attained a highly sophisticated and professional level, where complete fabrication sequences are simulated and the device and system operation is completely tested before manufacturing. In comparison, the art of microsystem design and modelling is still in its infancy. However, at least for the numerical simulation of the operation of single microsystem components, such as mechanical resonators, thermo-elements, elastic diaphragms, reliable simulation tools are available. For the different engineering disciplines (like electronics, mechanics, optics, etc) a lot of CAD-tools for the design, simulation and verification of specific devices are available, but there is no CAD-environment within which we could perform a (micro-)system simulation due to the different nature of the devices. In general there are two different approaches to overcome this limitation: the first possibility would be to develop a new framework tailored for microsystem-engineering. The second approach, much more realistic, would be to use the existing CAD-tools which contain the most promising features, and to extend these tools so that they can be used for the simulation and verification of microsystems and of the devices involved. These tools are assembled with libraries in a microsystem design environment allowing a continuous design flow. The approach is driven by the wish to make microsystems accessible to a large community of people, including SMEs and non-specialized academic institutions.

  20. Why Study the Sun?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind Bhatnagar

    2006-06-01

    In this presentation we briefly describe the Sun through large number of illustrations and pictures of the Sun taken from early times to the present day space missions. The importance of the study of the Sun is emphasized as it is the nearest star which presents unparallelled views of surface details and numerous phenomena. Our Sun offers a unique celestial laboratory where a large variety of phenomena take place, ranging in temporal domain from a few milliseconds to several decades, in spatial domain from a few hundred kilometers to thousands of kilometers, and in the temperature domain from a few thousand degrees to several million degrees. Its mass motion ranges from thousandths to thousands of kilometers per second. Such an object provides us with a unique laboratory to study the state of matter in the Universe. The existing solar ground-based and space missions have already revealed several mysteries of the outer environment of our Sun and much more is going to come in the near future from planned new sophisticated ground-based solar telescopes and Space missions. The new technique of helioseismology has unravelled many secrets of the solar interior and has put the Standard Solar Model (SSM) on firm footing. The long-standing problem of solar neutrinos has been recently sorted out, and even the ‘back side’ view of the Sun can be seen using the technique of holographic helioseismology.

  1. Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Hart (U Mich)^ Aaron Dollar (Yale U)^ Xin Zhang (Boston U) C. T. Sun (Purdue U) Olivier Mondain-Monval (CNRS) Thomas Siegmund (Purdue U) Anna...Xin Zhang (Boston U) C. T. Sun (Purdue U) Olivier Mondain-Monval (CNRS) Thomas Siegmund (Purdue U) Anna Balazs (U Pitt) Nicole Zacharia (Texas A&M

  2. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  3. Aztec Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    The Aztec Sun Stone is a revered Mexican artifact. It is said to be perhaps the most famous symbol of Mexico, besides its flag. It primarily depicts the four great disasters that led to the migration of the Mexica people to modern-day Mexico City. The Aztec Sun Stone also contains pictographs depicting the way the Mexica measured time, and was…

  4. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  5. [Manufacture of diamond blades via microsystem technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraul, Christoph W; Ertl, Stephan; Strobel, Stefan; Gretzschel, Ralph; Schirmer, Enrico; Rösch, Rudolf; Lingenfelder, Christian; Lang, Gerhard K

    2003-04-01

    The application of diamond knives has steadily increased in ophthalmic surgery. However, the geometry of the blade, its thickness and the sharpness of the cutting edge are limited by the abrasive diamond polishing process, e. g. the crystalline morphology of the bulk material and the grinding powder used. A new generation of diamond blades is presented herewith allowing free choice of blade shape and thickness and possessing excellent sharpness due to a new polishing process. The new production method is based on a high-quality CVD (chemical vapour deposition) diamond film of some tenths of microns thickness, deposited on a silicon wafer as microchip technology. The mechanical properties of this synthetic diamond film are almost equal to those of a natural diamond and the surface of this film is mirror-like after deposition without requiring post-polishing. The shape of the blade can be freely defined and is transferred into the diamond film by a plasma polishing process adopted from microsystem technology. The new production method results in highly reproducible diamond blades. Concave blades and round shapes can now be realised without the restrictions of the conventional production process. The force-free fabrication method even allows realisation of miniaturized blades (e. g. width production. Plasma polishing by means of gas atoms results in extreme sharpness with the cutting edge radius in the range of approx. 3 nm. Utilising microsystem technology we were able to manufacture reproducible artificial diamond blades. The new process offers for the first time surgeons a possibility of designing blades with a geometry close to their personal needs. Furthermore, the potential of facet-free ergonomically shaped diamond blades may stimulate further improvements towards novel surgical techniques.

  6. Microsystems Engineering of Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , mechanics and fluidics, have to be miniaturized. In this book we will discuss the different aspects of (bio)chemical microsystem development, which are simulation, design, materials, microfabrication, microliquid handling components, interconnections, integration and applications. These topics...

  7. Micro-concentrators for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Bradley H; Saavedra, Michael P; Anderson, Ben J; Goeke, Ron S; Sweatt, William C; Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Elisberg, Brenton; Snively, Dave; Duncan, John; Gu, Tian; Agrawal, Gautam; Haney, Michael W

    2014-03-10

    A 100X magnification, ± 2.5° field of view micro-concentrating optical system has been developed for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) prototype module using 250 µm diameter multi-junction "stacked" PV cells.

  8. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  9. Midnight sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, A.P.; Lambert, S.B.; Gagnon, M.P.

    1990-09-01

    Midnight Sun, the University of Waterloo's solar-electric car, was designed and built by about 30 engineering, kinesiology and physics students for the GM Sunrayce USA held in July 1990. The car measures 2 m by 4.2 m, weighs 224 kg, can collect about 1000 W of solar electricity in full sun, and had a top speed of 79 km/h. The race took 11 days to cover the 1644 miles from the Epcot Center in Lake Buena Vista, Florida to the GM Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Thirty-two cars, powered only by solar energy, competed in this race. Midnight Sun showed its potential during the race qualifying runs by completing the required qualifying course with the 12th fastest time of 52.83 seconds, and the 6th fastest trap speed of 63 km/h. During the Sunrayce, Midnight Sun came in second on day 1 of the race, tenth on day 6, and eighth on day 7, and was one of only 17 solar cars that were able to make it up the toughest hill in the race on day 8. The most serious problems encountered by the car were a weak rear suspension, power losses, and failure of bypass diodes in the photovoltaic array. Midnight Sun was in 17th place overall at the end of day 9. At about 11:00 am on day 10 in Ohio, the Waterloo car was moving at 60 km/h when it was bumped off the road by an out of control pickup truck. The solar car driver was not hurt. Despite the difficulties, the next day Midnight Sun was repaired and driven across the finish line at the ceremonial finish. After receiving time penalties for not completing the last day and a half of the race, Midnight Sun was awarded 24th place with an official cumulative time of 114 h 37 min 15 s. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Intelligent agents: adaptation of autonomous bimodal microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrice; Terry, Theodore B.

    2014-03-01

    Autonomous bimodal microsystems exhibiting survivability behaviors and characteristics are able to adapt dynamically in any given environment. Equipped with a background blending exoskeleton it will have the capability to stealthily detect and observe a self-chosen viewing area while exercising some measurable form of selfpreservation by either flying or crawling away from a potential adversary. The robotic agent in this capacity activates a walk-fly algorithm, which uses a built in multi-sensor processing and navigation subsystem or algorithm for visual guidance and best walk-fly path trajectory to evade capture or annihilation. The research detailed in this paper describes the theoretical walk-fly algorithm, which broadens the scope of spatial and temporal learning, locomotion, and navigational performances based on optical flow signals necessary for flight dynamics and walking stabilities. By observing a fly's travel and avoidance behaviors; and, understanding the reverse bioengineering research efforts of others, we were able to conceptualize an algorithm, which works in conjunction with decisionmaking functions, sensory processing, and sensorimotor integration. Our findings suggest that this highly complex decentralized algorithm promotes inflight or terrain travel mobile stability which is highly suitable for nonaggressive micro platforms supporting search and rescue (SAR), and chemical and explosive detection (CED) purposes; a necessity in turbulent, non-violent structured or unstructured environments.

  11. Little Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  12. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  13. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  14. Toward an integrated framework for data exchange in microsystem applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Bart F.; Sulzmann, Armin; Renaud, Philippe; Jacot, Jacques; Anderl, Reiner

    1996-12-01

    Miniaturized, integrated sensors and actuators called microsystems are a rapidly growing field with great future potential. In order to promote their use further, specialists must make them more accessible to system designers at all stages of development. This can be done through behavioral modeling of sensors and actuators which can be used in conjunction with models of the associated electronics to simulate a complete microsystem. Additionally, models of microsystem components realized during modeling and simulation can be retrieved for use in the assembly phase of manufacture. Here virtual-reality environments are used to aid in the realization and use of automated robot systems working with miniature components in the micron scale. The use of computer aided design and simulation tools in this field is critical owing to the high prototyping costs. Data exchange between the various systems is advantageous and reduces design and manufacturing costs while speeding up time to market.

  15. Microsystem engineering of lab-on-a-chip devices

    CERN Document Server

    Geschke, Oliver; Telleman, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    Written on a non-specialist level by an interdisciplinary team of chemists, biologists and engineers from one of Europe's leading centres for microsystem research, the Danish Mikroelektronik Centret (MIC), this is a concise practical introduction to the subject. As such, the book is the first to focus on analytical applications, providing life and analytical scientists, biotechnologists and pharmaceutists with an understanding of the principles behind the design and manufacture of chemical and biochemical microsystems. The text is backed by a chapter devoted to troubleshooting as well as a g

  16. Analytical heat and fluid flow in microchannels and microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Cotta, Renato M; Naveira-Cotta, Carolina P

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the modeling and analysis of heat and fluid flow in microchannels and micro-systems, compiling a number of analytical and hybrid numerical-analytical solutions for models that account for the relevant micro-scale effects, with the corresponding experimental analysis validation when applicable. The volume stands as the only available compilation of easy to use analytically-based solutions for micro-scale heat and fluid flow problems, that systematically incorporates the most relevant micro-scale effects into the mathematical models, followed by their physical interpretation on the micro-system behavior.

  17. Introduction to microsystem technology a guide for students

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Gerald; Müller, Dörte

    2008-01-01

    Over half a century after the discovery of the piezoresistive effect, microsystem technology has experienced considerable developments. Expanding the opportunities of microelectronics to non-electronic systems, its number of application fields continues to increase. Microsensors are one of the most important fields, used in medical applications and micromechanics. Microfluidic systems are also a significant area, most commonly used in ink-jet printer heads. This textbook focuses on the essentials of microsystems technology, providing a knowledgeable grounding and a clear path through this we

  18. Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF) purchases ten Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers to dramatically increase power of eScience research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF), a collaborative environment for data and numerical intensive computing privately run by the University of Cambridge and Cranfield University, has purchased 10 Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers from Sun Microsystems, Inc.. The total investment, which includes more than $40 million in Sun technology, will dramatically increase the computing power, reliability, availability and scalability of the HPCF" (1 page).

  19. Preliminary Thermal Characterization of a Fully-Passive Wireless Backscattering Neuro-Recording Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, H. N.; Xu, W.; Shekhar, S.; Chae, J.; Miranda, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    We present analytical and experimental thermal characteristics of a battery-less, fully-passive wireless backscattering microsystem for recording of neuropotentials. A major challenge for cortically implantable microsystems involves minimizing the heat dissipated by on-chip circuitry, which can lead to permanent brain damage. Therefore, knowledge of temperature changes induced by implantable microsystems while in operation is of utmost importance. In this work, a discrete diode appended to the neuro-recording microsystem has been used to indirectly monitor the aforesaid temperature changes. Using this technique, the maximum temperature rise measured for the microsystem while in operation was 0.15 +/- 0.1 C, which is significantly less than current safety guidelines. Specific absorption ratio (SAR) due to the microsystem was also computed to further demonstrate fully-passive functionality of the neuro-recording microsystem.

  20. Macro-meso-microsystems integration in LTCC : LDRD report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Smet, Dennis J.; Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Turner, Timothy Shawn; Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Walker, Charles A.; Ho, Clifford K..; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-03-01

    Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC) has proven to be an enabling medium for microsystem technologies, because of its desirable electrical, physical, and chemical properties coupled with its capability for rapid prototyping and scalable manufacturing of components. LTCC is viewed as an extension of hybrid microcircuits, and in that function it enables development, testing, and deployment of silicon microsystems. However, its versatility has allowed it to succeed as a microsystem medium in its own right, with applications in non-microelectronic meso-scale devices and in a range of sensor devices. Applications include silicon microfluidic ''chip-and-wire'' systems and fluid grid array (FGA)/microfluidic multichip modules using embedded channels in LTCC, and cofired electro-mechanical systems with moving parts. Both the microfluidic and mechanical system applications are enabled by sacrificial volume materials (SVM), which serve to create and maintain cavities and separation gaps during the lamination and cofiring process. SVMs consisting of thermally fugitive or partially inert materials are easily incorporated. Recognizing the premium on devices that are cofired rather than assembled, we report on functional-as-released and functional-as-fired moving parts. Additional applications for cofired transparent windows, some as small as an optical fiber, are also described. The applications described help pave the way for widespread application of LTCC to biomedical, control, analysis, characterization, and radio frequency (RF) functions for macro-meso-microsystems.

  1. Internet Use and Child Development: The Techno-Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2010-01-01

    Ecological systems theory assumes that child development is the consequence of ongoing reciprocal and spiraling interactions between the child and his/her microsystem (immediate home, school, and community environments). The increasing presence of digital technologies in children's immediate environments suggests the need for the proposed…

  2. Global Seismology of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Sarbani

    2016-01-01

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in the Sun as solar activity waxes and wanes. The seismic study of stars other than the Sun is a fairly new endeavour, but we are making great strides in this field. In this review I discuss some of the techniques used in helioseismic analyses and the results obtained using those techniques. In this review I focus on results obtained with global helioseismology, i.e., the study of the Sun using its normal modes of oscillation. I also briefly touch upon asteroseismology, the seismic study of stars other than the Sun, and discuss how seismic data of others stars are interpreted.

  3. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Podhraški

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  4. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-03-17

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm.

  5. 17th National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Vittorio; Ponzoni, Andrea; Sberveglieri, Giorgio; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers presented at the 17th AISEM (“Associazione Italiana Sensori e Microsistemi”) National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems, held in Brescia, 5-7 February, 2013. The conference highlighted state-of-the-art results from both theoretical and applied research in the field of sensors and related technologies. This book presents material in an interdisciplinary approach, covering many aspects of the disciplines related to sensors, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications.  ·         Provides a selection of the best papers from the 17th National Conference on Sensors and Microsystems; ·         Covers a broad range of topics relating to sensors and microsystems, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biology and applications; ·         Offers interdisciplinary coverage, aimed at defining a common ground for sensors beyond the specific differences among the different particular implementation of senso...

  6. A Differential Monolithically Integrated Inductive Linear Displacement Measurement Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhraški, Matija; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    An inductive linear displacement measurement microsystem realized as a monolithic Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is presented. The system comprises integrated microtransformers as sensing elements, and analog front-end electronics for signal processing and demodulation, both jointly fabricated in a conventional commercially available four-metal 350-nm CMOS process. The key novelty of the presented system is its full integration, straightforward fabrication, and ease of application, requiring no external light or magnetic field source. Such systems therefore have the possibility of substituting certain conventional position encoder types. The microtransformers are excited by an AC signal in MHz range. The displacement information is modulated into the AC signal by a metal grating scale placed over the microsystem, employing a differential measurement principle. Homodyne mixing is used for the demodulation of the scale displacement information, returned by the ASIC as a DC signal in two quadrature channels allowing the determination of linear position of the target scale. The microsystem design, simulations, and characterization are presented. Various system operating conditions such as frequency, phase, target scale material and distance have been experimentally evaluated. The best results have been achieved at 4 MHz, demonstrating a linear resolution of 20 µm with steel and copper scale, having respective sensitivities of 0.71 V/mm and 0.99 V/mm. PMID:26999146

  7. Synthesis of analog behavioral models of variable complexity for use in simulation of electronic circuits associated with microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Boucher, J; Ayoub, K I; Cousineau, S M; Ahmadpanah, M; Rakotondrazafy, C; Harchani, N; Andreu, D; Montagner, L; Marin, M

    1999-01-01

    The analog behavioral modeling must constitute a privileged axis of research for a global simulation of systems and micro-systems. This paper presents a research/education (R&E) methodology which has been developed by the authors as a result of many years of experience in the domains of electronic components, circuits and systems, in different university and industrial research laboratories. It concerns the entire constitutive analog functions, used in the processing of energy and information, with different abstraction levels, extending from a simple component to complex macro-functions used in system electronics. (10 refs).

  8. MBB strategy consideration: From microsystem technique to the space transportation system SAENGER 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    Microsystems technique, as an example of technology developments, and the future space transportation system SAENGER 2 are treated. Microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics are presented. The characteristics of the materials used in microsystems technology are discussed. Economic and nonpolluting solar energy systems for future space systems are discussed. The status and the future of hypersonic transportation systems are discussed.

  9. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  10. Development of vapor deposited thin films for bio-microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Ketul Chandrakant

    Increasing demands for more biocompatible and sophisticated bio-microsystems in recent years has led to the development of a new technology called BioMEMS (biological micro-electro-mechanical systems). The foundation of this technology is the same as that of the traditional field of IC (integrated circuits), but an emphasis on developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Micro- and nano-fabrication techniques are currently being used to develop implants that can record, sense, stimulate and deliver to biological systems. Micromachined substrates can provide unique advantages over traditional implantable devices in terms of their ability to control surface micro-architecture, topography and feature size in micron and nano sizes. However, as BioMEMS technology is rapidly being developed, the practical use of these bio-microsystems is limited due to the inability to effectively interface with the biological system in non-immunogenic and stable manner. This is one of the most important considerations, and hence it is useful to focus on the fundamental scientific issues relating to material science, surface chemistry and immunology of silicon based bio-microsystems. This results in development of biomolecular interfaces that are compatible with both microfabrication processing and biological systems. The overall thrust of this research is to develop, characterize and integrate vapor deposited thin films with bio-microsystems in a manner that it is both reproducible and fully integrated with existing technologies. The main strategy is to use silane coatings precursor coatings on which poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) will be coated in vapor phase. Silane has been coated user vapor phase, but its chemical and biological characterization and stability of the films under physiological conditions has not been investigated for biological applications. PEG has been coated in solution phase on silicon surface. However, it has not been coated under vapor phase. Here we are

  11. Microsystem integration from RF to millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähä-Heikkilä, T.; Lahti, M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency systems have been applied successfully to consumer products. Typically these radios operate up to 6 GHz. During recent years, interest towards microwave (up to 30 GHz) and millimeter wave frequencies (30 ... 300 GHz) has increased significantly. Technologies have been developed to have high performance microwave and millimeter wave components. On the other hand, integration and packaging technologies have not developed as fast while their importance is crucial especially in consumer applications. This presentation focuses to latest trends in wireless microsystem component integration and packaging trends backed up with demonstrators and measured results based on VTT's demonstrations.

  12. Separation and sorting of cells in microsystems using physical principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Hun; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ahn, Kihoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Joong Yull

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microfabrication techniques have been combined with microfluidics and applied to cell biology. Utilizing such new techniques, various cell studies have been performed for the research of stem cells, immune cells, cancer, neurons, etc. Among the various biological applications of microtechnology-based platforms, cell separation technology has been highly regarded in biological and clinical fields for sorting different types of cells, finding circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and blood cell separation, amongst other things. Many cell separation methods have been created using various physical principles. Representatively, these include hydrodynamic, acoustic, dielectrophoretic, magnetic, optical, and filtering methods. In this review, each of these methods will be introduced, and their physical principles and sample applications described. Each physical principle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The engineers who design the systems and the biologists who use them should understand the pros and cons of each method or principle, to broaden the use of microsystems for cell separation. Continuous development of microsystems for cell separation will lead to new opportunities for diagnosing CTCs and cancer metastasis, as well as other elements in the bloodstream.

  13. Chalk-microfluidic: flooding microsystems with reactive fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, Amélie; Dysthe, Dag Kristian; Li, Lei; Hiorth, Aksel

    2014-05-01

    Experiments on core scale and field tests that have been carried out the last decade have clearly shown that water chemistry affects the final oil recovery. However, there is generally no consensus in the scientific community of why additional oil is released. Part of the reason for this is that there are very few in-situ observations of how the water chemistry affects fluid distributions on the pore scale, and/or the pore surface characteristics. In this work, as a first step, our aim is to focus on in-situ observations of single phase flow and interactions at the pore scale. In order to work at this small scale, we first investigate how to control the flow location. We propose to use the same principle as "paper-microfluidic": some areas of the chalk are chemically treated so that no fluid flows inside while other areas let the fluids flow in the chalk pores. Since chalk and paper obviously has different mechanical behavior, we need to adapt this technique. Custom-made microsystems with chalk and calcite will be presented. We will then show experiments with reacting fluids in these microsystems. These experiments are observed using wide field fluorescence microscopy and white light vertical/phase shift interferometric microscopy.

  14. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  15. Sun's rap song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M.; Lee, W.

    1995-07-01

    We present a rap song composed for the Sun, our star. This Sun's Rap Song can be utilized in classroom teaching to spark the students' interest and facilitate the students' learning of the relevant subjects.

  16. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  17. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  18. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  19. Personal, Seasonal Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an art project designed for upper-elementary students to (1) imagine visual differences in the sun's appearance during the four seasons; (2) develop ideas for visually translating their personal experiences regarding the seasons to their sun drawings; (3) create four distinctive seasonal suns using colors and imagery to…

  20. An integrated QCM-based narcotics sensing microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Thomas; Sandström, Niklas; Eng, Lars; van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Månsson, Per; Stemme, Göran

    2008-10-01

    We present the design, fabrication and successful testing of a 14x14x4 mm3 integrated electronic narcotics sensing system which consists of only four parts. The microsystem absorbs airborne narcotics molecules and performs a liquid assay using an integrated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A vertically conductive double-sided adhesive foil (VCAF) was used and studied as a novel material for LOC and MEMS applications and provides easy assembly, electrical contacting and liquid containment. The system was tested for measuring cocaine and ecstasy, with successful detection of amounts as small as 100 ng and 200 ng, respectively. These levels are of interest in security activities in customs, prisons and by the police.

  1. International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Application

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gereon

    2014-01-01

    The automobile is going through the biggest transformation in its history. Automation and electrification of vehicles are expected to enable safer and cleaner mobility. The prospects and requirements of the future automobile affect innovations in major technology fields like driver assistance systems, vehicle networking and drivetrain development. Smart systems such as adaptive ICT components and MEMS devices, novel network architectures, integrated sensor systems, intelligent interfaces and functional materials form the basis of these features and permit their successful and synergetic integration. It has been the mission of the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) for more than fifteen years to detect novel trends and to discuss the technological implications from early on. Therefore, the topic of the AMAA 2014 will be “Smart Systems for Safe, Clean, and Automated Vehicles”. This book contains peer-reviewed papers written by leading engineers and researchers w...

  2. Shape-dependent orientation of thermophoretic forces in microsystems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qi

    2013-09-24

    It is generally acknowledged that the direction of the thermophoretic force acting on microparticles is largely determined by the imposed temperature gradient, and the shape of the microparticle has little influence on its direction. We show that one type of thermophoretic force, emerged due to the advent of microfabrication techniques, is highly sensitive to object shape, and it is feasible to tune force orientation via proper shape design. We reveal the underlying mechanism by an asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equation and point out the reason why the classical thermophoretic force is insensitive to the particle shape, but the force in microsystems is. The discovered phenomenon could find its applications in methods for microparticle manipulation and separation.

  3. Micro-system Design for Wireless Endoscopy System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Chi, Baoyong; Yu, Xueyi; Zhang, Chun; Wang, Zhihua

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a micro-system design for the wireless endoscopic capsule, which assures that the capsule has small size(less than 25mm*10mm), can implement the diagnoses of whole human digestive tract and provide real time endoscopic image monitoring. The designs of two core hardware parts inside the capsule, low power analog-digital mix-mode single-chip and micro-antenna are discussed in detail. A new automatic retransmission request (ARQ) communication scheme is proposed for the high quality image communication system. The micro-antenna design with less than 9 mm diameter is implemented. The digital circuits have been verified on FPGAs and analog circuits have been simulated. The analog-digital mix-mode single-chip has been implemented in 0.18μm CMOS process.

  4. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Xiaowen; Li, Lin; Mu, Xiaoyi; Genov, Roman; Mason, Andrew J

    2016-12-31

    Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design.

  5. Microsystems for pharmatechnology manipulation of fluids, particles, droplets, and cells

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of microfluidic approaches and applications in pharmatechnology. It is appropriate for students with an interdisciplinary interest in both the pharmaceutical and engineering fields, as well as process developers and scientists in the pharmaceutical industry. The authors cover new and advanced technologies for screening, production by micro reaction technology and micro bioreactors, small-scale processing of drug formulations, and drug delivery that will meet the need for fast and effective screening methods for drugs in different formulations, as well as the production of drugs in very small volumes. Readers will find detailed chapters on the materials and techniques for fabrication of microfluidic devices, microbioreactors, microsystems for emulsification, on-chip fabrication of drug delivery systems, respiratory drug delivery and delivery through microneedles, organs-on-chip, and more.

  6. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Xiaowen; Li, Lin; Mu, Xiaoyi; Genov, Roman; Mason, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design. PMID:28042860

  7. From microsystems technology to the Saenger II space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogels, Hanns Arnt

    The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.

  8. CMOS Electrochemical Instrumentation for Biosensor Microsystems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern biosensors play a critical role in healthcare and have a quickly growing commercial market. Compared to traditional optical-based sensing, electrochemical biosensors are attractive due to superior performance in response time, cost, complexity and potential for miniaturization. To address the shortcomings of traditional benchtop electrochemical instruments, in recent years, many complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS instrumentation circuits have been reported for electrochemical biosensors. This paper provides a review and analysis of CMOS electrochemical instrumentation circuits. First, important concepts in electrochemical sensing are presented from an instrumentation point of view. Then, electrochemical instrumentation circuits are organized into functional classes, and reported CMOS circuits are reviewed and analyzed to illuminate design options and performance tradeoffs. Finally, recent trends and challenges toward on-CMOS sensor integration that could enable highly miniaturized electrochemical biosensor microsystems are discussed. The information in the paper can guide next generation electrochemical sensor design.

  9. In-plane biocompatible microfluidic interconnects for implantable microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dean G; Frisina, Robert D; Borkholder, David A

    2011-04-01

    Small mammals, particularly mice, are very useful animal models for biomedical research. Extremely small anatomical dimensions, however, make design of implantable microsystems quite challenging. A method for coupling external fluidic systems to microfluidic channels via in-plane interconnects is presented. Capillary tubing is inserted into channels etched in the surface of a Si wafer with a seal created by Parylene-C deposition. Prediction of Parylene-C deposition into tapered channels based on Knudsen diffusion and deposition characterizations allows for design optimization. Low-volume interconnects using biocompatible, chemical resistant materials have been demonstrated and shown to withstand pressure as high as 827 kPa (120 psi) with an average pull test strength of 2.9 N. Each interconnect consumes less than 0.018 mm3 (18 nL) of volume. The low added volume makes this an ideal interconnect technology for medical applications where implant volume is critical.

  10. Improved Laboratory Transition Probabilities for Er II and Applications to the Erbium Abundances of the Sun and Five r-Process Rich, Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Cowan, J J; Wyart, J -F; Ivans, I I; Sobeck, J S; Stockett, M H; Hartog, E A Den

    2008-01-01

    Recent radiative lifetime measurements accurate to +/- 5% (Stockett et al. 2007, J. Phys. B 40, 4529) using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on 8 even-parity and 62 odd-parity levels of Er II have been combined with new branching fractions measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to determine transition probabilities for 418 lines of Er II. This work moves Er II onto the growing list of rare earth spectra with extensive and accurate modern transition probability measurements using LIF plus FTS data. This improved laboratory data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Er abundance, log epsilon = 0.96 +/- 0.03 (sigma = 0.06 from 8 lines), a value in excellent agreement with the recommended meteoric abundance, log epsilon = 0.95 +/- 0.03. Revised Er abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD+17 3248, HD 221170, HD 115444, and CS 31082-001. For these five stars the average Er/Eu abundance ratio, = 0.42, is in very good agreement ...

  11. Wireless Performance of a Fully Passive Neurorecording Microsystem Embedded in Dispersive Human Head Phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdt, Helen N.; Chae, Junseok; Miranda, Felix A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the wireless performance of a biocompatible fully passive microsystem implanted in phantom media simulating the dispersive dielectric properties of the human head, for potential application in recording cortical neuropotentials. Fully passive wireless operation is achieved by means of backscattering electromagnetic (EM) waves carrying 3rd order harmonic mixing products (2f(sub 0) plus or minus f(sub m)=4.4-4.9 GHZ) containing targeted neuropotential signals (fm approximately equal to 1-1000 Hz). The microsystem is enclosed in 4 micrometer thick parylene-C for biocompatibility and has a footprint of 4 millimeters x 12 millimeters x 500 micrometers. Preliminary testing of the microsystem implanted in the lossy biological simulating media results in signal-to-noise ratio's (SNR) near 22 (SNR approximately equal to 38 in free space) for millivolt level neuropotentials, demonstrating the potential for fully passive wireless microsystems in implantable medical applications.

  12. Biomimetic/Bioinspired Design of Enzyme@capsule Nano/Microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J; Jiang, Y; Zhang, S; Yang, D; Jiang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, which refer to the enzyme-immobilized capsules, have received tremendous interest owing to the combination of the high catalytic activities of encapsulated enzymes and the hierarchical structure of the capsule. The preparation of capsules and simultaneous encapsulation of enzymes is recognized as the core process for the rational design and construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. The strategy used has three major steps: (a) generation of the templates, (b) surface coating on the templates, and (c) removal of the templates, and it has been proven to be effective and versatile for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. Several conventional methods, including layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, liquid crystalline templating method, etc., were used to design and construct enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems, but these have two major drawbacks. One is the low mechanical stability of the systems and the second is the harsh conditions used in the construction process. Learning from nature, several biomimetic/bioinspired methods such as biomineralization, biomimetic/bioinspired adhesion, and their combination have been exploited for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems. In this chapter, we will present a general protocol for the construction of enzyme@capsule nano/microsystems using the latter approach. Some suggestions for improved design, construction, and characterization will also be presented with detailed procedures for specific examples.

  13. An integrated microfluidic analysis microsystems with bacterial capture enrichment and in-situ impedance detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Wen, Zhi-Yu; Xu, Yi; Shang, Zheng-Guo; Peng, Jin-Lan; Tian, Peng

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an integrated microfluidic analysis microsystems with bacterial capture enrichment and in-situ impedance detection was purposed based on microfluidic chips dielectrophoresis technique and electrochemical impedance detection principle. The microsystems include microfluidic chip, main control module, and drive and control module, and signal detection and processing modulet and result display unit. The main control module produce the work sequence of impedance detection system parts and achieve data communication functions, the drive and control circuit generate AC signal which amplitude and frequency adjustable, and it was applied on the foodborne pathogens impedance analysis microsystems to realize the capture enrichment and impedance detection. The signal detection and processing circuit translate the current signal into impendence of bacteria, and transfer to computer, the last detection result is displayed on the computer. The experiment sample was prepared by adding Escherichia coli standard sample into chicken sample solution, and the samples were tested on the dielectrophoresis chip capture enrichment and in-situ impedance detection microsystems with micro-array electrode microfluidic chips. The experiments show that the Escherichia coli detection limit of microsystems is 5 × 104 CFU/mL and the detection time is within 6 min in the optimization of voltage detection 10 V and detection frequency 500 KHz operating conditions. The integrated microfluidic analysis microsystems laid the solid foundation for rapid real-time in-situ detection of bacteria.

  14. Improved Laboratory Transition Probabilities for Ce II, Application to the Cerium Abundances of the Sun and Five r-process Rich, Metal-Poor Stars, and Rare Earth Lab Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Cowan, J J; Ivans, I I; Hartog, E A Den

    2009-01-01

    Recent radiative lifetime measurements accurate to +/- 5% using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on 43 even-parity and 15 odd-parity levels of Ce II have been combined with new branching fractions measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) to determine transition probabilities for 921 lines of Ce II. This improved laboratory data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Ce abundance, log epsilon = 1.61 +/- 0.01 (sigma = 0.06 from 45 lines), a value in excellent agreement with the recommended meteoritic abundance, log epsilon = 1.61 +/- 0.02. Revised Ce abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars BD+17 3248, CS 22892-052, CS 31082-001, HD 115444 and HD 221170. Between 26 and 40 lines were used for determining the Ce abundance in these five stars, yielding a small statistical uncertainty of 0.01 dex similar to the Solar result. The relative abundances in the metal-poor stars of Ce and Eu, a nearly pure r-process element in the Sun, matches r-process ...

  15. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  16. Amperometric electrochemical microsystem for a miniaturized protein biosensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Yang; Yue Huang; Hassler, B L; Worden, R M; Mason, A J

    2009-06-01

    Protein-based bioelectrochemical interfaces offer great potential for rapid detection, continuous use, and miniaturized sensor arrays. This paper introduces a microsystem platform that enables multiple bioelectrochemical interfaces to be interrogated simultaneously by an onchip amperometric readout system. A post-complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication procedure is described that permits the formation of planar electrode arrays and self assembly of biosensor interfaces on the electrodes. The onchip, 0.5-mum CMOS readout electronics include a compact potentiostat that supports a very broad range of input currents-6 pA to 10 muA-to accommodate diverse biosensor interfaces. The 2.3 times 2.2-mm chip operates from a 5-V supply at 0.6 mA. A prototype electrochemical sensor platform, including an onchip potentiostat and miniaturized biosensor array, was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry. The linear relationship between the oxidization peak values and the concentrations of target analytes in the solution verifies functionality of the system and demonstrates the potential for future implementations of this platform in high sensitivity, low cost, and onchip protein-based sensor arrays.

  17. Bio-Inspired Microsystem for Robust Genetic Assay Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyng Lue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact integrated system-on-chip (SoC architecture solution for robust, real-time, and on-site genetic analysis has been proposed. This microsystem solution is noise-tolerable and suitable for analyzing the weak fluorescence patterns from a PCR prepared dual-labeled DNA microchip assay. In the architecture, a preceding VLSI differential logarithm microchip is designed for effectively computing the logarithm of the normalized input fluorescence signals. A posterior VLSI artificial neural network (ANN processor chip is used for analyzing the processed signals from the differential logarithm stage. A single-channel logarithmic circuit was fabricated and characterized. A prototype ANN chip with unsupervised winner-take-all (WTA function was designed, fabricated, and tested. An ANN learning algorithm using a novel sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on the supervised backpropagation (BP algorithm is proposed for robustly recognizing low-intensity patterns. Our results show that the trained new ANN can recognize low-fluorescence patterns better than an ANN using the conventional sigmoid function.

  18. Restoring visual perception using microsystem technologies: engineering and manufacturing perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisch, I; Hosticka, B J

    2007-01-01

    Microsystem technologies offer significant advantages in the development of neural prostheses. In the last two decades, it has become feasible to develop intelligent prostheses that are fully implantable into the human body with respect to functionality, complexity, size, weight, and compactness. Design and development enforce collaboration of various disciplines including physicians, engineers, and scientists. The retina implant system can be taken as one sophisticated example of a prosthesis which bypasses neural defects and enables direct electrical stimulation of nerve cells. This micro implantable visual prosthesis assists blind patients to return to the normal course of life. The retina implant is intended for patients suffering from retinitis pigmentosa or macular degeneration. In this contribution, we focus on the epiretinal prosthesis and discuss topics like system design, data and power transfer, fabrication, packaging and testing. In detail, the system is based upon an implantable micro electro stimulator which is powered and controlled via a wireless inductive link. Microelectronic circuits for data encoding and stimulation are assembled on flexible substrates with an integrated electrode array. The implant system is encapsulated using parylene C and silicone rubber. Results extracted from experiments in vivo demonstrate the retinotopic activation of the visual cortex.

  19. Bio-hybrid cell-based actuators for microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rika Wright; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-15

    As we move towards the miniaturization of devices to perform tasks at the nano and microscale, it has become increasingly important to develop new methods for actuation, sensing, and control. Over the past decade, bio-hybrid methods have been investigated as a promising new approach to overcome the challenges of scaling down robotic and other functional devices. These methods integrate biological cells with artificial components and therefore, can take advantage of the intrinsic actuation and sensing functionalities of biological cells. Here, the recent advancements in bio-hybrid actuation are reviewed, and the challenges associated with the design, fabrication, and control of bio-hybrid microsystems are discussed. As a case study, focus is put on the development of bacteria-driven microswimmers, which has been investigated as a targeted drug delivery carrier. Finally, a future outlook for the development of these systems is provided. The continued integration of biological and artificial components is envisioned to enable the performance of tasks at a smaller and smaller scale in the future, leading to the parallel and distributed operation of functional systems at the microscale.

  20. PREFACE: The Second Conference on Microelectronics, Microsystems and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiopoulou, Androula G.; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Tsamis, Christos

    2005-01-01

    The Second Conference on Microelectronics, Microsystems and Nanotechnology took place at the National Centre for Scientific Research `Demokritos', in Athens, Greece, between 14 and 17 November 2004. The conference was organized by the Institute of Microelectronics (IMEL) with the aim to bring together scientists and engineers working in the above exciting fields in an interactive forum. The conference included 45 oral presentations with 9 invited papers and was attended by 146 participants from 16 countries. The topics covered were nanotechnologies, quantum devices, sensors, micro- and nano-systems, semiconductor devices, C-MOS fabrication and characterization techniques, new materials, and IC design. Quantum devices and nanostructured materials attracted considerable attention. Both theoretical and experimental studies of metallic and semiconducting quantum systems were presented, with emphasis on their applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and nanocrystal memory devices. Another exciting topic was the recent developments in biocompatible lithographic processes for applications in biosensors. In particular novel processes for bio-friendly lithography, together with innovations in Si sensors for applications in medicine and food industry were presented. Recent developments and perspectives in CMOS technology towards the ultimate limit were also discussed. The conference covered issues and concepts of IC design with two invited talks on RF design and cryptography.The conference included presentations from several companies active in the field of microelectronics and systems in Greece.

  1. Thermo-actuated migration in a micro-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Marie-Caroline; Selva, Bertrand; Cantat, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    Digital microfluidics require element displacement by simple means featuring high integration rates. Within this context, the transport and handling of elements constitutes a problem [Squires and Quake, 2005]. This context has rekindled interest in the Marangoni surface effect, which refers to tangential stresses along an interface. Producing a surface tension gradient by imposing a temperature gradient is especially efficient and easy to control. In a recent paper, we have shown [Selva et al., Phys. Fluids (2011)] that a bubble undergoing a constant temperature gradient is indeed set into motion. However, the direction of motion (toward the cooler side) is in contradiction with experiments performed at the millimetre scale in which bubble migration is driven towards hoter regions. We believe this observation is due to the PDMS deformability. Indeed, PDMS expands when the temperature increases. A temperature gradient inside a microsystem results in a cavity thickness gradient, and thus leads to the bubble travelling towards the thicker part of the cavity. The physical phenomena involved in such a system are multifaceted (PDMS dilation, thermocapillarity, solutocapillarity) and may have either complementary or opposite effects depending on the experimental conditions.

  2. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Kasper, Justin; Maksimovic, Milan; Alibay, Farah; Amiri, Nikta; Bastian, Tim; Cohen, Christina; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward; Reinard, Alysha; Schwadron, Nathan; Cecconi, Baptiste; Hallinan, Gregg; Hegedus, Alex; Krupar, Vratislav; Zaslavsky, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 RS. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (ν ≳ 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (≲ 3RS). The state-of-the-art for tracking such emission from space is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES), in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping; there has been some success in triangulating the emission between the spacecraft, but considerable uncertainties remain. We describe the Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Features of Microsystems for Cultivation and Characterization of Stem Cells with the Aim of Regenerative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihoon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have infinite potential for regenerative therapy thanks to their advantageous ability which is differentiable to requisite cell types for recovery and self-renewal. The microsystem has been proved to be more helpful to stem cell studies compared to the traditional methods, relying on its advantageous feature of mimicking in vivo cellular environments as well as other profitable features such as minimum sample consumption for analysis and multiprocedures. A wide variety of microsystems were developed for stem cell studies; however, regenerative therapy-targeted applications of microtechnology should be more emphasized and gain more attractions since the regenerative therapy is one of ultimate goals of biologists and bioengineers. In this review, we introduce stem cell researches harnessing well-known microtechniques (microwell, micropattern, and microfluidic channel in view point of physical principles and how these systems and principles have been implemented appropriately for characterizing stem cells and finding possible regenerative therapies. Biologists may gain information on the principles of microsystems to apply them to find solutions for their current challenges, and engineers may understand limitations of the conventional microsystems and find new chances for further developing practical microsystems. Through the well combination of engineers and biologists, the regenerative therapy-targeted stem cell researches harnessing microtechnology will find better suitable treatments for human disorders.

  4. Sun-Earth Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Ng, C.; Lewis, E.; Cline, T.

    2010-08-01

    Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day framework we have been able to offer a series of coordinated events that promote and highlight the Sun, its connection to Earth and the other planets. Sun-Earth Day events are hosted by educators, museums, amateur astronomers and scientists and occur at schools, community groups, parks, planetaria and science centers around the globe. Sun-Earth Day raises the awareness and knowledge of formal and informal education audiences concerning space weather and heliophysics. By building on the success of Sun-Earth Day yearly celebrations, we seek to affect people of all backgrounds and ages with the wonders of heliophysics science, discovery, and exploration in ways that are both tangible and meaningful to their lives.

  5. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  6. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  7. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  8. Orientation in birds. The sun compass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Koenig, K; Ganzhorn, J U; Ranvaud, R

    1991-01-01

    The sun compass was discovered by G. Kramer in caged birds showing migratory restlessness. Subsequent experiments with caged birds employing directional training and clock shifts, carried out by Hoffman and Schmidt-Koenig, showed that the sun azimuth is used, and the sun altitude ignored. In the laboratory, McDonald found the accuracy to be +/- 3 degrees(-)+/- 5 degrees. According to Hoffmann and Schmidt-Koenig, caged birds trained at medium northern latitudes were able to allow for the sun's apparent movement north of the arctic circle, but not in equatorial and trans-equatorial latitudes. In homing experiments, and employing clock shifts, Schmidt-Koenig demonstrated that the sun compass is used by homing pigeons during initial orientation. This finding is the principal evidence for the existence of a map-and-compass navigational system. Pigeons living in equatorial latitudes utilize the sun compass even under the extreme solar conditions of equinox, achieving angular resolution of about 3 degrees in homing experiments. According to preliminary analyses, the homing pigeons' ephemerides are retarded by several weeks (Ranvaud, Schmidt-Koenig, Ganzhorn et al.).

  9. Removal of PCR inhibitors using dielectrophoresis as a selective filter in a microsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan Ryberg; Bang, Dang Duong; Poulsen, Claus Riber;

    2003-01-01

    Diagnostic PCR has been used to analyse a wide range of biological materials. Conventional PCR consists of several steps such as sample preparation, template purification, and PCR amplification. PCR is often inhibited by contamination of DNA templates. To increase the sensitivity of the PCR...... of these components to PCR have been well documented. The usefulness of DEP in a microsystem to withhold baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells while the PCR inhibitors haemoglobin and heparin are removed will be presented and factors that influence the effect of DEP in the microsystem will be discussed...

  10. Large concentration changes due to thermal diffusion effects in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Johannessen, Tue; Jensen, Søren;

    Thermal diffusion, or Sorét diffusion, is shown to cause significant concentration changes and transients in gas flow microsystems with temperature gradients. In a silicon microsystem, a temperature gradient of about 100 oC/mm is measured to produce concentration transients of up to 13.......7 % in an argon/helium mixture, when the flow is abruptly changed from a high value to a low value. Finite element simulations of the thermal diffusion in a geometry similar to the experimental setup reproduce the measurements....

  11. Bonding technique of polymer layer with ceramic elements of analytical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudy, Michał; Malecha, Karol; Golonka, Leszek; Sosicki, Adam; Roguszczak, Henryk; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Dybko, Artur; Brzózka, Zbigniew

    2006-10-01

    The possibilities of the construction of microsystems using ceramics and polymers are presented in the paper. The technology of irreversible and reversible bonding of ceramic and polymer microsystems' layers was developed. The irreversible bonding is required only for microfluidic structures, in which samples and reagents are introduced into the system using pressure methods. For the systems with an electroosmotic reagents dosing adhesion forces between particular layers are enough to seal the microchannels. In both cases a glaze layer was screen-printed on ceramic plates to eliminate their surface roughness.

  12. Local Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes in Silicon Microsystems: The Effect of Temperature Distribution on Growth Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut E. Aasmundtveit

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Local synthesis and direct integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs into microsystems is a promising method for producing CNT-based devices in a single step, low-cost, and wafer-level, CMOS/MEMS-compatible process. In this report, the structure of the locally grown CNTs are studied by transmission imaging in scanning electron microscopy—S(TEM. The characterization is performed directly on the microsystem, without any post-synthesis processing required. The results show an effect of temperature on the structure of CNTs: high temperature favors thin and regular structures, whereas low temperature favors “bamboo-like” structures.

  13. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  14. Lessons from the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incom- pressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is cur- rently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics of the Sun is a completely new up-to-date rewrite from scratch of the 1982 book Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, taking account of enormous advances in understanding since that date. It describes the subtle and complex interaction between the Sun's plasma atmosphere and its magnetic field, which is responsible for many fascinating dynamic phenomena. Chapters cover the generation of the Sun's magnetic field by dynamo action, magnetoconvection and the nature of photospheric flux tubes such as sunspots, the heating of the outer atmosphere by waves or reconnection, the structure of prominences, the nature of eruptive instability and magnetic reconnection in solar flares and coronal mass ejections, and the acceleration of the solar wind by reconnection or wave-turbulence. It is essential reading for graduate students and researchers in solar physics and related fields of astronomy, plasma physics and fluid dynamics. Problem sets and other resources are available at www.cambridge.org/9780521854719.

  16. The Sun's Supergranulation

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Sun's supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30000km. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why and how it originates still represents one of the main challenges of modern solar physics. A lot of work has been devoted to the subject over the years, but observational constraints, conceptual difficulties and numerical limitations have all concurred to prevent a detailed understanding of the supergranulation phenomenon so far. With the advent of 21st century supercomputing resources and the availability of unprecedented high-resolution observations of the Sun, the solar community has now reached a stage at which key progress can be made on this question. A unifying strategy between observations and modeling is more than ever required for this to be possible. The ...

  17. Stochastic Finite Element Method for analyzing static and dynamic pull-in of microsystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannot, S.D.A.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Rixen, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Electro–mechanical sensors and actuators are a specific type of microsystems. The electrostatic pull-in value is one of the defining characteristics for these devices. Because the material and geometrical properties of micro fabricated systems are often very uncertain, this pull-in value can be

  18. Epitaxial integration of nanowires in microsystems by local micrometer-scale vapor-phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Wacaser, Brent A; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wagner, Jakob B; Samuelson, Lars; Bøggild, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Free-standing epitaxially grown nanowires provide a controlled growth system and an optimal interface to the underlying substrate for advanced optical, electrical, and mechanical nanowire device connections. Nanowires can be grown by vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE) methods such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or metal organic VPE (MOVPE). However, VPE of semiconducting nanowires is not compatible with several microfabrication processes due to the high synthesis temperatures and issues such as cross-contamination interfering with the intended microsystem or the VPE process. By selectively heating a small microfabricated heater, growth of nanowires can be achieved locally without heating the entire microsystem, thereby reducing the compatibility problems. The first demonstration of epitaxial growth of silicon nanowires by this method is presented and shows that the microsystem can be used for rapid optimization of VPE conditions. The important issue of the cross-contamination of other parts of the microsystem caused by the local growth of nanowires is also investigated by growth of GaN near previously grown silicon nanowires. The design of the cantilever heaters makes it possible to study the grown nanowires with a transmission electron microscope without sample preparation.

  19. Implantable Microsystems for Anatomical Rewiring of Cortical Circuitry: A New Approach for Brain Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    reaching, retrieval of small food items, and locomotion demonstrate that deficits persist during the 5-week recovery period following injury. This will...Implantable microsystem; Neuroplasticity ; Rehabilitation; Traumatic brain injury 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...we have successfully induced TBI in the CFA, sparing the RFA. Behavioral assessments of reaching, retrieval of small food items, and locomotion

  20. Microsystems and Nanoscience for Biomedical Applications: A View to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Linda M.; Mehta, Michael D.; Caulfield, Timothy; Kaler, Karan V. I. S.; Backhouse, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    At present there is an enormous discrepancy between our nanotechnological capabilities (particularly our nanobiotechnologies), our social wisdom, and consensus on how to apply them. To date, cost considerations have greatly constrained our application of nanotechnologies. However, novel advances in microsystem platform technologies are about to…

  1. Integrating nanotubes into microsystems with electron beam lithography and in situ catalytically activated growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerde, Kjetil; Fornés-Mora, Marc; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    the possibility of waferscale fabrication of such devices. We combine conventional microfabrication techniques with state of the art electron beam lithography (EBL) to precisely position catalyst nanoparticles with sub 100 nm diameter into the microsystems. In particular, we have explored two main approaches...

  2. Sun, Earth and Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1995-01-01

    The Sun is enveloped by a hot, tenuous million-degree corona that expands to create a continuous solar wind that sweeps past all the planets and fills the heliosphere. The solar wind is modulated by strong gusts that are initiated by powerful explosions on the Sun, including solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This dynamic, invisible outer atmosphere of the Sun is currently under observation with the soft X-ray telescope aboard the Yohkoh spacecraft, whose results are presented. We also show observations from the Ulysses spacecraft that is now passing over the solar pole, sampling the solar wind in this region for the first time. Two other spacecraft, Voyager 1 and 2, have recently detected the outer edge of the invisible heliosphere, roughly halfway to the nearest star. Magnetic solar activity, the total radiative output from the Sun, and the Earth's mean global surface temperature all vary with the 11-year sunspot cycle in which the total number of sunspots varies from a maximum to a minimum and back to a maximum again in about 11 years. The terrestrial magnetic field hollows out a protective magnetic cavity, called the magnetosphere, within the solar wind. This protection is incomplete, however, so the Sun feeds an unseen world of high-speed particles and magnetic fields that encircle the Earth in space. These particles endanger spacecraft and astronauts, and also produce terrestrial aurorae. An international flotilla of spacecraft is now sampling the weak points in this magnetic defense. Similar spacecraft have also discovered a new radiation belt, in addition to the familiar Van Allen belts, except fed by interstellar ions instead of electrons and protons from the Sun.

  3. A Wireless and Batteryless Microsystem with Implantable Grid Electrode/3-Dimensional Probe Array for ECoG and Extracellular Neural Recording in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated wireless microsystem platform that provides the possibility to support versatile implantable neural sensing devices in free laboratory rats. Inductive coupled coils with low dropout regulator design allows true long-term recording without limitation of battery capacity. A 16-channel analog front end chip located on the headstage is designed for high channel account neural signal conditioning with low current consumption and noise. Two types of implantable electrodes including grid electrode and 3D probe array are also presented for brain surface recording and 3D biopotential acquisition in the implanted target volume of tissue. The overall system consumes less than 20 mA with small form factor, 3.9 × 3.9 cm2 mainboard and 1.8 × 3.4 cm2 headstage, is packaged into a backpack for rats. Practical in vivo recordings including auditory response, brain resection tissue and PZT-induced seizures recording demonstrate the correct function of the proposed microsystem. Presented achievements addressed the aforementioned properties by combining MEMS neural sensors, low-power circuit designs and commercial chips into system-level integration.

  4. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  5. Near-Sun asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'yanenko, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    As follows from dynamical studies, in the course of evolution, most near-Earth objects reach orbits with small perihelion distances. Changes of the asteroids in the vicinity of the Sun should play a key role in forming the physical properties, size distribution, and dynamical features of the near-Earth objects. Only seven of the discovered asteroids are currently moving along orbits with perihelion distances q orbits farther from the Sun. In this study, we found asteroids that have been recently orbiting with perihelion distances q orbits for hundreds to tens of thousands of years. To carry out astrophysical observations of such objects is a high priority.

  6. The SUN S TRAVELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Louis; Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    The sun is not a-bed, when I At night upon my pillow lie; Stilt round the earth his Way he takes, And morning after morning makes. White here at home, in shining day, We round the sunny garden play, Each tittle Indian sleepy - head Is being kissed and put to bed. And When at eve I rise from tea, Day dawns beyond the Atlantic Sea; And all the children in the West Are getting up and being dressed.The SUN'S TRAVELS@Robert Louis Stevenson

  7. Maximising the sun

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is blessed with some of the best quality solar radiation in the world. In the light of this many exciting opportunities exist to utilize the sun to its full potential in the design of energy efficient buildings. Passive solar buildings...

  8. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  9. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  10. Go Sun Smart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D.; Buller, David B.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Andersen, Peter A.; Cutter, Gary R.; Dignan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    This is the story of Go Sun Smart, a worksite wellness program endorsed by the North American Ski Area Association and funded by the National Cancer Institute. Between 2000 and 2002 we designed and implemented a large-scale worksite intervention at over 300 ski resorts in North America with the objective of reducing ski area employees and guests…

  11. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  12. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  13. Novel Acoustic Wave Microsystems for Biophysical Studies of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senveli, Sukru Ufuk

    Single cell analysis is an important topic for understanding of diseases. In this understanding, biomechanics approach serves as an important tool as it relates and connects the mechanical properties of biological cells with diseases such as cancer. In this context, analysis methods based on ultrasonics are promising owing to their non-invasive nature and ease of use. However, there is a lack of miniature systems that provide accurate ultrasonic measurements on single cancer cells for diagnostic purposes. The platform presented in this study exploits high frequency acoustic interaction and uses direct coupling of Rayleigh type SAWs with various samples placed inside microcavities to analyze their structural properties. The samples used are aqueous glycerin solutions and polystyrene microbeads for demonstrating proper system operation, and lead up to biological cells. The microcavity is instrumental in trapping a predetermined volume of sample inside and facilitating the interaction of the surface waves with the sample in question via a resonance condition. Ultimately, the resultant SAW reaching the output transducer incurs a phase delay due to its interaction with the sample in the microcavity. The system operates in a different manner compared to similar systems as a result of multiple wave reflections in the small volume and coupling back to the piezoelectric substrate. The proposed microsystem was first analyzed using finite element methods. Liquid and solid media were modeled by considering frequency dependent characteristics. Similarly, mechanical behavior of cells with respect to different conditions is considered, and biological cells are modeled accordingly. Prototype devices were fabricated on quartz and lithium niobate in a cleanroom environment. Process steps were optimized separately for devices with microcavities. Precise fabrication, alignment, and bonding of PDMS microchannels were carried out. Soft microprobes were fabricated out of SU-8, a

  14. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    populated areas, mainly near the ocean shore and in arid regions. Thus, great effort is expended on the study of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Also the Sun, via the solar irradiance and via the effects of the so-called solar wind of magnetic particles on the Earth's atmosphere, may affect the climate. There is no proof linking solar effects to short-term changes in the Earth's climate. However, such effects cannot be excluded, either, making it necessary to study the Sun. The experiments summarized in the present work contribute to the present-day study of our Sun by repeating, in the laboratory, some of the nuclear processes that take place in the core of the Sun. They aim to improve the precision of the nuclear cross section data that lay the foundation of the model of the nuclear reactions generating energy and producing neutrinos in the Sun. In order to reach this goal, low-energy nuclear physics experiments are performed. Wherever possible, the data are taken in a low-background, underground environment. There is only one underground accelerator facility in the world, the Laboratory Underground for Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 0.4MV accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. Much of the research described here is based on experiments at LUNA. Background and feasibility studies shown here lay the base for future, higher-energy underground accelerators. Finally, it is shown that such a device can even be placed in a shallow-underground facility such as the Dresden Felsenkeller without great loss of sensitivity.

  15. Stars resembling the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrel de Strobel, G.

    This review is primarily directed to the question whether photometric solar analogues remain such when subjected to detailed spectroscopic analyses and interpreted with the help of internal stucture models. In other words, whether the physical parameters: mass, chemical composition, age (determining effective temperature and luminosity), chromospheric activity, equatorial rotation, lithium abundance, velocity fields etc., we derive from the spectral analysis of a photometric solar analogue, are really close to those of the Sun. We start from 109 photometric solar analogues extracted from different authors. The stars selected had to satisfy three conditions: i) their colour index (B-V) must be contained in the interval: Δ (B-V) = 0.59-0.69, ii) they must possess a trigonometric parallax, iii) they must have undergone a high resolution detailed spectroscopic analysis. First, this review presents photometric and spectrophotometric researches on solar analogues and recalls the pionneering work on these stars by the late Johannes Hardorp. After a brief discussion on low and high resolution spectroscopic researches, a comparison is made between effective temperatures as obtained, directly, from detailed spectral analyses and those obtained, indirectly, from different photometric relations. An interesting point in this review is the discussion on the tantalilizing value of the (B-V)solar of the Sun, and the presentation of a new reliable value of this index. A short restatement of the kinematic properties of the sample of solar analogues is also made. And, finally, the observational ( T eff, M bol) diagram, obtained with 99 of the initially presented 109 analogues, is compared to a theoretical ( T eff, M bol) diagram. This latter has been constructed with a grid of internal structure models for which, (very important for this investigation), the Sun was used as gauge. In analysing the position, with respect to the Sun, of each star we hoped to find a certain number of

  16. Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively.

  17. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  18. How hot is the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2001-01-01

    Do you know how hot thesun is? There are no solidsor liquids on the sun. Why not? The temperature onoutside the sun is more than 10, 000℃, and that at the centre is about 20, 000, 000℃.The sun is so hot that all thesolids and all the liquids havebeen turned into gases.

  19. The sun, our star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  20. A hybrid poly(dimethylsiloxane) microsystem for on-chip whole blood filtration optimized for steroid screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Sara; Klett, Oliver; Nikolajeff, Fredrik; Markides, Karin; Bergquist, Jonas

    2006-03-01

    Miniaturized biochemical devices in glass, silicon and polymer materials are starting to find their way from the academic laboratories to real-life applications. However, most attention has been given to miniaturize the downstream functions of various microfluidic systems, leaving the sample introduction and preparation steps to more conventional, bulkier solutions. For point-of-care diagnostics in particular, it becomes crucial to be able to handle complex human samples in a miniaturized format.In this work, we report on a microsystem for on-chip sample preparation that is able to remove blood cells from whole blood. The hybrid system consists of a commercially available membrane filter incorporated into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) casted device. Membrane materials were evaluated on the bases of low nonspecific adsorption of free and protein-bound testosterone as analyte substance. The hybrid system including a hydrophilic polypropylene filter successfully removed blood cells from diluted human whole blood. Surface oxidation was sufficient to make the plasma filtrate flow through the membrane filter and the channel system by capillary force alone and thus no external pumping source was needed.

  1. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  2. Implementation of an electronic documentation system using microsystem and quality improvement concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikli, Joan; Huizinga, Beth; Schafer, Dorothea; Atwater, Amy; Coker, Kara; Sikora, Chad

    2009-04-01

    Electronic documentation systems have become integral to improving the quality of healthcare, reducing medical errors, and advancing the delivery of evidence-based medical care. A smooth transition from paper charting to an electronic documentation system is challenging. Using quality improvement tools and building on the clinical microsystems concept can assist with a smooth transition. Specific strategies include involving all stakeholders in the development and implementation of the plan, assessing the culture of the department, and identifying processes and patterns that require attention. Specific steps include developing a statement of aim, formulating a specific path to reach the aim, evaluating the progress of implementation, and creating a template for future process improvement. This article describes the process used in one midwestern NICU to implement an integrated electronic documentation system using a clinical microsystems approach and quality improvement methods. Challenges encountered and lessons learned are discussed.

  3. Study on Wireless Power Transmission for Gastrointestinal Microsystems Based on Inductive Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wireless power transmission based on inductive coupling for remotely implanted micro devices has been considered in this paper. The receiving coil, integrated in microsystems and the external transmitting coil compose a loosely coupled transformer. The coupling coefficient was calculated and measured on spacing misalignments. The geometric size of transmitting coil was analyzed for the target of remotely delivering power. The received power was maximized by choosing appropriate value of frequency, tuning capacitance and the load resistance. A conventional full bridge rectifier circuit was employed to convert ac to dc voltage. The Received dc power was up to 160 mW with a transmitting voltage of 5 Vrms when the receiving coil was placed at the center of the transmitting coil.This may meet the requirement of some microsystems for high power over a long time.

  4. A digital front-end and readout microsystem for calorimetry at LHC--The FERMI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell' Acqua, A.; Hansen, M.; Lofstedt, B.; Vanuxem, J.P. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Svensson, C.; Yuan, J. (Univ. of Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Measurement Technology); Hentzell, H. (Univ. of Linkoeping (Sweden). Center for Industrial Microelectronics and Materials Technology); Alippi, C.; Breveglieri, L.; Dadda, L.; Piuri, V.; Salice, F.; Sami, M.; Stefanelli, R. (Sezione INFN, Pavia, Milano (Italy). Dept. di Ellettronica); Cattaneo, P.; Fumagalli, G.; Goggi, V.G. (Univ. e Sezione INFN, Pavia (Italy). Dept. di Fisica Nucleare); Brigati, S.; Gatti, U.; Maloberti, F.; Torelli, G. (Univ. e Sezione INFN, Pavia (Italy). Dept. di Electronica); Carlson, P.; Fuglesang, C.; Kerek, A. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)); Appelquist, G.; Berglund, S.; Bohm, C.; Yamdagni, N. (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden)); Sundblad, R. (SiCon AB, Linkoeping (Sweden))

    1993-08-01

    The authors present a digital solution to the front-end electronics for calorimetric detectors at future supercolliders based on high speed A/D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter chain and local intelligence. Questions of error correction, fault-tolerance and system redundancy are also considered. A system integration of a multichannel device in a multichip, Silicon-on-Silicon Microsystem hybrid will be used. This solution allows a new level of integration of complex analog and digital functions, with an excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. This type of VLSI multichip integration allows a high degree of programmability at both the function and the system level, and offers the possibility of customizing the microsystem with detector-specific functions.

  5. Photonic microsystems micro and nanotechnology applied to optical devices and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solgaard, Olav

    2009-01-01

    ""Photonic Microsystems: Micro and Nanotechnology Applied to Optical Devices and Systems"", describes MEMS technology and demonstrates how MEMS allow miniaturization, parallel fabrication, and efficient packaging of optics, as well as integration of optics and electronics. It shows how the characteristics of MEMS enable practical implementations of a variety of applications, including projection displays, fiber switches, interferometers, spectrometers. The book describes the phenomenon of Photonic crystals (nanophotonics) and demonstrates how Photonic crystals enable synthesis of materials wit

  6. Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management

    1998-08-01

    Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

  7. Hybrid microsystem with functionalized silicon substrate and PDMS sample operating microchannel: A reconfigurable microfluidics scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid microsystem with separately functioned temperature controlling substrate and sample operating fluidic microchannel was developed to demonstrate a reconfigurable microfluidics scheme.The temperature controlling substrate integrated a micro heater and a temperature sensor by using traditional silicon-based micromechanical system(MEMS)technique,which guaranteed high performance and robust reliability for repeatable usage.The sample operating fluidic microchannel was prepared by poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)based soft lithography technique,which made it cheap enough for disposable applications.The PDMS microchannel chip was attached to the temperature controlling substrate for reconfigurable thermal applications.A thin PDMS film was used to seal the microchannel and bridge the functionalized substrate and the sample inside the channel,which facilitated heat transferring and prevented sample contaminating the temperature controlling substrate.Demonstrated by a one dimensional thermal resistance model,the thin PDMS film was important for the present reconfiguration applications.Thermal performance of this hybrid microsystem was examined,and the experimental results demonstrated that the chip system could work stably over hours with temperature variation less than 0.1oC.Multiple PDMS microchannel chips were tested on one heating substrate sequentially with a maximum intra-chip temperature difference of 1.0oC.DNA extracted from serum of a chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV)patient was amplified by this hybrid microsystem and the gel electrophoresis result indicated that the present reconfigurable microfluidic scheme worked successfully.

  8. Selecting a process paradigm for an emergent disruptive technology: Evidence from the emerging microsystems technology base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Walsh, S.T. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). School of Industrial Management

    1998-08-01

    Emergent technologies often suffer from a lack of an installed manufacturing base and an obvious dominant manufacturing technique. Firms which base their search for competitive advantage on emergent disruptive technologies must make hard production choices and endure major manufacturing discontinuities. The authors as well as many other firms, are now facing these challenges with the embrace of microsystems technologies. They add to the literature by providing a set of criteria for firms investing in emergent disruptive technologies. Sandia has long been associated as a pioneer in the development of new manufacturing techniques. Microsystems is just the current in a long line of manufacturing technologies that have been considered for mission critical system applications. The authors as well as others, have had to make the hard choice of investing in specific microsystems manufacturing techniques. Important considerations in the technique choice include: the existing internal manufacturing bases, commonality with existing commercial manufacturing infrastructure, current and projected critical performance characteristics, learning curves, the promise to add new but un-thought-of functionally to existing systems, and the anticipated ability to qualify devices built from the technique for mission critical applications.

  9. A bioanalytical microsystem for protein and DNA sensing based on a monolithic silicon optoelectronic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misiakos, K [Microelectronics Institute, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 15310, Athens (Greece); Petrou, P S [Immunoassay Lab., I/R-RP, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 15310, Athens (Greece); Kakabakos, S E [Immunoassay Lab., I/R-RP, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 15310, Athens (Greece); Ruf, H H [Fraunhofer Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBMT) and University of Saarland, 66386, St Ingbert (Germany); Ehrentreich-Foerster, E [Department of Molecular Bioanalytics and Bioelectronics, Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, D-14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Bier, F F [Department of Molecular Bioanalytics and Bioelectronics, Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, D-14558 Nuthetal (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    A bioanalytical microsystem that is based on a monolithic silicon optical transducer and a microfluidic module and it is appropriate for real-time sensing of either DNA or protein analytes is presented. The optical transducer monolithically integrates silicon avalanche diodes as light sources, silicon nitride optical fibers and detectors and efficiently intercouples these optical elements through a self-alignment technique. After hydrophilization and silanization of the transducer surface, the biomolecular probes are immobilized through physical adsorption. Detection is performed through reaction of the immobilized biomolecules with gold nanoparticle labeled counterpart molecules. The binding of these molecules within the evanescent field at the surface of the optical fiber cause attenuated total reflection of the waveguided modes and reduction of the detector photocurrent. Using the developed microsystem, determination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene of the human phenol sulfotransferase SULT1A1 was achieved. Full-matching hybrid resulted in 4-5 times higher signals compared to the mismatched hybrid after hybridization and dissociation processes. The protein sensing abilities of the developed microsystem were also investigated through a non-competitive assay for the determination of the MB isoform of creatine kinase enzyme (CK-MB) that is a widely used cardiac marker.

  10. A new construction of measurement system based on specialized microsystem design for laryngological application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Daniel; Mikłaszewicz, Franciszek

    2013-10-01

    This article describes the design, construction and parameters of diagnostic medical system for air humidity measurement which can be proceeded in various places of human nasal cavities and also human throat. The system can measure dynamic changes of dew point temperature (absolute value of humidity) of inspired and expired air in different places of human upper airways. During regular respiration process dew point temperature is measured in nasal cavity, middle part cavity and nasopharynx. The presented system is the next step in construction of measurement system based on specialized microsystem for laryngological application. The microsystem fabricated on silicon substrate includes microheater, microthermoresistor and interdigitated electrodes. In comparison with previously built measurement system with current version some system functionalities and measurement parameters were improved. Additionally 3D printing technology was applied for rapid prototyping a measurement system housing. Presented measurement system is set of microprocessor module with signal conditioning circuits; heated measurement head based on specialized microsystem with disposable heated pipe for air sucking from various places of upper airways; power supplier and computer application for monitoring all system parameters and presenting on-line and off-line measured results. Some example results of constructed measurement system and dew point temperature measurements during respiration cycle are presented.

  11. MULTISENSOR MICROSYSTEM FOR MEASURING THE CONCENTRATION OF GASES CO, H2 , C3 H8 , CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Reutskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacture of module of chemical sensors on a single chip is one of the promising directions in the development of gas sensory. The aim of this work was development of construction of multisensor microsystem enabled to retain the characteristics of a single sensor and its dimensions and, at the same time, to reduce power consumption and cycle time of measuring concentration of gases CO, H2 , C3H8 , CO2 in the environment. Multisensor microsystem consists of four detached sensors placed on a single substrate of nanostructured aluminum oxide. The use of through-holes and the dielectric substrate itself in microsystem topology reduced power consumption of gas microsystems. We have devised a method of measuring sensitivity of foursensor microsystem to the concentration of gases CO, H2 , C3H8 , CO2. A full cycle of measuring gases concentration consisted of the time required for preliminary heating of all sensors of the microsystem (5 s, the heating time of each of the sensors sequentially (5 s and time required to measure resistance for each sensor (80 s. The measured results show that the reaction time of multisensor microsystem when exposed to gases – H2 at a concentration of 0,001 %, CO2  1 %, СО – 0,02 %, C3H8 – 0,01 % does not exceed 90 s for full measurement cycle. Sensitivity value at power consumption of < 150 mW makes up 48–64 % for H2 , 32– 36 % for CO2 , 20–29 % for СО, 68–78 % for C3H8 . The proposed method to control sensitivity of multisensor microsystem to the concentration of gases CO, H2 , C3H8 , CO2 allows performing measurements within 90 s while the measurement cycle by a single sensor in pulse heating mode is 2 min, in continuous heat mode – 5 min. Maximum power consumption of the microsystem does not exceed 150 mW. Microsystems allow measuring lower concentrations of detected gases. 

  12. What does the Sun teach us about properties of matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.

    2003-05-01

    Helioseismology has proved to be an extremely powerful tool to study the structure and dynamics of the Sun. This technique also allows the Sun to be used as a laboratory to study the properties of matter. In this talk I shall discuss how we use helioseismology to study properties of matter, and what we have learned so far. In particular, I shall concentrate on neutrinos and stellar equations of state.

  13. [Research on absolute calibration of sun channel of sun photometer using laser raster scanning method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Zheng, Xiao-Bing

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, a new calibration method of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of sun channel of sun photometer was developed. A tunable laser was used as source and a standard tranfer detector, calibrated against cryogenic absolute radiometer, was used to measure laser beam power. By raster scanning of a single collimated laser beam to generate the uniform irradiance field at the plane of effective aperture stop of sun photometer, the absolute irradiance responsivity of center wavelength of the 870 nm unpolarized sun channels of sun photometer was obtained accurately. The relative spectral irradiance responsivity of corresponding channel was obtained by using lamp-monochromator system and then used to acquire the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity in the laboratory. On the basis of the above results, the top-of-the-atmosphere responsive constant V0 was obtained by integration with extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance data. Comparing the calibration result with that from GSFC, NASA in 2009, the difference is only 3.75%. In the last, the uncertainties of calibration were evaluated and reached to 2.06%. The principle feasibility of the new method was validated.

  14. Review - The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Blackburn, Stuart H. 2010. The Sun Rises: A Shaman's Chant, Ritual Exchange and Fertility in the Apatani Valley. Leiden: Brill. xvii+401. Color and black and white photographs, maps. ISBN: 9789-0041-7578-5 (hardcover, 97USD. The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. The heart of this book is a chant of nineteen segments.

  15. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  16. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured....... The weekly sunburn fraction correlated strongly with the number of ambient sun hours (r=0.73, p

  17. The Sun, Mercury, and Venus

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    The Messenger mission to Mercury opened a new window into the inner solar system. In 2008, this mission began a number of years of flybys, culminating in an orbital insertion around Mercury and producing unparalleled observations about this mysterious innermost planet. Mercury orbits so close to the Sun, from the point of view of Earth, that seeing it from the Earth against the Sun's glare is a great challenge. At the same time, the huge gravitational force of the Sun makes it a challenge to put a mission on Mercury without losing it into the Sun. Now, with heightened understanding of Mercury,

  18. The Rapidly Rotating Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2012-01-01

    Convection in the solar interior is thought to comprise structures at a continuum of scales, from large to small. This conclusion emerges from phenomenological studies and numerical simulations though neither covers the proper range of dynamical parameters of solar convection. In the present work, imaging techniques of time-distance helioseismology applied to observational data reveal no long-range order in the convective motion. We conservatively bound the associated velocity magnitudes, as a function of depth and the spherical-harmonic degree l to be 20-100 times weaker than prevailing estimates within the wavenumber band l ux of a solar luminosity outwards? The Sun is seemingly a much faster rotator than previously thought, with advection dominated by Coriolis forces at scales l < 60.

  19. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  20. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  1. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  2. Why the sun sucks - Architects versus the sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, N.; Niesten, J.; Taminiau, P.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will show how not to design with the Sun. By showing examples how buildings have failed that have not taken the Sun and its effects in consideration, one should get a clearer picture of how you

  3. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  4. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Lee M.

    1996-01-01

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  5. Robust hermetic packaging techniques for MEMS integrated microsystems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Junseok (University of Michigan); Stark, Brian H. (University of Michigan); Kuo, Andrew (University of Michigan); Oliver, Andrew David; Najafi, Khalil (University of Michigan)

    2005-03-01

    This work is the result of a Sandia National Laboratories LDRD funded fellowship at the University of Michigan. Although, guidance and suggestions were offered by Sandia, the work contained here is primarily the work of Brian H. Stark, and his advisor, Professor Khalil Najafi. Junseok Chae, Andrew Kuo, and their coworkers at the University of Michigan helped to record some of the data. The following is an abstract of their work. We have developed a vacuum packaging technology using a thick nickel film to seal MEMS structures at the wafer level. The package is fabricated in a three-mask process by electroplating a 40 micro-meter thick nickel film over an 8 micro-meter sacrificial photoresist that is removed prior to package sealing. Implementation of electrical feedthroughs in this process requires no planarization. The large release channel enables an 800x800 micro-meter package to be released in less than three hours. Several mechanisms, based upon localized melting and lead/tin solder bumping, for sealing the release channel have been investigated. We have also developed Pirani gauges, integrated with this package, which can be used to establish the hermeticity of the different sealing technologies. They have measured a sealing pressure of approximately 1.5 Torr. Our work differs from previous Pirani gauges in that we utilize a novel doubly anchored structure that stiffens the structural membrane while not substantially degrading performance in order to measure fine leak rates.

  6. LIGA-based microsystem manufacturing:the electrochemistry of through-mold depostion and material properties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, James J. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-06-01

    The report presented below is to appear in ''Electrochemistry at the Nanoscale'', Patrik Schmuki, Ed. Springer-Verlag, (ca. 2005). The history of the LIGA process, used for fabricating dimensional precise structures for microsystem applications, is briefly reviewed, as are the basic elements of the technology. The principal focus however, is on the unique aspects of the electrochemistry of LIGA through-mask metal deposition and the generation of the fine and uniform microstructures necessary to ensure proper functionality of LIGA components. We draw from both previously published work by external researchers in the field as well as from published and unpublished studies from within Sandia.

  7. A simulation environment for modeling and development of algorithms for ensembles of mobile microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jonathan; Collins, Tom; Kumar, Vijay; Mostofi, Yasamin; Baras, John; Sadler, Brian

    2009-05-01

    The vision for the Micro Autonomous Systems Technologies MAST programis to develop autonomous, multifunctional, collaborative ensembles of agile, mobile microsystems to enhance tactical situational awareness in urban and complex terrain for small unit operations. Central to this vision is the ability to have multiple, heterogeneous autonomous assets to function as a single cohesive unit, that is adaptable, responsive to human commands and resilient to adversarial conditions. This paper represents an effort to develop a simulation environment for studying control, sensing, communication, perception, and planning methodologies and algorithms.

  8. Electroplating and characterization of cobalt-nickel-iron and nickel-iron for magnetic microsystems applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Frank Engel; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Tang, Peter Torben

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties of pulse reverse (PR) electroplated CoNiFe and DC electroplated NiTe are presented. CoNiFe is a very promising material for magnetic microsystems due to the possibility of achieving a high saturation flux density (B-s) and a low coercivity (H-c). A new bath formulation has...... been developed, which by means of PR electroplating makes it possible to deposit high B-s CoNiFe with a low residual stress level. The magnetic properties have been determined using a new simple measurement setup that allows for wafer level characterization. The results have been validated...

  9. Noncontact surface thermometry for microsystems: LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Mark (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Beecham, Thomas (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Graham, Samuel (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kearney, Sean Patrick; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-10-01

    We describe a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort to develop and apply laser-based thermometry diagnostics for obtaining spatially resolved temperature maps on working microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The goal of the effort was to cultivate diagnostic approaches that could adequately resolve the extremely fine MEMS device features, required no modifications to MEMS device design, and which did not perturb the delicate operation of these extremely small devices. Two optical diagnostics were used in this study: microscale Raman spectroscopy and microscale thermoreflectance. Both methods use a low-energy, nonperturbing probe laser beam, whose arbitrary wavelength can be selected for a diffraction-limited focus that meets the need for micron-scale spatial resolution. Raman is exploited most frequently, as this technique provides a simple and unambiguous measure of the absolute device temperature for most any MEMS semiconductor or insulator material under steady state operation. Temperatures are obtained from the spectral position and width of readily isolated peaks in the measured Raman spectra with a maximum uncertainty near {+-}10 K and a spatial resolution of about 1 micron. Application of the Raman technique is demonstrated for V-shaped and flexure-style polycrystalline silicon electrothermal actuators, and for a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor. The potential of the Raman technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and in-plane stress in silicon MEMS is also demonstrated and future Raman-variant diagnostics for ultra spatio-temporal resolution probing are discussed. Microscale thermoreflectance has been developed as a complement for the primary Raman diagnostic. Thermoreflectance exploits the small-but-measurable temperature dependence of surface optical reflectivity for diagnostic purposes. The temperature-dependent reflectance behavior of bulk silicon, SUMMiT-V polycrystalline silicon films and metal surfaces is

  10. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  11. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  12. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Your Eyes and the Sun Sections The Sun, UV Radiation ... Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Written by: David Turbert Aug. 28, 2014 Keep ...

  13. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  14. A microsystem for sensing and patterning oxidative microgradients during cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyun; Bansal, Tushar; Pinelis, Mikhail; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2006-05-01

    We present the design, modeling, fabrication and testing of a microsystem for the electrolytic patterning and sensing of oxidative microgradients within 1 x 1 mm2 area during cell culture. The system employs an array of microfabricated electrodes (3-40 microm in width) embedded in gas-permeable microchannels to generate precise doses of dissolved oxygen (ranging from 10 fmol O2 mm(-2) s(-1) to 100 nmol O2 mm(-2) s(-1)) via electrolysis. The microgradients generated by different microelectrodes in the array can be superimposed to pattern multi-dimensional oxygen profiles not possible with other methods. We demonstrate the patterning, sensing and quantification of dissolved oxygen microgradients in the 0 to 40% dO2 range using this microsystem. Reactive oxygen species generation and dosing is also quantified. Lastly, we demonstrate how the microtechnology enables new types of experiments in three different cell culture models: localized hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in C2C12 myoblasts, dynamic aerotaxis assays of Bacillus subtilis, and studies of calcium release in an ischemia/re-oxygenation myoblast model.

  15. Bio-inspired polymeric patterns with enhanced wear durability for microsystem applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R. Arvind; Siyuan, L.; Satyanarayana, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kustandi, T.S. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Sinha, Sujeet K., E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-10-10

    At micro/nano-scale, friction force dominates at the interface between bodies moving in relative motion and severely affects their smooth operation. This effect limits the performance of microsystem devices such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In addition, friction force also leads to material removal or wear and thereby reduces the durability i.e. the useful operating life of the devices. In this work, we fabricated bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications. Inspired by the surface features on lotus leaves namely, the protuberances and wax, SU-8 polymeric films spin-coated on silicon wafers were topographically and chemically modified. For topographical modification, micro-scale patterns were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and for chemical modification, the micro-patterns were coated with perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Tribological investigation of the bio-inspired patterns revealed that the friction coefficients reduced significantly and the wear durability increased by several orders. In order to enhance the wear durability much further, the micro-patterns were exposed to argon/oxygen plasma and were subsequently coated with the perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Bio-inspired patterns with enhanced wear durability, such as the ones investigated in the current work, have potential tribological applications in MEMS/Bio-MEMS actuator-based devices. Highlights: {yields}Bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications in microsystems. {yields}Novel surface modification for the patterns to enhance tribological properties. {yields}Patterns show low friction properties and extremely high wear durability.

  16. Final report on LDRD project : narrow-linewidth VCSELs for atomic microsystems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Weng Wah; Geib, Kent Martin; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2011-09-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are well suited for emerging photonic microsystems due to their low power consumption, ease of integration with other optical components, and single frequency operation. However, the typical VCSEL linewidth of 100 MHz is approximately ten times wider than the natural linewidth of atoms used in atomic beam clocks and trapped atom research, which degrades or completely destroys performance in those systems. This report documents our efforts to reduce VCSEL linewidths below 10 MHz to meet the needs of advanced sub-Doppler atomic microsystems, such as cold-atom traps. We have investigated two complementary approaches to reduce VCSEL linewidth: (A) increasing the laser-cavity quality factor, and (B) decreasing the linewidth enhancement factor (alpha) of the optical gain medium. We have developed two new VCSEL devices that achieved increased cavity quality factors: (1) all-semiconductor extended-cavity VCSELs, and (2) micro-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (MECSELs). These new VCSEL devices have demonstrated linewidths below 10 MHz, and linewidths below 1 MHz seem feasible with further optimization.

  17. On the Path to SunShot - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-05-01

    The halfway mark of the SunShot Initiative’s 2020 target date is a good time to take stock: How much progress has been made? What have we learned? What barriers and opportunities must still be addressed to ensure that solar technologies achieve cost parity in 2020 and realize their full potential in the decades beyond? To answer these questions, the Solar Energy Technology Office launched the On the Path to SunShot series in early 2015 in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and with contributions from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The reports focus on the areas of technology development, systems integration, and market enablers.

  18. DOE SunShot System Integration Program. Accomplishments and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boynton, Shannon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    During FY15, Sandia National Laboratories executed research and development (R&D) work on a portfolio of 16 SunShot Program Systems Integration (SI) agreements, with a total FY15 budget of $13.2 million. This document summarizes the impact of the Sandia contributions based on Sandia’s direct contributions by DOE.

  19. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  20. Optofluidic microsystem for on-chip L2-waveguide modulation featuring flow stabilization and a novel input coupling region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, E.; Rosenauer, M.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Vellekoop, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an optofluidic microsystem integrated onto a single device featuring on-chip light guiding and positioning under stable and low-loss conditions. Integration of optical components onto a microfluidic chip offers numerous new possibilities in the field of particle and cell analysis, but rec

  1. Sun position calculator (SPC) for Landsat imagery with geodetic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jeong C.

    2015-12-01

    Landsat imagery comes with sun position information such as azimuth and sun elevation, but they are available only at the center of a scene. To aid in the use of Landsat imagery for various solar radiation applications such as topographic correction, solar power, urban heat island, agriculture, climate and vegetation, it is necessary to calculate the sun position information at every pixel. This research developed a PC application that creates sun position data layers in ArcGIS at every pixel in a Landsat scene. The SPC program is composed of two major routines - converting universal transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates to geographic longitudes and latitudes, and calculating sun position information based on the Meeus' routine. For the latter, an innovative method was also implemented to account for the Earth's flattening on an ellipsoid. The Meeus routine implemented in this research showed about 0.2‧ of mean absolute difference from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) routine when solar zenith and azimuth angles were tested with every 30 min data at four city locations (Fairbanks, Atlanta, Sydney and Rio Grande) on June 30, 2014. The Meeus routine was about ten times faster than the SPA routine. Professionals who need the Sun's position information for Landsat imagery will benefit from the SPC application.

  2. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  3. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  4. An artificial blood vessel implanted three-dimensional microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Ying; Pei, Ying; Xie, Min; Jin, Zi-He; Xiao, Ya-Shi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Li-Na; Li, Yan; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-02-21

    Reproducing a tumor microenvironment consisting of blood vessels and tumor cells for modeling tumor invasion in vitro is particularly challenging. Here, we report an artificial blood vessel implanted 3D microfluidic system for reproducing transvascular migration of tumor cells. The transparent, porous and elastic artificial blood vessels are obtained by constructing polysaccharide cellulose-based microtubes using a chitosan sacrificial template, and possess excellent cytocompatibility, permeability, and mechanical characteristics. The artificial blood vessels are then fully implanted into the collagen matrix to reconstruct the 3D microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells. Well-defined simulated vascular lumens were obtained by proliferation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) lining the artificial blood vessels, which enables us to reproduce structures and functions of blood vessels and replicate various hemodynamic parameters. Based on this model, the adhesion and transvascular migration of tumor cells across the artificial blood vessel have been well reproduced.

  5. The BioSentinel Bioanalytical Microsystem: Characterizing DNA Radiation Damage in Living Organisms Beyond Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, A. J.; Hanel, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Boone, T.; Tan, M.; Mousavi, A.; Rademacher, A.; Schooley, A.; Klamm, B.; Benton, J.; Padgen, M.; Gentry, D.; Friedericks, C.; Defouw, G.; Parra, M.; Santa Maria, S.; Marina, D.; Swan, B. G.; Wheeler, S.; Gavalas, S.; Lewis, B.; Sanchez, H.; Chartres, J.; Lusby, T.

    2016-01-01

    We will present details and initial lab test results from an integrated bioanalytical microsystem designed to conduct the first biology experiments beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) since Apollo 17 (1972). The 14-kg, 12x24x37-cm BioSentinel spacecraft (Figure 1) assays radiation-responsive yeast in its science payload by measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repaired via homologous recombination, a mechanism common to all eukaryotes including humans. S. cerevisiae (brewer's yeast) in 288 microwells are provided with nutrient and optically assayed for growth and metabolism via 3-color absorptimetry monthly during the 18-month mission. BioSentinel is one of several secondary payloads to be deployed by NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) launch vehicle into approximately 0.95 AU heliocentric orbit in July 2018; it will communicate with Earth from up to 100 million km.

  6. A microsystem integration platform dedicated to build multi-chip-neural interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Amer E; Gosselin, Benoit; Sawan, Mohamad

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an electrical discharge machining (EDM) technique associated with electrochemical steps to construct an appropriate biological interface to neural tissues. The presented microprobe design permits to short the time of production compared to available techniques, while improving the integrity of the electrodes. In addition, we are using a 3D approach to create compact and independent microsystem integration platefrom incorporating array of electrodes and signal processing chips. System-in-package and die-stacking are used to connect the integrated circuits and the array of electrodes on the platform. This approach enables to build a device that will fit in a volume smaller than 1.7 x 1.7 x 3.0 mm(3). This demonstrates the possibility of creating small devices that are suitable to fit in restricted areas for interfacing the brain.

  7. White light interferometer with color CCD for 3D-surface profiling of microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul K.; Pramanik, Manojit; Nandigana, Krishna M.; Kothiyal, Mahendra P.

    2015-03-01

    White light interferometry (WLI) is a state-of-the-art technique for high resolution full-filed 3-D surface profiling of Microsystems. However, the WLI is rather slow, because the number of frames to be recorded and evaluated is large compared to the single wavelength phase shifting interferometry. In this paper, we combine white light interferometer with a single-chip color CCD camera which makes the measurement faster, simpler, and cost-effective. The red-bluegreen (RGB) color interferogram stored in a computer is then decomposed into its individual components and corresponding phase maps for red, green, and blue components are calculated independently. The usefulness of the technique is demonstrated on reflective micro-scale-samples.

  8. Microsystems enabled photovoltaics: 14.9% efficient 14 {mu}m thick crystalline silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose L. [Sandia National Laboratories, M.S. 1080, 1515 Eubank Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Clews, Peggy; Pluym, Tammy; Grubbs, Robert K.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Nielson, Gregory N. [Sandia National Laboratories, M.S. 1080, 1515 Eubank Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Zubia, David [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Crystalline silicon solar cells 10-15 times thinner than traditional commercial c-Si cells with 14.9% efficiency are presented with modeling, fabrication, and testing details. These cells are 14 {mu}m thick, 250 {mu}m wide, and have achieved 14.9% solar conversion efficiency under AM 1.5 spectrum. First, modeling results illustrate the importance of high-quality passivation to achieve high efficiency in thin silicon, back contacted solar cells. Then, the methodology used to fabricate these ultra thin devices by means of established microsystems processing technologies is presented. Finally, the optimization procedure to achieve high efficiency as well as the results of the experiments carried out with alumina and nitride layers as passivation coatings are discussed. (author)

  9. Advanced microsystems for automotive applications 2013 smart systems for safe and green vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gereon

    2013-01-01

    The road vehicle of the future will embrace innovations from three major automotive technology fields: driver assistance systems, vehicle networking and alternative propulsion. Smart systems such as adaptive ICT components and MEMS devices, novel network architectures, integrated sensor systems, intelligent interfaces and functional materials form the basis of these features and permit their successful and synergetic integration. They increasingly appear to be the key enabling technologies for safe and green road mobility. For more than fifteen years the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been successful in detecting novel trends and in discussing the technological implications from early on. The topic of the AMAA 2013 will be “Smart Systems for Safe and Green Vehicles”. This book contains peer-reviewed papers written by leading engineers and researchers which all address the ongoing research and novel developments in the field. www.amaa.de.

  10. Advanced modeling and simulation to design and manufacture high performance and reliable advanced microelectronics and microsystems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettleship, Ian (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Hinklin, Thomas; Holcomb, David Joseph; Tandon, Rajan; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr. (,; .); Dempsey, James Franklin; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Neilsen, Michael K.; Lanagan, Michael (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers having broad expertise in materials processing and properties, materials characterization, and computational mechanics was assembled to develop science-based modeling/simulation technology to design and reproducibly manufacture high performance and reliable, complex microelectronics and microsystems. The team's efforts focused on defining and developing a science-based infrastructure to enable predictive compaction, sintering, stress, and thermomechanical modeling in ''real systems'', including: (1) developing techniques to and determining materials properties and constitutive behavior required for modeling; (2) developing new, improved/updated models and modeling capabilities, (3) ensuring that models are representative of the physical phenomena being simulated; and (4) assessing existing modeling capabilities to identify advances necessary to facilitate the practical application of Sandia's predictive modeling technology.

  11. 16th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA)

    CERN Document Server

    Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2012 : Smart Systems for Safe, Sustainable and Networked Vehicles

    2012-01-01

    The ambitious objectives of future road mobility, i.e. fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and zero accidents, imply a paradigm shift in the concept of the car regarding its architecture, materials, and propulsion technology, and require an intelligent integration into the systems of transportation and power. ICT, components and smart systems have been essential for a multitude of recent innovations, and are expected to be key enabling technologies for the changes ahead, both inside the vehicle and at its interfaces for the exchange of data and power with the outside world. It has been the objective of the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) for almost two decades to detect novel trends and to discuss technological implications and innovation potential from day one on. In 2012, the topic of the AMAA conference is “Smart Systems for Safe, Sustainable and Networked Vehicles”. The conference papers selected for this book address current research, developments and i...

  12. Screen printing as a holistic manufacturing method for multifunctional microsystems and microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, D.; Lozano, P.; Mata, D.; Cito, S.; Constantí, M.; Katakis, I.

    2009-11-01

    Microsystems are commonly manufactured by photolithographic or injection moulding techniques in a variety of realizations and on almost any material. A perennial problem in the manufacturing of microsystems is the difficulty to obtain hybrid devices that incorporate distinct materials with different functionalities. In most of the cases, cumbersome prototyping and high investment needed for manufacturing are additional problems that add to the cost of the final product. Such drawbacks are true not only for lab-on-a-chip but also for certain microreactor applications. Most importantly, in many commercial applications where an intermediate product between full fluidics control and a 'strip' is needed, such restraints prohibit the feasibility of reduction to practice. Screen printing on the other hand is a low cost technique that has been used for years in mass producing two-dimensional low cost reproductions of a mask pattern for circuits and art incorporates prototyping in production and allows the use of an almost limitless variety of materials as 'inks'. In this work it is demonstrated that taking advantage of the deposited ink's three-dimensional nature, screen printing can be used as a versatile and low cost technique for the fabrication of microchannels. Microchannels with dimensions in the order of 100 µm were fabricated that could readily incorporate functionalities through the choice of the materials used to create the microstructure. Variables have been investigated through a factorial experimental design as important process parameters that affect the resolution and print thickness of the resulting microchannels that incorporate electroactive elements. Such studies can lead to the optimization of the process for custom applications.

  13. Using a co-culture microsystem for cell migration under fluid shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Shen-Hsing; Wu, Li-Wha; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    We have successfully developed a microsystem to co-cultivate two types of cells with a minimum defined gap of 50 μm, and to quantitatively study the impact of fluid shear stress on the mutual influence of cell migration velocity and distance. We used the hydrostatic pressure to seed two different cells, endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs), on opposite sides of various gap sizes (500 μm, 200 μm, 100 μm, and 50 μm). After cultivating the cells for 12 h and peeling the co-culture microchip from the culture dish, we studied the impacts of gap size on the migration of either cell type in the absence or presence of fluid shear stress (7 dyne cm(-2) and 12 dyne cm(-2)) influence. We found that both gap size and shear stress have profound influence on cell migration. Smaller gap sizes (100 μm and 50 μm) significantly enhanced cell migration, suggesting a requirement of an effective concentration of released factor(s) by either cell type in the gap region. Flow-induced shear stress delayed the migration onset of either cell type in a dose-dependent manner regardless of the gap size. Moreover, shear stress-induced decrease of cell migration becomes evident when the gap size was 500 μm. We have developed a co-culture microsystem for two kinds of cells and overcome the conventional difficulties in observation and mixed culture, and it would have more application for bio-manipulation and tissue repair engineering.

  14. Earth's Heat Source - The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2009-01-01

    The Sun encompasses planet Earth, supplies the heat that warms it, and even shakes it. The United Nation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assumed that solar influence on our climate is limited to changes in solar irradiance and adopted the consensus opinion of a Hydrogen-filled Sun, the Standard Solar Model (SSM). They did not consider the alternative solar model and instead adopted another consensus opinion: Anthropogenic greenhouse gases play a dominant role in climate change. The SSM fails to explain the solar wind, solar cycles, and the empirical link of solar surface activity with Earth changing climate. The alternative solar model, that was molded from an embarrassingly large number of unexpected observations revealed by space-age measurements since 1959, explains not only these puzzles but also how closely linked interactions between the Sun and its planets and other celestial bodies induce turbulent cycles of secondary solar characteristics that significantly affect Earth climate.

  15. The Sun: Our Nearest Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have in our celestial backyard, a prime example of a variable star. The Sun, long thought to be "perfect" and unvarying, began to reveal its cycles in the early 1600s as Galileo Galilei and Christoph Scheiner used a telescope to study sunspots. For the past four hundred years, scientists have accumulated data, showing a magnetic cycle that repeats, on average, every eleven (or twenty-two) years. In addition, modern satellites have shown that the energy output at radio and x-ray wavelengths also varies with this cycle. This talk will showcase the Sun as a star and discuss how solar studies may be used to understand other stars.

  16. Interstellar Dust Close to the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Priscilla C

    2012-01-01

    The low density interstellar medium (ISM) close to the Sun and inside of the heliosphere provides a unique laboratory for studying interstellar dust grains. Grain characteristics in the nearby ISM are obtained from observations of interstellar gas and dust inside of the heliosphere and the interstellar gas towards nearby stars. Comparison between the gas composition and solar abundances suggests that grains are dominated by olivines and possibly some form of iron oxide. Measurements of the interstellar Ne/O ratio by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer spacecraft indicate that a high fraction of interstellar oxygen in the ISM must be depleted onto dust grains. Local interstellar abundances are consistent with grain destruction in ~150 km/s interstellar shocks, provided that the carbonaceous component is hydrogenated amorphous carbon and carbon abundances are correct. Variations in relative abundances of refractories in gas suggest variations in the history of grain destruction in nearby ISM. The large observed ...

  17. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  18. Effects of Early Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be harmful. It can lead to:Skin changes. Some skin cells with melanin can form a clump. This creates freckles and moles. Over time, these can develop cancer.Early aging. Time spent in the sun makes your skin age faster than normal. Signs of this are wrinkled, tight, or leathery ...

  19. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  20. How Bright Is the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berr, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a sequence of activities designed to allow eighth grade students to deal with one of the fundamental relationships that govern energy distribution. Activities guide students to measure light bulb brightness, discover the inverse square law, compare light bulb light to candle light, and measure sun brightness. (two references) (MCO)

  1. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  2. Portable microsystem integrates multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations and a surface stress biosensor to detect red blood cells for hemolytic anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Shengbo Sang; Qiliang Feng; Aoqun Jian; Huiming Li; Jianlong Ji; Qianqian Duan; Wendong Zhang; Tao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic anemia intensity has been suggested as a vital factor for the growth of certain clinical complications of sickle cell disease. However, there is no effective and rapid diagnostic method. As a powerful platform for bio-particles testing, biosensors integrated with microfluidics offer great potential for a new generation of portable point of care systems. In this paper, we describe a novel portable microsystem consisting of a multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations (MDM) devic...

  3. Superamphiphobic Silicon-Nanowire-Embedded Microsystem and In-Contact Flow Performance of Gas and Liquid Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Ren, Wurong; Kim, Jin-Oh; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hao; Sharma, Siddharth; Faustini, Marco; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-26

    Gas and liquid streams are invariably separated either by a solid wall or by a membrane for heat or mass transfer between the gas and liquid streams. Without the separating wall, the gas phase is present as bubbles in liquid or, in a microsystem, as gas plugs between slugs of liquid. Continuous and direct contact between the two moving streams of gas and liquid is quite an efficient way of achieving heat or mass transfer between the two phases. Here, we report a silicon nanowire built-in microsystem in which a liquid stream flows in contact with an underlying gas stream. The upper liquid stream does not penetrate into the lower gas stream due to the superamphiphobic nature of the silicon nanowires built into the bottom wall, thereby preserving the integrity of continuous gas and liquid streams, although they are flowing in contact. Due to the superamphiphobic nature of silicon nanowires, the microsystem provides the best possible interfacial mass transfer known to date between flowing gas and liquid phases, which can achieve excellent chemical performance in two-phase organic syntheses.

  4. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  5. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  6. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  7. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  8. Total eclipses of the sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirker, J B

    1980-12-19

    Total eclipses of the sun offer research opportunities in a variety of sciences. Some of the advances in solar physics resulting from eclipse observations are discussed. Experiments at the total eclipse of 16 February 1980 in India are also described. These included a test of general relativity, studies in coronal physics, investigations of solar prominences, diameter measurements, a search for interplanetary dust, a study of the gravity waves in the earth's atmosphere, and experiments on the biological effects on animals and humans.

  9. Revisiting SU(N) integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Zuber, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this note, I revisit integrals over $\\SU(N)$ of the form $ \\int DU\\, U_{i_1j_1}\\cdots U_{i_pj_p}\\Ud_{k_1l_1}\\cdots \\Ud_{k_nl_n}$. While the case $p=n$ is well known, it seems that explicit expressions for $p=n+N$ had not appeared in the literature. Similarities and differences, in particular in the large $N$ limit, between the two cases are discussed

  10. Coherent States with SU(N) Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, M; Mathur, Manu; Paul, Samir K.

    2003-01-01

    We define coherent states carrying SU(N) charges by exploiting generalized Schwinger boson representation of SU(N) Lie algebra. These coherent states are defined on $2 (2^{N - 1} - 1)$ complex planes. They satisfy continuity property and provide resolution of identity. We also exploit this technique to construct the corresponding non-linear SU(N) coherent states.

  11. The Sun Rises on the Solar Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Reyaz A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy from the sun is abundant and free. Solar energy is in essence electromagnetic radiation emitted from the sun. Earth's climate, hydrologic systems, and ecosystems all derive from the sun. Other forms of renewable power such as wind, wave, biomass, and hydro are an indirect function of solar radiation.

  12. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  13. The faint young Sun problem

    CERN Document Server

    Feulner, Georg

    2012-01-01

    For more than four decades, scientists have been trying to find an answer to one of the most fundamental questions in paleoclimatology, the `faint young Sun problem'. For the early Earth, models of stellar evolution predict a solar energy input to the climate system which is about 25% lower than today. This would result in a completely frozen world over the first two billion years in the history of our planet, if all other parameters controlling Earth's climate had been the same. Yet there is ample evidence for the presence of liquid surface water and even life in the Archean (3.8 to 2.5 billion years before present), so some effect (or effects) must have been compensating for the faint young Sun. A wide range of possible solutions have been suggested and explored during the last four decades, with most studies focusing on higher concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane or ammonia. All of these solutions present considerable difficulties, however, so the faint young Sun prob...

  14. Sun Savvy Students: Free Teaching Resources from EPA's SunWise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Jordan, Luke

    2008-01-01

    With summer in full swing and the sun is naturally on our minds, what better time to take advantage of a host of free materials provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Sun Wise program. Sun Wise aims to teach students and teachers about the stratospheric ozone layer, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and how to be safe while in the Sun.…

  15. Preliminary Investigation of an SOI-based Arrayed Waveguide Grating Demodulation Integration Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Zhou, Wenqian; Liu, Yu; Dong, Xiaye; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Changyun; Zhang, Meiling; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2014-01-01

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demodulation integration microsystem is investigated in this study. The system consists of a C-band on-chip LED, a 2 × 2 silicon nanowire-based coupler, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array, a 1 × 8 AWG, and a photoelectric detector array. The coupler and AWG are made from silicon-on-insulator wafers using electron beam exposure and response-coupled plasma technology. Experimental results show that the excess loss in the MMI coupler with a footprint of 6 × 100 μm2 is 0.5423 dB. The 1 × 8 AWG with a footprint of 267 × 381 μm2 and a waveguide width of 0.4 μm exhibits a central channel loss of −3.18 dB, insertion loss non-uniformity of −1.34 dB, and crosstalk level of −23.1 dB. The entire system is preliminarily tested. Wavelength measurement precision is observed to reach 0.001 nm. The wavelength sensitivity of each FBG is between 0.04 and 0.06 nm/dB. PMID:24797561

  16. Frequency-multiplication high-output triboelectric nanogenerator for sustainably powering biomedical microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Han, Meng-Di; Wang, Ren-Xin; Zhu, Fu-Yun; Li, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hai-Xia

    2013-03-13

    An attractive method to response the current energy crisis and produce sustainable nonpolluting power source is harvesting energy from our living environment. However, the energy in our living environment always exists in low-frequency form, which is very difficult to be utilized directly. Here, we demonstrated a novel sandwich-shape triboelectric nanogenerator to convert low-frequency mechanical energy to electric energy with double frequency. An aluminum film was placed between two polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes to realize frequency multiplication by twice contact electrifications within one cycle of external force. The working mechanism was studied by finite element simulation. Additionally, the well-designed micro/nano dual-scale structures (i.e., pyramids and V-shape grooves) fabricated atop PDMS surface was employed to enhance the device performance. The output peak voltage, current density, and energy volume density achieved 465 V, 13.4 μA/cm(2), and 53.4 mW/cm(3), respectively. This novel nanogenerator was systematically investigated and also demonstrated as a reliable power source, which can be directly used to not only lighten five commercial light-emitting diodes (LEDs) but also drive an implantable 3-D microelectrode array for neural prosthesis without any energy storage unit or rectification circuit. This is the first demonstration of the nanogenerator for directly driving biomedical microsystems, which extends the application fields of the nanogenerator and drives it closer to practical applications.

  17. Biocompatible circuit-breaker chip for thermal management of biomedical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Dahmardeh, Masoud; Takahata, Kenichi

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a thermoresponsive micro circuit breaker for biomedical applications specifically targeted at electronic intelligent implants. The circuit breaker is micromachined to have a shape-memory-alloy cantilever actuator as a normally closed temperature-sensitive switch to protect the device of interest from overheating, a critical safety feature for smart implants including those that are electrothermally driven with wireless micro heaters. The device is fabricated in a size of 1.5  ×  2.0  ×  0.46 mm3 using biocompatible materials and a chip-based titanium package, exhibiting a nominal cold-state resistance of 14 Ω. The breaker rapidly enters the full open condition when the chip temperature exceeds 63 °C, temporarily breaking the circuit of interest to lower its temperature until chip temperature drops to 51 °C, at which the breaker closes the circuit to allow current to flow through it again, physically limiting the maximum temperature of the circuit. This functionality is tested in combination with a wireless resonant heater powered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, demonstrating self-regulation of heater temperature. The developed circuit-breaker chip operates in a fully passive manner that removes the need for active sensor and circuitry to achieve temperature regulation in a target device, contributing to the miniaturization of biomedical microsystems including electronic smart implants where thermal management is essential.

  18. Some metal oxides and their applications for creation of Microsystems (MEMS) and Energy Harvesting Devices (EHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denishev, K.

    2016-10-01

    This is a review of a part of the work of the Technological Design Group at Technical University of Sofia, Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Technologies, Department of Microelectronics. It is dealing with piezoelectric polymer materials and their application in different microsystems (MEMS) and Energy Harvesting Devices (EHD), some organic materials and their applications in organic (OLED) displays, some transparent conductive materials etc. The metal oxides Lead Zirconium Titanate (PZT) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) are used as piezoelectric layers - driving part of different sensors, actuators and EHD. These materials are studied in term of their performance in dependence on the deposition conditions and parameters. They were deposited as thin films by using RF Sputtering System. As technological substrates, glass plates and Polyethylenetherephtalate (PET) foils were used. For characterization of the materials, a test structure, based on Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW), was designed and prepared. The layers were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The piezoelectric response was tested at variety of mechanical loads (tensile strain, stress) in static and dynamic (multiple bending) mode. The single-layered and double-layered structures were prepared for piezoelectric efficiency increase. A structure of piezoelectric energy transformer is proposed and investigated.

  19. Microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation with associated extremely low photon flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, A.; Jain, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a microsystem for remote sensing of high energy radiation in extremely low flux density conditions. With wide deployment in mind, potential applications range from nuclear non-proliferation, to hospital radiation-safety. The daunting challenge is the low level of photon flux densities - emerging from a Scintillation Crystal (SC) on to a ~1 mm-square detector, which are a factor of 10000 or so lower than those acceptable to recently reported photonic chips (including `single-photon detection' chips), due to a combination of low Lux, small detector size, and short duration SC output pulses - on the order of 1 μs. These challenges are attempted to be overcome by the design of an innovative `System on a Chip' type microchip, with high detector sensitivity, and effective coupling from the SC to the photodetector. The microchip houses a tiny n+ diff p-epi photodiode (PD) as well as the associated analog amplification and other related circuitry, all fabricated in 0.5micron, 3-metal 2-poly CMOS technology. The amplification, together with pulse-shaping of the photocurrent-induced voltage signal, is achieved through a tandem of two capacitively coupled, double-cascode amplifiers. Included in the paper are theoretical estimates and experimental results.

  20. Medical capability team: the clinical microsystem for combat healthcare delivery in counterinsurgency operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susz; Van Steenvort, Jon K

    2008-01-01

    Today's operational environment in the support of counterinsurgency operations requires greater tactical and operational flexibility and diverse medical capabilities. The skills and organizations required for full spectrum medical operations are different from those of the past. Combat healthcare demands agility and the capacity for rapid change in clinical systems and processes to better support the counterinsurgency environment. This article proposes the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) develop and implement the medical capability team (MCT) for combat healthcare delivery. It discusses using the concept of the brigade combat team to develop medical capability teams as the unit of effectiveness to transform frontline care; provides a theoretical overview of the MCT as a "clinical microsystem"; discusses MCT leadership, training, and organizational support, and the deployment and employment of the MCT in a counterinsurgency environment. Additionally, this article proposes that the AMEDD initiate the development of an AMEDD Combat Training Center of Excellence to train and validate the MCTs. The complexity of combat healthcare demands an agile and campaign quality AMEDD with joint expeditionary capability in order to promote the best patient outcomes in a counterinsurgency environment.

  1. ac-Field-induced fluid pumping in microsystems with asymmetric temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtappels, Moritz; Stubbe, Marco; Gimsa, Jan

    2009-02-01

    We present two different designs of electrohydrodynamic micropumps for microfluidic systems. The micropumps have no movable parts, and their simple design allows for fabrication by microsystems technology. The pumps are operated by ac voltages from 1 to 60 V and were tested with aqueous solutions in the conductivity range of 1-112 mS m(-1). The pump effect is induced by an ac electric field across a fluid medium with an inhomogeneous temperature distribution. It is constant over a wide range of the ac field frequency with a conductivity-dependent drop-off at high frequencies. The temperature-dependent conductivity and permittivity distributions in the fluid induce space charges that interact with the electric field and induce fluid motion. The temperature distribution can be generated either by Joule heating in the medium or by external heating. We present experimental results obtained with two prototypes featuring Joule heating and external heating by a heating filament. Experimental and numerical results are compared with an analytical model.

  2. FERMI: a digital Front End and Readout MIcrosystem for high resolution calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, H.; Appelquist, G.; Bailly, P.; Benetta, R.; Berglund, S.; Bezamat, J.; Blouzon, F.; Bohm, C.; Breveglieri, L.; Brigati, S.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Dadda, L.; David, J.; Engström, M.; Genat, J. F.; Givoletti, M.; Goggi, V. G.; Gong, S.; Grieco, G. M.; Hansen, M.; Hentzell, H.; Holmberg, T.; Höglund, I.; Inkinen, S. J.; Kerek, A.; Landi, C.; Ledortz, O.; Lippi, M.; Lofstedt, B.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Maloberti, F.; Mutz, S.; Nayman, P.; Piuri, V.; Polesello, G.; Sami, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwemling, P.; Stefanelli, R.; Sundblad, R.; Svensson, C.; Torelli, G.; Vanuxem, J. P.; Yamdagni, N.; Yuan, J.; Ödmark, A.; Fermi Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    We present a digital solution for the front-end electronics of high resolution calorimeters at future colliders. It is based on analogue signal compression, high speed {A}/{D} converters, a fully programmable pipeline and a digital signal processing (DSP) chain with local intelligence and system supervision. This digital solution is aimed at providing maximal front-end processing power by performing waveform analysis using DSP methods. For the system integration of the multichannel device a multi-chip, silicon-on-silicon multi-chip module (MCM) has been adopted. This solution allows a high level of integration of complex analogue and digital functions, with excellent flexibility in mixing technologies for the different functional blocks. This type of multichip integration provides a high degree of reliability and programmability at both the function and the system level, with the additional possibility of customising the microsystem to detector-specific requirements. For enhanced reliability in high radiation environments, fault tolerance strategies, i.e. redundancy, reconfigurability, majority voting and coding for error detection and correction, are integrated into the design.

  3. Microsystems for anion exchange separation of radionuclides in nitric acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losno, M.; Brennetot, R.; Mariet, C. [DEN/Service d' Etudes Analytiques et de Reactivite des Surfaces - SEARS, CEA, Centre de Saclay, Universite Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ferrante, I.; Descroix, S. [MMBM Group, Institut Curie Research Center, CNRS UMR 168, Paris (France)

    2016-07-01

    An efficient and reproducible photo-polymerized poly(ethylene glycol methacrylate methacrylate-co- allyl methacrylate) monolith was synthesized and a photo-grafting process based on the ene-thiol click-chemistry has been performed to give anion exchange properties to the monolith. Since their introduction in the early 1990's polymethacrylate monoliths have emerged as a powerful alternative for microscale separations or sample treatment. Their relatively simple implementation in columns with small internal diameters makes them particularly attractive for the new chromatographic challenges of complex matrices analysis and on-chip separations. Despite their relatively poor ion-exchange capacity due to their highly porous structure, their use as anion exchangers is of large interest for nuclear analysis as numerous separations are based on this process. This paper presents a systematic study of the synthesis of the polymeric porous monolith and the versatile and robust functionalization method developed for the specific strong acidic media used in radiochemical procedures. The robustness of the stationary phase was tested in concentrated nitric acid. It appears that the C-S bond formed via thiol-ene chemistry is strong enough to be used to graft function of interest for separation in strong nitric acid medium. The photo-grafted anion exchanger, a quaternary ammonium, presents sufficient resistance to be used for radionuclide separation in [HNO{sub 3}]=5 mol.L{sup -1}so the next step is its integration in the cyclo olefin copolymer (COC) micro-system.

  4. Metal oxide-based monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Markus; Barrettino, Diego; Taschini, Stefano; Hagleitner, Christoph; Hierlemann, Andreas; Baltes, Henry

    2004-08-01

    A fully integrated gas sensor microsystem is presented, which comprises for the first time a micro hot plate as well as advanced analog and digital circuitry on a single chip. The micro hot plate is coated with a nanocrystalline SnO2 thick film. The sensor chip is produced in an industrial 0.8-microm CMOS process with subsequent micromachining steps. A novel circular micro hot plate, which is 500 x 500 microm(2) in size, features an excellent temperature homogeneity of +/-2% over the heated area (300-microm diameter) and a high thermal efficiency of 6.0 degrees C/mW. A robust prototype package was developed, which relies on standard microelectronic packaging methods. Apart from a microcontroller board for managing chip communication and providing power supply and reference signals, no additional measurement equipment is needed. The on-chip digital temperature controller can accurately adjust the membrane temperature between 170 and 300 degrees C with an error of +/-2 degrees C. The on-chip logarithmic converter covers a wide measurement range between 1 kOmega and 10 MOmega. CO concentrations in the sub-parts-per-million range are detectable, and a resolution of +/-0.1 ppm CO was achieved, which renders the sensor capable of measuring CO concentrations at threshold levels.

  5. The risk and protective functions of perceived family and peer microsystems among urban adolescents in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, E; Chesir-Teran, D; Friedman, J L; Yoshikawa, H; Allen, L; Roberts, A; Aber, J L

    1999-04-01

    Utilized a pattern-based approach to discover the different constellations of perceived social transactions separately for family and peer systems and explored the risk and protective functions of these microsystem profiles for both depression and antisocial behavior among a sample of ethnically and racially diverse urban adolescents living in poverty. Measures of perceived social support, involvement and hassles with family and peers, as well as perceived social acceptance and peers' values were entered into two sets of iterative cluster analyses to identify distinct profiles of family and peer transactions. From each of the perceived family and peer transactional analyses, six replicated profiles emerged. Several of the profiles were consistent with expectations from prior literature such as Enmeshing families and Rejecting peer networks, while others were novel and intriguing such as Entangling peers. Family profiles were consistent in their risk and protective associations for both depression and antisocial behavior, while the peer profiles varied in their effects for each developmental outcome. For example, the Rejecting peer profile placed adolescents at increased risk for depression but protected them from antisocial behavior. Implications for future research and preventive intervention are discussed.

  6. Raman spectroscopic differentiation of beef and horse meat using a 671 nm microsystem diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Halah Al; Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2013-11-01

    A non-invasive Raman spectroscopic approach for meat species identification and quality detection was successfully demonstrated for the two closely related species beef and horse. Fresh beef and horse muscles were cut and ice-stored at 5 °C, and time-dependent Raman measurements were performed daily up to 12 days postmortem. Applying a 671 nm microsystem diode laser and a laser power of 50 mW, spectra were recorded with integration times of 1-4 s. A pronounced offset of the Raman spectra was observed between horse and beef, with high fluorescence background for horse compared to beef for all days of storage. Principal components analysis was applied for data evaluation revealing a clear distinction between beef and horse meat which can be attributed to differences in the myoglobin content of both species. Furthermore, separations according to aging and spoilage for the two species could be identified simultaneously. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy might be an efficient test method for meat species identification in combination with spoilage detection.

  7. Innovative optical microsystem for static and dynamic tissue diagnosis in minimally invasive surgical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad

    2012-08-01

    During conventional surgical tasks, surgeons use their tactile perception in their finger tips to sense the degree of softness of biological tissues to identify tissue types and to feel for any abnormalities. However, in robotic-assisted surgical systems, surgeons are unable to sense this information because only surgical tools interact with tissues. In order to provide surgeons with such useful tactile perception, therefore, a tactile sensor is required that is capable of simultaneously measuring contact force and resulting tissue deformation. Accordingly, this paper discusses the design, prototyping, testing, and validation of an innovative tactile sensor that is capable of measuring the degree of softness of soft objects such as tissues under both static and dynamic loading conditions and which is also magnetic resonance compatible and electrically passive. These unique characteristics of the proposed sensor would also make it a practical choice for use in robotic-assisted surgical platforms. The prototype version of this sensor was developed by using optical micro-systems technology and, thus far, experimental test results performed on the prototyped sensor have validated its ability to measure the relative softness of artificial tissues.

  8. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    There is increasing interest among universities in the scientific and educational possibilities of picosatellites base on the CubeSat 5 concept. Due to sever mass and dimension constraints place on this type of satellites, new approaches and ideas regarding different systems arises to accommodate...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  9. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    to the opening mechanism. Communicated to SOHO in March, the new commands cured the problem. The cover stayed open and the imager is now fully functional. Organizing a mass ejection Images obtained with SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO show the Sun releasing billions of tonnes of gas into the Solar System in a coronal mass ejection. Such events disturb the whole Solar System and can affect the Earth's own space environment. Although the Sun is relatively very quiet, outbursts have been recorded by LASCO on two occasions since the instrument began operating. Repeated observations over several hours, made from SOHO's vantage point in space where the Sun never sets, result in impressive movies of the events. The corona is the scientists' term for the solar atmosphere, and the coronagraph masks the glaring light from the Sun's visible surface to make the corona observable. LASCO has a particularly wide field of view, out to fifteen times the Sun's diameter on either side. But it is a composite instrument, able also to observe the atmosphere quite close to the solar surface. This capability is already helping the scientists to interpret the mechanisms of the coronal mass ejections. The leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory in Washington DC, has made space observations of the Sun for many years. He is therefore well placed to judge the value of SOHO's results so far. "I believe that for the first time we can see the Sun preparing itself for a mass ejection," Brueckner says. "In the days preceding such an event, multiple magnetic loops appear in our images of the inner corona. They tell us that the Sun is reorganizing its magnetic field. We want to confirm that this destabilizes the solar atmosphere and causes the mass ejection. Then we should be able to give advance warning of outbursts from the Sun which endanger low-flying satellites, and can harm power distribution systems on the Earth." The hole in the interstellar breeze

  10. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  11. Seismology of the Wounded Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Cally, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Active regions are open wounds in the Sun's surface. Seismic oscillations from the interior pass through them into the atmosphere, changing their nature in the process to fast and slow magneto-acoustic waves. The fast waves then partially reflect and partially mode convert to upgoing and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves. The reflected fast and downgoing Alfv\\'en waves then re-enter the interior through the active regions that spawned them, infecting the surface seismology with signatures of the atmosphere. Using numerical simulations of waves in uniform magnetic fields, we calculate the upward acoustic and Alfv\\'enic losses in the atmosphere as functions of field inclination and wave orientation as well as the Time-Distance `travel time' perturbations, and show that they are related. Travel time perturbations relative to quiet Sun can exceed 40 seconds in 1 kG magnetic field. It is concluded that active region seismology is indeed significantly infected by waves leaving and re-entering the interior through magnetic w...

  12. Materials integrity in microsystems: a framework for a petascale predictive-science-based multiscale modeling and simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Albert C.; Liu, Wing Kam; Olson, Gregory B.; Belytschko, Ted; Chen, Wei; Shephard, Mark S.; Chung, Yip-Wah; Ghanem, Roger; Voorhees, Peter W.; Seidman, David N.; Wolverton, Chris; Chen, J. S.; Moran, Brian; Freeman, Arthur J.; Tian, Rong; Luo, Xiaojuan; Lautenschlager, Eric; Challoner, A. Dorian

    2008-09-01

    Microsystems have become an integral part of our lives and can be found in homeland security, medical science, aerospace applications and beyond. Many critical microsystem applications are in harsh environments, in which long-term reliability needs to be guaranteed and repair is not feasible. For example, gyroscope microsystems on satellites need to function for over 20 years under severe radiation, thermal cycling, and shock loading. Hence a predictive-science-based, verified and validated computational models and algorithms to predict the performance and materials integrity of microsystems in these situations is needed. Confidence in these predictions is improved by quantifying uncertainties and approximation errors. With no full system testing and limited sub-system testings, petascale computing is certainly necessary to span both time and space scales and to reduce the uncertainty in the prediction of long-term reliability. This paper presents the necessary steps to develop predictive-science-based multiscale modeling and simulation system. The development of this system will be focused on the prediction of the long-term performance of a gyroscope microsystem. The environmental effects to be considered include radiation, thermo-mechanical cycling and shock. Since there will be many material performance issues, attention is restricted to creep resulting from thermal aging and radiation-enhanced mass diffusion, material instability due to radiation and thermo-mechanical cycling and damage and fracture due to shock. To meet these challenges, we aim to develop an integrated multiscale software analysis system that spans the length scales from the atomistic scale to the scale of the device. The proposed software system will include molecular mechanics, phase field evolution, micromechanics and continuum mechanics software, and the state-of-the-art model identification strategies where atomistic properties are calibrated by quantum calculations. We aim to predict the

  13. The Sun's New Exotic Neighbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope in Chile, an international team of researchers [1] discovered a brown dwarf belonging to the 24th closest stellar system to the Sun. Brown dwarfs are intermediate objects that are neither stars nor planets. This object is the third closest brown dwarf to the Earth yet discovered, and one of the coolest, having a temperature of about 750 degrees Celsius. It orbits a very small star at about 4.5 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. Its mass is estimated to be somewhere between 9 and 65 times the mass of Jupiter. At a time when astronomers are peering into the most distant Universe, looking at objects as far as 13 billion light-years away, one may think that our close neighbourhood would be very well known. Not so. Astronomers still find new star-like objects in our immediate vicinity. Using ESO's VLT, they just discovered a brown dwarf companion to the red star SCR 1845-6357, the 36th closest star to the Sun. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 11a/06 New Brown Dwarf in the Solar Neighbourhood (Artist's Impression) "This newly found brown dwarf is a valuable object because its distance is well known, allowing us to determine with precision its intrinsic brightness", said team member Markus Kasper (ESO). "Moreover, from its orbital motion, we should be able in a few years to estimate its mass. These properties are vital for understanding the nature of brown dwarfs." To discover this brown dwarf, the team used the high-contrast adaptive optics NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager (SDI [2]) on ESO's Very Large Telescope, an instrument specifically developed to search for extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. In particular, the SDI camera provides additional, often very useful spectral information which can be used to determine a rough temperature for the object without follow

  14. The Sun as you never saw it before

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The remarkable images come from SOHO's visible-light coronagraph LASCO. It masks the intense rays from the Sun's surface in order to reveal the much fainter glow of the solar atmosphere, or corona. Operated with its widest field of view, in its C3 instrument, LASCO's unprecedented sensitivity enables it to see the thin ionized gas of the solar wind out to the edges of the picture, 22 million kilometres from the Sun's surface. Many stars are brighter than the gas, and they create the background scene. The results alter human perceptions of the Sun. Nearly 30 years ago, Apollo photographs of the Earth persuaded everyone of what until then they knew only in theory, that we live on a small planet. Similarly the new imagery shows our motion in orbit around the Sun, and depicts it as one star among - yet close enough to fill the sky emanations that engulf us. For many centuries even astrologers knew that the Sun was in Sagittarius in December and drifting towards the next zodiacal constellation, Capricornus. This was a matter of calculation only, because the Sun's own brightness prevented a direct view of the starfield. The SOHO-LASCO movie makes this elementary point of astronomy a matter of direct observation for the first time. The images are achievable only from a vantage point in space, because the blue glow of the Earth's atmosphere hides the stars during the day. A spacial allocation of observing time, and of data tranmission from the SOHO spacecraft, enabled the LASCO team to obtain large numbers of images over the period 22-28 December 1996. Since then, a sustained effort in image processing, frame by frame, has achieved a result of high technical and aesthetic quality. Only now is the leader of the LASCO team, Guenter Brueckner of the US Naval Research Laboratory, satisfied with the product and ready to authorize its release. "I spend my life examining the Sun," Brueckner says, "but this movie is a special thrill. For a moment I forget the years of effort that

  15. Cell culture monitoring for drug screening and cancer research: a transparent, microfluidic, multi-sensor microsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltin, Andreas; Slotwinski, Kinga; Kieninger, Jochen; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Wego, Marcus; Ehret, Ralf; Urban, Gerald A

    2014-01-07

    We present a novel, multiparametric microphysiometry system for the dynamic online monitoring of human cancer cell metabolism. The optically transparent, modular, hybrid microsystem is based on a glass chip and combines a cell cultivation chamber, microfluidics and metabolic monitoring with fully integrated chemo- and biosensors. pH and oxygen are measured in the cell culture area, and biosensors for lactate and glucose are connected downstream by microfluidics. The wafer-level fabrication features thin-film platinum and iridium oxide microelectrodes on a glass chip, microfluidics in an epoxy resist, a hybrid assembly and an on-chip reference electrode. The reliable analytical performance of the sensors in cell culture medium was demonstrated. The pH sensors exhibit a long-term stable, linear response. The oxygen sensors show a linear behaviour, which is also observed for low oxygen concentrations. Glucose and lactate measurements show a linear, long-term stable, selective and reversible behaviour in the desired range. T98G human brain cancer cells were cultivated and cell culture metabolism was measured on-chip. Stop/flow cycles were applied and extracellular acidification, respiration, glucose consumption and lactate production were quantified. Long-term metabolic rates were determined and all parameters could be measured in the outlet channel. A placement downstream of the cell cultivation area for biosensors was realised. A highly effective medium exchange and undiluted sampling from the cell culture chamber with low flow rates (2 μl min(-1)) and low volumes (15 μl per cycle) were achieved. The drug screening application was demonstrated by detecting alteration and recovery effects of cellular metabolism induced by the addition of substances to the medium.

  16. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  17. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  18. TRIGONOMETRIC SU(N) GAUDIN MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain the eigenstates and the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonians of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model based on the quasi-classical limit of the trigonometric SU(N) chain with the periodic boundary condition.By using the quantum inverse scattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generating function of the trigonometric SU(N) Gaudin model.

  19. The summer sun shone round me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The summer sun shone round me, The folded valley lay In a stream of sun and odour, That sultry summer day. The tall trees stood in the sunlight As still as still could be, But the deep grass sighed and rustled And bowed and beckoned me. The deep grass moved and whispered And bowed and brushed my face. It whis pered in the sunshine: The winter comes apdce.”The summer sun shone round me

  20. Sun awareness in Maltese secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, S; Gauci, A Amato; Ellul, M; Scerri, L

    2004-11-01

    Studies indicate that reducing exposure to ultraviolet light during childhood and adolescence decreases the risk of skin cancer. From a young age, children need to be educated about the sun's harmful effects on the skin and how best to protect themselves. To help in the design of school-based interventions to raise sun awareness, a school survey was carried out to identify students' stereotypes and misconceptions. A total of 965 students attending Maltese secondary schools in forms 1, 2 and 3 were surveyed in May 2002, using a structured questionnaire designed to examine students' sun-related attitudes and knowledge. A high level of sun awareness among students was demonstrated, with high scores on knowledge of the effects of the sun on the skin, knowledge of skin cancer and knowledge of sun protection. Girls were clearly more knowledgeable than boys. However, of all the students surveyed, 55% thought that a suntan made them look better and 70% thought that their friends would desire a tan. These views were commoner among the older students. Skin type and hair or eye colour had no bearing on attitudes towards tanning or sun-related knowledge. The commonest misconceptions were that 'the sun is bad for your skin only when you get sunburnt' and that 'you cannot get too much sun on a cloudy day'. Deliberate suntanning was more frequently reported by girls than by boys and by students in the higher forms. Attitude change lags behind knowledge. Future school sun awareness interventions need to take into account gender and age differences in students' attitudes and perspectives. They should aim at motivating attitude change and preventive behaviour through consistent and repeated sun-education messages that are supported by a sun-conscious school environment.

  1. Sun Jingxia Devotes Herself to Nursing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "I really didn’t expect that at my advanced age, I would be awarded the highest honor in international nursing circles," said Mme. Sun Jingxia, 81, who had just returned from Beijing where she received the Nightingale Medal. Wearing a light yellow suit, with a collar bordered in red, Sun is inhigh spirits, reminding people of the beauty of the setting sun. It is clear that Sun Jingxia has deep feelings as she looks at the medal which shows a relief of Florence Nightingale’s head. She spoke in her usual soft voice but with some excitement, "President Jiang

  2. SOHO starts a revolution in the science of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    's Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, principal investigator for the CDS spectrometer. "Surprises here on Earth don't come from the steady light and heat, which we take for granted, but from atmospheric storms that send shock waves through the Solar System. By making temperature and density maps of the Sun's atmosphere we expect to find out how these storms develop." Accelerator of the solar wind All of the common chemical elements are present in the Sun's atmosphere, though they are not always detectable. They are represented more plainly in the solar wind. SOHO's solar-wind analyser CELIAS has demonstrated an unprecedented ability to recognize and quantify many different elements and isotopes. There is a puzzle about how the heavy atoms are accelerated, so that they can keep up with the commonplace lightweight hydrogen of the solar wind. If the speeds of atomic particles were due only to heat, heavy atoms would travel much more slowly than the hydrogen atoms. That is not the case. Instead, a natural electromagnetic accelerator, akin to man-made particle accelerators, operates in the Sun's atmosphere and treats all elements similarly. Measurements of the speeds of oxygen atoms leaving the Sun's atmosphere to join the solar wind catch them in the process of acceleration. As the stop light changes to green, the oxygen atoms go from less than 100 kilometres per second at 250,000 kilometres above the solar surface, to about 225 kilometres per second a million kilometres farther out. This result comes from SOHO's ultraviolet coronagraph UVCS, observing conditions above a polar coronal hole, where the atmosphere is relatively cool and magnetic lines run freely into space. Here originates a fast solar wind at around 700 kilometres per second, with about twice the speed of the solar wind coming from magnetically constrained regions near the Sun's equator. One of SOHO's main tasks is to explain the solar wind, and further investigations by UVCS may settle arguments about how the natural

  3. Portable microsystem integrates multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations and a surface stress biosensor to detect red blood cells for hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Feng, Qiliang; Jian, Aoqun; Li, Huiming; Ji, Jianlong; Duan, Qianqian; Zhang, Wendong; Wang, Tao

    2016-09-20

    Hemolytic anemia intensity has been suggested as a vital factor for the growth of certain clinical complications of sickle cell disease. However, there is no effective and rapid diagnostic method. As a powerful platform for bio-particles testing, biosensors integrated with microfluidics offer great potential for a new generation of portable point of care systems. In this paper, we describe a novel portable microsystem consisting of a multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations (MDM) device and a surface stress biosensor to separate and detect red blood cells (RBCs) for diagnosis of hemolytic anemia. The peripheral circuit to power the interdigitated electrode array of the MDM device and the surface stress biosensor test platform were integrated into a portable signal system. The MDM includes a preparing region, a focusing region, and a sorting region. Simulation and experimental results show the RBCs trajectories when they are subjected to the positive DEP force, allowing the successful sorting of living/dead RBCs. Separated RBCs are then transported to the biosensor and the capacitance values resulting from the variation of surface stress were measured. The diagnosis of hemolytic anemia can be realized by detecting RBCs and the portable microsystem provides the assessment to the hemolytic anemia patient.

  4. Sun Basking in Red Wood Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Individual Behaviour and Temperature-Dependent Respiration Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers' lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun. Sun-basking and non-sun-basking workers did not differ in body size nor in respiration rates. The number of sun-basking ants and the number of their visits to the hot spot depended on the temperature of both the air and the hot spot. To investigate whether sun basking leads to a physiological activation linked with increased lipolysis, we measured respiration rates of individual workers as a function of temperature, and compared respiration rates of sun-basking workers before and two days after they were allowed to expose themselves to a heat source over 10 days, at self-determined intervals. As expected for ectothermic animals, respiration rates increased with increasing temperatures in the range 5 to 35°C. However, the respiration rates of sun-basking workers measured two days after a long-term exposure to the heat source were similar to those before sun basking, providing no evidence for a sustained increase of the basal metabolic rates after prolonged sun basking. Based on our measurements, we argue that self-heating of the nest mound in early spring has therefore to rely on alternative heat sources, and speculate that physical transport of heat in the ant bodies may have a significant effect.

  5. Sun Basking in Red Wood Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae): Individual Behaviour and Temperature-Dependent Respiration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadochová, Štěpánka; Frouz, Jan; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    In early spring, red wood ants Formica polyctena are often observed clustering on the nest surface in large numbers basking in the sun. It has been hypothesized that sun-basking behaviour may contribute to nest heating because of both heat carriage into the nest by sun-basking workers, and catabolic heat production from the mobilization of the workers’ lipid reserves. We investigated sun-basking behaviour in laboratory colonies of F. polyctena exposed to an artificial heat source. Observations on identified individuals revealed that not all ants bask in the sun. Sun-basking and non-sun-basking workers did not differ in body size nor in respiration rates. The number of sun-basking ants and the number of their visits to the hot spot depended on the temperature of both the air and the hot spot. To investigate whether sun basking leads to a physiological activation linked with increased lipolysis, we measured respiration rates of individual workers as a function of temperature, and compared respiration rates of sun-basking workers before and two days after they were allowed to expose themselves to a heat source over 10 days, at self-determined intervals. As expected for ectothermic animals, respiration rates increased with increasing temperatures in the range 5 to 35°C. However, the respiration rates of sun-basking workers measured two days after a long-term exposure to the heat source were similar to those before sun basking, providing no evidence for a sustained increase of the basal metabolic rates after prolonged sun basking. Based on our measurements, we argue that self-heating of the nest mound in early spring has therefore to rely on alternative heat sources, and speculate that physical transport of heat in the ant bodies may have a significant effect. PMID:28114396

  6. Comparison of inkjet-printed silver conductors on different microsystem substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jené; Bezuidenhout, Petroné H.; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    Applications for diagnostic and environmental point-of-need require processes and building blocks to add smart features to disposable biosensors on low-cost substrates. A novel method for producing such biosensors is printing electronics using additive technologies. This work contributes to the toolbox of processes, materials and components for printed electronics manufacturing - as well as rapid prototyping - of circuits. Printing protocols were developed to facilitate successful inkjet printing of nanosilver ink (Harima NPS-JL) onto different microsystem substrates using a functional printer (Dimatix DMP-3281). Photo paper is a standard inkjet substrate, which were compared with glass, polycarbonate (PC), plastic projector transparency foil, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Comparison attributes include physical and electrical properties. The layout design comprised dogbone elements of 8 mm length, and widths varying between 100 μm and 2 mm. All printed features were thermally cured for 1 hour at 120 °C. The physical characteristics were measured with a laser scanning microscope (Zeiss LSM-5) to determine the width, thickness and surface roughness of the printed features. An LCR meter (GW-Instek 8110) was used to measure the printed structures' electrical characteristics (resistance, capacitance and inductance). A lumped element model and layout design rules were extracted to assist in standardized design procedures. The model incorporates prediction of the bandwidth attainable with these structures. The layer thickness on all substrates is larger than the 1 μm on photo paper, and varies between 1.6 μm (PC) and 7 μm (PDMS). The spreading for PDMS is similar to photo paper, but since for the other substrates it is between 5 (glass) and 10 (PC) times larger than for photo paper, the layout design rules require large spacing, leading to larger area networks. Electrical probing on the PDMS is not consistent and results are inconclusive. For the other substrates

  7. Air-core microcavities and metal-dielectric filters - building blocks for optofluidic microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor Warren

    This thesis describes a study on two optical devices intended to be building blocks for the creation of integrated optical/microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. First, arrays of curved-mirror dome-shaped microcavities were fabricated by buckling self-assembly of a-Si/SiO2 multilayers. This novel technique employs controlled, stress-induced film delamination to form highly symmetric cavities with minimal roughness defects or geometrical imperfections. Measured cavity heights were in good agreement with predictions from elastic buckling theory. Also, the measured finesse (> 103) and quality factor (> 104 in the 1550-nm range) were close to reflectance-limited predictions, indicating low defects and roughness. Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian modes were observable, indicating a high degree of cylindrical symmetry. In the second part of the research, transmittance in periodic metal-dielectric multilayer structures was studied. Metal-dielectric stacks have many potential applications in optofluidic microsystems, including as transmission filters, superlenses, and substrates for surface plasmon sensors. In this work, we showed that potential transmittance theory provides a good method for describing the tunneling of photons through metal-dielectric stacks, for both Fabry-Perot and surface plasmon resonances. This approach explains the well-known fact that for a given thickness of metal, subdividing the metal into several thin films can increase the maximum transmittance. Conditions for admittance matching of dielectric-metal-dielectric unit cells to an external air medium were explored for Fabry-Perot based tunneling, revealing that thicker metal films require higher-index dielectrics for optimal admittance matching. It was also shown for the first time that potential transmittance theory can be used to predict the maximum possible transmittance in surface-plasmon-mediated tunneling. In a subsequent study, potential transmittance was used to derive an expression for

  8. Regina vs Hubbs: Determining the Sun's Position

    CERN Document Server

    Samra, Raminder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Here I determined the Sun's position as an expert witness for crown counsel. From my calculations I found the Sun's location in the sky was such that it could not impede the driver's vision, as a result it could not have been the reason for the accused to be involved in a motor vehicle accident.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA deletion percentage in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia M; Murphy, Gillian; Ralph, Nikki; O'Gorman, Susan M; Murphy, James E J

    2016-12-01

    The percentages of mitochondrial genomes carrying the mtDNA(3895) and the mtDNA(4977) (common) deletion were quantified in sun exposed and non sun exposed skin biopsies, for five cohorts of patients varying either in sun exposure profile, age or skin cancer status. Non-melanoma skin cancer diagnoses are rising in Ireland and worldwide [12] but most risk prediction is based on subjective visual estimations of sun exposure history. A quantitative objective test for pre-neoplastic markers may result in better adherence to sun protective behaviours. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to be subject to the loss of a significant proportion of specific sections of genetic code due to exposure to ultraviolet light in sunlight. Although one such deletion has been deemed more sensitive, another, called the mtDNA(4977) or common deletion, has proved to be a more useful indicator of possible risk in this study. Quantitative molecular analysis was carried out to determine the percentage of genomes carrying the deletion using non sun exposed and sun exposed skin biopsies in cohorts of patients with high or low sun exposure profiles and two high exposure groups undergoing treatment for NMSC. Results indicate that mtDNA deletions correlate to sun exposure; in groups with high sun exposure habits a significant increase in deletion number in exposed over non sun exposed skin occurred. An increase in deletion percentage was also seen in older cohorts compared to the younger group. The mtDNA(3895) deletion was detected in small amounts in exposed skin of many patients, the mtDNA(4977) common deletion, although present to some extent in non sun exposed skin, is suggested to be the more reliable and easily detected marker. In all cohorts except the younger group with relatively lower sun exposure, the mtDNA(4977) deletion was more frequent in sun exposed skin samples compared to non-sun exposed skin.

  10. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Patla, Bijunath

    2007-01-01

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

  11. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  12. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  13. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  14. The Development of Microsystems and New Applications of Electrochemistry%微系统科技的发展及电化学的新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田昭武; 林华水; 孙建军; 周勇亮; 祖延斌; 田中群; 罗瑾; 林仲华; 谢兆雄; 胡维玲; 胡涌刚; 苏文煅

    2001-01-01

    1 )Brief introduction to microsystems. 2)Discussio ns on the developments of microsystem technologies. 3)Applications of electrochemistry in microsystem: Confined Etchant Layer Technique (CELT) for the complex 3D-pattern micromachining; Focusing Electrophoresis and the application of microsystem in (bio) chemistry (μTAS or Lab on A Chip) ;Smart Electro-Osmosis pump a reasonable choosing for microfluidic network. 4)Concluding remark.%根据田昭武在中国化学会第一届全国纳米技术与应用会议(2000.11.28,厦门)特邀大会报告内容整理而成:1)微系统技术概述(技术的必要性和前景);2)发展微系统技术的特殊困难;3)电化学在微系统技术中的应用,包括用于复杂3D-图形微加工的约束刻蚀剂层技术(CELT);聚焦电泳和微系统在(生物)化学中的应用(μ-TAS或芯片上实验室);芯片实验室中微流体输运网络的合理选择之一-灵巧(Smart)电渗泵;4)结论.

  15. Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qiuyun; Zheng Xiaobing; Zhang Wei; Wang Xianhua; Li Jianjun; Li Xin [Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Zhengqiang [Laboratoire d' Optique Atmospherique, Universite Lille 1, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59655 (France) and State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.

  16. Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiuyun; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Jianjun; Li, Xin

    2010-03-01

    Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.

  17. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  18. Sun-synchronous satellite orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Der-Ming; Zhai, Shen-You

    2004-02-01

    The linearized dynamic equations used for on-board orbit determination of Sun-synchronous satellite are derived. Sun-synchronous orbits are orbits with the secular rate of the right ascension of the ascending node equal to the right ascension rate of the mean sun. Therefore the orbit is no more a closed circle but a tight helix about the Earth. In the paper, instead of treating the orbit as a closed circle, the actual helix orbit is taken as nominal trajectory. The details of the linearized equations of motion for the satellite in the Sun-synchronous orbit are derived. The linearized equations are obtained by perturbing the Keplerian motion with the J2 correction and the effect of sun's attraction being neglected. Combined with the GPS navigation equations, the Kalman filter formulation is given. The particular application considered is the circular Sun-synchronous orbit with the altitude of 800 km and inclination of 98.6°. The numerical example simulated by MATLAB® shows that only the pseudo-range data used in the algorithm still gives acceptable results. Based on the simulation results, we can use the on-board GPS receivers' signal only as an alternative to determine the orbit of Sun-Synchronous satellite and therefore circumvents the need for extensive ground support.

  19. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SunPy Community; Mumford, Stuart J.; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew R.; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J.; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M.; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy.

  20. Bioassay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Bioassay Laboratory is an accredited laboratory capable of conducting standardized and innovative environmental testing in the area of aquatic ecotoxicology. The...

  1. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory The Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose...

  2. HYDROMECHANICS LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Naval Academy Hydromechanics LaboratoryThe Naval Academy Hydromechanics Laboratory (NAHL) began operations in Rickover Hall in September 1976. The primary purpose of...

  3. Synthetic Spectroscopy and Photometry for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. A.

    1993-05-01

    The availability of a digital version of the solar line spectrum (Kitt Peak Preliminary Solar Atlas, Brault & Testerman 1972) has made it possible to carry out detailed comparisons of observed and synthetic spectra. The more accurately the spectrum of the Sun, and other standard stars, can be reproduced, the more likely the line list is to give reliable results in other applications. Detailed comparisons have been made using three lists. The first two are: 1) One which has been used repeatedly by the author and collaborators e.g. Bell, Dickens & Gustafsson (ApJ,229,604,1979); Tripicco & Bell (AJ,103,1285,1992); 2) One derived from Kurucz (Stellar Atmospheres: Beyond Classical Models, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p408,1991) for elements between Ca and Ni, supplemented with lines for other elements from Kurucz & Peytremann (SAO Spec Rept 362,1975) and molecular lines from the author's list (e.g. Bell & Gustafsson MNRAS,236,653,1989). The Kurucz list predicts many lines in the solar spectrum which are either not seen or are observed to be far weaker. The errors in oscillator strength may exceed a factor of 10. On the other hand, there are not a corresponding number of lines which are observed but which are not present in the synthetic spectra. Needless to say, this excess in the computed line absorption will affect the calculation of both model atmospheres and synthetic magnitudes. For example, the computed U-B colors will be too red. In view of these errors, and the much better fit which spectra calculated using the author's lists give to the solar line spectrum, the Kurucz list has been used only to fill in gaps in the author's list, thereby creating a third list. This list also incorporates new laboratory gf values (e.g. O'Brian et al. JOSA B,8,1185,1991). Detailed comparisons of observed and synthetic solar spectra from the different lists are shown.

  4. Anisotropic microstructure near the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Grall, R. R.; Spangler, S. R.; Sakurai, T.; Harmon, J. K.

    1996-07-01

    Radio scattering observations provide a means of measuring a two-dimensional projection of the three-dimensional spatial spectrum of electron density, i.e., in the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. Earlier observations have shown that the microstructure at scales of the order of 10 km becomes highly field-aligned inside of 10 Rsolar [Armstrong et al., 1990]. Earlier work has also shown that density fluctuations at scales larger than 1000 km have a Kolmogorov spectrum, whereas the smaller scale structure has a flatter spectrum and is considerably enhanced above the Kolmogorov ``background'' [Coles et al., 1991]. Here we present new observations made during 1990 and 1992. These confirm the earlier work, which was restricted to one source on a few days, but they suggest that the anisotropy changes abruptly near 6 Rsolar which was not clear in the earlier data. The axial ratio measurements are shown on Figure 1 below. The new observations were made with a more uniform sampling of the spatial plane. They show that contours of constant correlation are elliptical. This is apparently inconsistent with the spatial correlation of the ISEE-3 magnetic field which shows a ``Maltese Cross'' shape [Matthaeus et al., 1990]. However this inconsistency may be only apparent: the magnetic field and density correlations need not have the same shape; the scale of the magnetic field correlations is at least 4 orders of magnitude larger; they are much further from the sun; and they are point measurements whereas ours are path-integrated. We also made two simultaneous measurements, at 10 Rsolar, of the anisotropy on scales of 200 to 4000 km. Significant anisotropy was seen on the smaller scales, but the larger scale structure was essentially isotropic. This suggests that the process responsible for the anisotropic microstructure is independent of the larger scale isotropic turbulence. It is then tempting to speculate that the damping of this anisotropic process inside of 6 Rsolar

  5. The Sun's dusty interstellar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's dusty interstellar environment Interstellar dust from our immediate interstellar neighborhood travels through the solar system at speeds of ca. 26 km/s: the relative speed of the solar system with respect to the local interstellar cloud. On its way, its trajectories are altered by several forces like the solar radiation pressure force and Lorentz force. The latter is due to the charged dust particles that fly through the interplanetary magnetic field. These trajectories differ per particle type and size and lead to varying fluxes and directions of the flow inside of the solar system that depend on location but also on phase in the solar cycle. Hence, these fluxes and directions depend strongly on the configuration of the inner regions and outer regions of the heliosphere. Several missions have measured this dust in the solar system directly. The Ulysses dust detector data encompasses 16 years of intestellar dust fluxes and approximate directions, Stardust captured returned to Earth a few of these particles sucessfully, and finally the Cassini dust detector allowed for compositional information to be obtained from the impacts on the instrument. In this talk, we give an overview of the current status of interstellar dust research through the measurements made inside of the solar system, and we put them in perspective to the knowledge obtained from more classical astronomical means. In special, we focus on the interaction of the dust with the interplanetary magnetic field, and on what we learn about the dust (and the fields) by comparing the available dust data to computer simulations of dust trajectories. Finally, we synthesize the different methods of observation, their results, and give a preview on new research opportunities in the coming year(s).

  6. Perspectives on the Interior of the Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Μ. Chitre

    2000-09-01

    The interior of the Sun is not directly accessible to observations. Nonetheless, it is possible to infer the physical conditions inside the Sun with the help of structure equations governing its equilibrium and with the powerful observational tools provided by the neutrino fluxes and oscillation frequencies. The helioseismic data show that the internal constitution of the Sun can be adequately represented by a standard solar model. It turns out that a cooler solar core is not a viable solution for the measured deficit of neutrino fluxes, and the resolution of the solar neutrino puzzle should be sought in the realm of particle physics.

  7. The Jovian period in the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    The 41-year measurements of the Doppler effect of the photosphere performed at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, discovered two periods of global oscillations of the Sun: 9600.606(12) s and 9597.929(15) s. Their beat period, 398.4(2.9) d, well agrees with a synodic orbital period of Jupiter, PJ = 398.9 d, raising a new problem for solar physics, cosmogony and cosmology. A hypothesis is advanced that the PJ beating of the Sun is induced by gravitation of Jupiter, revolving in a privileged reference system "the Sun - the Earth".

  8. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasson, Jean L.; Hendrickx, Olivier; Marin, Jean-Luc

    2017-07-01

    The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  9. Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO): a mission at the Sun-Earth L5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.; Auchère, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    . The Earth-Affecting Solar Causes Observatory (EASCO) is a proposed mission to be located at the Sun-Earth L5 that overcomes these deficiencies. The mission concept was recently studied at the Mission Design Laboratory (MDL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, to see how the mission can be implemented...

  10. Results of external review Sandia National Laboratories microelectronics and photonics program (October 2002).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peercy, Paul S. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Myers, David R.

    2003-10-01

    The US Department of Energy requires a periodic 'self assessment' of Sandia's Microsystems Program. An external panel review of this program is held approximately every 18 months, and the report from the external review panel serves as the basis for the DOE 'self assessment.' The review for this fiscal year was held on September 30-October 1, 2002 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The panel was comprised of experts in the fields of microelectronics, photonics and microsystems from universities, industry and other Government agencies. A complete list of the panel members is shown as Appendix A to the attached report. The review assesses four areas: relevance to national needs and agency mission; quality of science technology and engineering; performance in the operation of a major facility; and program performance management and planning. Relevance to national needs and agency mission was rated as 'outstanding.' The quality of science, technology, and engineering was rated as 'outstanding.' Operation of a major facility was noted as 'outstanding,' while the category of program performance, management, and planning was rated as 'outstanding.' Sandia's Microsystems Program received an overall rating of 'outstanding' [the highest possible rating]. The attached report was prepared by the panel in a format requested by Sandia to conform with the performance criteria for the DOE self assessment.

  11. Biparametric potentiometric analytical microsystem for nitrate and potassium monitoring in water recycling processes for manned space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Arasa-Puig, Eva; Puyol, Mar; Casalta, Joan Manel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2013-12-04

    The construction and evaluation of a Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC)-based continuous flow potentiometric microanalyzer prototype to simultaneously monitor the presence of two ions (potassium and nitrate) in samples from the water recycling process for future manned space missions is presented. The microsystem integrates microfluidics and the detection system in a single substrate and it is smaller than a credit card. The detection system is based on two ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), which are built using all-solid state nitrate and potassium polymeric membranes, and a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The obtained analytical features after the optimization of the microfluidic design and hydrodynamics are a linear range from 10 to 1000 mg L(-1) and from 1.9 to 155 mg L(-1) and a detection limit of 9.56 mg L(-1) and 0.81 mg L(-1) for nitrate and potassium ions respectively.

  12. Finding the lost siblings of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Feltzing, Sofia; Ruchti, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a spectral analysis on 18 stars solar sibling candidate. We found that only one one of the candidateshas solar metallicity and at the same time might have an age comparable to that of the Sun.

  13. Sun and Other Types of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Causes Cancer? Sun and Other Types of Radiation Learn about the different types of radiation and ... other diseases. Learn more here. Other Types of Radiation Exposure Not all types of radiation have been ...

  14. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  15. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  16. Nilaja Sun's "No Child...": Reflections on Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nilaja; Alexander, Phillip; Huldeen, Branden; Russell, Ron; Friedman, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Nilaja Sun's groundbreaking one-woman show about a TA, her students, and her school, and includes interviews with the author/performer, an excerpt of the work, and a discussion of the organization behind it.

  17. 3D Packaging for Microsystems%微系统三维(3D)封装技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建生

    2011-01-01

    文章论述塑料三维(3D)结构微系统封装技术相关问题,描述了把微电机硅膜泵与3D塑料密封垂直多芯片模块封装(MCM-V)相结合的微系统集成化。采用有限元技术分析封装结构中的封装应力,根据有限元设计研究结果,改变芯片载体结构,降低其发生裂纹的危险。计划采用板上芯片和塑料无引线芯片载体的替代低应力和低成本的3D封装技术方案。%Issues associated with the packaging of microsystems in plastic and three-dimensional (3D) body styles are discussed. The integration of a microsystem incorporating a micromachined silicon membrane pump into a 3D plastic encapsulated vertical multichip module package (MCM-V) is described. Finite element techniques are used to analyze the encapsulation stress in the structure of the package. Cracks develop in the chip carrier due to thermornechanical stress. Based on the results of a finite element design study, the structures of the chip carriers are modified to reduce their risk of cracking. Alternative low stress 3D packaging methodologies based on chip on board and plastic leadless chip carriers are discussed.

  18. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  19. Optimal control of sun tracking solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    Application of the modern control theory to derive an optimal sun tracking control for a point focusing solar concentrator is presented. A standard tracking problem converted to regulator problem using a sun rate input achieves an almost zero steady state tracking error with the optimal control formulation. However, these control techniques are costly because optimal type algorithms require large computing systems, thus they will be used mainly as comparison standards for other types of control algorithms and help in their development.

  20. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  1. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  2. SunPy: Solar Physics in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Perez Suarez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russel

    2015-04-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community as well as further afield. This has resulted in a wide array of software packages useful for scientific computing, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to machine learning (scifitlearn), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy aims to provide required specialised software for analysing solar and heliospheric datasets in Python. The current version is 0.5 with 0.6 expected to be released later this year. SunPy provides solar data access through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It supports common data types from major solar missions such as images (SDO/AIA, STEREO, PROBA2/SWAP etc.), time series (GOES/XRS, SDO/EVE, PROBA2/LYRA), and radio spectra (e-Callisto, STEREO/WAVES). SunPy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate SunPy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing SunPy.

  3. JPSS-1 VIIRS solar diffuser stability monitor response versus sun angle of incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgai, Vijay; Yu, Kristie; Nelson, Neil; McCarthy, James

    2015-09-01

    The Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite in orbit as well as for the upcoming Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). VIIRS collects Earth radiometry and imagery in 22 spectral from 0.4 to 12.5 μm. Radiometric calibration of the reflective bands in the 0.4 to 2.5 μm wavelength range is performed by measuring the sunlight reflectance from Solar Diffuser Assembly (diffuser is Spectralon®). Spectralon® is known to solarize due to sun UV exposure at the blue end of the spectrum (~0.4 - 0.6+ μm) as seen by laboratory tests as well as on orbit data from MODIS and NPP. VIIRS uses a Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) to monitor the change in the Solar Diffuser reflectance in the 0.4 - 0.94 μm wavelength range to correct the calibration constants. The SDSM measures the ratio of sun light reflecting from the Solar Diffuser to a direct view of the sun. As the intensity of the light reaching the SDSM in both Solar Diffuser view and sun view is a function of the sun's angle of incidence (AOI), the SDSM response to sun AOI has to be characterized. This paper presents details of the test setup including an extended collimated source simulating the sun across all SDSM bands. The prelaunch characterization results for the JPSS-1 (J1) VIIRS SDSM are presented. Comparison with NPP on orbit yaw maneuver SDSM results shows similar behavior demonstrating that the J1 test successfully characterized the SDSM response to sun AOI.

  4. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  5. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  6. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  7. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  8. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter... to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun...

  9. Hydronyms Ending in -zha (-жа in the Russian North-West (Structure, Etymology, Microsystemic Ties, Linguo-Ethnic Attribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery L. Vasilyev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with river and lake-names ending in -zha in the Russian North-West, notably on the historical territories of Novgorod, Pskov and Toropets, analyzing the abovementioned hydronyms in the structural, derivational, microsystemic, semantic, etymological and lingo-ethnic aspects. The study of the names in question soundly reveals the basic ancient strata of the region: Slavic, Baltic and Finno-Ugric.

  10. The Development of Microsystems and New Applications of Electrochemistry%微系统科技的发展及电化学的新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田昭武; 林华水; 孙建军; 周勇亮; 祖延斌; 田中群; 罗瑾; 林仲华; 谢兆雄; 胡维玲; 胡涌刚; 苏文煅

    2001-01-01

    本文根据田昭武在中国化学会第一届全国纳米技术与应用会议(2000.11.28,厦门)特邀大会报告内容整理而成:   1 微系统技术概述(技术的必要性和前景)   2 发展微系统技术的特殊困难   3 电化学在微系统技术中的应用    3.1 用于复杂3D-图形微加工的约束刻蚀剂层技术(CELT)    3.2 聚焦电泳和微系统在(生物)化学中的应用(μ-TAS或芯片上实验室)    3.3 芯片实验室中微流体输运网络的合理选择之一-灵巧(Smart)电渗泵   4 结论%1 Brief introduction to microsystems   2 Discussions on the developments of microsystem technologies   3 Applications of electrochemistry in microsystem    3.1 Confined Etchant Layer Technique (CELT) for the complex 3D-pattern micromachining    3.2 Focusing Electrophoresis and the application of microsystem in (bio) chemistry (μTAS or Lab on A Chip)    3.3 Smart Electro-Osmosis pump——a reasonable choosing for microfluidic network   4 Concluding remark

  11. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H.B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydro- gen. J. Chem. Phys. , 1935, v.3, 764–770. At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this struc- tural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

  12. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  13. Neptune as a Mirror for the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    How would the Kepler mission see a star like the Sun? We now know the answer to this question due to a creative approach: a new study has used the Kepler K2 mission to detect signals from the Sun reflected off of the surface of Neptune.Asteroseismology uses different oscillation modes of a star to probe its internal structure and properties. [Tosaka]Information in OscillationsKeplers most glamorous work is in discovering new planets around other stars. To successfully do this, however, the spacecraft is also quietly doing a lot of very useful work in the background, characterizing the many stars in our vicinity that planets might be found around.One of the ways Kepler gets information about these stars is from oscillations of the stars intensities. In asteroseismology, we look at oscillatory modes that are caused by convection-driven pressure changes on the inside of the star. All stars with near-surface convection oscillate like this including the Sun and by measuring the oscillations in intensity of these stars, we can make inferences about the stars properties.A Planetary MirrorWe do this by first understanding our Suns oscillations especially well (made easier by the fact that its nearby!). Then we use asteroseimic scaling relations determined empirically that relate characteristics like mass and radius of other stars to those of the Sun, based on the relation between the stars oscillation properties to the Suns.The trouble is, those oscillation properties are difficult to measure, and different instruments often measure different values. For this reason, wed like to measure the Suns oscillations with the same instrument we use to measure other stars oscillations: Kepler.Top panel: Kepler K2 49-day light curve of Neptune. Bottom panel: power density spectrum as a function of frequency (grey). Neptunes rotation frequencies and harmonics appear toward the left side (blue); the excess power due to the solar modes is visible toward the bottom right. The green curve

  14. The Spectrum of Darkonium in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  15. The spectrum of darkonium in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Langæble, Kasper; Grønlund Nielsen, Niklas

    2016-10-01

    Dark matter that gets captured in the Sun may form positronium-like bound states if it self-interacts via light dark photons. In this case, dark matter can either annihilate to dark photons or recombine in bound states which subsequently also decay to dark photons. The fraction of the dark photons that leave the Sun without decaying to Standard Model particles have a characteristic energy spectrum which is a mixture of the direct annihilation process, the decays of ortho- and para- bound states and the recombination process. The ultimate decay of these dark photons to positron-electron pairs (via kinetic mixing) outside the Sun creates a distinct signal that can either identify or set strict constraints on dark photon models.

  16. The sun since the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation is conducted concerning the behavior of the sun during the last 7000 years. The C-14 content in carbonaceous fossil material can be used as an indicator regarding the level of solar activity at the time when the carbon was assimilated in the process of photosynthesis. Living trees, such as the bristlecone pine, provide a solar activity record to about 3000 B.C. The record can be extended with the aid of well-preserved dead wood to beyond 5000 B.C. The results of an analysis of solar activity levels as a function of time on the basis of C-14 contents are presented in a graph. Attention is given to the Maunder Minimum, a history of the sun in the last 5000 years, an interpretation of the major C-14 excursions, and the sun and climate history.

  17. 'My Sun' and 'Guided by the Moon'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Baillie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available My Sun and Guided by the Moon (2012 show the heavily pregnant artist with her swollen belly covered in gold and silver leaf. The work is suggestive that the connectivity experienced by an expectant mother, extends outwards, even as far as her relationship with the cosmos. The 'sun' portrait was taken on a bright September morning, and its partner image, the following October, on the night of a full moon. Female cycles and the importance of time passing during a pregnancy are referenced. Interestingly, bearing in mind that the artist gave birth to a son in November, creating the 'moon' portrait felt like a familiar, empowering and yet isolated expression of selfhood, whilst the 'sun/son' version exuded the energy of a collaboration, and stimulated feelings of joy, liberation and potentiality. By seeming contradiction, the boy was born on a full moon, exactly a month to the day that Guided by the Moon was taken.

  18. Semiautomatic sun shots with the WIDIF DIflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rasson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The determination of magnetic declination angle entails finding two directions: geographic north and magnetic north. This paper deals with the former. The known way to do it by using the sun's calculable orientation in the sky is improved by using a device based on a WIDIF DIflux theodolite and split photocells positioned on its telescope ocular. Given the WIDIF accurate timing and location provided by the onboard GPS receiver, an astronomical computation can be effected to accurately and quickly determine the sun's azimuth and an auxiliary mark's azimuth. The precise sun's crossing of the split photocell, amplified by the telescope's magnification, allows azimuth accuracies of a few seconds of arc.

  19. Photometrics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Photometrics Laboratory provides the capability to measure, analyze and characterize radiometric and photometric properties of light sources and filters,...

  20. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  1. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  2. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  3. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR). DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  4. Risk and protective factors across multiple microsystems associated with internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior in rural adolescents: Modeling longitudinal trajectories from the Rural Adaptation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Evans, Caroline B R; Wu, Qi; Rose, Roderick A; Bacallao, Martica; Cotter, Katie L

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined risk and protective factors across microsystems that impact the development of internalizing symptoms and aggression over 4 years in a sample of culturally diverse, rural adolescents. We explored whether risk and protective factors across microsystems were associated with changes in rates of internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project (RAP), a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 students from 26 public middle schools and 12 public high schools. Three level HLM models were estimated to predict internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) and aggression. Compared with other students, risk for internalizing symptoms and aggression was elevated for youth exposed to risk factors in the form of school hassles, parent-child conflict, peer rejection, and delinquent friends. Microsystem protective factors in the form of ethnic identity, religious orientation, and school satisfaction decreased risk for aggression, but were not associated with internalizing symptoms, whereas future orientation and parent support decreased risk for internalizing symptoms, but not aggression. Results indicate that risks for internalizing symptoms and aggression are similar, but that unique protective factors are related to these adolescent behavioral health outcomes. Implications and limitations were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. New Effective Material Couple--Oxide Ceramic and Carbon Nanotube-- Developed for Aerospace Microsystem and Micromachine Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; VanderWal, Randall L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2004-01-01

    The prime driving force for using microsystem and micromachine technologies in transport vehicles, such as spacecraft, aircraft, and automobiles, is to reduce the weight, power consumption, and volume of components and systems to lower costs and increase affordability and reliability. However, a number of specific issues need to be addressed with respect to using microsystems and micromachines in aerospace applications--such as the lack of understanding of material characteristics; methods for producing and testing the materials in small batches; the limited proven durability and lifetime of current microcomponents, packaging, and interconnections; a cultural change with respect to system designs; and the use of embedded software, which will require new product assurance guidelines. In regards to material characteristics, there are significant adhesion, friction, and wear issues in using microdevices. Because these issues are directly related to surface phenomena, they cannot be scaled down linearly and they become increasingly important as the devices become smaller. When microsystems have contacting surfaces in relative motion, the adhesion and friction affect performance, energy consumption, wear damage, maintenance, lifetime and catastrophic failure, and reliability. Ceramics, for the most part, do not have inherently good friction and wear properties. For example, coefficients of friction in excess of 0.7 have been reported for ceramics and ceramic composite materials. Under Alternate Fuels Foundation Technologies funding, two-phase oxide ceramics developed for superior high-temperature wear resistance in NASA's High Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) project and new two-layered carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings (CNT topcoat/iron bondcoat/quartz substrate) developed in NASA's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) project have been chosen as a materials couple for aerospace applications, including micromachines, in the nanotechnology

  6. Solar Probe Cup - Demonstrated Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Larson, D. E.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup instrument that will fly on the Solar Probe Plus (SPP) spacecraft, orbiting the Sun as close as 9.86 solar radii from the center of the Sun. The SPC instrument is designed to measure the thermal solar wind plasma (protons, alphas, and electrons) that will be encountered throughout its close encounter with the Sun. Due to the solar wind flow being primarily radial, the SPC instrument is pointed directly at the Sun, resulting in an extreme thermal environment that must be tolerated throughout the primary data collection phase. Laboratory testing has been performed over the past 6 months to demonstrate the instrument's performance relative to its requirements, and to characterize the measurements over the expected thermal range. This presentation will demonstrate the performance of the instrument as measured in the lab, describe the operational configurations planned for flight, and discuss the data products that will be created.

  7. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  8. The sun and heliosphere at solar maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Marsden, R G; Balogh, A; Gloeckler, G; Geiss, J; McComas, D J; McKibben, R B; MacDowall, R J; Lanzerotti, L J; Krupp, N; Krueger, H; Landgraf, M

    2003-11-14

    Recent Ulysses observations from the Sun's equator to the poles reveal fundamental properties of the three-dimensional heliosphere at the maximum in solar activity. The heliospheric magnetic field originates from a magnetic dipole oriented nearly perpendicular to, instead of nearly parallel to, the Sun's rotation axis. Magnetic fields, solar wind, and energetic charged particles from low-latitude sources reach all latitudes, including the polar caps. The very fast high-latitude wind and polar coronal holes disappear and reappear together. Solar wind speed continues to be inversely correlated with coronal temperature. The cosmic ray flux is reduced symmetrically at all latitudes.

  9. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  10. Haloes around the Moon and the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex; Gaina, Danielle A.

    2008-10-01

    The authors observations of the Haloes around the Moon and the Sun during few last years are reported. A Historical review of the phenomenon is given since the observations by Benvenuto Cellini and Gaston Tissandier is given. A photograph (from eight available) of the Halo around the Sun observed in Chisinau on 21 May 2007 is included. The Halo from 21 May 2007 occured after a very fast increasing of the air temperature during one day by more than 15 Deg. The authors consider, that the phenomenon is due to scattering of light on Cirri clouds(7 km altitude), present on the sky during that day. They formed due to very fast heating.

  11. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  12. BcSUN1, a B. cinerea SUN-Family Protein, Is Involved in Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, Alicia; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; van Kan, Jan A. L.; Brito, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    BcSUN1 is a glycoprotein secreted by Botrytis cinerea, an important plant pathogen that causes severe losses in agriculture worldwide. In this work, the role of BcSUN1 in different aspects of the B. cinerea biology was studied by phenotypic analysis of Bcsun1 knockout strains. We identified BcSUN1 as the only member of the Group-I SUN family of proteins encoded in the B. cinerea genome, which is expressed both in axenic culture and during infection. BcSUN1 is also weakly attached to the cellular surface and is involved in maintaining the structure of the cell wall and/or the extracellular matrix. Disruption of the Bcsun1 gene produces different cell surface alterations affecting the production of reproductive structures and adhesion to plant surface, therefore reducing B. cinerea virulence. BcSUN1 is the first member of the SUN family reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of a filamentous fungus. PMID:28163701

  13. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  14. Rational SU(N) Gaudin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊鹏; 侯伯宇; 岳瑞宏

    2001-01-01

    We propose the eigenstates and eigenvalues of Hamiltonians of the rational SU(N) Gaudin model based onthe quasi-classical limit of the SU ( N) chain under the periodic boundary condition. Using the quantum inversescattering method, we also obtain the eigenvalues of the generation function of the rational SU ( N) Gaudin model.

  15. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...

  16. SunPy - Python for Solar Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Community, The SunPy; Christe, Steven; Pérez-Suárez, David; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Freij, Nabil; Meszaros, Tomas; Bennett, Samuel M; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin; Campos-Rozo, Jose Iván; Kirk, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualisation and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specialising in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from mis...

  17. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  18. Sino-Sun Architects & Engineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sino-Sun is an A-Class state architectural design company organized by a group of experts who have returned to China after studying abroad. In the 10 yearssince its establishment, it has grown into an outstanding andwell-known design team, which has influence in the national archi-tectural design field.

  19. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  20. Isotopes Tell Sun's Origin and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, O.; Kamat, Sumeet A.; Mozina, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Modern versions of Aston's mass spectrometer enable measurements of two quantities - isotope abundances and masses - that tell the Sun's origin and operation. Isotope analyses of meteorites, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, the solar wind, and solar flares over the past 45 years indicate that fresh, poorly-mixed, supernova debris formed the solar system. The iron-rich Sun formed on the collapsed supernova core and now itself acts as a magnetic plasma diffuser, as did the precursor star, separating ions by mass. This process covers the solar surface with lightweight elements and with the lighter isotopes of each element. Running difference imaging provides supporting evidence of a rigid, iron-rich structure below the Sun's fluid outer layer of lightweight elements. Mass measurements of all 2,850 known nuclides expose repulsive interactions between neutrons that trigger neutron-emission at the solar core, followed by neutron-decay and a series of reactions that collectively generate solar luminosity, solar neutrinos, the carrier gas for solar mass separation, and an outpouring of solar-wind hydrogen from the solar surface. Neutron-emission and neutron-decay generate ~ 65% of solar luminosity; H-fusion ~ 35%, and ~ 1% of the neutron-decay product survives to depart as solar-wind hydrogen. The energy source for the Sun and other ordinary stars seems to be neutron-emission and neutron-decay, with partial fusion of the decay product, rather than simple fusion of hydrogen into helium or heavier elements.

  1. Sun Baiqiu Fights for the Human Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SUN Baiqiu liked to read well known literature from all over the world when she was a little girl. She sympathized with the good-hearted characters and hated the greedy and the evil. She imagined that she would become like a fairy godmother, holding a magic wand and helping the poor but kind people in distress. In 1963 she graduated from Haerbin

  2. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M

    2007-01-01

    (abridged) The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have...

  3. High-throughput in situ cell electroporation microsystem for parallel delivery of single guide RNAs into mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shengtai; Zhou, Yicen; Hu, Yawei; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Xiaofang; Xu, Youchun; Liu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Arrayed genetic screens mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 technology with single guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries demand a high-throughput platform capable of transfecting diverse cell types at a high efficiency in a genome-wide scale for detection and analysis of sophisticated cellular phenotypes. Here we developed a high-throughput in situ cell electroporation (HiCEP) microsystem which leveraged the superhydrophobic feature of the microwell array to achieve individually controlled conditions in each microwell and coupled an interdigital electrode array chip with the microwells in a modular-based scheme for highly efficient delivery of exogenous molecules into cells. Two plasmids encoding enhanced green and red fluorescent proteins (EGFP and ERFP), respectively, were successfully electroporated into attached HeLa cells on a 169-microwell array chip with transfection efficiencies of 71.6 ± 11.4% and 62.9 ± 2.7%, and a cell viability above 95%. We also successfully conducted selective electroporation of sgRNA into 293T cells expressing the Cas9 nuclease in a high-throughput manner and observed the four-fold increase of the GFP intensities due to the repair of the protein coding sequences mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system. This study proved that this HiCEP system has the great potential to be used for arrayed functional screens with genome-wide CRISPR libraries on hard-to-transfect cells in the future. PMID:28211892

  4. Analysis of river water samples utilising a prototype industrial sensing system for phosphorus based on micro-system technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Michaela; Sequiera, Margaret; Krog, Jens Peter; Gravesen, Peter; Diamond, Dermot

    2002-10-01

    The application of a phosphorus monitoring device based on microsystems technology (MST) to the analysis of river water is presented. An alternative to the standard molybdenum blue method known as the yellow vanadomolybdophosphoric acid method has been very effectively implemented. The method is simple, a reagent and sample are mixed in a 1:1 ratio forming a yellow complex that absorbs strongly below 400 nm in the UV spectrum. The kinetics of the reaction are rapid and sample turnaround is typically 3 min at room temperature. Therefore a very uncomplicated microfluidic design can be adopted. The working wavelength was chosen as 380 nm to coincide with the peak output of a UV-LED narrow bandwidth light source recently developed by Nichia. The limit of detection for the yellow method in the microfluidic system is 0.2 ppm with a dynamic linear range from 0-50 ppm. The method was applied to a measurement of phosphorus in a local river at specific sampling points along its course.

  5. A micro-system based on glass-nanoporous silicon for optical sensing of organic solvent vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-You; Kim, Han-Jung; Kim, Ho-Jong; Choi, Dae-Geun; Cheng, Horchhong

    2012-06-01

    We present a recent experimental study on the application of nanoporous silicon (np-Si) to an optical vapor sensor. We fabricated the micro-system based on a glass-nanoporous silicon layer on a p(+)-type silicon wafer. To check the selectivity and sensitivity of the np-Si layer to organic vapors, we prepared three types of np-Si layer samples--a single layer, distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) layer, and microcavity layer--and investigated its reflectance spectra upon exposure to different concentrations of various organic vapors. When the np-Si layer samples were exposed to the organic vapors, a red-shift occurred in the reflectance spectrum, and we determined that this red-shift can be attributed to the changes in the refractive index induced by the capillary condensation of the organic vapor within the pores of the np-Si layer. The np-Si layer samples showed excellent sensing ability to different types and concentrations of organic vapors. After removing the organic vapors, the reflectance spectrum immediately returned to its original state.

  6. Three-layer poly(methyl methacrylate) microsystem for analysis of lysosomal enzymes for diagnostic purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Kwapiszewska, Karina; Kutter, Jörg P

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases are chronic, progressive and typically have a devastating impact on the patient and the family. The diagnosis of these diseases is still a challenge, however, even for trained specialists. Accurate diagnostic methods and high-throughput tools that could be readily...... incorporated into existing screening laboratories are urgently required. We propose a new method for measuring the activity of lysosomal enzymes using a microfluidic device. The principle of the method is the fluorometric determination of a protonated form of 4-methylumbelliferone directly in the enzymatic...

  7. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  8. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  9. A Tracking Sun Photometer Without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is small, lightweight, and consumes very little electricity as it measures the solar energy attenuated by gases and aerosol particles in the atmosphere. A Sun photometer is commonly used on the Earth's surface, as well as on aircraft, to determine the solar energy attenuated by aerosol particles in the atmosphere and their distribution of sizes. This information is used to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, as well as their distribution sizes. The design for this Sun photometer uses a combination of unique optics and a charge coupled device (CCD) array to eliminate moving parts and make the instrument more reliable. It could be selfcalibrating throughout the year. Data products would be down-welling flux, the direct-diffuse flux ratio, column abundance of gas phase constituents, aerosol optical depth at multiple-wavelengths, phase functions, cloud statistics, and an estimate of the representative size of atmospheric particles. These measurements can be used to obtain an estimate of aerosol size distribution, refractive index, and particle shape. Incident light is received at a light-reflecting (inner) surface, which is a truncated paraboloid. Light arriving from a hemispheric field of view (solid angle 2 steradians) enters the reflecting optic at an entrance aperture at, or adjacent to, the focus of the paraboloid, and is captured by the optic. Most of this light is reflected from an inner surface. The light proceeds substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis, and is detected by an array detector located near an exit aperture. Each of the entrance and exit apertures is formed by the intersection of the paraboloid with a plane substantially perpendicular to the paraboloid axis. Incident (non-reflected) light from a source of limited extent (the Sun) illuminates a limited area on the detector array. Both direct and diffuse illumination may be reflected, or not reflected, before being received on

  10. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  11. Analytical Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s analytical laboratories in Pittsburgh, PA, and Albany, OR, give researchers access to the equipment they need to thoroughly study the properties of materials...

  12. Geomechanics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...

  13. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  14. UV photography, masculinity, and college men's sun protection cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Laura A; Stock, Michelle L

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the impact of an ultraviolet (UV) photography intervention and masculinity on college men's sun protection cognitions, including: perceived vulnerability to skin damage, attitudes toward sun protection, willingness to engage in sun protection behaviors, and intentions to receive a skin cancer exam. After completing a baseline survey, participants (N = 152) viewed a black-and-white photo of their face. Half also viewed a photo showing their UV damage. Participants then completed a second survey assessing sun protection cognitions. Regressions revealed that masculinity predicted lower sun protection cognitions, and men in the UV photograph condition reported higher sun protection cognitions. Masculinity by condition interactions showed that the positive effect of UV photography was stronger among masculine men. Negative associations between masculinity and sun protection cognitions were significant only among men who did not receive the intervention. Findings suggest that UV photography is a promising sun protection intervention among masculine men.

  15. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias, E-mail: emb@kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Edsjoe, Joakim, E-mail: edsjo@physto.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ohlsson, Tommy, E-mail: tommy@theophys.kth.se [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  16. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... other options to prevent UV damage. Too Much Sun Hurts Turning pink? Unprotected skin can be damaged ...

  17. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (SUN3 VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    50 cartridge in VAX BACKUP format), 2) DEC VAXstations running ULTRIX 4.1 or later (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 3) DEC RISC workstations running ULTRIX 4.1 or later (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 4) HP9000 Series 300/400 computers running HP-UX 8.0 (.25 inch HP-preformatted tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 5) HP9000 Series 700 computers running HP-UX 8.05 (HP 4mm DDS DAT tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 6) Sun3 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 7) Sun4 (SPARC) series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), and 8) SGI Indigo computers running IRIX 4.0.1 and IRIX/Motif 1.0.1 (.25 inch IRIS tape cartridge in UNIX tar format). An optional Motif Object Code License is available for either Sun version. TAE is a trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. X Window System is a trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Motif is a trademark of the Open Software Foundation. DEC, VAX, VMS, TK50 and ULTRIX are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. HP9000 and HP-UX are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co. Sun3, Sun4, SunOS, and SPARC are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SGI and IRIS are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc.

  18. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  19. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  20. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  1. Hierarchical analysis of the quiet Sun magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2014-01-01

    Standard statistical analysis of the magnetic properties of the quiet Sun rely on simple histograms of quantities inferred from maximum-likelihood estimations. Because of the inherent degeneracies, either intrinsic or induced by the noise, this approach is not optimal and can lead to highly biased results. We carry out a meta-analysis of the magnetism of the quiet Sun from Hinode observations using a hierarchical probabilistic method. This model allows us to infer the statistical properties of the magnetic field vector over the observed field-of-view consistently taking into account the uncertainties in each pixel due to noise and degeneracies. Our results point out that the magnetic fields are very weak, below 275 G with 95% credibility, with a slight preference for horizontal fields, although the distribution is not far from a quasi-isotropic distribution.

  2. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES; Bruce; William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3 size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  3. Under the Lens: Investigating the Sun's Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, William; Klotz, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Sometime around 2012, the waxing 11-year solar cycle once again will reach its peak. Between now and then, magnetically turbulent sunspots, spawned by some still mysterious process, will form near the poles in increasing numbers and migrate toward the Sun's faster-rotating equator in pairs of opposite polarity. Titanic magnetic storms will rage as immense flux tubes rise to the surface in active regions around sunspots and spread out in a boiling sea of electric charge. Magnetic field lines across an enormous range of scales will arc and undulate, rip apart and reconnect, heating the Sun's upper atmosphere and occasionally triggering brilliant flares and multibillion-megaton coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that travel through the solar wind and slam into Earth.

  4. Wreathes of Magnetism in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Benjamin P; Brun, Allan Sacha; Toomre, Juri

    2009-01-01

    When our Sun was young it rotated much more rapidly than now. Observations of young, rapidly rotating stars indicate that many possess substantial magnetic activity and strong axisymmetric magnetic fields. We conduct simulations of dynamo action in rapidly rotating suns with the 3-D MHD anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to explore the complex coupling between rotation, convection and magnetism. Here we study dynamo action realized in the bulk of the convection zone for two systems, rotating at three and five times the current solar rate. We find that substantial organized global-scale magnetic fields are achieved by dynamo action in these systems. Striking wreathes of magnetism are built in the midst of the convection zone, coexisting with the turbulent convection. This is a great surprise, for many solar dynamo theories have suggested that a tachocline of penetration and shear at the base of the convection zone is a crucial ingredient for organized dynamo action, whereas these simulations do not includ...

  5. How plants LINC the SUN to KASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Linkers of the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes formed by SUN and KASH proteins are conserved eukaryotic protein complexes that bridge the nuclear envelope (NE) via protein-protein interactions in the NE lumen. Revealed by opisthokont studies, LINC complexes are key players in multiple cellular processes, such as nuclear and chromosomal positioning and nuclear shape determination, which in turn influence the generation of gametes and several aspects of development. Although comparable processes have long been known in plants, the first plant nuclear envelope bridging complexes were only recently identified. WPP domain-interacting proteins at the outer NE have little homology to known opisthokont KASH proteins, but form complexes with SUN proteins at the inner NE that have plant-specific properties and functions. In this review, we will address the importance of LINC complex-regulated processes, describe the plant NE bridging complexes and compare them to opisthokont LINC complexes.

  6. International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three US satellites designed to study the solar wind and its interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. ISEE-1 and 2 were placed into highly elliptical Earth orbits. ISEE-3 was placed in a halo orbit at the L1 Lagrangian point between the Sun and Earth. It gave advance warning of solar storms heading towards Earth. (See also INTERNATIONAL COMETARY EXPLORER and EXPLORER.)...

  7. Operational Art and the Rising Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-16

    shall run wild for the first six months or a year, but I have utterly no confidence for the second or third ’Potter, p. 46; Michael Slackman, Target...attack that no american carriers in 26Joseph K. Taussig , "A Tactical View of Pearl Harbor", Paul Stillwell, ed., Air Raid: Pearl Harbor! (Annapolis, MD...Weiner, 1991. Slackman, Michael . Target: Pearl Harbor. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990. Stephan, John J. Hawaii Under the Rising Sun

  8. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ying-Tian; LIM Boon-Han; LIM Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuthelevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  9. Complete Solution of Sun Tracking for Heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tian; Lim, Boon-Han; Lim, Chern-Sing

    2006-01-01

    A general solution of sun tracking for an arbitrarily oriented heliostat towards an arbitrarily located target on the earth is published. With the most general form of solar tracking formulae, it is seen that the used azimuth-elevation, spinning-elevation tracking formulae etc. are the special cases of it. The possibilities of utilizing the general solution and its significance in solar energy engineering are discussed.

  10. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  11. ON FELICITOUS CHARACTER OF GENERALIZED SUN-GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Si-hua; YAO Bing; YAO Ming

    2015-01-01

    Felicitous character of some generalized sun-graphs is investigated in this note, and furthermore the exact felicitous labellings of two classes of generalized sun-graphs are obtained by analyzing the structures of the generalized sun-graphs. And the constructed graph theory models in coding theory, communication networks, logistics and other aspects have important applications.

  12. Design and Fabrication of an Albedo Insensitive Analog Sun Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Leijtens, J.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    A sun sensor is usually included in a satellite for optically measuring the position relative to the sun. The accuracy of a conventional sun sensor is affected by reflected sunlight at the nearby earth atmosphere: the albedo radiation. The part of the spectrum at near IR (1.5 μm) is not included in

  13. Exploring Young People's Beliefs and Images about Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. M.; Robinson, N. G.; Young, R. McD.; Anderson, P. J.; Hyde, M. K.; Greenbank, S.; Keane, J.; Rolfe, T.; Vardon, P.; Baskerville, D.

    2008-01-01

    To understand young people's low levels of sun protection behaviour, 145 young people (aged 12 to 20 years) were recruited from Queensland, to participate in a one-hour focus group where they discussed issues related to sun protection and images of tanned and non-tanned people. Responses were content analysed to identify common sun protection…

  14. Deterministic approach for unsteady rarefied flow simulations in complex geometries and its application to gas flows in microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigullapalli, Sruti

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) are widely used in automotive, communications and consumer electronics applications with microactuators, micro gyroscopes and microaccelerometers being just a few examples. However, in areas where high reliability is critical, such as in aerospace and defense applications, very few MEMS technologies have been adopted so far. Further development of high frequency microsystems such as resonators, RF MEMS, microturbines and pulsed-detonation microengines require improved understanding of unsteady gas dynamics at the micro scale. Accurate computational simulation of such flows demands new approaches beyond the conventional formulations based on the macroscopic constitutive laws. This is due to the breakdown of the continuum hypothesis in the presence of significant non-equilibrium and rarefaction because of large gradients and small scales, respectively. More generally, the motion of molecules in a gas is described by the kinetic Boltzmann equation which is valid for arbitrary Knudsen numbers. However, due to the multidimensionality of the phase space and the complex non-linearity of the collision term, numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation is challenging for practical problems. In this thesis a fully deterministic, as opposed to a statistical, finite volume based three-dimensional solution of Boltzmann ES-BGK model kinetic equation is formulated to enable simulations of unsteady rarefied flows. The main goal of this research is to develop an unsteady rarefied solver integrated with finite volume method (FVM) solver in MEMOSA (MEMS Overall Simulation Administrator) developed by PRISM: NNSA center for Prediction of Reliability, Integrity and Survivability of Microsystems (PRISM) at Purdue and apply it to study micro-scale gas damping. Formulation and verification of finite volume method for unsteady rarefied flow solver based on Boltzmann-ESBGK equations in arbitrary three-dimensional geometries are presented. The solver is

  15. Development and Application of a Clinical Microsystem Simulation Methodology for Human Factors-Based Research of Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Gosbee, John W; Merck, Derek L

    2017-07-01

    (1) To develop a clinical microsystem simulation methodology for alarm fatigue research with a human factors engineering (HFE) assessment framework and (2) to explore its application to the comparative examination of different approaches to patient monitoring and provider notification. Problems with the design, implementation, and real-world use of patient monitoring systems result in alarm fatigue. A multidisciplinary team is developing an open-source tool kit to promote bedside informatics research and mitigate alarm fatigue. Simulation, HFE, and computer science experts created a novel simulation methodology to study alarm fatigue. Featuring multiple interconnected simulated patient scenarios with scripted timeline, "distractor" patient care tasks, and triggered true and false alarms, the methodology incorporated objective metrics to assess provider and system performance. Developed materials were implemented during institutional review board-approved study sessions that assessed and compared an experimental multiparametric alerting system with a standard monitor telemetry system for subject response, use characteristics, and end-user feedback. A four-patient simulation setup featuring objective metrics for participant task-related performance and response to alarms was developed along with accompanying structured HFE assessment (questionnaire and interview) for monitor systems use testing. Two pilot and four study sessions with individual nurse subjects elicited true alarm and false alarm responses (including diversion from assigned tasks) as well as nonresponses to true alarms. In-simulation observation and subject questionnaires were used to test the experimental system's approach to suppressing false alarms and alerting providers. A novel investigative methodology applied simulation and HFE techniques to replicate and study alarm fatigue in controlled settings for systems assessment and experimental research purposes.

  16. 671-nm microsystem diode laser based on portable Raman sensor device for in-situ identification of meat spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowoidnich, Kay; Schmidt, Heinar; Schwägele, Fredi; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2011-05-01

    Based on a miniaturized optical bench with attached 671 nm microsystem diode laser we present a portable Raman system for the rapid in-situ characterization of meat spoilage. It consists of a handheld sensor head (dimensions: 210 x 240 x 60 mm3) for Raman signal excitation and collection including the Raman optical bench, a laser driver, and a battery pack. The backscattered Raman radiation from the sample is analyzed by means of a custom-designed miniature spectrometer (dimensions: 200 x 190 x 70 mm3) with a resolution of 8 cm-1 which is fiber-optically coupled to the sensor head. A netbook is used to control the detector and for data recording. Selected cuts from pork (musculus longissimus dorsi and ham) stored refrigerated at 5 °C were investigated in timedependent measurement series up to three weeks to assess the suitability of the system for the rapid detection of meat spoilage. Using a laser power of 100 mW at the sample meat spectra can be obtained with typical integration times of 5 - 10 seconds. The complex spectra were analyzed by the multivariate statistical tool PCA (principal components analysis) to determine the spectral changes occurring during the storage period. Additionally, the Raman data were correlated with reference analyses performed in parallel. In that way, a distinction between fresh and spoiled meat can be found in the time slot of 7 - 8 days after slaughter. The applicability of the system for the rapid spoilage detection of meat and other food products will be discussed.

  17. Pulse-Reverse Electrodeposition and Micromachining of Graphene-Nickel Composite: An Efficient Strategy toward High-Performance Microsystem Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; An, Zhonglie; Wang, Zhuqing; Toda, Masaya; Ono, Takahito

    2016-02-17

    Graphene reinforced nickel (Ni) is an intriguing nanocomposite with tremendous potential for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) applications by remedying mechanical drawbacks of the metal matrix for device optimization, though very few related works have been reported. In this paper, we developed a pulse-reverse electrodeposition method for synthesizing graphene-Ni (G-Ni) composite microcomponents with high content and homogeneously dispersed graphene filler. While the Vickers hardness is largely enhanced by 2.7-fold after adding graphene, the Young's modulus of composite under dynamic condition shows ∼1.4-fold increase based on the raised resonant frequency of a composite microcantilever array. For the first time, we also demonstrate the application of G-Ni composite in microsystems by fabricating a Si micromirror with the composite supporting beams as well as investigate the long-term stability of the mirror at resonant vibration. Compared with the pure Ni counterpart, the composite mirror shows an apparently lessened fluctuations of resonant frequency and scanning angle due to a suppressed plastic deformation even under the sustaining periodic loading. This can be ascribed to the reduced grain size of Ni matrix and dislocation hindering in the presence of graphene by taking into account the crystalline refinement strengthen mechanism. The rational discussions also imply that the strong interface and efficient load transfer between graphene layers and metal matrix play an important role for improving stiffness in composite. It is believed that a proper design of graphene-metal composite makes it a promising structural material candidate for advanced micromechanical devices.

  18. Watching the Sun to Improve Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Looking for stars that wobble is one of the key ways by which we detect exoplanets: the gravitational pull of planets cause tiny variations in stars radial velocities. But our ability to detect Earth twins is currently limited by our ability to distinguish between radial-velocity variations caused by exoplanets, and those caused by noise from the star itself. A team of scientists has recently proposed that the key to solving this problem may be to examine our own star.Precision Amid NoiseThe radial-velocity technique works well for detecting large planets on close orbits, but detecting an Earth twin requires being able to detect star motion on the order of 10 cm/s! This precision is hard to reach, because activity on the stellar surface i.e., sunspots, plages (bright spots), or granulation can also cause variations in the measured radial velocity for the star, obscuring the signature of a planet.Because the stars were examining arent resolved, we cant track the activity on their surfaces so how can we better understand the imprint that stellar activity has on radial-velocity measurements? A team of scientists has come up with a clever approach: examine the Sun as though it were a distant star.Wealth of InformationThe team, led by Xavier Dumusque (Branco-Weiss Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and David F. Phillips (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), has begun a project to observe the Sun with a ground-based solar telescope. The telescope observes the full disk of the Sun and feeds the data into the HARPS-N spectrograph in Spain, a spectrograph normally used for radial-velocity measurements of other stars in the hunt for exoplanets.But the team has access to other data about the Sun, too: information from satellites like the Solar Dynamics Observatory and SORCE about the solar activity and total irradiance during the time when the spectra were taken. Dumusque and collaborators have combined all of this information, during a week

  19. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  20. Sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors: testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melinda; Caputi, Peter; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build on existing understanding of adolescent sun-related behavior by combining sun protecting and sun exposing behaviors and testing their relationship simultaneously with indicators of ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Data were collected for 692 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years. General linear modeling was undertaken to test the relationship of sun-related behaviors with indicators of UV exposure. Overall, the combined sun protection and sun exposing behaviors accounted for 13.8% of the variance in the number of sunburns, 28.1% of the variance in current tan and 57.5% of the variance in desired tan, respectively. Results indicated that having a strong desire for a tan was significantly associated with spending time tanning, delaying the use of sun protection, wearing brief clothing and using no sun protection; whereas the number of sunburns was significantly associated with sunscreen use, avoiding peak hours and delaying sun protection. Current tan was significantly associated with wearing sunglasses, shade use and time spent tanning. In examining sun-related behaviors among adolescents, consideration needs to be given to both sun exposing and sun protecting behaviors. This research has important implications for conceptualizing outcomes in programs designed to reduce UV exposure.

  1. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  2. Effects of motives on reactions to safe sun messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspden, Trefor; Ingledew, David K; Parkinson, John A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether appearance motive for sun exposure, which strongly predicts exposure behaviour, would predict reactions to safe sun messages. In a survey with an embedded experiment, 245 individuals completed measures of motives, read a safe sun message framed by incentive (appearance/health), tone (directive/nondirective) and valence (gain/loss), then completed measures of reactions. For participants high in appearance motive, an appearance-nondirective message was most persuasive. Regardless of individual's appearance motive, appearance messages produced lower reactance if phrased using nondirective language. To maximise persuasion and minimise reactance in individuals most motivated to sun expose, safe sun messages should focus on appearance using nondirective language.

  3. The Sun's interior structure and dynamics, and the solar cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Broomhall, A -M; Howe, R; Norton, A A; Thompson, M J

    2014-01-01

    The Sun's internal structure and dynamics can be studied with helioseismology, which uses the Sun's natural acoustic oscillations to build up a profile of the solar interior. We discuss how solar acoustic oscillations are affected by the Sun's magnetic field. Careful observations of these effects can be inverted to determine the variations in the structure and dynamics of the Sun's interior as the solar cycle progresses. Observed variations in the structure and dynamics can then be used to inform models of the solar dynamo, which are crucial to our understanding of how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and maintained.

  4. Three-layer poly(methyl methacrylate) microsystem for analysis of lysosomal enzymes for diagnostic purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw, E-mail: r.kwapiszewski@gmail.com [Department of Microbioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Kwapiszewska, Karina [Department of Microbioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Kutter, Jörg P. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Brzozka, Zbigniew [Department of Microbioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, 00-664 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New approach for measuring the activity of lysosomal enzymes. • Determination of a protonated form of 4-MU directly in the enzymatic mixture. • Elimination of a long incubation step. • Significant reduction of the processing time and simplification of the procedure. - Abstract: Lysosomal storage diseases are chronic, progressive and typically have a devastating impact on the patient and the family. The diagnosis of these diseases is still a challenge, however, even for trained specialists. Accurate diagnostic methods and high-throughput tools that could be readily incorporated into existing screening laboratories are urgently required. We propose a new method for measuring the activity of lysosomal enzymes using a microfluidic device. The principle of the method is the fluorometric determination of a protonated form of 4-methylumbelliferone directly in the enzymatic mixture. Compared to the standard diagnostic protocols, the method eliminates the necessity to add alkaline buffer to stop the enzymatic reaction, and thus, the number of analytical steps is reduced. The system allows for on-chip short-term incubation of the enzymatic reagents, leading to a much simplified analytical procedure and a significantly shortened processing time. We measured the activity of β-galactosidase in RPMI-1788 human B lymphocytes and in isolated leukocytes from healthy adults. The method shows a good agreement with the standard diagnostic method. The agreement was confirmed by statistical analysis including construction of a Bland–Altman plot. The approach presented can be an alternative for the currently used diagnostic procedures. The method developed has a potential for the implementation into complex microfluidic devices thus becoming a powerful tool for a high-throughput and multiplex screening of newborns.

  5. The Apsidal Precession for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By nodal regression and apsidal precession, the Earth flattering at satellite low Earth orbits (LEO is manifested. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun. Nodal regression is orbit feature utilized for circular orbits to be Sun synchronized. A sun¬-synchronized orbit lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Sun direction. In the low Earth Sun synchronized circular orbits are suited the satellites that accomplish their photo imagery missions. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the respective orbital altitudes the inclination window for the Sun synchronization to be attained is determined. The apsidal precession represents major axis shift, respectively the argument of perigee deviation. The apsidal precession simulation, for inclination window of sun synchronized orbital altitudes, is provided through this paper.

  6. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  7. Grand Challenges in the Physics of the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The study of stellar structure and evolution is one of the main building blocks of astrophysics, and the Sun has an importance both as the star that is most amenable to detailed study and as the star that has by far the biggest impact on the Earth and near-Earth environment through its radiative and particulate outputs. Over the past decades, studies of stars and of the Sun have become somewhat separate. But in recent years, the rapid advances in asteroseismology, as well as the quest to better understand solar and stellar dynamos, have emphasized once again the synergy between studies of the stars and the Sun. In this article I have selected two "grand challenges" both for their crucial importance and because I thnk that these two problems are tractable to significant progress in the next decade. They are (i) understanding how solar and stellar dynamos generate magnetic field, and (ii) improving the predictability of geo-effective space weather.

  8. Carousel Trackers with 1-Sun or 3-Sun Modules for Commercial Building Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Huang, H, [JX Crystals, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    The goal is lower cost solar electricity. Herein, two evolutional steps are described toward achieving this goal. The first step is to follow the sun with a solar tracker. Herein, a carousel tracker is described for mounting on commercial building flat rooftops in order to produce more kWh per kW relative to fixed PV modules. The second evolutionary improvement is to produce lower cost 3-sun CPV modules where two thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon material is replaced by less expensive mirror material. This paper describes the performance and durability of two prototype installations demonstrating these evolutionary innovations. In the first case, the installation and operation of 2 carousels equipped with traditional flat plate modules is described. In the second case, the operation of a carousel equipped with new 3-sun CPV modules is described. Both systems have been operating as expected for several months through the winter of 2007.

  9. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis [JX Crystals, Inc.; Avery, James E. [JX Crystals, Inc.; Minkin, Leonid M [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Hurt, Rick A [ORNL; Boehm, Robert F [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  10. Performance of 3-sun mirror modules on sun tracking carousels on flat roof buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis; Avery, James; Minkin, Leonid; Maxey, Curt; Gehl, Tony; Hurt, Rick; Boehm, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  11. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  12. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  13. Visualization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Evaluates and improves the operational effectiveness of existing and emerging electronic warfare systems. By analyzing and visualizing simulation results...

  14. Dynamics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Dynamics Lab replicates vibration environments for every Navy platform. Testing performed includes: Flight Clearance, Component Improvement, Qualification, Life...

  15. Psychology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility provides testing stations for computer-based assessment of cognitive and behavioral Warfighter performance. This 500 square foot configurable space can...

  16. Propulsion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Propulsion Lab simulates field test conditions in a controlled environment, using standardized or customized test procedures. The Propulsion Lab's 11 cells can...

  17. Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: To conduct fundamental studies of highway materials aimed at understanding both failure mechanisms and superior performance. New standard test methods are...

  18. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  19. The Sun to the Earth - and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    in processes observed in solar and space plasmas. Challenge 5: Developing a near-real-time predictive capability for understanding and quantifying the impact on human activities of dynamical processes at the Sun, in the interplanetary medium, and in Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere. This report summarizes the state of knowledge about the total heliospheric system, poses key scientific questions for further research, and presents an integrated research strategy, with prioritized initiatives, for the next decade. The recommended strategy embraces both basic research programs and targeted basic research activities that will enhance knowledge and prediction of space weather effects on Earth. The report emphasizes the importance of understanding the Sun, the heliosphere, and planetary magnetospheres and ionospheres as astrophysical objects and as laboratories for the investigation of fundamental plasma physics phenomena.

  20. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  1. Magnetic Patches in Internetwork Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wijn, Alfred; Lites, B.; Berger, T.; Shine, R.; Title, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Hinode Team

    2007-05-01

    We study strong flux elements in the quiet sun in the context of the nature of quiet-sun magnetism, its coupling to chromospheric, transition-region and coronal fields, and the nature of a local turbulent dynamo. Strong, kilogauss flux elements show up intermittently as small bright points in G-band and Ca II H images. Although bright points have been extensively studied in the magnetic network, internetwork magnetism has only come under scrutiny in recent years. A full spectrum of field strengths seems to be ubiquitously present in the internetwork at small spatial scales, with the stronger elements residing in intergranular lanes. De Wijn et al. (2005) found that bright points in quiet sun internetwork areas appear recurrently with varying intensity and horizontal motion within long-lived patches that outline cell patterns on mesogranular scales. They estimate that the "magnetic patches" have a mean lifetime of nine hours, much longer than granular timescales. We use multi-hour sequences of G-band and Ca II H images as well as magnetograms recorded by the Hinode satellite to follow up on their results. The larger field of view, the longer sequences, the addition of magnetograms, and the absence of atmospheric seeing allows us to better constrain the patch lifetime, to provide much improved statistics on IBP lifetime, to compare IBPs to network bright points, and to study field polarity of IBPs in patches and between nearby patches. Hinode is an international project supported by JAXA, NASA, PPARC and ESA. We are grateful to the Hinode team for all their efforts in the design, build and operation of the mission.

  2. Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable suns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Baudon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph \\(G = (V,E\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for any sequence \\(\\tau\\ of positive integers adding up to \\(|V|\\, there is a sequence of vertex-disjoint subsets of \\(V\\ whose orders are given by \\(\\tau\\, and which induce connected graphs. The aim of this paper is to study the recursive version of this problem on a special class of graphs called suns. This paper is a complement of [O. Baudon, F. Gilbert, M. Woźniak, Recursively arbitrarily vertex-decomposable graphs, research report, 2010].

  3. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  4. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  5. Dual Axis Light Sensor for Tracking Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Miki; Tambo, Toyokazu

    We have developed convenient light sensors to control a platform of solar cell panel. Dual axis light sensor in the present paper has structure of 5 PD (photodiode) light sensor which is composed of 5 photodiodes attached on a frustum of pyramid(1). Light source can be captured in front of the sensor by rotating the X and Y axis as decreasing the output deviation between two pairs of outside photodiodes. We here report the mechanism of sun tacking using the dual axis 5 PD light sensor and the fundamental results performed in the dark room.

  6. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  7. Selective factors in sun-weather research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the correlations between solar wind/IMF disturbances and subsequent winter troposphere vorticity changes (denoted SV) are reviewed to investigate sun-weather relationships. Uncertainties in the research attempting to link short-term solar variations and associated changes in the lower atmosphere are discussed, and it is noted that such analyses have generally not addressed either the choice of parameters or the selective factors involved in the physical relationships existing between parameters. It is suggested that the identification of a viable mechanism scenario would require a detailed multiparameter selective factor analysis, extending to the investigation of the atmospheric data as well as the solar wind/IMF parameters.

  8. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Businger, S

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed.

  9. Learning Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  10. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  11. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  12. Seismic Sounding of Convection in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun, primarily composed of ionized hydrogen and helium, has a surface temperature of 5777~K and a radius $R_\\odot \\approx 696,000$ km. In the outer $R_\\odot/3$, energy transport is accomplished primarily by convection. Using typical convective velocities $u\\sim100\\,\\rm{m\\,s^{-1}}$ and kinematic viscosities of order $10^{-4}$ m$^{2}$s$^{-1}$, we obtain a Reynolds number $Re \\sim 10^{14}$. Convection is thus turbulent, causing a vast range of scales to be excited. The Prandtl number, $Pr$, of the convecting fluid is very low, of order $10^{-7}$\\,--\\,$10^{-4}$, so that the Rayleigh number ($\\sim Re^2 Pr$) is on the order of $10^{21}\\,-\\,10^{24}$. Solar convection thus lies in extraordinary regime of dynamical parameters, highly untypical of fluid flows on Earth. Convective processes in the Sun drive global fluid circulations and magnetic fields, which in turn affect its visible outer layers ("solar activity") and, more broadly, the heliosphere ("space weather"). The precise determination of the depth of sola...

  13. Exoplanets Clue to Sun's Curious Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    A ground-breaking census of 500 stars, 70 of which are known to host planets, has successfully linked the long-standing "lithium mystery" observed in the Sun to the presence of planetary systems. Using ESO's successful HARPS spectrograph, a team of astronomers has found that Sun-like stars that host planets have destroyed their lithium much more efficiently than "planet-free" stars. This finding does not only shed light on the lack of lithium in our star, but also provides astronomers with a very efficient way of finding stars with planetary systems. "For almost 10 years we have tried to find out what distinguishes stars with planetary systems from their barren cousins," says Garik Israelian, lead author of a paper appearing this week in the journal Nature. "We have now found that the amount of lithium in Sun-like stars depends on whether or not they have planets." Low levels of this chemical element have been noticed for decades in the Sun, as compared to other solar-like stars, and astronomers have been unable to explain the anomaly. The discovery of a trend among planet-bearing stars provides a natural explanation to this long-standing mystery. "The explanation of this 60 year-long puzzle is for us rather simple," adds Israelian. "The Sun lacks lithium because it has planets." This conclusion is based on the analysis of 500 stars, including 70 planet-hosting stars. Most of these stars were monitored for several years with ESO's High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher. This spectrograph, better known as HARPS, is attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope and is the world's foremost exoplanet hunter. "This is the best possible sample available to date to understand what makes planet-bearing stars unique," says co-author Michel Mayor. The astronomers looked in particular at Sun-like stars, almost a quarter of the whole sample. They found that the majority of stars hosting planets possess less than 1% of the amount of lithium shown by most of the other stars

  14. A new perspective on quiet Sun magnetism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LITES Bruce William

    2009-01-01

    The Hinode mission has provided us with a new, quantitative view of the magnetism of the quiet Sun. It has revealed that the quiet internetwork areas are blanketed by horizontal fields that appear at first sight to have more flux than the vertical fields resolved on the same 0.3″ size scale. These measurements point to the possibility that the horizontal fields might be the primary source of the "hidden turbulent flux" of the quiet Sun anticipated from Hanle effect depolarization. In this paper, evidence is presented suggesting that the "seething" horizontal fields observed by Harvey in 2007 and the horizontal fields revealed by Hinode are the same phenomenon. Because the seething fields appear to be of uniform fluctuation over the whole disk, the phenomenon is most likely not associated with the dynamo source of solar activity. Thus, the small-scale "hidden turbulent flux" lends support to the notion of a local solar dynamo acting on granular sizes and time scales.

  15. Promoting sun safety among zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, J A; Lewis, E C; Eckhardt, L; Slymen, D; Belch, G; Elder, J; Engelberg, M; Eichenfield, L; Achter, A; Nichols, T; Walker, K; Kwon, H; Talosig, M; Gearen, C

    2001-09-01

    Each year, millions of children visit zoological parks, where they are exposed to long bouts of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). We conducted a study in the winter and replicated it in the summer to evaluate an intervention for reducing UVR exposure during the zoo visit. Each study used a nonequivalent control group design: one zoological site received the intervention and a second received evaluation only. Key outcome measures consisted of observed prevalence of hat use by exiting children (N = 8,721 and 8,524, respectively, in winter and summer studies) and purchase rates of sunscreen and hats in zoo gift shops. Intervention consisted of tip sheets for parents, children's activities, prompts, and discounts off the price of sunscreen and sun-protective hats. In the summer study, sales of both sunscreen and target hats increased significantly at the intervention site relative to the control site, whereas in the winter study, only sunscreen sales at the intervention site had a significant (relative) increase. Children's hat use increased significantly at the intervention site, but only in the winter study. The multicomponent program was effective in promoting purchases of sun-safe items, but its impact on children's hat use was inconclusive. Copyright 2001 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  16. Light Work: Contemporary Artists Consider the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Modern day life and timekeepers have profoundly affected the way we conceptualize time and our position in the universe. Over the past year, I have been investigating the apparent movement of the Sun both sculpturally and photographically. In this paper, I discuss my collaborations with Woody Sullivan and highlight several of the sundials, both gigantic and intimate, created by University of Washington students in the class Where is Noon? Regarding Giant Sundials that we co-taught in Spring 2003. I have continued to develop artistic approaches to solar events. Some of these sunworks have not been designed specifically to measure the exact time of day as a classic sundial does, but to stimulate a greater awareness of our subjective and paradoxical relationship to nature and technology. Other, almost domestic, poetic, humorous or intimate ways of interacting with science and technology are being actively explored. I will also provide a background to previous works I have done in relation to the Sun and optics, and briefly mention artists who are using astronomical events as a point of departure.

  17. Two sun-like superflare stars rotating as slow as the Sun*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Daisaku; Notsu, Yuta; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-04-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two "superflare stars," KIC 9766237 and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have recently been discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 d on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have rotation periods of 21.8 d and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairly high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not detect any hint of binarity in our spectra, although more data are needed to firmly rule out the presence of an unseen low-mass companion. These results claim that the spectroscopic properties of these superflare stars are very close to those of the Sun, and support the hypothesis that the Sun might cause a superflare.

  18. Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL Sun-sky radiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Blarel, Luc; Podvin, Thierry; Goloub, Philippe; Buis, Jean-Pierre; Morel, Jean-Philippe

    2008-04-01

    Two types of sunphotometric measurement are considered in this study: direct-Sun irradiance and diffuse-sky radiance. Based on CIMEL CE318 Sun-sky radiometer characteristics, we introduce a gain-corrected solid angle that allows interconverting calibration coefficients of these two types of measurement, thus realizing a "vicarious" radiance calibration. The accuracy of the gain-corrected solid angle depends on the number of available historical calibration records. The method is easy to use, provided that at least one laboratory calibration has been made previously. Examples coming from three distinct CE318 versions belonging to the AERONET/PHOTONS network are presented to provide details on the vicarious calibration method and protocols. From the error propagation analysis and the comparison with laboratory results, the uncertainty of the vicarious radiance calibration is shown to be comparable with the laboratory one, e.g., 3%-5%.

  19. Perry, Kelvin, and the age of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2013-04-01

    Lord Kelvin argued that the Sun had to be between 20 and 100 million years old, based on the assumption that the Sun's energy source was gravitational contraction. As everyone now knows, the Sun's actual power source is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium. But Kelvin's number is based on a physical assumption for which he could give no justification: the Sun's density is approximately constant. Had Kelvin assumed instead that the Sun had a small core near a black hole radius - an assumption allowed by the knowledge of physicists at the end of the nineteenth century - he would have obtained an age for the Sun as long as 10 trillion years, completely consistent with the long time scale required for evolution. Conversely, had Kelvin accepted the geologists' time scale, he would have been forced to acknowledge the existence of very dense objects, making it easier for twentieth century astronomers to accept the existence of black holes and neutron stars.

  20. Scalar model of SU(N) glueball \\`a la Heisenberg

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Nonperturbative model of glueball is studied. The model is based on the nonperturbative quantization technique suggested by Heisenberg. 2- and 4-point Green functions for a gauge potential are expressed in terms of two scalar fields. The first scalar field describes quantum fluctuations of a subgroup $SU(n) \\subset SU(N)$, and the second one describes quantum fluctuations of coset $SU(N) / SU(n)$. An effective Lagrangian for the scalar fields is obtained. The coefficients for all terms in the Lagrangian are calculated, and it is shown that they depend on $\\dim SU(n), \\dim SU(N)$. It is demonstrated that spherically symmetric solution describing the glueball does exist.

  1. Sun One Portal Server体系架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇泉

    2003-01-01

    目前,门户市场上存在着国内外多种多样的产品,本文主要介绍Sun公司的Sun ONE Portal Servero Sun ONE Portal Server到目前为止,在全球拥有400多个客户,分布于金融、电信、政府、汽车、制造、教育等行业。Sun ONE Portal Server是Sun ONE的重要组成部分。首先,让我们来看看Sun ONE(Sun Open Net Environment)的

  2. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  3. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  4. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  5. Audio Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides an environment and facilities for auditory display research. A primary focus is the performance use of binaurally rendered 3D sound in conjunction...

  6. Elastomers Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Primary capabilities include: elastomer compounding in various sizes (micro, 3x5, 8x12, 8x15 rubber mills); elastomer curing and post curing (two 50-ton presses, one...

  7. Sun Protection Belief Clusters: Analysis of Amazon Mechanical Turk Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Schnur, Julie B; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed (i) to determine whether people could be differentiated on the basis of their sun protection belief profiles and individual characteristics and (ii) explore the use of a crowdsourcing web service for the assessment of sun protection beliefs. A sample of 500 adults completed an online survey of sun protection belief items using Amazon Mechanical Turk. A two-phased cluster analysis (i.e., hierarchical and non-hierarchical K-means) was utilized to determine clusters of sun protection barriers and facilitators. Results yielded three distinct clusters of sun protection barriers and three distinct clusters of sun protection facilitators. Significant associations between gender, age, sun sensitivity, and cluster membership were identified. Results also showed an association between barrier and facilitator cluster membership. The results of this study provided a potential alternative approach to developing future sun protection promotion initiatives in the population. Findings add to our knowledge regarding individuals who support, oppose, or are ambivalent toward sun protection and inform intervention research by identifying distinct subtypes that may best benefit from (or have a higher need for) skin cancer prevention efforts.

  8. New dynamics of the Sun convection zone and global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2008-01-01

    Solar activity is studied using cluster analysis of the sunspot number time-fluctuations. It is shown that for a Historic period (1850-1932yy) the cluster exponent $\\alpha \\simeq 0.37$ (strong clustering) for the high activity components of the solar cycles, whereas for a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) the cluster exponent $\\alpha \\simeq 0.50$ (random, white noise-like situation). Then, comparing these results with the corresponding data from the classic laboratory convection experiments it is shown, that for the Historic period emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. For the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics in the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had clear detectable impact on the global Earth climate at this period. Name...

  9. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  10. Choosing an expected sun protection factor value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, John R; Caswell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sun protection factor, SPF, is a measure of the efficacy of a topical sunscreen product; the higher the SPF, the greater the blockage of ultraviolet-induced erythema. While there are several methods to determine SPF, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) methods are unique. The FDA methods define the label SPF value as the largest whole integer after subtracting an "A" value from the mean SPF. The A value, composed of the product of the upper 5% point of the t-distribution and the standard deviation (SD), divided by √(n), where n equals the number of subjects, has a significant impact on the label SPF value. Two examples explore this impact. Development of strategies to mitigate the impact of A using expected SPF values are explored using historical clinical trial data. A more enlightened choice of expected SPF values is shown to lead to higher label SPF values.

  11. Coronal Mass Ejections: From Sun to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourakos, S.

    2016-06-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are gigantic expulsions of magnetized plasmas from the solar corona into the interplanetary (IP) space. CMEs spawn ~ 1015 gr of mass and reach speeds ranging between several hundred to a few thousand km/s (e.g., Gopalswamy et al. 2009; Vourlidas et al. 2010). It takes 1-5 days for a CME to reach Earth. CMEs are one of the most energetic eruptive manifestations in the solar system and are major drivers of space weather via their magnetic fields and energetic particles, which are accelerated by CME-driven shocks. In this review we give a short account of recent, mainly observational, results on CMEs from the STEREO and SDO missions which include the nature of their pre-eruptive and eruptive configurations and the CME propagation from Sun to Earth. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting capabilities in CME studies that will soon become available from new solar and heliospheric instrumentation.

  12. An Encounter between the Sun and Venus

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The astronomical event of the year will take place on Tuesday, 8 June, when Venus transits across the disk of the sun. In the framework of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations, the CERN Astronomy Club and the Orion Club invite you to attend their observation of the event on the car park of the Val-Thoiry shopping centre (France) between 7.15 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Various instruments will be set up in a special tent so that the event can be observed without any risk of damage to the eyes. As the observation of this astronomical event will depend on the weather forecast, confirmation of the above arrangements will be given on the 50th anniversary website the day before.

  13. Earth, Moon, Sun, and CV Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, M M

    2009-01-01

    Net tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk, like the net tidal torque by the Moon and the Sun on the equatorial bulge of the spinning and tilted Earth, is suggested by others to be a source to retrograde precession in non-magnetic, accreting Cataclysmic Variable (CV) Dwarf Novae systems that show negative superhumps in their light curves. We investigate this idea in this work. We generate a generic theoretical expression for retrograde precession in spinning disks that are misaligned with the orbital plane. Our generic theoretical expression matches that which describes the retrograde precession of Earths' equinoxes. By making appropriate assumptions, we reduce our generic theoretical expression to those generated by others, or to those used by others, to describe retrograde precession in protostellar, protoplanetary, X-ray binary, non-magnetic CV DN, quasar and black hole systems. We find that differential rotation and effects on the disk by the accretion stream must be addressed. Our a...

  14. Convectively driven vortex flows in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, J A; Almeida, J Sanchez; Cabello, I; Domingo, V

    2008-01-01

    We have discovered small whirlpools in the Sun, with a size similar to the terrestrial hurricanes (<~0.5 Mm). The theory of solar convection predicts them, but they had remained elusive so far. The vortex flows are created at the downdrafts where the plasma returns to the solar interior after cooling down, and we detect them because some magnetic bright points (BPs) follow a logarithmic spiral in their way to be engulfed by a downdraft. Our disk center observations show 0.009 vortexes per Mm^2, with a lifetime of the order of 5 min, and with no preferred sense of rotation. They are not evenly spread out over the surface, but they seem to trace the supergranulation and the mesogranulation. These observed properties are strongly biased by our type of measurement, unable to detect vortexes except when they are engulfing magnetic BPs.

  15. Substructure of Quiet Sun Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Andic, Aleksandra; Goode, Phillip R

    2010-01-01

    Since photospheric bright points (BPs) were first observed, there has been a question as to how are they structured. Are they just single flux tubes or a bundle of the flux-tubes? Surface photometry of the quiet Sun (QS) has achieved resolution close to 0.1" with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory. This resolution allowed us to detect a richer spectrum of BPs in the QS. The smallest BPs we observed with TiO 705.68 nm were 0.13", and we were able to resolve individual components in some of the BPs clusters and ribbons observed in the QS, showing that they are composed of the individual BPs. Average size of observed BPs was 0.22".

  16. Cartography of the sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of the surface of stars requires diverse skills, analysis techniques and advanced modeling, i.e. the collaboration of scientists in various specialties. This volume gives insights into new techniques allowing for the first time to obtain resolved images of stars. It takes stock of what has been achieved so far in Chile, on the ESO VLTI instrument or, in the States, on the CHARA instrument. In recent times interferometry, combined with adaptive optics has allowed to reconstruct images of stars. Besides the Sun (of course) by now five stars have been resolved in detail. In addition to interferometry, this book highlights techniques used for mapping the surfaces of stars using photometry made by space observatories; Zeeman- and Doppler Imaging; mapping the surface element abundances via spectroscopy. This book will also take stock of the best images of the  solar surface, made by connecting the differential rotation to the underlying physical parameters derived from helioseismology. Recent measureme...

  17. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  18. Psychophysical study of the visual sun location in pictures of cloudy and twilight skies inspired by Viking navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2005-06-01

    In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sun-stones," and a large part of the scientific community still firmly believe that Vikings were capable of polarimetric navigation. However, there are some critics who treat the usefulness of skylight polarization for orientation under partly cloudy or twilight conditions with extreme skepticism. One of their counterarguments has been the assumption that solar positions or solar azimuth directions could be estimated quite accurately by the naked eye, even if the sun was behind clouds or below the sea horizon. Thus under partly cloudy or twilight conditions there might have been no serious need for a polarimetric method to determine the position of the sun. The aim of our study was to test quantitatively the validity of this qualitative counterargument. In our psychophysical laboratory experiments, test subjects were confronted with numerous 180 degrees field-of-view color photographs of partly cloudy skies with the sun occluded by clouds or of twilight skies with the sun below the horizon. The task of the subjects was to guess the position or the azimuth direction of the invisible sun with the naked eye. We calculated means and standard deviations of the estimated solar positions and azimuth angles to characterize the accuracy of the visual sun location. Our data do not support the common belief that the invisible sun can be located quite accurately from the celestial brightness and/or color patterns under cloudy or twilight conditions. Although our results underestimate the accuracy of visual sun location by experienced Viking navigators, the mentioned counterargument cannot be taken seriously as a valid criticism of the theory of the alleged

  19. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  20. Introduction to microsystem design

    CERN Document Server

    Schomburg, Werner Karl

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically describes the design options for micro systems as well as the equations needed for calculating the behavior of their basic elements. The fundamental equations needed to calculate the effects and forces that are important in micro systems are also provided. Readers do not require previous knowledge of fabrication processes. This second edition of the volume is a thoroughly revised and extended update. The target audience primarily comprises experts in the field of micro systems and the book is also suitable for graduate engineering students. For quick reference, equations are presented in tables that can be found in an index at the end of the book.  .

  1. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has...... the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate...... power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 µm silicon layer and 10-30 µm screen printed...

  2. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to the satellite such as solar panels, radiators, antenna and.telescopes (for communications or sensors). Finally, the packages make thermal contact to the surface of the silicon heat pipe through soft thermal pads. Electronic components can be placed on both sides of the flexible circuit interconnect. Silicon heat pipes have a number of advantages over heat pipe constructed from other materials. Silicon heat pipes offer the ability to put the heat pipe structure beneath the active components of a processed silicon wafer. This would be one way of efficiently cooling the heat generated by wafer scale integrated systems. Using this technique, all the functions of a satellite could be reduced to a few silicon wafers. The integration of the heat pipe and the electronics would further reduce the size and weight of the satellite.

  3. Etching in microsystem technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kohler, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Microcomponents and microdevices are increasingly finding application in everyday life. The specific functions of all modern microdevices depend strongly on the selection and combination of the materials used in their construction, i.e., the chemical and physical solid-state properties of these materials, and their treatment. The precise patterning of various materials, which is normally performed by lithographic etching processes, is a prerequisite for the fabrication of microdevices.The microtechnical etching of functional patterns is a multidisciplinary area, the basis for the etching p

  4. Fieldable Microsystems II (FMII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-30

    A. Cardenas, V. R Challa, D. Fries, L. Langebrake, R. F. Benson and S. Bhansali. A Microfluidic Galvanic Cell as an on-chip power source. Paper...National Mtg Sept 7-12, 2003, New York, NY. A. Cardenas, V. R Challa, D. Fries, L. Langebrake, R. F. Benson and S. Bhansali. A Microfluidic Galvanic ... Cell as an on-chip power source. Sensors and Actuators B, Chemical, Vol 95/1-3, 2003, pp 406-413, A. Cardenas-Valencia, A. M., Broadbent H

  5. Microsystems Research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    tubes. A linked group of 10 micromachines is used. These self-assemble to form a chain. This includes a micro-reducer gear assembly and...and cell phones (e.g., for Samsung , etc.). Sales are approximately $30M/yr. Appendix B. Site Reports 92 The long-term scheme for silicon devices... s2 ±_ Figure B.15. Silicon capacitive micromachined sensors (total shipment over 8 million chips). In 1998, Omron�s MEMS division became a profit

  6. Energy harvesting for microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruichao Xu

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this project is to design and fabricate piezoelectric energy harvesters based on integration of Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) thick film technology and silicon microtechnology. The fabrication processes are carried out in close collaboration with Meggitt Sensing Systems (MSS) who has the unique expertise to screen print piezoelectric thick film layers, thus all screen printing steps are done by MSS while the silicon micromachining is carried out at Danchip facility at DTU. The presented energy harvesters are all based on using piezoelectric thick film operating in the 31-mode to generate power when strained. Three archetypes of the numerous fabricated energy harvesters will be presented in detail, they represent three major milestones in this project. The first energy harvester archetype has an unimorph cantilever beam, which consists of a 20 {mu}m silicon layer and 10-30 {mu}m screen printed PZT layer, anchored on a silicon frame at one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes will cover both side of the PZT layer, so the harvested energy can be collected electrically. The second archetype has a bimorph cantilever beam, which consists of two 15-35 {mu}m PZT layers, anchored on a silicon frame at the one end and attached to a silicon proof mass at the other. Electrodes are deposited below, between and above the two PZT layers. The root mean square (RMS) power output measured on this type of harvesters is as high as 37.1{mu}W at 1 g. The third archetype is similar to the first one, the screen printed PZT layer is replaced by a lead free piezoelectric material, (KxNa1-x)NbO3 (KNN). Some of the major challenges encountered during the development processes are bad adhesion, fragile structures and short circuiting through the PZT layer. All of which have being fully or partially solved in this project. The final energy harvesters are designed to be used in an energy harvester powered wireless sensing system. (Author)

  7. Sample pretretment in microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.

    2003-01-01

    : Sample preparation → DNA amplification → DNA analysis. The overall goal of the project is integration of as many as possible of these steps. This thesis covers mainly pretreatment in a microchip. Some methods for sample pretreatment have been tested. Most conventional is fluorescence activated cell sort...

  8. Polar Magnetic Field Reversals of the Sun in Maunder Minimum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. I. Makarov; A. G. Tlatov

    2000-09-01

    A possible scenario of polar magnetic field reversal of the Sun during the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) is discussed using data of magnetic field reversals of the Sun for 1880-1991 and the 14C content variations in the bi-annual rings of the pine-trees in 1600-1730 yrs.

  9. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  10. Sun avoidance strategies at the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souccar, Kamal; Smith, David R.; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wallace, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope observatory is extending its night time operation to the day time. A sun avoidance strategy was therefore implemented in the control system in real-time to avoid excessive heating and damage to the secondary mirror and the prime focus. The LMT uses an "on-the-fly" trajectory generator that receives as input the target location of the telescope and in turn outputs a commanded position to the servo system. The sun avoidance strategy is also implemented "on-the-fly" where it intercepts the input to the trajectory generator and alters that input to avoid the sun. Two sun avoidance strategies were explored. The first strategy uses a potential field approach where the sun is represented as a high-potential obstacle in the telescope's workspace and the target location is represented as a low-potential goal. The potential field is repeatedly calculated as the sun and the telescope move and the telescope follows the induced force by this field. The second strategy is based on path planning using visibility graphs where the sun is represented as a polygonal obstacle and the telescope follows the shortest path from its actual position to the target location via the vertices of the sun's polygon. The visibility graph approach was chosen as the favorable strategy due to the efficiency of its algorithm and the simplicity of its computation.

  11. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  12. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  13. Wien's Law and the Temperature of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Mark L.; Katz, Debora M.; Aho, Robert; Diaz-Barriga, James; Petron, Jerome

    2002-10-01

    A simple approach is used in an attempt to determine the temperature of the sun by modeling the sun as a blackbody radiator and applying Wein's Law. Apparently excellent results are obtained, but the results are false as a consequence of two corrections which cancel out.

  14. Mr. Sun Laiyan Appointed as Administrator of CNSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The State Council of the People's Republic of China announced on April 23, 2004 that Mr. Sun Laiyan was appointed to be the Administrator of China National Space Administration (CNSA). Mr. Luan Enjie was announced to retire from the office. Mr. Sun Laiyan, born in October 1957, graduated from Xian Communication

  15. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    A number of species of sun and shade plants in the vegetative phase were grown in different light intensities, different light qualities (r/fr ratio) and different combinations of light intensity and nutrient supply. Sun and shade species were also grown at various plant densities and in interspecif

  16. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  17. Description of the Sun as a Star: General Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Theresa; Crannell, Carol Jo

    2000-01-01

    Numerical parameters characterizing the size and energy output of the sun are presented. These values are the standard yardstick by which other stars are measured. The large number of significant digits tabulated here serve mainly to illustrate the precision to which these parameters are known. Also listed are parameters characterizing the earth's orbit around the sun and the intensity of the sun's radiation at the mean orbital distance. The appearance of the sun depends critically on how it is observed. Each type of radiation observed carries specific information about the physical processes at work on the sun. Special types of instruments reveal aspects otherwise invisible. Coronagraphs reveal the dimmer outer regions of the sun's atmosphere otherwise visible only during total solar eclipses. Spectroscopy can reveal motions, magnetic field strengths, temperatures and densities. In situ measurements have revealed the characteristics of the solar wind and extended our knowledge of the solar magnetic field both near the earth and beyond the orbits of the planets. As an example, the sun's disk observed almost simultaneously in six different wavelengths of light is shown. In visible light we can see the white disk of the sun with the dark spots known as sunspots. By analyzing the spectral lines produced by the sun we can measure the strength of the sun's magnetic field at its surface, producing a magnetogram. This magnetogram reveals that the sunspots are regions of intense magnetic field. Further images of the sun reveal that the sunspot regions are just the bases of systems of hot loops which emit radio-waves, ultraviolet light and X-rays. The sun imaged in a spectral line of hydrogen known as "H alpha" is shown. In this line we also see the long dark "filaments". These filaments form in long channels between areas of opposing magnetic field. Such channels can be seen in the ultraviolet image. Data concerning the sun are obtained with many different kinds of

  18. The Sun is Condensed Matter and has a Real Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    The idea that the Sun was a gaseous in nature was born from 1858-65. At that time, a group of men, including Herbert Spencer, Father Angelo Secchi, Warren de la Rue, Balfour Stewart, and Benjamin Loewy, advanced that the Sun was a ball of gas. In 1865, Hervé Faye was the first to argue that the solar surface was merely an illusion. Dismissing all signs to the contrary, solar physics has promoted this idea to the present day, as manifested by the Standard Solar Model. In this work, overwhelming observational evidence will be presented that the Sun does indeed possess a distinct surface (see P.M. Robitaille, Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -- The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block, Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-143). Our telescopes and satellites are sampling real structures on the surface of the Sun.

  19. Continuous flow analytical microsystems based on low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology. Integrated potentiometric detection based on solvent polymeric ion-selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Garcia, Nuria; Mercader, Manel Bautista; Mendes da Rocha, Zaira; Seabra, Carlos Antonio; Góngora-Rubio, Mario Ricardo; Chamarro, Julian Alonso

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology, which has been commonly used for electronic applications, is presented as a useful alternative to construct continuous flow analytical microsystems. This technology enables not only the fabrication of complex three-dimensional structures rapidly and at a realistic cost but also the integration of the elements needed to carry out a whole analytical process, such as pretreatment steps, mixers, and detection systems. In this work, a simple and general procedure for the integration of ion-selective electrodes based on liquid ion exchanger is proposed and illustrated by using ammonium- and nitrate-selective membranes. Additionally, a screen-printed reference electrode was easily incorporated into the microfluidic LTCC structure allowing a complete on-chip integration of the potentiometric detection. Analytical features of the proposed systems are presented.

  20. Exotic World Blisters Under the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept shows a Jupiter-like planet soaking up the scorching rays of its nearby 'sun.' NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope used its heat-seeking infrared eyes to figure out that a gas-giant planet like the one depicted here is two-faced, with one side perpetually in the cold dark, and the other forever blistering under the heat of its star. The illustration portrays how the planet would appear to infrared eyes, showing temperature variations across its surface. The planet, called Upsilon Andromedae b, was first discovered in 1996 around the star Upsilon Andromedae, located 40 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. This star also has two other planets orbiting farther out. Upsilon Andromedae b is what's known as a 'hot-Jupiter' planet, because it is made of gas like our Jovian giant, and it is hot, due to its tight, 4.6-day-long jaunt around its star. The toasty planet orbits at one-sixth the distance of Mercury from our own sun. It travels in a plane that is seen neither edge- nor face-on from our solar system, but somewhere in between. Scientists do not know how fast Upsilon Andromedae b is spinning on its axis, but they believe that it is tidally locked to its star, just as our locked moon forever hides its 'dark side' from Earth's view. Spitzer observed Upsilon Andromedae b at five points during the planet's trip around its star. The planet's light levels went up or down, as detected by Spitzer, depending on whether the planet's sunlit or dark side was pointed toward Earth. These data indicate that the temperature difference between the two hemispheres of the planet is about 1,400 degrees Celsius (2,550 degrees Fahrenheit). According to astronomers, this means that the side of the planet that faces the star is always as hot as lava, while the other side could potentially be as cold as ice. Specifically, the hot side of the planet ranges from about 1,400 to 1,650 degrees Celsius (2,550 to 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit), and the cold side from about

  1. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G.; Berwick, Marianne; de Gruijl, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Public health authorities in the United States are recommending that men, women and children reduce their exposure to sunlight, based on concerns that this exposure will promote skin cancer. On the other hand, data show that increasing numbers of Americans suffer from vitamin D deficiencies and serious health problems caused by insufficient sun exposure. The body of science concerning the benefits of moderate sun exposure is growing rapidly, and is causing a different perception of sun/UV as it relates to human health. Melanoma and its relationship to sun exposure and sunburn is not adequately addressed in most of the scientific literature. Reports of favorable health outcomes related to adequate serum 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D supplementation have been inappropriately merged, so that benefits of sun exposure other than production of vitamin D are not adequately described. This review of recent studies and their analyses consider the risks and benefits of sun exposure which indicate that insufficient sun exposure is an emerging public health problem. This review considers the studies that have shown a wide range health benefits from sun/UV exposure. These benefits include among others various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease/dementia, myopia and macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis. The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve serum 25(OH)D concentration of 30 ng/mL or higher in the sunny season and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D. PMID:27942349

  2. Planet signatures in the chemical composition of Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Melendez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    There are two possible mechanisms to imprint planet signatures in the chemical composition of Sun-like stars: i) dust condensation at the early stages of planet formation, causing a depletion of refractory elements in the gas accreted by the star in the late stages of its formation; ii) planet engulfment, enriching the host star in lithium and refractory elements. We discuss both planet signatures, the influence of galactic chemical evolution, and the importance of binaries composed of stellar twins as laboratories to verify abundance anomalies imprinted by planets.

  3. Knowledge and Practice of Sun Protection in Schools in South Africa Where No National Sun Protection Programme Exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y.; Reeder, Anthony I.; Albers, Patricia N.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions in primary schools that increase sun-protective behaviours and decrease ultraviolet radiation exposure, sunburn incidence and skin cancer risk can be effective. SunSmart School Accreditation Programmes (SSAP) are recommended. Prior to SSAP implementation in South Africa, we explored the feasibility of obtaining national baseline…

  4. In vitro sun protection factor determination of herbal oils used in cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchal Deep Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ultraviolet (UV absorption ability of volatile and nonvolatile herbal oils used in sunscreens or cosmetics and express the same in terms of sun protection factor (SPF values. Sun protection factor is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen; the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against the ultraviolet radiations causing sunburn. The in vitro SPF is determined according to the spectrophotometric method of Mansur et al. Hydroalcoholic dilutions of oils were prepared, and in vitro photoprotective activity was studied by UV spectrophotometric method in the range of 290-320 nm. It can be observed that the SPF values found for nonvolatile oils were in between 2 and 8; and for volatile oils, in between 1 and 7. Among the fixed oils taken, SPF value of olive oil was found to be the highest. Similarly among essential oils, SPF value of peppermint oil was found to be the highest. The study will be helpful in the selection of oils and fragrances to develop sunscreens with better safety and high SPF. Oily vehicles are more effective for producing a uniform and long-lasting film of sunscreen on the skin, and their emollient properties protect the skin against the drying effects of exposure to wind and sun. Volatile oils are used as perfumes in cosmetics.

  5. Interstellar Clouds Near the Sun, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    We propose to continue a study of interstellar sight-lines with low total column densities in order to determine the nature (temperature, density, fractional ionization) of the low density gas near the Sun and within the interior of the local superbubble. IUE data, combined with previous Copernicus observations, can be used to delimit the filling factor of nearby low density warm gas, and by default restrict the filling factor of 10^6 K plasma. In the proposed program, observations of MgI and ZnII(and in one region CIV) are combined with cloud maps and ground-based NaI observations (from a separate program) to restrict gas temperature, spatial and electron densities. The Welty et al. (1986) technique for removing fixed pattern noise through observations of a template star (used to flat-field the target stars on a pixel-by-pixel basis) is used to enable 3sigma absorption line detections at the 6-9 mA level, depending on the number of exposures involved. The ultimate goal of both the IUE and ground-based program is to map out the local interstellar medium. Apart from the intrinsic interest of this problem, it will help define regions where ultraviolet sources can be observed with FUSE/Lyman at lambda<912 A.

  6. The Chemical Composition of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Martin; Grevesse, Nicolas; Sauval, A. Jacques; Scott, Pat

    2009-09-01

    The solar chemical composition is an important ingredient in our understanding of the formation, structure, and evolution of both the Sun and our Solar System. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared. In this review, we evaluate the current understanding of the solar photospheric composition. In particular, we present a redetermination of the abundances of nearly all available elements, using a realistic new three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere. We have carefully considered the atomic input data and selection of spectral lines, and accounted for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) whenever possible. The end result is a comprehensive and homogeneous compilation of the solar elemental abundances. Particularly noteworthy findings are significantly lower abundances of C, N, O, and Ne compared to the widely used values of a decade ago. The new solar chemical composition is supported by a high degree of internal consistency between available abundance indicators, and by agreement with values obtained in the Solar Neighborhood and from the most pristine meteorites. There is, however, a stark conflict with standard models of the solar interior according to helioseismology, a discrepancy that has yet to find a satisfactory resolution.

  7. Framing the Sun and Buildings as Commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. S. Brownson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study frames integration of Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS with the built environment, addressing on-site limitations for resource allocation in the urban context. The Sun, buildings, and solar technologies are investigated as resource systems within Ostrom’s framework of the commons and shared governance, with associated goods (as resource units appropriated from light conversion (products of daylight, heat, power, shade, money. Light is transient and unevenly distributed across the hours of the day across the year. Building surfaces utilized to convert light into useful products such as electricity are often “area-constrained” and cannot provide total power to all occupants in urban structures. Being unevenly distributed over time and being area-constrained makes the appropriated goods from the solar resource system scarce to commercial buildings and multi-family residences. Scarce commodities require management strategies to distribute the variable returns derived from technologies such as PV and solar hot water. The balance between sustainable urban communities and limited surface area to deliver solar products to all occupants will soon drive communities to consider how the solar goods are managed and allocated. Examples demonstrate management of solar resource and associated goods through collective actions of local communities via utility sponsored models, solar gardens, and crowd-sourced investment.

  8. Supersonic Magnetic Flows in the Quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Borrero, J M; Schlichenmaier, R; Schmidt, W; Berkefeld, T; Solanki, S K; Bonet, J A; Iniesta, J C del Toro; Domingo, V; Barthol, P; Gandorfer, A

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we describe some recent observations of high-speed magnetized flows in the quiet Sun granulation. These observations were carried out with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) onboard the stratospheric balloon {\\sc Sunrise}, and possess an unprecedented spatial resolution and temporal cadence. These flows were identified as highly shifted circular polarization (Stokes $V$) signals. We estimate the LOS velocity responsible for these shifts to be larger than 6 km s$^{-1}$, and therefore we refer to them as {\\it supersonic magnetic flows}. The average lifetime of the detected events is 81.3 s and they occupy an average area of about 23\\,000 km$^2$. Most of the events occur within granular cells and correspond therefore to upflows. However some others occur in intergranular lanes or bear no clear relation to the convective velocity pattern. We analyze a number of representative examples and discuss them in terms of magnetic loops, reconnection events, and convective collapse.

  9. Observing the Sun with Coronado telescopes telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The Sun provides amateur astronomers with one of the few opportunities for daytime astronomy. In order to see the major features of our nearest star, special telescopes that have a very narrow visible bandwidth are essential. The bandwidth has to be as narrow as 1 A- 10-10 m (1 Angstrom) and centred on the absorption line of neutral hydrogen. This makes many major features of the Suna (TM)s chromosphere visible to the observer. Such narrow-band "Fabry-Perot etalon filters" are high technology, and until the introduction of the Coronado range of solar telescopes, were too expensive for amateur use. The entry-level Coronado telescope, the PST (Personal Solar Telescope) costs under 500. Solar prominences (vast columns of plasma, best seen at the edge of the solar disk), filaments, flares, sunspots, plage and active regions are all visible and can be imaged to produce spectacular solar photographs. Philip Pugh has assembled a team of contributors who show just how much solar work can be done with Coronado telesco...

  10. South Australian adolescent ophthalmic sun protective behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrou, N; Casson, R; Fung, S; Ferdowsi, N; Lee, G; Selva, D

    2008-06-01

    To study student's knowledge of the effects of sunlight on the eyes, as well as their sun protective behaviours. In total, 640 [corrected] students aged 13-18 years were surveyed in South Australia, during August-September 2004, using a standardized previously used survey. Scores were calculated regarding knowledge about ultraviolet light, sunlight effects on eyes, as well as eye and body protection. Risk factor scores were produced for each student. The data were analysed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA), as well as the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel methods. Results were compared to the same survey conducted in 1995 in Queensland Australia. This group demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge, similar to the 1995 survey. Students in the older age groups demonstrated significantly higher knowledge. The majority of students (74%) owned a pair of sunglasses; however, 44.5% almost never wore their glasses. The reported frequency of wearing sunglasses was significantly related to advertising, believing sunglasses protect the eyes, as well as personal, family, and peer attitudes towards wearing sunglasses. The results of our survey suggest no significant change in knowledge and behaviours of students, compared to the 1995 survey. We feel it is imperative that adolescents be made more aware of the damaging effects of sunlight and the benefits of eye protection. Health promotion campaigns should target the youth and consider that as a group, they are significantly influenced by the media, peers, and family attitudes.

  11. Clouds and the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the role which clouds could play in resolving the Faint Young Sun Paradox (FYSP). Lower solar luminosity in the past means that less energy was absorbed on Earth (a forcing of -50 Wm-2 during the late Archean), but geological evidence points to the Earth being at least as warm as it is today, with only very occasional glaciations. We perform radiative calculations on a single global mean atmospheric column. We select a nominal set of three layered, randomly overlapping clouds, which are both consistent with observed cloud climatologies and reproduce the observed global mean energy budget of Earth. By varying the fraction, thickness, height and particle size of these clouds we conduct a wide exploration of how changed clouds could affect climate, thus constraining how clouds could contribute to resolving the FYSP. Low clouds reflect sunlight but have little greenhouse effect. Removing them entirely gives a~forcing of +25 Wm-2 whilst more modest reduction in their efficacy gives a forcing of +10 ...

  12. Saturation of Stellar Winds from Young Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Kataoka, Ryuho; Kato, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tsuneta, Saku

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged)We investigate mass losses via stellar winds from sun-like main sequence stars with a wide range of activity levels. We perform forward-type magnetohydrodynamical numerical experiments for Alfven wave-driven stellar winds with a wide range of the input Poynting flux from the photosphere. Increasing the magnetic field strength and the turbulent velocity at the stellar photosphere from the current solar level, the mass loss rate rapidly increases at first owing to the suppression of the reflection of the Alfven waves. The surface materials are lifted up by the magnetic pressure associated with the Alfven waves, and the cool dense chromosphere is intermittently extended to 10-20% of the stellar radius. The densities of the corona and transition region above the chromosphere is also high, which leads to efficient radiative losses. Eventually most of the input Poynting energy from the stellar surface escapes by the radiation. As a result, there is no more sufficient energy remained for the kinetic energy...

  13. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  14. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  15. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  16. Unintended Sunburn: A Potential Target for Sun Protection Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine F. H. McLeod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand (NZ has the highest melanoma incidence rate in the world. Primary prevention efforts focus on reducing sunburn incidence and increasing sun protective practices in the population. However, sunburn from excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR remains common. To reduce sunburn incidence, it is important to examine those individuals who experience unintended sunburn. This study aims to use data from the NZ Triennial Sun Protection Survey to describe respondents who were not intending to tan but were sunburnt after outdoor UVR exposure. Information on sociodemographics, concurrent weather conditions, sun protection attitudes and knowledge, and outdoor behaviour was also collected. The results showed 13.5% of respondents’ experienced unintended sunburn during the survey weekend but had not attempted to obtain a tan that summer. Respondents who reported unintended sunburn were more likely than others to have been near water and in unshaded areas, used sunscreen, had higher SunSmart knowledge scores, had lower positive attitudes towards tanning, and were outdoors for a longer duration with less body coverage. As sunburn was unintended these respondents’ outdoor sun protective behaviours may be amenable to change. Future public health initiatives should focus on increasing sun protection (clothing and shade and reducing potential barriers to sun protection.

  17. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (SUN3 VERSION WITH MOTIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    50 cartridge in VAX BACKUP format), 2) DEC VAXstations running ULTRIX 4.1 or later (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 3) DEC RISC workstations running ULTRIX 4.1 or later (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 4) HP9000 Series 300/400 computers running HP-UX 8.0 (.25 inch HP-preformatted tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 5) HP9000 Series 700 computers running HP-UX 8.05 (HP 4mm DDS DAT tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 6) Sun3 series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 7) Sun4 (SPARC) series computers running SunOS 4.1.1 (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), and 8) SGI Indigo computers running IRIX 4.0.1 and IRIX/Motif 1.0.1 (.25 inch IRIS tape cartridge in UNIX tar format). An optional Motif Object Code License is available for either Sun version. TAE is a trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. X Window System is a trademark of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Motif is a trademark of the Open Software Foundation. DEC, VAX, VMS, TK50 and ULTRIX are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. HP9000 and HP-UX are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co. Sun3, Sun4, SunOS, and SPARC are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. SGI and IRIS are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc.

  18. Catastrophic rotational braking among Sun-like stars. A model of the Sun's rotation evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondoin, P.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Observations of young open clusters show a bimodal distribution of stellar rotation. In those clusters, Sun-like stars group into two main populations of fast and slow rotators. Beyond an age of approximately 600 Myr, the two populations converge towards a single sequence of slow rotators. Aims: The present study addresses the origin of this bimodal distribution and the cause of its observed evolution. Methods: New prescriptions of mass-loss rate and Alfven radius dependences on Rossby number suggested by observations are implemented in a phenomenological model of angular-momentum loss and redistribution. The obtained model is used to calculate the time evolution of a rotation-period distribution of solar-mass stars similar to that observed in the 5 Myr-old NGC 2362 open cluster. The simulated distributions at subsequent ages are compared with those of h Per, the Pleiades, M 50, M 35, and M 37. Results: The model is able to reproduce the appearance and disappearance of a bimodal rotation-period distribution in open clusters providing that a brief episode of large-angular-momentum loss is included in the early evolution of Sun-like stars. Conclusions: I argue that a transitory episode of large-angular-momentum loss occurs on Sun-like stars with Rossby numbers between 0.13 and 0.3. This phenomenon of enhanced magnetic braking by stellar wind would be mainly driven by a rapid increase of mass loss at a critical rotation rate. This scenario accounts for the bimodal distribution of stellar rotation in open clusters with ages between 20-30 Myr and approximately 600 Myr. The mass-loss rate increase could account for a significant fraction of the X-ray luminosity decay of Sun-like stars in the 0.13-0.3 Rossby number range where a transition from the saturated to the non-saturated regime of X-ray emission is observed. Observed correlations between Li abundance and rotation sequences in the Pleiades and M 34 clusters support this scenario.

  19. Traditions of the Sun, One Model for Expanding Audience Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Paglierani, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool with which to expand audience access, bringing students, teachers and the public to places and resources they might not otherwise visit or make use of. We will present Traditions of the Sun, an experiential Web site that invites exploration of the world's ancient observatories with special emphasis on Chaco Culture National Historic Park in the Four Corners region of the US and several sites in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. Traditions of the Sun includes resources in English and Spanish along with a unique trilingual on-line book, "Traditions of the Sun, A Photographic Journal," containing explanatory text in Yucatec Maya as well. Traditions of the Sun offers rich opportunities for virtual visits to ancient sites used for solar observing while learning about current NASA research on the Sun and indigenous solar practices within a larger historical and cultural context. The site contains hundreds of photographs, historic images and rich multimedia to help tell the story of the Sun-Earth Connection. Visitors to the site can zoom in on the great Mayan cities of Chichen Itza, Uxmal, Dzibilchaltun, and Mayapan to learn about Mayan astronomy, history, culture, and science. They can also visit Chaco Canyon to watch sunrise over Pueblo Bonito on the summer solstice, take a virtual reality tour of the great kiva at Casa Rinconada or see panoramic vistas from Fajada Butte, an area which, for preservation purposes, is restricted to the public. Traditions of the Sun provides one model of how exploration and discovery can come to life for both formal and informal audiences via the Internet. Traditions of the Sun is a collaborative project between NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum, the National Park Service, Instituto National de Antropologia e Historia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, and Ideum.

  20. THE UBV(RI){sub C} COLORS OF THE SUN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, I. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400 Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Michel, R.; Schuster, W. J. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 877, Ensenada, B.C., CP 22800 (Mexico); Sefako, R.; Van Wyk, F. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Tucci Maia, M. [UNIFEI, DFQ-Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba MG (Brazil); Melendez, J. [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo, 05508-900 SP (Brazil); Casagrande, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Castilho, B. V. [Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofisica/MCT, Rua Estados Unidos 154, 37504-364 Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2012-06-10

    Photometric data in the UBV(RI){sub C} system have been acquired for 80 solar analog stars for which we have previously derived highly precise atmospheric parameters T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. UBV and (RI){sub C} data for 46 and 76 of these stars, respectively, are published for the first time. Combining our data with those from the literature, colors in the UBV(RI){sub C} system, with {approx_equal} 0.01 mag precision, are now available for 112 solar analogs. Multiple linear regression is used to derive the solar colors from these photometric data and the spectroscopically derived T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] values. To minimize the impact of systematic errors in the model-dependent atmospheric parameters, we use only the data for the 10 stars that most closely resemble our Sun, i.e., the solar twins, and derive the following solar colors: (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.005, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.166 {+-} 0.022, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.352 {+-} 0.007, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.702 {+-} 0.010. These colors are consistent, within the 1{sigma} errors, with those derived using the entire sample of 112 solar analogs. We also derive the solar colors using the relation between spectral-line-depth ratios and observed stellar colors, i.e., with a completely model-independent approach, and without restricting the analysis to solar twins. We find (B - V){sub Sun} = 0.653 {+-} 0.003, (U - B){sub Sun} = 0.158 {+-} 0.009, (V - R){sub Sun} = 0.356 {+-} 0.003, and (V - I){sub Sun} = 0.701 {+-} 0.003, in excellent agreement with the model-dependent analysis.

  1. HALLIBURTON SPERRY-SUN DOE HIGH TEMPERATURE LWD PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Spross

    2005-03-15

    The objective of this project was to build a high temperature, cost-effective, logging while drilling (HT-LWD) system with the ability to operate at 175 C with more than 100 hours mean time between failures (MTBF). Such a commercial real-time formation evaluation (FE) system would help operators to drill and produce hydrocarbon resources from moderately deep, hot reservoirs which otherwise might be uneconomic to drill. The project plan was to combine the existing Sperry-Sun high temperature directional and gamma logging system with lower temperature FE sensors which were upgraded to higher temperature operation as part of the project. The project was to be completed in two phases. Phase I included the development of the HT system, building two complete systems, demonstrating operational capability at 175 C and survivability at 200 C in the laboratory, and successfully testing the system in two low temperature field tests. Phase II was to test the system in a well with a bottom hole temperature of 175 C. The high temperature FE sensors developed as part of this project include gamma ray (DGR), resistivity (EWR-Phase 4), neutron (CTN), and density (SLD). The existing high temperature pulser and telemetry system was upgraded to accommodate the data and bandwidth requirements of the additional sensors. Environmental and lifetime testing of system components and modules indicates that system life and reliability goals will be substantially exceeded. The system has performed well in domestic and international high temperature wells (to 175 C). In addition to the sensor modules specified in the project contract, Sperry has now upgraded other system components to higher temperature as well. These include a LWD sonic sensor (BAT), pressure while drilling sensor (PWD), and a more powerful central system controller (CIM).

  2. CUNY Sun-Earth Research, Space Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, D. E.; Cheung, T. D.; Marchese, P. J.; Johnson, L. P.; Austin, S.; Tremberger, G.

    2007-05-01

    Faculty and students at Queensborough Community College and Medgar Evers College of the City University of New York (CUNY) have, over several years now, employed simple software familiar to most undergraduate students to perform useful calculations, including statistical analyses, regarding various geophysical phenomena. Topics have included Space Weather, Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) direction and strength fluctuations, geomagnetic and ionospheric responses to solar flares, and Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) events. Our statistical analyses have utilized second-order measures of fluctuation of the IMF strength, especially what we now call the Cheung number: the number of times that the value of Sigma-B, as provided by the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) data, has exceeded 0.5nT during a 6 hour interval. We have also utilized the Higuchi fractal dimension of various somewhat random fluctuations, including Sigma-B and the brightness or strength of adjacent pixels or data points in somewhat random data sequences in time or spatial dimension, including IMF fluctuations and SOHO (Solar Heliographic Observer) images of the Sun. These we have correlated with each other and with such variables as SEP (Solar Energetic Particle) peak flux, TEC (Total Electron Content) of the ionosphere, and Dst (Disturbance storm-time) in the geomagnetic field. Recent results indicate that the IMF fluctuation measures are well correlated with the SEP peak flux, the Dst, and TEC. Higuchi fractal analysis of SOHO photospheric ultraviolet brightness indicates, consistent with concomitant increased chaos or randomness of photospheric brightness, an increased likelihood of solar flare events or CME affecting interplanetary space and the earth's magnetosphere/ionosphere/atmosphere.

  3. AsteroFLAG - from the Sun to the stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Appourchaux, T; Baudin, F [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Batiment 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Arentoft, T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Kjeldsen, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ballot, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Postfach 1317, 85741, Garching (Germany); Bazot, M [Centro de AstrofIsica Universidade do Porto, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Bedding, T R [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Creevey, O L [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Duez, V; Garcia, R A [DAPNIA/CEA, CE Saclay, FR-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fletcher, S T [Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Gough, D O; Houdek, G [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jimenez, A; Jimenez-Reyes, S J [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lazrek, M [LPHEA, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Universite Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Leibacher, J W, E-mail: w.j.chaplin@bham.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-10-15

    We stand on the threshold of a critical expansion of asteroseismology of Sun-like stars, the study of stellar interiors by observation and analysis of their global acoustic modes of oscillation. The Sun-like oscillations give a very rich spectrum allowing the internal structure and dynamics to be probed down into the stellar cores to very high precision. Asteroseismic observations of many stars will allow multiple-point tests of crucial aspects of stellar evolution and dynamo theory. The aims of the asteroFLAG collaboration are to help the community to refine existing, and to develop new, methods for analysis of the asteroseismic data on the Sun-like oscillators.

  4. On the Observations of the Sun in Polynesia

    CERN Document Server

    Rjabchikov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The role of the Polynesian sun god Tagaloa has been studied. The Polynesian characters Maui-tikitiki, Tane and Tiki were related to the sun as well. The solar data of Easter Island are essential indeed. The rongorongo text on the Santiago staff about the solar eclipse of December 20, 1805 A.D. has been decoded. The Mataveri calendar was probably incised on a rock in 1775 A.D. So, a central event during the bird-man festval was the day of vernal equinox. The priests-astronomers watched not only the sun and the moon, but also some stars of the zodiacal constellations and other bright stars.

  5. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    This thesis focuses on advanced modeling of the Earth albedo experienced by satellites in Earth orbit. The model of the Earth albedo maintains directional information of the Earth albedo irradiance from each partition on the Earth surface. This allows enhanced modeling of Sun sensor current outputs......-Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...

  6. Human eye and the sun hot and cold light

    CERN Document Server

    Vavilov, S I

    1965-01-01

    The Human Eye and the Sun, """"Hot"""" and """"Cold"""" Light is a translation from the Russian language and is a reproduction of texts from Volume IV of S.I. Vavilov, president of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. The book deals with theoretical and practical developments in lighting techniques. The text gives a brief introduction on the relationship of the human eye and the sun, describing the properties of light, of the sun, and of the human eye. The book describes hot (incandescence) and cold light (luminescence) as coming from different sources. These two types of light are compared. The

  7. System modeling based measurement error analysis of digital sun sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; M; insong; XING; Fei; WANG; Geng; YOU; Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Stringent attitude determination accuracy is required for the development of the advanced space technologies and thus the accuracy improvement of digital sun sensors is necessary.In this paper,we presented a proposal for measurement error analysis of a digital sun sensor.A system modeling including three different error sources was built and employed for system error analysis.Numerical simulations were also conducted to study the measurement error introduced by different sources of error.Based on our model and study,the system errors from different error sources are coupled and the system calibration should be elaborately designed to realize a digital sun sensor with extra-high accuracy.

  8. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  9. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  10. The Iconography and Symbolism of Sun God in Urartian Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Gayane

    2016-12-01

    The predominating symbol of the winged sun disc in Urartian religious iconography testifies the significant role and importance of the sun in worship. The stylistic variation and peculiar iconographic features of the winged discs, sacred animals and divine images associated with solar deity shows the relationship between the cult of the sun god, sequence of the different phases of the year and constellations in Urartian culture. Such kind of iconography is possibly formed and stylized in result of interaction of ancient human imaginations, influence of rock paintings and religious beliefs.

  11. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community. Keywords: Black Consciousness, Apartheid, Identity, Culture, A Raisin in the Sun, cross – cultural studies, diasporic, African Literature

  12. The Maunder minimum and the variable sun-earth connection

    CERN Document Server

    Wei Hock Soon, Willie

    2003-01-01

    This book takes an excursion through solar science, science history, and geoclimate with a husband and wife team who revealed some of our sun's most stubborn secrets. E Walter and Annie S D Maunder's work helped in understanding our sun's chemical, electromagnetic and plasma properties. They knew the sun's sunspot migration patterns and its variable, climate-affecting, inactive and active states in short and long time frames. An inactive solar period starting in the mid-seventeenth century lasted approximately seventy years, one that E Walter Maunder worked hard to make us understand: the Maun

  13. Nearest star the surprising science of our sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2014-01-01

    How did the Sun evolve, and what will it become? What is the origin of its light and heat? How does solar activity affect the atmospheric conditions that make life on Earth possible? These are the questions at the heart of solar physics, and at the core of this book. The Sun is the only star near enough to study in sufficient detail to provide rigorous tests of our theories and help us understand the more distant and exotic objects throughout the cosmos. Having observed the Sun using both ground-based and spaceborne instruments, the authors bring their extensive personal experience to this sto

  14. Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) Upgrade to Full Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry Capability for Airborne Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. E.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R. R.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument has been developed at NASA Ames in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and NASA Goddard, supported substantially since 2009 by NASA's Radiation Science Program and Earth Science Technology Office. It combines grating spectrometers with fiber optic links to a tracking, scanning head to enable sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith viewing. 4STAR builds on the long and productive heritage of the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers (AATS-6 and -14), which have yielded more than 100 peer-reviewed publications and extensive archived data sets in many NASA Airborne Science campaigns from 1986 to the present. The baseline 4STAR instrument has provided extensive data supporting the TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013), SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys, 2013), and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment, 2014), field campaigns.This poster presents plans and progress for an upgrade to the 4STAR instrument to achieve full science capability, including (1) direct-beam sun tracking measurements to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (2) sky radiance measurements to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index and mode-resolved size distribution), (3) cloud properties via zenith radiance, and (4) trace gas spectrometry. Technical progress in context with the governing physics is reported on several upgrades directed at improved light collection and usage, particularly as related to spectrally and radiometrically stable propagation through the collection light path. In addition, improvements to field calibration and verification, and flight operability and reliability are addressed.

  15. Two Sun-like Superflare Stars Rotating as Slow as the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Nogami, Daisaku; Honda, Satoshi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results of high dispersion spectroscopy of two `superflare stars', KIC 9766237, and KIC 9944137 with Subaru/HDS. Superflare stars are G-type main sequence stars, but show gigantic flares compared to the Sun, which have been recently discovered in the data obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Though most of these stars are thought to have a rotation period shorter than 10 days on the basis of photometric variabilities, the two targets of the present paper are estimated to have a rotation period of 21.8 d, and 25.3 d. Our spectroscopic results clarified that these stars have stellar parameters similar to those of the Sun in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity. The projected rotational velocities derived by us are consistent with the photometric rotation period, indicating a fairy high inclination angle. The average strength of the magnetic field on the surface of these stars are estimated to be 1-20 G, by using the absorption line of Ca II 8542. We could not det...

  16. Sun, the Earth, and Near-Earth Space: A Guide to the Sun-Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In a world of warmth and light and living things we soon forget that we are surrounded by a vast universe that is cold and dark and deadly dangerous, just beyond our door. On a starry night, when we look out into the darkness that lies around us, the view can be misleading in yet another way: for the brightness and sheer number of stars, and their chance groupings into familiar constellations, make them seem much nearer to each other, and to us, that in truth they are. And every one of them--each twinkling, like a diamond in the sky--is a white-hot sun, much like our own. The nearest stars in our own galaxy--the Milky Way-- are more than a million times further away from us than our star, the Sun. We could make a telephone call to the Moon and expect to wait but a few seconds between pieces of a conversation, or but a few hours in calling any planet in our solar system.

  17. Low Frequency Radio Emission from the 'Quiet' Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Ramesh

    2000-09-01

    We present observations of the 'quiet' Sun close to the recent solar minimum (Cycle 22), with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph. Our main conclusion is that coronal streamers also influence the observed radio brightness temperature.

  18. On Sun-to-Earth Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ying D; Lugaz, Noé; Möstl, Christian; Davies, Jackie A; Bale, Stuart D; Lin, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how coronal mass ejections (CMEs) propagate through, and interact with, the inner heliosphere between the Sun and Earth, a key question in CME research and space weather forecasting. CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics are constrained by combining wide-angle heliospheric imaging observations, interplanetary radio type II bursts and in situ measurements from multiple vantage points. We select three events for this study, the 2012 January 19, 23, and March 7 CMEs. Different from previous event studies, this work attempts to create a general picture for CME Sun-to-Earth propagation and compare different techniques for determining CME interplanetary kinematics. Key results are obtained concerning CME Sun-to-Earth propagation. Our comparison between different techniques (and data sets) also has important implications for CME observations and their interpretations. Future CME observations and space weather forecasting are discussed based on these results. See detail in the PDF.

  19. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  20. Some Melanoma Survivors Still Seek Out the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163887.html Some Melanoma Survivors Still Seek Out the Sun 1 in ... Even after surviving the potentially deadly skin cancer melanoma, some people continue to go out in the ...

  1. A New Way that Planets can Affect the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charles; Patrone, Paul

    2010-01-01

    As planets orbit the Sun, the Sun also has to move to keep the total momentum of the solar system constant. The Sun's small orbital motion plus its 25 day rotation about its axis combine to invigorate some solar instabilities. Occasional convection cells at the proper phase in their short life can be strengthened by factors of two or more. This local burst of extra kinetic energy eventually reaches the surface where it can increase the intensity of solar activity. It might explain some reports in the last century of how planetary positions correlate with solar activity. This is the first effect of planets that is large enough to cause a significant response on the Sun.

  2. Science Experimenter: Observing the Sun and Solar Eclipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of simple optical aids that allow the amateur scientist to safely observe sunspots and solar eclipses and also to measure the sun's rotation. (five references) (JJK)

  3. Thermal evaluation of a sun tracking solar cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El-Tous, Omar. O. Badran, Anwar Al-Mofleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of many important types of renewable energy. Jordan is of great needs for renewable energy systems applications since it depends totally in generation of its required energy on imported oil. This study is an experimental work of tracking system developed for enhancing the solar heating using solar cooker. An electronic sun tracking device was used for rotating the solar heater with the movement of the sun. A comparison between fixed and sun tracked cooker showed that the use of sun tracking increased the heating temperature by 36% due to the increase in radiation concentration and using internal mirror reflectors. The programming method used for tracking control works efficiently in all weather conditions regardless of the presence of clouds. It can be used as backup control circuit in which relays are the essential control devices.

  4. A Short Proof to Some Results of Sun and Wang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Cao

    2007-01-01

    We give a short proof to some results of Sun and Wang on counting the number of solutions of a class of equations over finite fields. Our proof is elementary and only based on matrix properties and recursion techniques.

  5. 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167479.html 'Eye Freckles' May Predict Sun-Related Problems The spots ... on the iris -- the colored part of the eye -- aren't cancerous, but these "eye freckles" could ...

  6. With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166481.html With Summer Sun Comes Heightened Skin Cancer Risk Doctor shares tips for prevention, recognition To ... skies comes a warning to protect yourself from skin cancer. "Skin cancer, like all types of cancer, is ...

  7. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  8. Sunscreen Keeps People Out In Dangerous Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maggie; Fox; 陈鸣煜

    1999-01-01

    本文最吸引读者、最值得回味的是标题。其含义和主题句一致,彼此呼应。但是,标题更简洁、更精彩,它是一句具有拟人色彩的非人称主语句(ImpersonalSubject Sentence)。标题是否可译为:防晒露将人们置于“毒日”之下! 防晒霜的作用本来是 shield people from the sun’s burning rays。 然而,为什么 people who use sunscreen have higher rates of skin cancer andalso develop more moles(痣). which can become cancerous(致癌的)? 值得好好研究!原来,原因之一是防晒霜使用者的微妙的心理在起作用: …people feel a false sense of security when they use sunscreen. 另一个原因是:本来只能使用4次的一瓶防晒霜,不少人却使用了整整一个夏季。自然, 防晒霜就没有能够发挥其作用。为此,作者出语诙谐: Sunscreen should be something on your weekly or monthly grocery list. 文章的末句是: People should be warned to avoid the sun,period, and told sunscreen is foruse when they have to be out,she added. 其中出现的period不是名词,而是感叹词。它常用于美国口语,意思是:就是这么回事。用于叙述事实或看法后表示强调。另如: I could have prevented them,and I didn’t.Period. 我本可以拦住?

  9. Grid Modeling for the SunShot Vision Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Ela, E.; Mai, T.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the use of production cost modeling in the SunShot Vision study, including methods used to create the SunShot Vision scenarios, their implementation in the Gridview model, and assumptions regarding transmission system and operation of each generator type. It also describes challenges and limitations of modeling solar generation technologies in production cost models, and suggests methods for improving their representation in current models.

  10. Tactile Sun: Bringing an Invisible Universe to the Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, G. M.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    A tactile model of the Sun has been created as a strategy for communicating astronomy to the blind or visually impaired, and as a useful outreach tool for general audiences. The model design was a collaboration between an education specialist, an astronomy specialist and a sculptor. The tactile Sun has been used at astronomy outreach events in Puerto Rico to make activities more inclusive and to increase public awareness of the needs of those with disabilities.

  11. Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Kun; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-01-01

    The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T-Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.

  12. Clothing reduces the sun protection factor of sunscreens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Ditte Maria; Faurschou, Annesofie; Haedersdal, M

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF).......Individuals are recommended to wait for 20 min following sunscreen application before dressing. However, this is probably seldom done in daily life, and therefore we investigated how dressing earlier than 20 min after application affected the sun protection factor (SPF)....

  13. Exact solution of an su(n) spin torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kun; Cao, Junpeng; Li, Guang-Liang; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2016-07-01

    The trigonometric su(n) spin chain with anti-periodic boundary condition (su(n) spin torus) is demonstrated to be Yang-Baxter integrable. Based on some intrinsic properties of the R-matrix, certain operator product identities of the transfer matrix are derived. These identities and the asymptotic behavior of the transfer matrix together allow us to obtain the exact eigenvalues in terms of an inhomogeneous T  -  Q relation via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz.

  14. Space Science for Children: All about the Sun [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape aims to give children, grades K-4, a broad understanding of the center of our solar system, the sun. It explains how the sun provides us with life-giving light and heat, how it's responsible for our seasons and weather, and why it's the primary source of energy on Earth. A hands-on activity in which children create their…

  15. Magnetic Bipoles in Emerging Flux Regions on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. S.; Livi, S. H. B.

    1990-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We analyse magnetograms and H-alpha filtergrams of an Emerging Flux Region. Small bipoles have been observed on the magnetograms emerging between opposite polarities. Separation velocities of the opposite poles for 45 bipoles observed on June 9, 1985 have been measured and are in the range 0.5 contribuciones de los bipolos emergentes. Key words: SUN-CHROMOSPHERE - SUN-MAGNETIC FIELDS

  16. 孙美琳的礼物%Sun Meilin's Gift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sun Meilin was thinking about the time when she lived in Guangzhou with her husband. Their marriage was a happy one, until one day when she came home early from work and found her husband in bed, making love to an old friend of hers. Sun had walked into her apartment using her key to get in, and then into her room, expecting nothing out of the ordinary.

  17. The EUV emission from sun-grazing comets

    OpenAIRE

    Bryans, Paul; Pesnell, W Dean

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has observed two sun-grazing comets as they passed through the solar atmosphere. Both passages resulted in a measurable enhancement of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiance in several of the AIA bandpasses. We explain this EUV emission by considering the evolution of the cometary atmosphere as it interacts with the ambient solar atmosphere. Molecules in the comet rapidly sublimate as it approaches the Sun. They are th...

  18. Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the orientation of the Egyptian pyramids at Giza with respect to sunrises and sunsets, using SunCalc.net software. We can see that Khufu and Khafre pyramids had been positioned in a manner that, from each pyramid, it was always possible to observe the points of the horizon where the sun was rising and setting on each day of the year. A discussion for the Menkaure pyramid is also proposed.

  19. SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the SunShot Vision Study is to provide an in-depth assessment of the potential for solar technologies to meet a significant share of electricity demand in the United States during the next several decades. Specifically, it explores a future in which the price of solar technologies declines by about 75% between 2010 and 2020 - in line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's targets.

  20. 系统工程方法论在微系统设计中的应用探索%Exploration of System Engineering Methodology in Micro-System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金长林; 郝继山; 罗海坤

    2015-01-01

    The history of the system engineering methodology is reviewed and the concept, characterization and features of the micro-system are summarized. Based on the Three Dimensional Morphology by A.D.Hall, the Four Dimensional Morphology for Micro-System (FDMMS) is presented for the first time. The benefits of the Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) approach over the Text Based System Engineering(TBSE) one have been emphasized and the classification of the micro-system model into descriptive model and analytic model for the practical engineering application is suggested. Finally, an example of micro-system design by the visual derivation, allocation and correlation of the requirements, functions, logics and physics of the system and unified data management of the descriptive model and analytical model is discussed in detail.%回顾了系统工程方法论的发展历史,总结了微系统的概念、内涵和特点。在系统工程方法论经典三维结构的基础上,提出了微系统四维结构体系。分析了“基于模型的系统工程”(MBSE)方法的优越性,从实际应用出发,提出把微系统模型分为描述模型和分析模型的建议。以一个实际例子,展示了微系统基于需求、功能、逻辑和物理的可视化分解、相互特性关联以及描述模型和分析模型的统一数据管理。