WorldWideScience

Sample records for sun grid engine

  1. A performance study of grid workflow engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratan, C.; Iosup, A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    To benefit from grids, scientists require grid workflow engines that automatically manage the execution of inter-related jobs on the grid infrastructure. So far, the workflows community has focused on scheduling algorithms and on interface tools. Thus, while several grid workflow engines have been

  2. From 1 Sun to 10 Suns c-Si Cells by Optimizing Metal Grid, Metal Resistance, and Junction Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, V.A.; Solanki, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    Use of a solar cell in concentrator PV technology requires reduction in its series resistance in order to minimize the resistive power losses. The present paper discusses a methodology of reducing the series resistance of a commercial c-Si solar cell for concentrator applications, in the range of 2 to 10 suns. Step by step optimization of commercial cell in terms of grid geometry, junction depth, and electroplating of the front metal contacts is proposed. A model of resistance network of solar cell is developed and used for the optimization. Efficiency of un optimized commercial cell at 10 suns drops by 30% of its 1 sun value corresponding to resistive power loss of about 42%. The optimized cell with grid optimization, junction optimization, electroplating, and junction optimized with electroplated contacts cell gives resistive power loss of 20%, 16%, 11%, and 8%, respectively. An efficiency gain of 3% at 10 suns for fully optimized cell is estimated

  3. Grid Integration Science, NREL Power Systems Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-25

    This report highlights journal articles published in 2016 by researchers in the Power Systems Engineering Center. NREL's Power Systems Engineering Center published 47 journal and magazine articles in the past year, highlighting recent research in grid modernization.

  4. ETICS: the international software engineering service for the grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, A. D.; Bégin, M.-E.; Couvares, P.; Ronchieri, E.; Takacs, E.

    2008-07-01

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects are using the software engineering services to build, validate and distribute their software. Finally a number of significant use and test cases will be described to show how ETICS can be used in particular to perform interoperability tests of grid middleware using the grid itself.

  5. ETICS: the international software engineering service for the grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meglio, A D; Begin, M-E [CERN (Switzerland); Couvares, P [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Ronchieri, E [INFN CNAF (Italy); Takacs, E [4D SOFT Ltd (Hungary)], E-mail: alberto.di.meglio@cern.ch

    2008-07-15

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects are using the software engineering services to build, validate and distribute their software. Finally a number of significant use and test cases will be described to show how ETICS can be used in particular to perform interoperability tests of grid middleware using the grid itself.

  6. ETICS: the international software engineering service for the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meglio, A D; Begin, M-E; Couvares, P; Ronchieri, E; Takacs, E

    2008-01-01

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects are using the software engineering services to build, validate and distribute their software. Finally a number of significant use and test cases will be described to show how ETICS can be used in particular to perform interoperability tests of grid middleware using the grid itself

  7. LES of Internal Combustion Engine Flows Using Cartesian Overset Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate computations of turbulent flows using the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES technique with an appropriate SubFilter Scale (SFS model require low artificial dissipation such that the physical energy cascade process is not perturbed by numerical artifacts. To realize this in practical simulations, energy-conserving numerical schemes and high-quality computational grids are needed. If unstructured meshes are used, the latter requirement often makes grid generation for complex geometries very difficult. Structured Cartesian grids offer the advantage that uncertainties in mesh quality are reduced to choosing appropriate resolution. However, two intrinsic challenges of the structured approach are local mesh refinement and representation of complex geometries. In this work, the effectiveness of numerical methods which can be expected to reduce both drawbacks is assessed in engine flows, using a multi-physics inhouse code. The overset grid approach is utilized to arbitrarily combine grid patches of different spacing to a flow domain of complex shape during mesh generation. Walls are handled by an Immersed Boundary (IB method, which is combined with a wall function to treat underresolved boundary layers. A statistically stationary Spark Ignition (SI engine port flow is simulated at Reynolds numbers typical for engine operation. Good agreement of computed and measured integral flow quantities like overall pressure loss and tumble number is found. A comparison of simulated velocity fields to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurement data concludes the validation of the enhanced numerical framework for both mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations. The performance of two SFS models, the dynamic Smagorinsky model with Lagrangian averaging along pathlines and the coherent structure model, is tested on different grids. Sensitivity of pressure loss and tumble ratio to the wall treatment and mesh refinement is presented. It is shown that increased wall

  8. Reliability Engineering for ATLAS Petascale Data Processing on the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Golubkov, D V; The ATLAS collaboration; Vaniachine, A V

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is in its third year of continuous LHC running taking data for physics analysis. A starting point for ATLAS physics analysis is reconstruction of the raw data. First-pass processing takes place shortly after data taking, followed later by reprocessing of the raw data with updated software and calibrations to improve the quality of the reconstructed data for physics analysis. Data reprocessing involves a significant commitment of computing resources and is conducted on the Grid. The reconstruction of one petabyte of ATLAS data with 1B collision events from the LHC takes about three million core-hours. Petascale data processing on the Grid involves millions of data processing jobs. At such scales, the reprocessing must handle a continuous stream of failures. Automatic job resubmission recovers transient failures at the cost of CPU time used by the failed jobs. Orchestrating ATLAS data processing applications to ensure efficient usage of tens of thousands of CPU-cores, reliability engineering ...

  9. ETICS the international software engineering service for the grid

    CERN Document Server

    Di Meglio, A; Couvares, P; Ronchieri, E; Takács, E

    2008-01-01

    The ETICS system is a distributed software configuration, build and test system designed to fulfil the needs of improving the quality, reliability and interoperability of distributed software in general and grid software in particular. The ETICS project is a consortium of five partners (CERN, INFN, Engineering Ingegneria Informatica, 4D Soft and the University of Wisconsin-Madison). The ETICS service consists of a build and test job execution system based on the Metronome software and an integrated set of web services and software engineering tools to design, maintain and control build and test scenarios. The ETICS system allows taking into account complex dependencies among applications and middleware components and provides a rich environment to perform static and dynamic analysis of the software and execute deployment, system and interoperability tests. This paper gives an overview of the system architecture and functionality set and then describes how the EC-funded EGEE, DILIGENT and OMII-Europe projects ...

  10. The effects on grid matching and ramping requirements, of single and distributed PV systems employing various fixed and sun-tracking technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A.A.; Faiman, D.; Meron, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this second paper, which studies the hourly generation data from the Israel Electric Corporation for the year 2006, with a view to adding very large-scale photovoltaic power (VLS-PV) plants, three major extensions are made to the results reported in our first paper. In the first extension, PV system simulations are extended to include the cases of 1- and 2-axis sun-tracking, and 2-axis concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technologies. Secondly, the effect of distributing VLS-PV plants among 8 Negev locations, for which hourly metrological data exist, is studied. Thirdly, in addition to studying the effect of VLS-PV on grid penetration, the present paper studies its effect on grid ramping requirements. The principal results are as follows: (i) sun-tracking improves grid matching at high but not low levels of grid flexibility; (ii) geographical distribution has little effect on grid penetration; (iii) VLS-PV significantly increases grid ramping requirements, particularly for CPV systems, but not beyond existing ramping capabilities; (iv) geographical distribution considerably ameliorates this effect.

  11. Digital Grid: Transforming the Electric Power Grid into an Innovation Engine for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabortty, Aranya; Huang, Alex

    2017-01-01

    The electric power grid is one of the largest and most complex infrastructures ever built by mankind. Modern civilization depends on it for industry production, human mobility, and comfortable living. However, many critical technologies such as the 60 Hz transformers were developed at the beginning of the 20th century and have changed very little since then.1 The traditional unidirectional power from the generation to the customer through the transmission-distribution grid has also changed no...

  12. Automatic grid azimuth by hour angle of the sun, a star or a planet using an electronic theodolite Kern E2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaric, Nikola

    1991-03-01

    The paper describes a procedure for automatic determinations of the grid azimuth of an object on the earth surface by the hour angle of a celestial object (the sun, a star, or a planet), using the electronic theodolite Kern E2. The observation procedure is simple because the electronic calculator is directing the procedure, and the degree of accuracy is immediately determined. With this method, the external rms error of a single set is approximately two times smaller than in the case of the altitude method. The paper includes a flowchart of the program.

  13. GENIUS/EnginFrame Grid Portal: VOMS Proxy creation, new features and enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardizzone, V.; Barbaram, R.; Falzone, A.; Emidio, G.; Neri, L.; Scardaci, D.; Venuti, N.

    2007-01-01

    Scientific domain knowledge and tools must be presented to the (non-expert) users in terms of applications without needing to know the underlying details of the Grid Middle wares. GENIUS Grid portal, powered by EnginFrame, is an increasingly popular mechanism for creating customisable, Web-based interfaces to Grid services and resources. This work describes new GENIUS portals capabilities such as portal login, access control, display management, new approach to building reusable portal components as plug ins, better performance results as consequence of EnginFrame core functions improvement. Finally will be described two new tools developed for VOMS Proxy creation and simple JDL composer. (Author)

  14. GENIUS/EnginFrame Grid Portal: VOMS Proxy creation, new features and enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardizzone, V.; Barbaram, R.; Falzone, A.; Emidio, G.; Neri, L.; Scardaci, D.; Venuti, N.

    2007-07-01

    Scientific domain knowledge and tools must be presented to the (non-expert) users in terms of applications without needing to know the underlying details of the Grid Middle wares. GENIUS Grid portal, powered by EnginFrame, is an increasingly popular mechanism for creating customisable, Web-based interfaces to Grid services and resources. This work describes new GENIUS portals capabilities such as portal login, access control, display management, new approach to building reusable portal components as plug ins, better performance results as consequence of EnginFrame core functions improvement. Finally will be described two new tools developed for VOMS Proxy creation and simple JDL composer. (Author)

  15. VLAM-G: Interactive Data Driven Workflow Engine for Grid-Enabled Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Korkhov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid brings the power of many computers to scientists. However, the development of Grid-enabled applications requires knowledge about Grid infrastructure and low-level API to Grid services. In turn, workflow management systems provide a high-level environment for rapid prototyping of experimental computing systems. Coupling Grid and workflow paradigms is important for the scientific community: it makes the power of the Grid easily available to the end user. The paradigm of data driven workflow execution is one of the ways to enable distributed workflow on the Grid. The work presented in this paper is carried out in the context of the Virtual Laboratory for e-Science project. We present the VLAM-G workflow management system and its core component: the Run-Time System (RTS. The RTS is a dataflow driven workflow engine which utilizes Grid resources, hiding the complexity of the Grid from a scientist. Special attention is paid to the concept of dataflow and direct data streaming between distributed workflow components. We present the architecture and components of the RTS, describe the features of VLAM-G workflow execution, and evaluate the system by performance measurements and a real life use case.

  16. Engineering of an Extreme Rainfall Detection System using Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Terzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach for intensive rainfall data analysis. ITHACA's Extreme Rainfall Detection System (ERDS is conceived to provide near real-time alerts related to potential exceptional rainfalls worldwide, which can be used by WFP or other humanitarian assistance organizations to evaluate the event and understand the potentially floodable areas where their assistance is needed. This system is based on precipitation analysis and it uses rainfall data from satellite at worldwide extent. This project uses the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis dataset, a NASA-delivered near real-time product for current rainfall condition monitoring over the world. Considering the great deal of data to process, this paper presents an architectural solution based on Grid Computing techniques. Our focus is on the advantages of using a distributed architecture in terms of performances for this specific purpose.

  17. Philosophical Approach to Engineering Education Under the Introduction of the Smart Grid Concept in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makienko Marina A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of power industry in the world today is driven by two main trends: the search for renewable energy sources and their use and the energy efficiency which require the development of smart grids. This paper brings up the issue of staff training for professional development of the Smart Grid technology and for use of its elements by customers in households. The problem of consumer readiness for the use of smart meters was studied. It was revealed that the considerable part of the respondents was not familiar with the definition of Smart Grid. That required the development of communication skills by energy engineering students and their social activity as well. The reasons mentioned make actual the following elements of engineering education: social responsibility, stress resistance, ability to forecast the future.

  18. GridSpace Engine of the ViroLab Virtual Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciepiela, E.; Kocot, J.; Gubala, T.; Malawski, M.; Kasztelnik, M.; Bubak, M.; Bubak, M.; Turała, M.; Wiatr, K.

    2008-01-01

    GridSpace Engine is the central operational unit of the ViroLab Virtual Laboratory. This specific runtime environment enables access to computational and data resources by coordinating execution of experiments written in the Ruby programming language extended with virtual laboratory capabilities.

  19. CDIO – The steam engine powering the electric grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Holbøll, Joachim; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification and formu......In building the new DTU B.Eng programme [1] one of the pilots on the 4’th semester is the Design-build project course in Electric Energy Systems. In this course, which is the last Designbuild course many of the CDIO Syllabus bullets [2] are addressed starting with problem identification...... and formulation, experimental inquiry and modelling, finally leading to planning and solution. The goal is to acquire the skills that are needed for an engineer within electric power engineering to analyse a given task, define the necessary steps to solve the task, organize him/her self and others and finally...... solve the task with success. The concrete work is built up around a miniaturized electric energy system powered by a steam engine. The system mimics an essential sub-section of a real electric power system. The process is realised with a combination of optional lectures, optional exercises, 3 set...

  20. Dynamic traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE) in flexible grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaosong; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianping; Zhang, Guoying; Chen, Xue; Zhang, Jie

    2015-12-01

    Flexible grid has emerged as an evolutionary technology to satisfy the ever increasing demand for higher spectrum efficiency and operational flexibility. To optimize the spectrum resource utilization, this paper introduces the concept of Spectrum Engineering in flex-grid optical networks. The sliceable optical transponder has been proposed to offload IP traffic to the optical layer and reduce the number of IP router ports and transponders. We discuss the impact of sliceable transponder in traffic grooming and propose several traffic-grooming schemes with Spectrum Engineering (TG-SE). Our results show that there is a tradeoff among different traffic grooming policies, which should be adopted based on the network operator's objectives. The proposed traffic grooming with Spectrum Engineering schemes can reduce OPEX as well as increase spectrum efficiency by efficiently utilizing the bandwidth variability and capability of sliceable optical transponders.

  1. Integrated Design Engineering Analysis (IDEA) Environment Automated Generation of Structured CFD Grids using Topology Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hilmi N.

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the work performed from March 2010 to March 2012. The Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis (IDEA) environment is a collaborative environment based on an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, distributed framework using the Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) as a framework and supporting the configuration design and parametric CFD grid generation. This report will focus on describing the work in the area of parametric CFD grid generation using novel concepts for defining the interaction between the mesh topology and the geometry in such a way as to separate the mesh topology from the geometric topology while maintaining the link between the mesh topology and the actual geometry.

  2. Medical image registration algorithms assesment Bronze Standard application enactment on grids using the MOTEUR workflow engine

    CERN Document Server

    Glatard, T; Pennec, X

    2006-01-01

    Medical image registration is pre-processing needed for many medical image analysis procedures. A very large number of registration algorithms are available today, but their performance is often not known and very difficult to assess due to the lack of gold standard. The Bronze Standard algorithm is a very data and compute intensive statistical approach for quantifying registration algorithms accuracy. In this paper, we describe the Bronze Standard application and we discuss the need for grids to tackle such computations on medical image databases. We demonstrate MOTEUR, a service-based workflow engine optimized for dealing with data intensive applications. MOTEUR eases the enactment of the Bronze Standard and similar applications on the EGEE production grid infrastructure. It is a generic workflow engine, based on current standards and freely available, that can be used to instrument legacy application code at low cost.

  3. Cloud Computing for Pharmacometrics: Using AWS, NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanduja, S; Jewell, P; Aron, E; Pharai, N

    2015-09-01

    Cloud computing allows pharmacometricians to access advanced hardware, network, and security resources available to expedite analysis and reporting. Cloud-based computing environments are available at a fraction of the time and effort when compared to traditional local datacenter-based solutions. This tutorial explains how to get started with building your own personal cloud computer cluster using Amazon Web Services (AWS), NONMEM, PsN, Grid Engine, and Sonic.

  4. Electrical Power Grid Delivery Dynamic Analysis: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer; Michael E. Reed

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  5. Sun Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun allergy Overview Sun allergy is a term often used to describe a number of conditions in which an itchy red rash occurs on skin that has been exposed to sunlight. The most common form of sun allergy is ...

  6. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  7. Power supply for pumping systems in northern Chile: Photovoltaics as alternative to grid extension and diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueco-Fernandez, Francisco J.; Bayod-Rujula, Angel A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the cost-effectiveness to energize pumping systems in remote areas on northern Chile by means of photovoltaic systems, diesel engines and grid extension. Variables such as the distance to the power grid, the voltage grid, the prices of electricity and fuel, and the required investments, are taken into account. The comparison is made for wide range of variable values, distances and pumping requirements. The results obtained are useful for choosing the best alternative for the power supply of pumping systems in wells in Northern Chile. (author)

  8. Collaborative Science Using Web Services and the SciFlo Grid Dataflow Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Yunck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* &Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client &server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data

  9. A Systematical Framework of Schedule Risk Management for Power Grid Engineering Projects’ Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Rao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Schedule risks are the main threat for high efficiency of schedule management in power grid engineering projects (PGEP. This paper aims to build a systematical framework for schedule risk management, which consists of three dimensions, including the personnel dimension, method dimension and time dimension, namely supervisory personnel, management methods and the construction process, respectively. Responsibilities of staff with varied functions are discussed in the supervisory personnel part, and six stages and their corresponding 40 key works are ensured as the time dimension. Risk identification, analysis, evaluation and prevention together formed the method dimension. Based on this framework, 222 schedule risks occur in the whole process of PGEPs are identified via questionnaires and expert interviews. Then, the relationship among each risk is figured out based on the Interpretative Structure Model (ISM method and the impact of each risk is quantitatively assessed by establishing evaluation system. The actual practice of the proposed framework is verified through the analysis of the first stage of a PGEP. Finally, the results show that this framework of schedule risk management is meaningful for improving the efficiency of project management. It provides managers with a clearer procedure with which to conduct risk management, helps them to timely detect risks and prevent risks from occurring. It is also easy for managers to judge the influence level of each risk, so they can take actions based on the level of each risk’s severity. Overall, it is beneficial for power grid enterprises to achieve a sustainable management.

  10. Sun protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun exposure. The start of summer is when UV rays can cause the most skin damage. Use sun protection, even on cloudy days. Clouds and haze don't protect you from the sun. Avoid surfaces that reflect light, such as water, sand, concrete, snow, and areas ...

  11. Study of Micro Grid Hybrid System of Photovoltaic and Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novitasari Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has abundant potentials of new and renewable energy that can be used for electricity generation, especially in rural areas which have no access for grid electricity yet. The energy resources can be from solar, water, biomass or biofuel. Many villagers still use diesel generators to produce electricity in their villages. It is considered expensive because fuel price in rural areas increases 2-3 times than the normal price due to transportation cost. Hybrid system using renewable energy resources is one of the solutions to produce electricity in affordable cost for rural area. The idea is to combine diesel generators and photovoltaic toproduce electricity. Moreover, the diesel engine fuel can be replaced with biofuel. This study will analyze the hybrid system in a small scale which consists of 1kWp photovoltaic and 3 kW diesel engine. Electric load power will vary. The system is controlled by a single bidirectional inverter whichconverts power from DC to AC and vice versa

  12. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    emergence of supercomputers led to the use of computer simula- tion as an .... Scientific and engineering applications (e.g., Tera grid secure gate way). Collaborative ... Encryption, privacy, protection from malicious software. Physical Layer.

  13. Sun Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children from the Sun? Are There Benefits to Spending Time Outdoors? The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer Related Resources Sun Safety Tips for Men Tips for Families Tips for Schools Tips for Employers Tips for ...

  14. baonan sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. BAONAN SUN. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 90 Issue 2 February 2018 pp 23 Research Article. Rogue waves in the multicomponent Mel'nikov system and multicomponent Schrödinger–Boussinesq system · BAONAN SUN ZHAN LIAN.

  15. Fengrui Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Fengrui Sun. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 34 Issue 5 October 2009 pp 851-864. Profit rate performance optimization for a generalized irreversible combined refrigeration cycle · Kang Ma Lingen Chen Fengrui Sun · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Finite-time exergoeconomic ...

  16. Dynamic Analysis of Electrical Power Grid Delivery: Using Prime Mover Engines to Balance Dynamic Wind Turbine Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana K. Grauer

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents an investigation into integrated wind + combustion engine high penetration electrical generation systems. Renewable generation systems are now a reality of electrical transmission. Unfortunately, many of these renewable energy supplies are stochastic and highly dynamic. Conversely, the existing national grid has been designed for steady state operation. The research team has developed an algorithm to investigate the feasibility and relative capability of a reciprocating internal combustion engine to directly integrate with wind generation in a tightly coupled Hybrid Energy System. Utilizing the Idaho National Laboratory developed Phoenix Model Integration Platform, the research team has coupled demand data with wind turbine generation data and the Aspen Custom Modeler reciprocating engine electrical generator model to investigate the capability of reciprocating engine electrical generation to balance stochastic renewable energy.

  17. Agent based approach for engineering and control of micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    Energy management is, nowadays, a subject of uttermost importance. Indeed, we are facing growing concerns such as petroleum reserve depletion, earth global warming or power quality (e.g. avoiding blackouts during peak times). Smart grids is an attempt to solve such problems, by adding to power grids bidirectional communications and ICT capabilities in order to provide an intelligent autonomic management for the grid. This thesis focuses on the management of micro-grids thanks to multi-agent systems (MAS). Micro-grids are low-power networks, composed of small and decentralized energy producers (possibly renewable) and consumers. These networks can be connected to the main grid or islanded, this make them more complex. Due to their complexity and their geographical distribution, smart grids and micro-grids can not be easily managed by a centralized system. Distributed artificial intelligences especially MAS appear to be a solution to resolve problems related to smart grids. Firstly we defined an approach implementing feedback loops. These feedback loops exist in complex systems which can be defined with several abstraction levels. Two levels are interacting. The micro-level contains a set of agents owning behaviours that can be combined. The result of the combination impact the state of the system. The macro-level processes these influences to define a new state of the system which will impact the agents behaviours at the micro-level. This feedback loop separates behaviours on several levels. This approach is used to defined a demand and supply matching problem in micro-grid. This problem afford to manage a set of goals which currently are independently processed. Finally, an application is developed using MAS that ensures grid stability thanks to storage systems. This application was thought to be integrated to the approach detailed above. Secondly, a grid simulator id developed. This simulator allows dynamic control of devices. It is based on three main principles

  18. Sun meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younskevicius, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive device for measuring the radiation energy of the sun impinging on the device. The measurement of the energy over an extended period of time is accomplished without moving parts or tracking mechanisms.

  19. The Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Golub, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Essential for life on earth and a major influence on our environment, the Sun is also the most fascinating object in the daytime sky. Every day we feel the effect of its coming and going – literally the difference between day and night. But figuring out what the Sun is, what it’s made of, why it glows so brightly, how old it is, how long it will last – all of these take thought and observation. Leon Golub and Jay M. Pasachoff offer an engaging and informative account of what scientists know about the Sun, and the history of these discoveries. Solar astronomers have studied the Sun over the centuries both for its intrinsic interest and in order to use it as a laboratory to reveal the secrets of other stars. The authors discuss the surface of the Sun, including sunspots and their eleven-year cycle, as well as the magnetism that causes them; the Sun’s insides, as studied mainly from seismic waves that astronomers record on its surface; the outer layers of the Sun that we see from Earth only at eclipses ...

  20. Examining Elementary School Students' Mental Models of Sun-Earth Relationships as a Result of Engaging in Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankenbring, Chelsey; Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Current reform efforts in science education in the United States call for students to learn science through the integration of science and engineering practices. Studies have examined the effect of engineering design on students' understanding of engineering, technology, and science concepts. However, the majority of studies emphasize the accuracy…

  1. Little sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2017-01-01

    the ideas of Alfred Gell’s anthropology of art and the indicative framework derived from Argentinian semiotician Juan Pablo Bonta and Jørn Guldberg. The toy-like solar lamp Little Sun by Olafur Eliasson and Frederik Ottesen is used as case that blends the registers of social design and art......, and as an example of how designers attempt to determine meaning potentials through design in a complex interplay of different strategies. In the final analysis, what characterise objects like Little Sun is seldom that they communicate their meanings in themselves, but instead rely on forceful mediations to gain...

  2. Sun Proof

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the harmful effects of the sun and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 10/23/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 10/23/2012.

  3. yimin sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YIMIN SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 4 September 2017 pp 687-693 RESEARCH NOTE. The association study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate identified risk variants of the GLI3 gene in a Chinese population · YIRUI WANG YIMIN SUN ...

  4. jianhua sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. JIANHUA SUN. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 42 Issue 4 December 2017 pp 575-584 Article. MicroRNA-486-5p suppresses TGF-b2-induced proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells by targeting Smad2.

  5. Electrical Grid Conditioning For First NPP Integration, a Systems Engineering Approach Incorporating Quality Function Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pwani, Henry; James, J. [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Nuclear power plant has a high potential to cause serious harm to environment as evidenced by effects of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. A reliable electrical power is required for a NPP to facilitate cooling after a shutdown. Failure of electrical power supply during shutdown increases core damage probability. Research shows that a total of 39% of LOOP related events in US are electrical grid centered. In Korea, 38% and 29% of all events that led to NPP shutdown at Hanul units 3-6 and at Hanbit units 3-6 respectively were electrical related. Electric grids for both operating and new NPPs must therefore be examined and upgraded for reliability improvement in order to enhance NPP safety.

  6. The Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejna, L.; Sobotka, M.

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 50 papers classified in six parts. The introductory paper is devoted to magnetic fields of the Sun and of low-mass main-sequence stars. 7 papers discuss the morphology and fine structure of solar active regions, 9 papers deal with evolutionary aspects of the regions, 6 papers with observations and theories of the solar magnetic field, 9 deal with velocity fields, oscillations and waves in the active regions and 18 papers discuss the physical structure of active regions and its diagnostics. (M.D.). 218 figs., 19 tabs., 1,317 refs

  7. Sun, Sand and Water: A History of the Jacksonville District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1821-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    centuries-old ecological balance which had been developed in nature was not understood, considered, or known by those early pioneers who envisioned tap...could only see that "water will run down hill," brought ecological disasters to south Florida; the Jacksonville District Engineers, studying the...guided by the experienced man on the job. Starrett Brothers also shifted to prefabrication to aid construction. They set up plans for building

  8. The Improvement of Kansei Engineering by Using the Repertory Grid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinberg Falk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A customer-oriented approach to product development with particular consideration of emotions is represented by Kansei Engineering. Developed by Mitsuo Nagamachi, Kansei Engineering is characterized by the possibility to capture customer perceptions and to translate them into product features. In order to assess these perceptions, a semantic space is generated. For this purpose it is necessary to identify Kansei words that are gathered up through research in marketing concepts, scientific journals and service reports. This procedure though displays the disadvantage of not being able to identify all emotions referring to the investigated product.

  9. Information Power Grid: Distributed High-Performance Computing and Large-Scale Data Management for Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William E.; Gannon, Dennis; Nitzberg, Bill

    2000-01-01

    We use the term "Grid" to refer to distributed, high performance computing and data handling infrastructure that incorporates geographically and organizationally dispersed, heterogeneous resources that are persistent and supported. This infrastructure includes: (1) Tools for constructing collaborative, application oriented Problem Solving Environments / Frameworks (the primary user interfaces for Grids); (2) Programming environments, tools, and services providing various approaches for building applications that use aggregated computing and storage resources, and federated data sources; (3) Comprehensive and consistent set of location independent tools and services for accessing and managing dynamic collections of widely distributed resources: heterogeneous computing systems, storage systems, real-time data sources and instruments, human collaborators, and communications systems; (4) Operational infrastructure including management tools for distributed systems and distributed resources, user services, accounting and auditing, strong and location independent user authentication and authorization, and overall system security services The vision for NASA's Information Power Grid - a computing and data Grid - is that it will provide significant new capabilities to scientists and engineers by facilitating routine construction of information based problem solving environments / frameworks. Such Grids will knit together widely distributed computing, data, instrument, and human resources into just-in-time systems that can address complex and large-scale computing and data analysis problems. Examples of these problems include: (1) Coupled, multidisciplinary simulations too large for single systems (e.g., multi-component NPSS turbomachine simulation); (2) Use of widely distributed, federated data archives (e.g., simultaneous access to metrological, topological, aircraft performance, and flight path scheduling databases supporting a National Air Space Simulation systems}; (3

  10. Programmable lithography engine (ProLE) grid-type supercomputer and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John S.; Maslow, Mark J.; Gerold, David J.; Greenway, Robert T.

    2003-06-01

    There are many variables that can affect lithographic dependent device yield. Because of this, it is not enough to make optical proximity corrections (OPC) based on the mask type, wavelength, lens, illumination-type and coherence. Resist chemistry and physics along with substrate, exposure, and all post-exposure processing must be considered too. Only a holistic approach to finding imaging solutions will accelerate yield and maximize performance. Since experiments are too costly in both time and money, accomplishing this takes massive amounts of accurate simulation capability. Our solution is to create a workbench that has a set of advanced user applications that utilize best-in-class simulator engines for solving litho-related DFM problems using distributive computing. Our product, ProLE (Programmable Lithography Engine), is an integrated system that combines Petersen Advanced Lithography Inc."s (PAL"s) proprietary applications and cluster management software wrapped around commercial software engines, along with optional commercial hardware and software. It uses the most rigorous lithography simulation engines to solve deep sub-wavelength imaging problems accurately and at speeds that are several orders of magnitude faster than current methods. Specifically, ProLE uses full vector thin-mask aerial image models or when needed, full across source 3D electromagnetic field simulation to make accurate aerial image predictions along with calibrated resist models;. The ProLE workstation from Petersen Advanced Lithography, Inc., is the first commercial product that makes it possible to do these intensive calculations at a fraction of a time previously available thus significantly reducing time to market for advance technology devices. In this work, ProLE is introduced, through model comparison to show why vector imaging and rigorous resist models work better than other less rigorous models, then some applications of that use our distributive computing solution are shown

  11. Yearbook facility engineering 2009. Facility engineering for electric power grids; Jahrbuch Anlagentechnik 2009. Anlagentechnik fuer elektrische Verteilungsnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichowski, Rolf Ruediger (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    The strong changes in the energy market - e.g. deregulation, the influence of the Bundesnetzagentur, globalisation of new technologies, constant issueing and adaptation of standards, require more and deeper knowledge than ever before. Issues like energy efficiency and utilisation of renewable energy sources not only govern public discussions but have also created new, variable professions which challenge experts of energy engineering. The yearbook provides an insight into specific issues, e.g. a calendar of events, trade fairs, product recommendations, services, and further hints for practicians. (orig.) [German] Durch die starken Veraenderungen im Energiemarkt, wie die Liberalisierung, die Einflussnahme auf die Gestaltung der Energieversorgung durch die Bundesnetzagentur, die Globalisierung, die neuen Techniken und damit staendige Anpassungen der Normen bzw. Bewaeltigung neuer Normen durch die Fachleute, nimmt die Vielfalt und der Umfang an notwendigen Kenntnissen staendig zu. Themen wie Energieeffizienz und Nutzung regenerativer Energien bestimmen nicht nur die oeffentliche Diskussion, sondern schlagen sich auch in neuen und sich aendernden beruflichen Taetigkeiten nieder. Dadurch sind die Fachleute der Energietechnik ausserordentlich herausgefordert. Zusaetzlich bietet das Jahrbuch spezifische Themen zu den jeweiligen Jahren, wie Kalendarium, Veranstaltungshinweise, Messen, Produktempfehlungen, Dienstleistungen und weitere Tipps fuer Praktiker. (orig.)

  12. Tribute to Sun Kwok

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kam Ching

    2016-01-01

    position as the first appointed Dean of Science at the University of Hong Kong. As soon as he arrived, he began to reform the science curriculum at HKU, beginning with the introduction of a flexible major/minor system, Faculty common admission, experiential learning requirements, an academic advising system, creation of the interdisciplinary major Environmental Science, introduction of academic induction, undergraduate summer research fellowship and overseas research fellowship, and science service courses for engineering and medicine students. The most significant was his creation of a one-year core sequence of new science foundation courses, which introduced new ways of teaching mathematics and science at the undergraduate level. He is also committed to the internationalization of academic staff, having brought in new hires from many different countries and greatly raising the quality of the staff as a result. In spite of his heavy administration duties, Sun continues to teach every year. He designed and taught the course Our Place in the Univers e as part of the Common Core of HKU. The course discusses the impact of 5000 year of astronomical development on society, religion and society. In 2016, Sun Kwok will have completed his 10-year tenure as Dean. I am glad to have the opportunity to dedicate the 11"t"h Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics to celebrate the academic career of Sun Kwok. Many of us present here are well familiar with the influence Sun has effected over his career on the physics and chemistry of the late stages of evolution. I am very glad to see that so many experts in this field are gathered here in Hong Kong and I wish everyone a very successful and productive conference. I also wish Sun will continue his productive scientific research after he no longer has the administrative burdens and we look forward to more exciting science results from Sun in the years to come. (paper)

  13. The design of scenario-based training from the resilience engineering perspective: a study with grid electricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Wachs, Priscila; Righi, Angela Weber; Henriqson, Eder

    2014-07-01

    Although scenario-based training (SBT) can be an effective means to help workers develop resilience skills, it has not yet been analyzed from the resilience engineering (RE) perspective. This study introduces a five-stage method for designing SBT from the RE view: (a) identification of resilience skills, work constraints and actions for re-designing the socio-technical system; (b) design of template scenarios, allowing the simulation of the work constraints and the use of resilience skills; (c) design of the simulation protocol, which includes briefing, simulation and debriefing; (d) implementation of both scenarios and simulation protocol; and (e) evaluation of the scenarios and simulation protocol. It is reported how the method was applied in an electricity distribution company, in order to train grid electricians. The study was framed as an application of design science research, and five research outputs are discussed: method, constructs, model of the relationships among constructs, instantiations of the method, and theory building. Concerning the last output, the operationalization of the RE perspective on three elements of SBT is presented: identification of training objectives; scenario design; and debriefing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  15. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  16. MedSun Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medical Product Safety Network (MedSun) is an adverse event reporting program launched in 2002. The primary goal for MedSun is to work collaboratively with the...

  17. Seasons by the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Meri-Lyn

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the Sun has challenged people since ancient times. Mythology from the Greek, Inuit, and Inca cultures attempted to explain the daily appearance and nightly disappearance of the Sun by relating it to a chariot being chased across the sky. While people no longer believe the Sun is a chariot racing across the sky, teachers are still…

  18. The star ''Sun''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    1982-01-01

    The author gives a resume of our knowledge of the Sun. In particular, he discusses the mass, luminosity and chemical composition of the Sun, and then asks what an observer from Sirius would think about the Sun. (G.T.H.)

  19. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  20. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  1. Sun light European Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubielle, Marie-Laure

    2015-04-01

    2015 has been declared the year of light. Sunlight plays a major role in the world. From the sunbeams that heat our planet and feed our plants to the optical analysis of the sun or the modern use of sun particles in technologies, sunlight is everywhere and it is vital. This project aims to understand better the light of the Sun in a variety of fields. The experiments are carried out by students aged 15 to 20 in order to share their discoveries with Italian students from primary and secondary schools. The experiments will also be presented to a group of Danish students visiting our school in January. All experiments are carried out in English and involve teams of teachers. This project is 3 folds: part 1: Biological project = what are the mechanisms of photosynthesis? part 2: Optical project= what are the components of sunlight and how to use it? part 3: Technical project= how to use the energy of sunlight for modern devices? Photosynthesis project Biology and English Context:Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can later fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in molecules which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis maintains atmospheric oxygen levels and supplies all of the organic compounds and most of the energy necessary for life on Earth. Outcome: Our project consists in understanding the various steps of photosynthesis. Students will shoot a DVD of the experiments presenting the equipments required, the steps of the experiments and the results they have obtained for a better understanding of photosynthesis Digital pen project Electricity, Optics and English Context: Sunlight is a complex source of light based on white light that can be decomposed to explain light radiations or colours. This light is a precious source to create

  2. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  3. Control Structures for Smart Grid Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of maintaining the balance between consumption and production in the electricity grid when volatile resources, such as wind and sun, account for a large percentage of the power generation. We present control structures for Smart Grid balancing services on three...

  4. Our turbulent sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, K.

    1982-01-01

    The quest for a new understanding of the sun and its surprising irregularities, variations, and effects is described. Attention is given to the sun's impact on life on earth, the weather and geomagnetic storms, sunspots, solar oscillations, the missing neutrinos in the sun, the 'shrinking sun', the 'dance' of the orbits, and the search for the 'climate connection'. It is noted that the 1980s promise to be the decade of the sun: not only because solar power may be a crucial ingredient in efforts to solve the energy crisis, but also because there will be brilliant auroras over North America, because sunspot activity will be the second highest since the 17th century, and because an unmanned spacecraft (i.e., the solar polar mission) will leave the plane of the solar system and observe the sun from above and below

  5. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  6. Sun's dynamics and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavanescu, Adela; Rusu, Mircea V.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis processes in the sun are one of the main results related to the evolution of the Sun. Dynamics and energetics of the Sun could be studied indirectly by their elements products in produced by nucleosynthesis. Also solar atmosphere and its characteristics reveled in its full development is observed during the solar eclipses. We try to correlate these facts in order to obtained data to be used in solar models. (authors)

  7. Kug Sun Hong

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Kug Sun Hong. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 33 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 43-47 Composites. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg–HAP composites · Asit Kumar Khanra Hwa Chul Jung Seung Hoon Yu Kug Sun Hong Kwang Seon Shin.

  8. F F Sun

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. F F Sun. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 71-76. Study of electroless copper plating on ABS resin surface modified by heterocyclic organosilane self-assembled film · H N Zhang J Wang F F Sun D Liu H Y Wang F Wang.

  9. The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.

  10. Sun and Sjogren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet The Sun and Sjögren’s Syndrome The SSF thanks Mona Z. Mofid, MD, FAAD, Diplomate, American Board of Dermatology, and Medical Director, American Melanoma Foundation, San Diego, California, ...

  11. A study of authorization architectures for grid security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Yanguang; Sun Gongxing; Pei Erming; Ma Nan

    2006-01-01

    Grid security is one of key issues in grid computing, while current research focus is put on the grid authorization. There is a brief discussion about the drawback of the common GSI (Grid Security Infrastructure) authorization firstly, then analysis is made on the latest several grid authorization architectures, such as structures, policy descriptions, engines, applications, and finally their features are summarized. (authors)

  12. The Sun and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2012-01-01

    Thus the Sun forms the basis for life on Earth via the black body radiation it emits. The Sun also emits mass in the form of the solar wind and the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Mass emission also occurs in the form of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which happens during CMEs and solar flares. Both the mass and electromagnetic energy output of the Sun vary over a wide range of time scales, thus introducing disturbances on the space environment that extends from the Sun through the entire heliosphere including the magnetospheres and ionospheres of planets and moons of the solar system. Although our habitat is located in the neutral atmosphere of Earth, we are intimately connected to the non-neutral space environment starting from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere and to the vast interplanetary space. The variability of the solar mass emissions results in the interaction between the solar wind plasma and the magnetospheric plasma leading to huge disturbances in the geospace. The Sun ionizes our atmosphere and creates the ionosphere. The ionosphere can be severely disturbed by the transient energy input from solar flares and the solar wind during geomagnetic storms. The complex interplay between Earth's magnetic field and the solar magnetic field carried by the solar wind presents varying conditions that are both beneficial and hazardous to life on earth. This seminar presents some of the key aspects of this Sun-Earth connection that we have learned since the birth of space science as a scientific discipline some half a century ago.

  13. Distribution Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution Integration Distribution Integration The goal of NREL's distribution integration research is to tackle the challenges facing the widespread integration of distributed energy resources NREL engineers mapping out a grid model on a whiteboard. NREL's research on the integration of

  14. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus

  15. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  16. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in

  17. Does the sun ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaak, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    The work of various groups, which have been investigating the possibility of measuring the periodicities of solar oscillations in an attempt to test theoretical models of the sun, is reported. In particular the observation of small velocity oscillations of the surface layers of the sun that permits the measurement of the sound waves (or phonons) in the solar atmosphere, is discussed. Oscillations with periods of 2.65 h, 58 and 40 min and amplitudes of 2.7, 0.8 and 0.7 ms -1 respectively are reported. Support for a periodicity at about 2.65 h from a number of other groups using other measuring techniques are considered. It is felt that the most probable interpretation of the observed solar oscillations is that the sun is a resonator which is ringing. (UK)

  18. Improved visibility computation on massive grid terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fishman, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Toma, L.; Wolfson, O.; Agrawal, D.; Lu, C.-T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the design and engineering of algorithms for computing visibility maps on massive grid terrains. Given a terrain T, specified by the elevations of points in a regular grid, and given a viewpoint v, the visibility map or viewshed of v is the set of grid points of T that are

  19. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  20. Sun, weather, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The general field of sun-weather/climate relationships that is, apparent weather and climate responses to solar activity is introduced and theoretical and experimental suggestions for further research to identify and investigate the unknown casual mechanisms are provided. Topics of discussion include: (1) solar-related correlation factors and energy sources; (2) long-term climate trends; (3) short-term meteorological correlations; (4) miscellaneous obscuring influences; (5) physical processes and mechanisms; (6) recapitulation of sun-weather relationships; and (7) guidelines for experiments. 300 references

  1. Sun and solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland))

    1982-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased /sup 14/C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind.

  2. Piece of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, Teddy

    2015-01-01

    Our rapidly industrialising world has an insatiable hunger for energy, and conventional sources are struggling to meet demand. Oil is running out, coal is damaging our climate, many nations are abandoning nuclear, yet solar, wind and water will never be a complete replacement. The solution, says Daniel Clery in this deeply researched and revelatory book, is to be found in the original energy source: the Sun itself. There, at its centre, the fusion of 630 million tonnes of hydrogen every second generates an unfathomable amount of energy. By replicating even a tiny piece of the Sun's power

  3. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  4. Sun, Earth and Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Kenneth R

    2006-01-01

    This Second Edition of Sun, Earth and Sky updates the popular text by providing comprehensive accounts of the most recent discoveries made by five modern solar spacecraft during the past decade. Their instruments have used sound waves to peer deep into the Sun’s inner regions and measure the temperature of its central nuclear reactor, and extended our gaze far from the visible Sun to record energetic outbursts that threaten Earth. Breakthrough observations with the underground Sudbury Neutrino Observatory are also included, which explain the new physics of ghostly neutrinos and solve the problematic mismatch between the predicted and observed amounts of solar neutrinos. This new edition of Sun, Earth and Sky also describes our recent understanding of how the Sun’s outer atmosphere is heated to a million degrees, and just where the Sun’s continuous winds come from. As humans we are more intimately linked with our life-sustaining Sun than with any other astronomical object, and the new edition therefore p...

  5. Licensing the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The University of San Diego (USD) and Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU) are licensing the sun. Both California schools are generating solar power on campus without having to sink large amounts of capital into equipment and installation. By negotiating power purchasing agreements (PPAs) with Amsolar and Perpetual Energy Systems, respectively,…

  6. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Bero, Elizabeth; Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    Leveraging funds from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we combined the expertise of an archaeoastronomer, a solar scientist, and a teacher to trace humankind's view of the Sun and how that has changed, from the time of Stonehenge in about 1800 B.C.E., to the time of the Maya in 700 C.E., up to the modem era. Our program was aimed at middle-school students in an attempt to explain not only how science is done today, but how science has evolved from the observations of ancient societies. From these varied cultures, we touched on methods of observing the Sun, ideas of the composition of the Sun, and the relationship of the Sun to everyday life. Further, using the von Braun Astronomical Society's Planetarium in Huntsville, Alabama as a test-bed for the program, we illustrated concepts such as solstices, equinoxes, and local noon with approximately 800 eighth grade students from the local area. Our presentation to SEPA will include a description of NASA's IDEAS program and how to go about partnering with a NASA astronomer, some slides from our planetarium program and web-site, and some hands-on activities.

  7. The Toboggan Sun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, WPS; van der Werf, SY

    2005-01-01

    Special variants of the Novaya Zemlya effect may arise from localized temperature inversions that follow the height profile of hills or mountains. Rather than following its natural path, the rising or setting Sun may, under such circumstances, appear to slide along a distant mountain slope. We found

  8. Our Explosive Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    The Sun's atmosphere is a highly structured but dynamic place, dominated by the solar magnetic field. Hot charged gas (plasma) is trapped on lines of magnetic force that can snap like an elastic band, propelling giant clouds of material out into space. A range of ground-based and space-based solar telescopes observe these eruptions, particularly…

  9. Sun Ultra 5

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The Sun Ultra 5 is a 64-bit personal computer based on the UltraSPARC microprocessor line at a low price. The Ultra 5 has been declined in several variants: thus, some models have a processor with less cache memory to further decrease the price of the computer.

  10. YUAN-BO SUN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. YUAN-BO SUN. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 97 Issue 1 March 2018 pp 173-178 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Investigating multiple dysregulated pathways in rheumatoid arthritis based on pathway interaction network · XIAN-DONG SONG XIAN-XU SONG GUI-BO LIU ...

  11. The Sun on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2014-03-01

    For 150 years, the Sun has been seen as a gaseous object devoid of a surface, as required by the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Yet, not one line of observational evidence supports a gaseous Sun. In contrast, overwhelming evidence exists that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Recently, 40 proofs have been compiled in conjunction with the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM). This model advances that the Sun has a true surface. Photospheric structures, such as sunspots, granules, and faculae, are not optical illusions, as in the SSM, but real objects with a condensed nature. The LMHSM accounts for the thermal spectrum by invoking true inter-atomic structure on the photosphere in the form of the graphite-like layered hexagonal metallic hydrogen lattice first proposed by Wigner and Huntington. Within the convection zone, layered metallic hydrogen, insulated by intercalate atoms, enables the generation of the solar dynamo. Electrons located in conduction bands provide a proper means of generating magnetic fields. Metallic hydrogen ejected from the photosphere also thinly populates the corona, as reflected by the continuous K-coronal spectrum. This coronal matter harvests electrons, resulting in the production of highly ionized atoms. Electron affinity, not temperature, governs the ion profile. The chromosphere is a site of hydrogen and proton capture. Line emission in this region, strongly supports the idea that exothermic condensation reactions are occurring in the chromosphere. In the LMHSM, solar activity and solar winds are regulated by exfoliation reactions occurring in the Sun itself, as the metallic hydrogen lattice excludes non-hydrogen elements from the solar body.

  12. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...

  13. SCIENCE OF SUN PHOTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the total amount of gases and particles in a column of atmosphere cannot be determined from measurements just at Earth's surface, by a single measurement essentially at the bottom of the atmosphere column. Balloons, airplanes, and rockets are all used to perform direct measurements in the atmosphere at altitudes up to and beyond the stratosphere. Satellite-based instruments provide global views, but it is difficult to infer surface and column distributions from space-based measurements, so such measurements must still be supplemented by ground-based measurements. Sun photometry is an important way of probing the atmosphere from the ground to measure the effects of the atmosphere on Sun radiation crossing through the atmosphere to Earth's surface. These indirect technique provide information about the entire atmosphere above the observer, not just the atmosphere that can be sampled directly close to Earth's surface.

  14. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  15. 100 billion suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippenhahn, R.

    1983-01-01

    A work on the world of astrophysics primarily for lay readers. The author writes only about the discoveries he ''experienced'' during the past 25 years (before 1979). Illustrated somewhat in color plus a set of superb colar plates. Contents, abridged: The long life of stars. The life story of the sun. The life story of massive stars. The end of stars. How stars are born. Planets and their inhabitants

  16. The sun in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonett, C.P.; Giampapa, M.S.; Matthews, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on solar science are presented. The topics considered include: variability of solar irradiance, sunspot number, solar diameter, and solar wind properties; theory of luminosity and radius variations; standard solar models; the sun and the IMF; variations of cosmic-ray flux with time; accelerated particles in solar flares; solar cosmic ray fluxes during the last 10 million yrs; solar neutrinos and solar history; time variations of Be-10 and solar activity; solar and terrestrial components of the atmospheric C-14 variation spectrum; solar flare heavy-ion tracks in extraterrestrial objects. Also addressed are: the faint young sun problem; atmospheric responses to solar irradiation; quaternary glaciations; solar-terrestrial relationships in recent sea sediments; magnetic history of the sun; pre- and main-sequence evolution of solar activity; magnetic activity in pre-main-sequence stars; classical T Tauri stars; relict magnetism of meteorites; luminosity variability of solar-type stars; evolution of angular momentum in solar-mass stars; time evolution of magnetic fields on solarlike stars

  17. The flight over the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducrocq, A.

    1985-01-01

    With the ''Ulysse'' mission, a satellite is going for the first time to leave the ecliptic plane to observe the sun poles. The ISPM (International Solar Polar Mission) probe will go and visit the sun in passing Jupiter way. Sun pole regions are surmised to play a major role in solar wind production [fr

  18. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  19. A HYBRID SOLAR WIND MODEL OF THE CESE+HLL METHOD WITH A YIN-YANG OVERSET GRID AND AN AMR GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xueshang; Zhang Shaohua; Xiang Changqing; Yang Liping; Jiang Chaowei; Wu, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid three-dimensional (3D) MHD model for solar wind study is proposed in the present paper with combined grid systems and solvers. The computational domain from the Sun to Earth space is decomposed into the near-Sun and off-Sun domains, which are respectively constructed with a Yin-Yang overset grid system and a Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) grid system and coupled with a domain connection interface in the overlapping region between the near-Sun and off-Sun domains. The space-time conservation element and solution element method is used in the near-Sun domain, while the Harten-Lax-Leer method is employed in the off-Sun domain. The Yin-Yang overset grid can avoid well-known singularity and polar grid convergence problems and its body-fitting property helps achieve high-quality resolution near the solar surface. The block structured AMR Cartesian grid can automatically capture far-field plasma flow features, such as heliospheric current sheets and shock waves, and at the same time, it can save significant computational resources compared to the uniformly structured Cartesian grid. A numerical study of the solar wind structure for Carrington rotation 2069 shows that the newly developed hybrid MHD solar wind model successfully produces many realistic features of the background solar wind, in both the solar corona and interplanetary space, by comparisons with multiple solar and interplanetary observations.

  20. TUX-INTERO: A Portal for secure interoperation of Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Shashi Bhanwar; Seema Bawa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose TUX-INTERO - a portlet-based Grid portal for integrating existing grid technologies under a common interface and providing reliable services to the users. We have developed a prototype of TUX-INTERO - a grid portal using portlet technology. The paper presents design and development of TUXINTERO. The requirements for the portal, its design and technology choices lead to the utilization of Globus Toolkit as middleware for connecting global resources, SUN N1 GE6 and Con...

  1. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  2. Security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the work of prominent researchers working on smart grids and related fields around the world, Security and Privacy in Smart Grids identifies state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for smart grid communication and security. It investigates the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grid security and privacy and reports on the latest advances in the range of related areas-making it an ideal reference for students, researchers, and engineers in these fields. The book explains grid security development and deployment and introduces novel approaches for securing today'

  3. The Sun in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Sever, Thomas L.; Bero, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Using a grant from NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS) program, we have developed an inter-disciplinary curriculum for middle-school students which targets both history and astronomy. Our curriculum explores the attitudes and techniques of ancient spiritual leaders, specifically those of the Maya and Inca cultures, who observed and tried to control the Sun. We wish students to understand the probable importance of astronomical observations to these ancient peoples. In addition, using the experience of an archaeologist, we show how modern techniques of viewing the Earth through satellite imagery, has allowed the re-discovery of ancient sites where solar observations and attempted manipulation of the universe took place. To contrast ancient observations of the Sun with modern ones, we use the experience of a solar astronomer and bring to the classroom up-to-date information about solar astronomy and the impact of solar activity on the Earth's environment. In this presentation, we will present fragments of our curriculum as well as results from pre- and post-tests given to participating groups of students. Finally, we will discuss comments from local middle-school teachers who were asked to evaluate our curriculum.

  4. Eruptions from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The Sun often exhibits outbursts, launching material from its surface in powerful releases of energy. Recent analysis of such an outburst captured on video by several Sun-monitoring spacecraft may help us understand the mechanisms that launch these eruptions.Many OutburstsSolar jets are elongated, transient structures that are thought to regularly release magnetic energy from the Sun, contributing to coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), on the other hand, are enormous blob-like explosions, violently ejecting energy and mass from the Sun at incredible speeds.But could these two types of events actually be related? According to a team of scientists at the University of Science and Technology of China, they may well be. The team, led by Jiajia Liu, has analyzed observations of a coronal jet that they believe prompted the launch of a powerful CME.Observing an ExplosionGif of a movie of the CME, taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly at a wavelength of 304. The original movie can be found in the article. [Liu et al.]An army of spacecraft was on hand to witness the event on 15 Jan 2013 including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The instruments on board these observatories captured the drama on the northern limb of the Sun as, at 19:32 UT, a coronal jet formed. Just eight minutes later, a powerful CME was released from the same active region.The fact that the jet and CME occurred in the same place at roughly the same time suggests theyre related. But did the initial motions of the CME blob trigger the jet? Or did the jet trigger the CME?Tying It All TogetherIn a recently published study, Liu and collaborators analyzed the multi-wavelength observations of this event to find the heights and positions of the jet and CME. From this analysis, they determined that the coronal jet triggered the release

  5. Grid pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs

  6. The grid

    OpenAIRE

    Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid   Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK   Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia   Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...

  7. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Thieden, Elisabeth; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of b...

  8. The apparent motion of the Sun revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Oliver

    2002-05-01

    The knowledge of the apparent motion of the Sun - due to the combined effects of the rotation of the Earth around its proper axis and the translation around the Sun - is important both in natural and man-made systems. In particular, a proper explanation of the seasons requires an understanding of this solar geometry. In this paper we present a simple derivation of the relevant formulae based on vector algebra. The possible trajectories are discussed in detail. An approximate explicit formula for the seasonal variations of solar radiation is derived and discussed. The calculations give useful insights into the geometry of the problem and are thought to be helpful for the undergraduate teaching of solar energy engineering, classical mechanics and astronomy.

  9. Physics of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, Thomas; Mihalas, Dimitri; Ulrich, Roger

    1986-01-01

    This volume, together with its two companion volumes, originated in a study commis­ sioned by the United States National Academy of Sciences on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A committee composed of Tom Holzer, Dimitri Mihalas, Roger Ulrich and myself was asked to prepare a comprehensive review of current knowledge concerning the physics of the sun. We were fortunate in being able to persuade many distinguished scientists to gather their forces for the preparation of 21 separate chapters covering not only solar physics but also relevant areas of astrophysics and solar-terrestrial relations. It proved necessary to divide the chapters into three separate volumes that cover three different aspects of solar physics. Volumes 1 and 2 are concerned with 'The Solar Interior' and with 'The Solar Atmosphere'. This volume, devoted to 'Astrophysics and Solar-Terrestrial Relations', focuses on problems of solar physics from these two different but complementary perspectives. The emphasis thr...

  10. Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechl, M; Field, L

    2008-01-01

    A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization

  11. Reconnection on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Because the Sun is so close, it makes an excellent laboratory to study processes we cant examinein distant stars. One openquestion is that of how solar magnetic fields rearrange themselves, producing the tremendous releases of energy we observe as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs).What is Magnetic Reconnection?Magnetic reconnection occurs when a magnetic field rearranges itself to move to a lower-energy state. As field lines of opposite polarity reconnect, magnetic energy is suddenly converted into thermal and kinetic energy.This processis believed to be behind the sudden releases of energy from the solar surface in the form of solar flares and CMEs. But there are many different models for how magnetic reconnection could occur in the magnetic field at the Suns surface, and we arent sure which one of these reconnection types is responsible for the events we see.Recently, however, several studies have been published presenting some of the first observational support of specific reconnection models. Taken together, these observations suggest that there are likely several different types of reconnection happening on the solar surface. Heres a closer look at two of these recent publications:A pre-eruption SDO image of a flaring region (b) looks remarkably similar to a 3D cartoon for typical breakout configuration (a). Click for a closer look! [Adapted from Chen et al. 2016]Study 1:Magnetic BreakoutLed by Yao Chen (Shandong University in China), a team of scientists has presented observations made by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) of a flare and CME event that appears to have been caused by magnetic breakout.In the magnetic breakout model, a series of loops in the Suns lower corona are confined by a surrounding larger loop structure called an arcade higher in the corona. As the lower loops push upward, reconnection occurs in the upper corona, removing the overlying, confining arcade. Without that extra confinement, the lower coronal loops expand upward

  12. Creating a Sun-Safe Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Strategies for minimizing sun exposure of campers and staff include educating campers about the sun's effect on their skin, scheduling activities when the sun is less intense, creating shade at the camp site, incorporating sun protection into camp dress code, and training staff regarding sun protection. Addresses OSHA and liability issues. (LP)

  13. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thune, P.

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab

  14. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  15. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  16. Smart Grid Technologies: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buran Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for researchers and engineers studying Smart Grid technologies.

  17. Sun exposure, sun protection and sunburn among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Lauren; Fioletov, Vitali

    2017-05-17

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and a history of sunburn are important risk factors for skin cancer. Sunburn is more common among men, younger age groups, and people in higher income households. Sun protection measures also vary by sex, age, and socioeconomic characteristics. Associations between ambient UVR and sunburn and sun safety measures have not been quantified. A total of 53,130 respondents aged 18 or older answered a Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) module on sun safety, which was administered in six provinces from 2005 to 2014. The module contained questions about sunburn, time in the sun, and sun protection. These respondents were linked to an ambient erythemal UVR dataset representing the June-to-August mean. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to examine associations between population characteristics, sunburn, sun safety, time in the sun, and ambient UVR. Sunburn was reported by 33% of respondents and was more common among men, younger age groups, people who were not members of visible minorities, residents of higher income households, and individuals who were employed. On a typical summer day, a larger percentage of women than men sought shade and wore sunscreen, whereas a larger percentage of men wore a hat or long pants. As ambient summer UVR increased, women were more likely to apply sunscreen to their face, seek shade, or wear a hat (OR~1.02 to 1.09 per increase of 187 J/m² of erythemally-weighted UVR, or 5.4% of the mean); these associations were not observed among men. Findings related to sunburn and sun protection were similar to those of previous studies. The association between ambient UVR and women's precautionary measures suggests that information about UVR may influence their decision to protect their skin.

  18. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  19. Clustering of Sun Exposure Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Anna Szynkowiak; Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2002-01-01

    In a medically motivated Sun-exposure study, questionnaires concerning Sun-habits were collected from a number of subjects together with UV radiation measurements. This paper focuses on identifying clusters in the heterogeneous set of data for the purpose of understanding possible relations between...... Sun-habits exposure and eventually assessing the risk of skin cancer. A general probabilistic framework originally developed for text and Web mining is demonstrated to be useful for clustering of behavioral data. The framework combines principal component subspace projection with probabilistic...

  20. Middleware for the next generation Grid infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Laure, E; Prelz, F; Beco, S; Fisher, S; Livny, M; Guy, L; Barroso, M; Buncic, P; Kunszt, Peter Z; Di Meglio, A; Aimar, A; Edlund, A; Groep, D; Pacini, F; Sgaravatto, M; Mulmo, O

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe) project is to create a reliable and dependable European Grid infrastructure for e-Science. The objective of the EGEE Middleware Re-engineering and Integration Research Activity is to provide robust middleware components, deployable on several platforms and operating systems, corresponding to the core Grid services for resource access, data management, information collection, authentication & authorization, resource matchmaking and brokering, and monitoring and accounting. For achieving this objective, we developed an architecture and design of the next generation Grid middleware leveraging experiences and existing components essentially from AliEn, EDG, and VDT. The architecture follows the service breakdown developed by the LCG ARDA group. Our strategy is to do as little original development as possible but rather re-engineer and harden existing Grid services. The evolution of these middleware components towards a Service Oriented Architecture ...

  1. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  2. Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Facts Protecting Yourself from Sun Exposure Anyone working outdoors is exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays, even on cloudy ... nausea, and fatigue. In addition to the skin, eyes can become sunburned. Sunburned eyes become red, dry, ...

  3. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  4. Earthly sun called ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeyev, Mikhail

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Participating in the film are Academicians Velikhov and Glukhikh, Mr. Filatof, ITER Director from Russia, Mr. Sannikov from Kurchatov Institute. The film tells about the starting point of the project (Mr. Lavrentyev), the pioneers of the project (Academicians Tamme, Sakharov, Artsimovich) and about the situation the project is standing now. Participating in [ITER now are the US, Russia, Japan and the European Union. There are two associated members as well - Kazakhstan and Canada. By now the engineering design phase has been finished. Computer animation used in the video gives us the idea how the first thermonuclear reactor based on famous Russian TOKOMAK works. (author)

  5. The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...

  6. First Thuesday - CERN, The Grid gets real

    CERN Multimedia

    Robertson, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    A few years ago, "the Grid" was just a vision dreamt up by some computer scientists who wanted to share processor power and data storage capacity between computers around the world - in much the same way as today's Web shares information seamlessly between millions of computers. Today, Grid technology is a huge enterprise, involving hundreds of software engineers, and generating exciting opportunities for industry. "Computing on demand", "utility computing", "web services", and "virtualisation" are just a few of the buzzwords in the IT industry today that are intimately connected to the development of Grid technology. For this third First Tuesday @CERN, the panel will survey some of the latest major breakthroughs in building international computer Grids for science. It will also provide a snapshot of Grid-related industrial activities, with contributions from both major players in the IT sector as well as emerging Grid technology start-ups.

  7. The sun and the neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacsne Dajka, E.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the solar neutrino puzzle is given. The main processes in the sun, the pp-chain and the CNO cycle are described. The solar neutrino puzzle, i.e. the fact that the detected amount of neutrinos coming from the sun is less than the amount predicted by the solar model is discussed. The first generation solar neutrino experiments are presented. (K.A.)

  8. Superconductors in the power grid materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Superconductors offer high throughput with low electric losses and have the potential to transform the electric power grid. Transmission networks incorporating cables of this type could, for example, deliver more power and enable substantial energy savings. Superconductors in the Power Grid: Materials and Applications provides an overview of superconductors and their applications in power grids. Sections address the design and engineering of cable systems and fault current limiters and other emerging applications for superconductors in the power grid, as well as case studies of industrial applications of superconductors in the power grid. Expert editor from highly respected US government-funded research centre Unique focus on superconductors in the power grid Comprehensive coverage

  9. Keeping Cool Close to the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-01

    The germanium detector in the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft is only the size and weight of a can of peaches but will play a critical role in investigating Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun. The MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft travels at about 38 kilometers per second and is named after the scientific goals of the mission. It is the first spacecraft to visit Mercury since 1975. MESSENGER must take an oblique route to approach Mercury so that it does not fly past the planet and fall directly into the Sun. The spacecraft will travel 7.9 billion kilometers, flying by Earth once, Venus twice, and Mercury three times before settling into orbit around this mysterious planet. Of all the terrestrial planets, which include Venus, Earth, and Mars, Mercury is the smallest and the densest; its days are 176 Earth days long, two complete orbits of the planet around the Sun. Temperatures range from a high of 450 C on the Sun side during its long day to a low of -185 C on its night side. By studying this extreme planet, scientists hope to better understand how Earth formed and evolved. The GRS, one of the seven lightweight scientific instruments on MESSENGER, will be used to help scientists determine the abundance of elements in Mercury's crust, including the materials that might be ice at its poles. Livermore engineer Norman Madden led the West Coast team effort to design and build the GRS in a collaboration led by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL). The team included Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories as well as University of California at Berkeley (UCB) Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). The JHUAPL MESSENGER project is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery Mission. Because the detector needs to operate at very low temperatures and MESSENGER is close to the Sun, the thermal design to protect the detector was

  10. NEW SUNS IN THE COSMOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Freitas, D. B.; Leao, I. C.; Lopes, C. E. Ferreira; Paz-Chinchon, F.; Canto Martins, B. L.; Alves, S.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-08-20

    The present work reports on the discovery of three stars that we have identified to be rotating Sun-like stars, based on rotational modulation signatures inferred from light curves from the CoRoT mission's Public Archives. In our analysis, we performed an initial selection based on the rotation period and position in the period-T{sub eff} diagram. This revealed that the stars CoRoT IDs 100746852, 102709980, and 105693572 provide potentially good matches to the Sun with a similar rotation period. To refine our analysis, we applied a novel procedure, taking into account the fluctuations of the features associated with photometric modulation at different time intervals and the fractality traces that are present in the light curves of the Sun and of these ''New Sun'' candidates alike. In this sense, we computed the so-called Hurst exponent for the referred stars, for a sample of 14 CoRoT stars with sub- and super-solar rotational periods, and for the Sun itself in its active and quiet phases. We found that the Hurst exponent can provide a strong discriminant of Sun-like behavior, going beyond what can be achieved with solely the rotation period itself. In particular, we find that CoRoT ID 105693572 is the star that most closely matches the solar rotation properties as far as the latter's imprints on light curve behavior are concerned. The stars CoRoT IDs 100746852 and 102709980 have significant smaller Hurst exponents than the Sun, notwithstanding their similarity in rotation periods.

  11. Impact of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.

    2017-12-01

    With the increasing interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to renewable energy utilization, and with the focus on using smart grids to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations, arises the need to know the Moon position in the sky with respect to the Sun. When a solar eclipse occurs, the Moon disk might totally or partially shade the Sun disk, which can affect the irradiance level from the sun disk, consequently, a resource on the grid is affected. The Moon position can then provide the smart grid users with information about potential total or partial solar eclipse at different locations in the grid, so that other resources on the grid can be directed where this might be needed when such phenomena occurs. At least five solar eclipses occur yearly at different locations on earth, they can last three hours or more depending on the location, which can have devastating effects on the smart grid users. On August 21, 2017 a partial solar eclipse will occur at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado, USA. The solar irradiance will be measured during the eclipse and compared to the data generated by a model for validation.

  12. Impact of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reda, Ibrahim M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andreas, Afshin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-12

    With the increasing interest in using solar energy as a major contributor to the use of renewable generation, and with the focus on using smart grids to optimize the use of electrical energy based on demand and resources from different locations, the need arises to know the moons position in the sky with respect to the sun. When a solar eclipse occurs, the moon disk might totally or partially shade the sun disk, which can affect the irradiance level from the sun disk, consequently affecting a resource on the electric grid. The moons position can then provide smart grid users with information about how potential total or partial solar eclipses might affect different locations on the grid so that other resources on the grid can be directed to where they might be needed when such phenomena occurs. At least five solar eclipses occur yearly at different locations on Earth, they can last 3 hours or more depending on the location, and they can affect smart grid users. On August 21, 2017, a partial and full solar eclipse occurred in many locations in the United States, including at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. Solar irradiance measurements during the eclipse were compared to the data generated by a model for validation at eight locations.

  13. SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2014-05-01

    The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals outlined in the SunShot Vision Study. Contents include overviews of each of SunShot’s five subprogram areas, as well as a description of every active project in the SunShot’s project portfolio as of May 2014.

  14. Sun Exposure and Psychotic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Pilecka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSun exposure is considered the single most important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between sun exposure and psychotic experiences (PEs in a general population sample of Swedish women.MethodsThe study population included participants from The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study. The 20-item community assessment of psychic experiences (CAPEs was administered between ages 30 and 50 to establish PEs. Sun exposure as measured by (1 sunbathing holidays and (2 history of sunburn was measured between ages 10 and 39. The association between sun exposure and PEs was evaluated by quantile regression models.Results34,297 women were included in the analysis. Women who reported no sunbathing holidays and 2 or more weeks of sunbathing holidays scored higher on the CAPE scale than women exposed to 1 week of sunbathing holidays across the entire distribution, when adjusting for age and education. Similarly, compared with women who reported a history of one sunburn, the women with none or two or more sunburns showed higher scores on the CAPE scale.ConclusionThe results of the present study suggest that, in a population-based cohort of middle aged women, both low and high sun exposure is associated with increased level of positive PEs.

  15. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  16. SU(N) Irreducible Schwinger Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Manu; Raychowdhury, Indrakshi; Anishetty, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    We construct SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons satisfying certain U(N-1) constraints which implement the symmetries of SU(N) Young tableaues. As a result all SU(N) irreducible representations are simple monomials of $(N-1)$ types of SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons. Further, we show that these representations are free of multiplicity problems. Thus all SU(N) representations are made as simple as SU(2).

  17. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured...... in the questionnaire. Exposure measured in SED by dosimetry correlated strongly with the exposure scale. In a linear regression model of UVR (SED) received, 41 percent of the variation was explained by skin type, age, week of participation and the exposure scale, with the exposure scale as the main contributor...

  18. Nuclear astrophysics of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    In the first chapter we will discuss the problem of nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun and consider the modern aspects of the neutrino astrophysics of the Sun. The second chapter is devoted to the high energy interactions in the solar atmosphere during the flares. Among a great number of events during the solar flares we shall consider mainly the nuclear reactions. Special attention will be paid to the genetic connection between the different components of solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation. The idea of the unity of processes in different parts of the Sun, from hot and dense interior up to the rare plasma of the solar corona will be the main line of the book. (orig./WL) 891 WL/orig.- 892 HIS

  19. Torsional oscillations of the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, H.B.; Howard, R.; National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ)

    1985-01-01

    The sun's differential rotation has a cyclic pattern of change that is tightly correlated with the sunspot, or magnetic activity, cycle. This pattern can be described as a torsional oscillation, in which the solar rotation is periodically sped up or slowed down in certain zones of latitude while elsewhere the rotation remains essentially steady. The zones of anomalous rotation move on the sun in wavelike fashion, keeping pace with and flanking the zones of magnetic activity. It is uncertain whether this torsional oscillation is a globally coherent ringing of the sun or whether it is a local pattern caused by and causing local changes in the magnetic fields. In either case, it may be an important link in the connection between the rotation and the cycle that is widely believed to exist but is not yet understood. 46 references

  20. Power grid complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    2011-07-01

    ''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)

  1. SunBlock '99: Young Scientists Investigate the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, R. W.; Pike, C. D.; Mason, H.; Young, P.; Ireland, J.; Galsgaard, K.

    1999-10-01

    SunBlock `99 is a Web-based Public Understanding of Science and educational project which seeks to present the very latest solar research as seen through the eyes of young British scientists. These ``solar guides'' discuss not only their scientific interests, but also their extra-curricular activities and the reasons they chose scientific careers; in other words the human face of scientific research. The SunBlock '99 pages gather a range of solar images and movies from current solar space observatories and discuss the underlying physics and its relationship to the school curriculum. The instructional level is pitched at UK secondary school children (aged 13-16 years). It is intended that the material should not only provide a visually appealing introduction to the study of the Sun, but that it should help bridge the often wide gap between classroom science lessons and the research scientist `out in the field'. SunBlock '99 is managed by a team from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Universities of St Andrews and Cambridge, together with educational consultants. The production has, in part, been sponsored by PPARC and the Millennium Mathematics Project. Web site addresss: http://www.sunblock99.org.uk

  2. Sun and Skin: The Dark Side of Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a toll on your skin and its underlying connective tissue. As a result, your skin may develop more wrinkles and lines. Too much sun exposure can also raise your risk for skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in the ...

  3. The sun and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased 14 C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind. (U.K.)

  4. Tracking Planets around the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2008-01-01

    In earlier columns, the celestial coordinate system of hour circles of right ascension and degrees of declination was introduced along with the use of an equatorial star chart (see SFA Star Charts in Resources). This system shows the planets' motion relative to the ecliptic, the apparent path the Sun follows during the year. An alternate system,…

  5. Day the sun went out

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "A new british sci-fi movie envisages the death of the sun not in billions of years, but in decades. And, amazingly, the film's scientific adviser says this may not be so far from the truth..." (1/2 page)

  6. Teaching "Empire of the Sun."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riet, Fred H. van

    1990-01-01

    A Dutch teacher presents reading, film viewing, and writing activities for "Empire of the Sun," J. G. Ballard's autobiographical account of life as a boy in Shanghai and in a Japanese internment camp during World War II (the subject of Steven Spielberg's film of the same name). Includes objectives, procedures, and several literature,…

  7. The Award Winning Black Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2018-01-01

    Black Suns: An Astrophysics Adventure is a documentary film focusing on the annular and total solar eclipses of 2012. We made a different kind of astronomy documentary showing the human aspects rather than just focusing on pretty astronomy pictures. The film combines personal stories with science. Our heroes are Hakeem Oluseyi and Alphonse Sterling, who valiantly travel to study the solar corona during total solar eclipses. The goals of the film included presenting three dimensional scientists, to show their paths to becoming astrophysicists, and to show them as they collect data and work as scientists. Drama and tension surround taking data during the small window of time during totality. The Black Suns was filmed in Tokyo, Cairns, Tucson, and Melbourne Florida. Uniquely, the film began through a Kickstarter campaign to fund travel and filming in Tokyo. Many American Astronomical Society members donated to the film! Black Suns won the Jury Prize at the 2017 Art of Brooklyn Film Festival. Black Suns will be screening in full on ???.

  8. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  9. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  10. SunFast: A sun workstation based, fuel analysis scoping tool for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohnhoff, W.J.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this research was to develop a fuel cycle scoping program for light water reactors and implement the program on a workstation class computer. Nuclear fuel management problems are quite formidable due to the many fuel arrangement options available. Therefore, an engineer must perform multigroup diffusion calculations for a variety of different strategies in order to determine an optimum core reload. Standard fine mesh finite difference codes result in a considerable computational cost. A better approach is to build upon the proven reliability of currently available mainframe computer programs, and improve the engineering efficiency by taking advantage of the most useful characteristic of workstations: enhanced man/machine interaction. This dissertation contains a description of the methods and a user's guide for the interactive fuel cycle scoping program, SunFast. SunFast provides computational speed and accuracy of solution along with a synergetic coupling between the user and the machine. It should prove to be a valuable tool when extensive sets of similar calculations must be done at a low cost as is the case for assessing fuel management strategies. 40 refs

  11. Modeling and Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Pennline, James A.; Schilling, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    SmaggIce Version 2.0 is a software toolkit for geometric modeling and grid generation for two-dimensional, singleand multi-element, clean and iced airfoils. A previous version of SmaggIce was described in Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 8 (August 2004), page 32. To recapitulate: Ice shapes make it difficult to generate quality grids around airfoils, yet these grids are essential for predicting ice-induced complex flow. This software efficiently creates high-quality structured grids with tools that are uniquely tailored for various ice shapes. SmaggIce Version 2.0 significantly enhances the previous version primarily by adding the capability to generate grids for multi-element airfoils. This version of the software is an important step in streamlining the aeronautical analysis of ice airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The user may prepare the ice shape, define the flow domain, decompose it into blocks, generate grids, modify/divide/merge blocks, and control grid density and smoothness. All these steps may be performed efficiently even for the difficult glaze and rime ice shapes. Providing the means to generate highly controlled grids near rough ice, the software includes the creation of a wrap-around block (called the "viscous sublayer block"), which is a thin, C-type block around the wake line and iced airfoil. For multi-element airfoils, the software makes use of grids that wrap around and fill in the areas between the viscous sub-layer blocks for all elements that make up the airfoil. A scripting feature records the history of interactive steps, which can be edited and replayed later to produce other grids. Using this version of SmaggIce, ice shape handling and grid generation can become a practical engineering process, rather than a laborious research effort.

  12. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greacen, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Engel, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quetchenbach, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW is intended to help meet the widespread need for guidance, standards, and procedures for interconnecting mini-grids with the central electric grid as rural electrification advances in developing countries, bringing these once separate power systems together. The guidebook aims to help owners and operators of renewable energy mini-grids understand the technical options available, safety and reliability issues, and engineering and administrative costs of different choices for grid interconnection. The guidebook is intentionally brief but includes a number of appendices that point the reader to additional resources for indepth information. Not included in the scope of the guidebook are policy concerns about “who pays for what,” how tariffs should be set, or other financial issues that are also paramount when “the little grid connects to the big grid.”

  13. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reddy, Tarylee; Mathee, Angela; Street, Renée A

    2017-09-28

    Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7%) were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%). Glare from the sun (59.7%) and excessive sweating (57.6%) were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard ( p = 0.003). In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  14. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7% were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%. Glare from the sun (59.7% and excessive sweating (57.6% were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard (p = 0.003. In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  15. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...

  16. Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sunglasses Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic The Sun, UV Radiation and Your Eyes Leer en Español: El ... Aug. 28, 2014 Keep an Eye on Ultraviolet (UV) Safety Eye medical doctors (ophthalmologists) caution us that ...

  17. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  18. Tanel Padar & The Sun veab õhukitarri

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Õhukitarri Eesti meistrivõistlustest 19. apr. Tallinnas Rock Cafés (võistluste eestvedajaks on ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun, kes samas esitleb oma esimest ingliskeelset albumit "Here Comes The Sun")

  19. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  20. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    various payloads and platforms. The conventional and commercial actuators and attitude sensors are in most cases not suited for these satellites, which again lead to new design considerations. Another important property is the launch cost, which can be kept relatively low as a result of the concept....... This fact enables students to get hands-on experience with satellite systems design and project management. This paper describes the attitude control and determination system of a Danish student satellite (DTUsat), with main focus on the two-axis MOEMS sun sensor developed. On the magnetotorquer controlled...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  1. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  2. Caddo Sun Accounts across Time and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Carla

    2012-01-01

    Billy Day, a Tunica/Biloxi, recently described the significance of the sun for Caddoan people. Day quoted an "old Caddo relative" of his who said: "I used to go outside and hold my hands up and bless myself with the sun--'a'hat.' Well, I can't do that anymore because they say we are sun worshipers. We didn't worship the sun. We worshiped what was…

  3. Can the Sun replace uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-07-01

    Two asymptotic worlds, one based on solar energy, the other based on nuclear energy, are compared. The total energy demand in each case is 2,000 quads. Although the Sun can in principal supply this energy, it probably will be very expensive. If the energy were supplied entirely by breeders, the nuclear energy system would pose formidable systems problems--particularly safety and proliferation. It is suggested that in view of these possible difficulties, all options must be kept open

  4. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  5. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  6. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  7. The Sun A User's Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Sun is an account of the many ways in which our nearest star affects our planet, how its influence has changed over the last few centuries and millennia, and the extent to which we can predict its future impact. The Sun's rays foster the formation of Vitamin D by our bodies, but it can also promote skin cancer, cataracts, and mutations in our DNA. Besides providing the warmth and light essential to most animal and plant life, solar energy contributes substantially to global warming. Although the charged particles of the solar wind shield us from harmful cosmic rays, solar storms may damage artificial satellites and cripple communication systems and computer networks. The Sun is the ideal renewable energy source, but its exploitation is still bedevilled by the problems of storage and distribution. Our nearest star, in short, is a complex machine which needs to be treated with caution, and this book will equip every reader with the knowledge that is required to understand the benefits and dangers it can bri...

  8. Integrable multi parametric SU(N) chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, Angela; Roditi, Itzhak; Rodrigues, Ligia M.C.S.

    1996-03-01

    We analyse integrable models associated to a multi parametric SU(N) R-matrix. We show that the Hamiltonians describe SU(N) chains with twisted boundary conditions and that the underlying algebraic structure is the multi parametric deformation of SU(N) enlarged by the introduction of a central element. (author). 15 refs

  9. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  10. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  11. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage as solution to electrical grid outages in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdoulaye, D; Koalaga, Z; Zougmore, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a key solution for power outages problem experienced by many African countries and this through grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with batteries storage. African grids are characterized by an insufficient power supply and frequent interruptions. Due to this fact, users who especially use classical grid-connected photovoltaic systems are unable to profit from their installation even if there is sun. In this study, we suggest the using of a grid-connected photovoltaic system with batteries storage as a solution to these problems. This photovoltaic system works by injecting the surplus of electricity production into grid and can also deliver electricity as a stand-alone system with all security needed. To achieve our study objectives, firstly we conducted a survey of a real situation of one African electrical grid, the case of Burkina Faso (SONABEL: National Electricity Company of Burkina). Secondly, as study case, we undertake a sizing, a modeling and a simulation of a grid-connected PV system with batteries storage for the LAME laboratory at the University of Ouagadougou. The simulation shows that the proposed grid-connected system allows users to profit from their photovoltaic installation at any time even if the public electrical grid has some failures either during the day or at night.

  12. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  13. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  14. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  15. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  16. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  17. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  18. First Tuesday@CERN - THE GRID GETS REAL !

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A few years ago, "the Grid" was just a vision dreamt up by some computer scientists who wanted to share processor power and data storage capacity between computers around the world - in much the same way as today's Web shares information seamlessly between millions of computers. Today, Grid technology is a huge enterprise, involving hundreds of software engineers, and generating exciting opportunities for industry. "Computing on demand", "utility computing", "web services", and "virtualisation" are just a few of the buzzwords in the IT industry today that are intimately connected to the development of Grid technology. For this third First Tuesday @CERN, the panel will survey some of the latest major breakthroughs in building international computer Grids for science. It will also provide a snapshot of Grid-related industrial activities, with contributions from both major players in the IT sector as well as emerging Grid technology start-ups. Panel: - Les Robertson, Head of the LHC Computing Grid Project, IT ...

  19. SU(N,1) inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.; Srednicki, M.

    1985-01-01

    We present a simple model for primordial inflation in the context of SU(N, 1) no-scale n=1 supergravity. Because the model at zero temperature very closely resembles global supersymmetry, minima with negative cosmological constants do not exist, and it is easy to have a long inflationary epoch while keeping density perturbations of the right magnitude and satisfying other cosmological constraints. We pay specific attention to satisfying the thermal constraint for inflation, i.e. the existence of a high temperature minimum at the origin. (orig.)

  20. Smart grid communication-enabled intelligence for the electric power grid

    CERN Document Server

    Bush, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    This book bridges the divide between the fields of power systems engineering and computer communication through the new field of power system information theory. Written by an expert with vast experience in the field, this book explores the smart grid from generation to consumption, both as it is planned today and how it will evolve tomorrow. The book focuses upon what differentiates the smart grid from the ""traditional"" power grid as it has been known for the last century. Furthermore, the author provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of both power systems and communication ne

  1. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, I. [Arise Technologies Corp., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market

  2. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market, followed by Europe

  3. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  4. Higher-Order Components for Grid Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Dünnweber, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Higher-Order Components were developed within the CoreGRID European Network of Excellence and have become an optional extension of the popular Globus middleware. This book provides the reader with hands-on experience, describing a collection of example applications from various fields of science and engineering, including biology and physics.

  5. Skin Tone Dissatisfaction, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection in Australian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Prichard, Ivanka; Ettridge, Kerry; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the adoption of sun protection and sun exposure behaviors, the extent to which these behaviors group together, and the relationship between skin tone dissatisfaction and sun-related behaviors in South Australian adolescents (aged 12-17). A total of 2,875 secondary school students (1,461 male and 1,414 female) completed a questionnaire including questions about sun protection and sun exposure behaviors and skin tone dissatisfaction. Regular adoption of sun protection behaviors was low and ranged from 20% (wearing protective clothing) to 44% (sunscreen use). A principal components analysis identified four subgroups of sun-related behaviors: sun protection, appearance enhancement, sun avoidance, and sun exposure. Females had significantly higher skin tone dissatisfaction than males. Skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with decreased sun protection and avoidance and increased appearance enhancement and sun exposure in both males and females. Skin tone dissatisfaction plays an important role in Australian adolescents' sun-related behavior. Appearance-based interventions may be effective in reducing skin cancer risk through reduced sun exposure.

  6. LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: We give an overview of the grid computing initiatives in the Americas. High-Energy Physics has played a very important role in the development of grid computing in the world and in Latin America it has not been different. Lately, the grid concept has expanded its reach across all branches of e-Science, and we have witnessed the birth of the first nationwide infrastructures and its use in the private sector. (author)

  7. Urban micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel

    2017-02-01

    ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases

  8. High density grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-16

    An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.

  9. Micro grids toward the smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.

  10. PLL strategies of grid connected converters under distorted input voltages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Petr; Škramlík, Jiří; Valouch, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-12 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : voltage source converter * grid - connected applications * phase locked loop Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. Here comes the sun...; Here comes the sun...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Robert [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE) de la UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    It sounds a bit strange that you can use solar energy to maintain or refrigerate products or spaces below the ambient temperature, because we know that something that makes the sun is heating; but yes indeed, the sun can produce cold, and in addition without polluting, and without consuming conventional energy. In this document are mentioned the various research projects on solar cooling that have been made in the Energy Research Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico such as the thermo-chemical intermittent refrigerator, the geothermal cooling demonstration system in Mexicali, B.C., the GAX system for air conditioning, the ice producer intermittent solar refrigerator, the continuous solar refrigerator, the refrigeration by ejection-compression. It also mentions the functioning of heat pumps and the process of solar drying applications in agricultural products. [Spanish] Suena un poco extrano que se pueda utilizar la energia solar para mantener o refrigerar productos o espacios por debajo de la temperatura ambiente, ya que sabemos que algo que hace el sol es calentar; pero si, el sol puede producir frio, y ademas sin contaminar y sin consumir energia convencional. En este documento se mencionan las diferentes investigaciones sobre refrigeracion solar que se han realizado en el Centro de Investigacion en Energia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico como el refrigerador termoquimico intermitente, el sistema demostrativo de refrigeracion geotermico en Mexicali, B.C., el sistema GAX para aire acondicionado, el refrigerador solar intermitente productor de hielo, el refrigerador continuo solar, la refrigeracion por eyecto-compresion. Tambien se menciona el funcionamiento de las bombas de calor y el proceso de secado solar de aplicacion en productos agropecuarios.

  12. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  13. Cheap two axis sun following device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.; Georgiev, A.; Boudinov, H.

    2005-01-01

    A sun following system was constructed and tested. The tracker gives the possibility for automatic measuring of direct solar radiation with a phetylureum. The mechanism is operated by a digital program in the control system, situated separately from the mechanical part. The position of the sun is calculated, and the pointing errors appearing during its daily work are stored for later analysis. Additionally, in the active operation mode, the tracker uses the signal of a sun detecting linear sensor to control the pointing. Two stepper motors move the instrument platform, keeping the sun's beam at the center of the sensor. The mechanism was created at the Laboratory 'Evaluation Solar' of the Technical University Faradaic Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso, Chile. The experiments show good results. The described sun tracker gives similar results as the Swiss sun tracker INTRA at a very much lower price

  14. SUN1 splice variants, SUN1_888, SUN1_785, and predominant SUN1_916, variably function in directional cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka, Yu; Imaizumi, Hiromasa; Imada, Junko; Katahira, Jun; Matsuura, Nariaki; Hieda, Miki

    2016-01-01

    The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relat...

  15. The shivering sun opens its heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, D.

    1976-01-01

    Recent discoveries, by various workers, of global oscillations of the Sun are summarised. The two major ways in which the Sun can vibrate, as a standing acoustic wave and as a standing gravity wave, are discussed. The recently discovered oscillations provide a new rich class of data with which to test theoretical models of the internal structure of the Sun. The implications of these new data with reference to solar models are considered. (U.K.)

  16. SunRISE Mission Concept Step 2 Study Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibay, F.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Neilsen, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an update on the Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept, which was selected for a Step 2 study as part of the Small Explorer (SMEX) Mission of Opportunity (MoO) call. SunRISE is space-based sparse array, composed of six 6U CubeSats, designed to localize the radio emission associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun. Radio emission from CMEs is a direct tracer of the particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Furthermore, CME radio emission is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required, and a small mission would make a fundamental advancement. Indeed, the state-of-the-art for tracking CME radio emission is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES) in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping. This type of Heliophysics mission would be inherently cost prohibitive in a traditional spacecraft paradigm. However, the use of CubeSats, accompanied by the miniaturization of subsystem components, enables the development of this concept at lower cost than ever before. We present the most recent updates on this mission concept, starting from the concept's performance as compared to the required science and driving technical requirements. We then focus on the SunRISE mission concept of operations, which consists of six 6U CubeSats placed in a GEO graveyard orbit for 6 months to achieve the aforementioned science goals. The spacecraft fly in a passive formation, which allows them to form an interferometer while minimizing the impact on operations complexity. We also present details of the engineering design and the key trades being performed as part of the Step 2 concept study.

  17. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  18. Revival of the "Sun Festival": An educational and outreach project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montabone, Luca

    2016-10-01

    In ancient times, past civilisations used to celebrate both the winter and summer solstices, which represented key moments in the periodical cycle of seasons and agricultural activities. In 1904, the French astronomer Camille Flammarion, the engineer Gustave Eiffel, the science writer Wilfrid de Fonvielle and the Spanish astronomer Josep Comas i Solà decided to celebrate the summer solstice with a festival of science, art and astronomical observations opened to the public at the Eiffel tower in Paris. For ten consecutive years (1904-1914) on the day of the summer solstice, the "Sun Festival" (Fête du Soleil in French) included scientific and technological lectures and demostrations, celestial observations, music, poetry, danse, cinema, etc. This celebration was interrupted by the First World War, just to resume in Barcelona, Spain, between 1915 and 1937, and in Marseille, France, in the 1930s. It was the founders' dream to extend this celebration to all cities in France and elsewhere.It is only during the International Year of Astronomy in 2009, to our knowledge, that the "Sun Festival" was given another chance in France, thanks to the joint effort of several scientific and cultural centers (Centres de Culture Scientifique, Technique et Industrielle, CCSTI) and the timely support of the European Space Agency (ESA). In this occasion again, the festival was characterized by the combination of science, art and technological innovation around a common denominator: our Sun!We have recently revived the idea of celebrating the summer solstice with a "Sun Festival" dedicated to scientific education and outreach about our star and related topics. This project started last year in Aix-les-Bains, France, with the "Sun and Light Festival" (2015 was the International Year of Light), attended by about 100 people. This year's second edition was in Le Bourget-du-Lac, France. Following the COP21 event, the specific theme was the "Sun and Climate Festival", and we had about 250

  19. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  20. The LHCb Grid Simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Baranov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Grid access if based on the LHCbDirac system. It provides access to data and computational resources to researchers with different geographical locations. The Grid has a hierarchical topology with multiple sites distributed over the world. The sites differ from each other by their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and connection bandwidth. These parameters are essential for the Grid work. Moreover, job scheduling and data distribution strategy have a great impact on the grid performance. However, it is hard to choose an appropriate algorithm and strategies as they need a lot of time to be tested on the real grid. In this study, we describe the LHCb Grid simulator. The simulator reproduces the LHCb Grid structure with its sites and their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and bandwidth connection. We demonstrate how well the simulator reproduces the grid work, show its advantages and limitations. We show how well the simulator reproduces job scheduling and network anomalies, consider methods ...

  1. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  2. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  3. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...

  4. SMART GRID: Evaluation and Trend in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moreira da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Smart Grid is considered the most promising conglomerate of technology to be applied for the improvement and optimization of all power production in electrical engineer. Smart Grid's concept is being more and more recognized for its importance for representing a way to meliorate the energetic efficiency of the electric system, reducing consumption, allowing intensive use of energy generation renewable sources. Therefore, the goal of this article is to explore and present Smart Grid's concepts and its global evolution, so as perform an assessment on Smart Grid's tendencies in Brazil. In order to do this, we shown the concepts of Smart Grid, its benefits and impacts in the electric system's value chain, the barriers to its diffusion in Brazil and the paths of investments' incentives for deployment of the new technology. Accordingly, we reach the conclusion that the researches point to a long and challenging trajectory for the development and implantation of Smart Grid's technology in Brazil, which is still in a embryonic phase of pilot projects for the knowledge and technology development implantation.

  5. Smart grids in the Grenoble area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Grenoble-Isere combines a long history of leadership in the energy industry with world-class scientific research in the fields of hydropower, nuclear energy, hydrogen and fuel cells, making it an international hub for developments in new energy technologies. Grenoble-Isere is also home to unrivalled expertise in IT, with: - Industry-leading expertise in software (from embedded software to networks); - A strong track record in the fabrication of sophisticated electronic components to regulate energy production and consumption. A Chair for Industrial Excellence in Smart Grids was established in 2012 in Grenoble in recognition of the city's academic and research programs in this exciting field. This document presents: 1 - Smart grids: specificities, challenges, context (What exactly are we talking about? Smart grids, keystone of the energy transition. A very propitious context. The French context: strong public sector support); 2 - Smart grids in the Grenoble area (A local ecosystem favorable to the smart grids dynamic. Expertise in energy and digital technologies at the serving smart grids. New Energy Technologies: a strong positioning in hydroelectricity and the hydrogen energy vector); 3 - Unique to the Grenoble area: scientific and partnership expertise (Electrical and digital engineering: two essential disciplines. Numerous public/private partnerships for the research and experimentation phase. Moving from experimental stages into true industrialization); Appendix 1: Fact sheet on high profile corporations; Appendix 2: Company lists

  6. The GRID seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The Grid infrastructure is a key part of the computing environment for the simulation, processing and analysis of the data of the LHC experiments. These experiments depend on the availability of a worldwide Grid infrastructure in several aspects of their computing model. The Grid middleware will hide much of the complexity of this environment to the user, organizing all the resources in a coherent virtual computer center. The general description of the elements of the Grid, their interconnections and their use by the experiments will be exposed in this talk. The computational and storage capability of the Grid is attracting other research communities beyond the high energy physics. Examples of these applications will be also exposed during the presentation.

  7. Grid Computing Making the Global Infrastructure a Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Geoffrey C; Hey, Anthony J G

    2003-01-01

    Grid computing is applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time Grid computing appears to be a promising trend for three reasons: (1) Its ability to make more cost-effective use of a given amount of computer resources, (2) As a way to solve problems that can't be approached without an enormous amount of computing power (3) Because it suggests that the resources of many computers can be cooperatively and perhaps synergistically harnessed and managed as a collaboration toward a common objective. A number of corporations, professional groups, university consortiums, and other groups have developed or are developing frameworks and software for managing grid computing projects. The European Community (EU) is sponsoring a project for a grid for high-energy physics, earth observation, and biology applications. In the United States, the National Technology Grid is prototyping a computational grid for infrastructure and an access grid for people. Sun Microsystems offers Gri...

  8. An introduction to grids, graphs, and networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Grids, Graphs, and Networks aims to provide a concise introduction to graphs and networks at a level that is accessible to scientists, engineers, and students. In a practical approach, the book presents only the necessary theoretical concepts from mathematics and considers a variety of physical and conceptual configurations as prototypes or examples. The subject is timely, as the performance of networks is recognized as an important topic in the study of complex systems with applications in energy, material, and information grid transport (epitomized by the internet). The bo

  9. Coherent states related with SU(N) and SU(N,1) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Shelepin, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    The basis of coherent state (CS) for symmetric presentations of groups SU(N) and SU(N,1) is plotted, its properties being investigated. Evolution of CS is considered. Relation between CS of groups SU(N) and Glauber is ascertained

  10. Sun behaviour in Canadian children: results of the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichora, Erin C; Marrett, Loraine D

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sun exposure is a particularly important determinant of skin cancer, yet little data are available for children. This paper describes sun behaviour among Canadian children for the summer of 2006. As part of the Second National Sun Survey (NSS2), 1,437 parents reported on the time spent in the sun, and the frequency of sun protection behaviours and sunburning for one of their children aged 1 to 12 years. Analysis was carried out using complex survey procedures in SAS and STATA. The majority of children (94%) spend at least 30 minutes in the sun on a typical summer day; however, regular sun protection is only commonly reported for young children (1 to 5 years) and involves covering their heads and wearing sunscreen (85%). The frequency of other protective behaviours is much lower, and sun protection decreases with age. Older children are also twice as likely to spend extended time in the sun and to get a sunburn. Among older children, boys are more likely to cover their heads and girls are more likely to wear sunscreen. Regular sun protection among Canadian children is low, given their sun exposure. Heavy reliance on sunscreen is consistent with previous reports and indicates that other measures, such as seeking shade and wearing protective clothing, need to be promoted. Riskier sun behaviour among older children may reflect decreased parental control, as well as changing attitudes and peer pressure, and highlights the importance of adult role models and targeted interventions for this age group.

  11. Sun protection counseling by pediatricians has little effect on parent and child sun protection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Liza; Brown, Judith; Haukness, Heather; Walsh, Lori; Robinson, June K

    2013-02-01

    To compare counseling concerning sun protection and outdoor exercise with the parent's report of the behavior of a child aged 9-16 years old. Structured interviews of medical personnel in 3 Chicago area practices elicited information about counseling methods and recommendations. In each practice, a convenience sample of parents completed a self-reported survey of their and their child's behavior. Sun protection counseling occurred more frequently than exercise counseling in all practices (P = .014). Sun protection counseling was associated with parental prompting (P = .004), performing a summer camp physical (P = .002), and the child having a sunburn (P = .003). After controlling for the child's age, sex, and skin tone, sun protection counseling was not associated with the child's use of sun protection. In multivariate analysis of the child's sun protection behavior, parental sunburns, indoor tanning in the last 12 months, perception of skin cancer risk, and sun protection self-efficacy were significant (P = .02). Children who pursued outdoor sports were twice as likely to use inadequate sun protection and sustain sunburns (CI 1.3-1.7). The child's sun protection behavior was influenced by parental sun protection, parental perception of skin cancer risk, and parental sun protection self-efficacy; therefore, sun protection for children needs to be aimed at parents as well as children. Communication with parents in a way that incorporates the principles of motivational interviewing may be more effective in promoting behavioral change than admonitions to use sunscreen. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SOHO starts a revolution in the science of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Point No. 1 where the gravity of the Sun and the Earth are in balance. The spacecraft's engineering has proved to be excellent and no difficulty is anticipated in keeping it operational for at least six years. Early SOHO results were summarized in ESA's Information Note Nr 07-96, 2 May 1996. Here follow notes and comments on some further conclusions by SOHO's scientists. Fast action in the Sun's atmosphere The ultraviolet spectrometers aboard SOHO, called SUMER and CDS, were designed to analyse events in the solar atmosphere and discover temperatures, densities and speeds of motion in the gas. Their detailed results come in the spectra, which analyse the intensities at different wavelengths with high sensitivity, but the spectrometers also generate images by scanning selected regions of the Sun. When the SUMER instrument scans the whole Sun by the ultraviolet light of strongly ionized sulphur atoms (S VI at 933 angstroms) it picks out gas at 200,000 degrees C and reveals a vast number of bright regions created by magnetic field lines looping through the atmosphere. The brightness can change by a factor of ten in a distance of a few thousand kilometres or in a few seconds of time. SUMER has also shown that thick streaks called polar plumes, which climb far into space from the Sun's polar regions, are anchored in bright regions near the Sun's visible surface. The spectrometer CDS has observed fast action in the Sun's atmosphere. It can measure velocities along the line of sight by shifts in the wavelength of emissions from selected atoms, and contrary motions (turbulence) appear in a spreading of the wavelengths. In one high-velocity event, corresponding with a small streak of brightness in the scanned image, CDS detected vertical motions differing by 450 kilometres per second, and an overall motion of 65 kilometres per second downwards. "By taking the Sun's atmosphere to pieces we begin to understand how it influences our lives," says Richard Harrison of the UK

  13. National power grid simulation capability : need and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Mark C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2009-06-02

    On December 9 and 10, 2008, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate sponsored a national workshop at Argonne National Laboratory to explore the need for a comprehensive modeling and simulation capability for the national electric power grid system. The workshop brought together leading electric power grid experts from federal agencies, the national laboratories, and academia to discuss the current state of power grid science and engineering and to assess if important challenges are being met. The workshop helped delineate gaps between grid needs and current capabilities and identify issues that must be addressed if a solution is to be implemented. This report is a result of the workshop and highlights power grid modeling and simulation needs, the barriers that must be overcome to address them, and the benefits of a national power grid simulation capability.

  14. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  15. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  16. Sun Protection for Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Shafie Pour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ultraviolet exposure results in premature skin aging (photoaging, dyspigmentation, sallow color, textural changes, loss of elasticity, and premalignant actinic keratoses. UVB radiation is mainly responsible for acute damages such as sunburn, and long-term damage including melanoma. Today the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced skin cancer is a major issue worldwide. History of sun exposure and sunburns are the most important behavioral risks. Childhood sun exposure is considered as a substantial risk because a child’s skin has a thinner stratum corneum, lower levels of protective melanin, and a higher surface area to body-mass-ratio. Thus, protection against UVR in childhood is essential. Research has shown that people who have had a sunburn in childhood or were in the sun unprotected are more likely to have skin cancer. In this article, we review the literature to address the protection of children against sun and skin cancer.

  17. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  18. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  19. Desktop grid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical

  20. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  1. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagaya Akihiko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  2. A new science infrastruture: the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gongxing

    2003-01-01

    As the depth and scale of science reserch growing, it's requirement of computing power will become bigger and bigger, as well as the global collaboration is being enhanced. therefore, integration and sharing of all available resources among the participating organizations is required, including computing, storage, networks, even human resource and intelligant instruments. Grid technology is developed for the goal mentioned above, and could become an infrastructure the future science research and engineering. As a global computing technology, there are a lot of key technologies to be addressed. In the paper, grid architecture and secure infrastructure and application domains and tools will be described, at last we will give the grid prospect in the future. (authors)

  3. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  4. CMS computing on grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Wen; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    CMS has adopted a distributed system of services which implement CMS application view on top of Grid services. An overview of CMS services will be covered. Emphasis is on CMS data management and workload Management. (authors)

  5. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  6. Meet the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Today's cutting-edge scientific projects are larger, more complex, and more expensive than ever. Grid computing provides the resources that allow researchers to share knowledge, data, and computer processing power across boundaries

  7. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  8. Spacer grid corner gusset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  9. US National Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  10. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  11. Grid Computing Education Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  12. A Data Colocation Grid Framework for Big Data Medical Image Processing: Backend Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuankai; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Plassard, Andrew J.; Bermudez, Camilo; Yao, Yuang; Lyu, Ilwoo; Gokhale, Aniruddha; Landman, Bennett A.

    2018-01-01

    When processing large medical imaging studies, adopting high performance grid computing resources rapidly becomes important. We recently presented a "medical image processing-as-a-service" grid framework that offers promise in utilizing the Apache Hadoop ecosystem and HBase for data colocation by moving computation close to medical image storage. However, the framework has not yet proven to be easy to use in a heterogeneous hardware environment. Furthermore, the system has not yet validated when considering variety of multi-level analysis in medical imaging. Our target design criteria are (1) improving the framework’s performance in a heterogeneous cluster, (2) performing population based summary statistics on large datasets, and (3) introducing a table design scheme for rapid NoSQL query. In this paper, we present a heuristic backend interface application program interface (API) design for Hadoop & HBase for Medical Image Processing (HadoopBase-MIP). The API includes: Upload, Retrieve, Remove, Load balancer (for heterogeneous cluster) and MapReduce templates. A dataset summary statistic model is discussed and implemented by MapReduce paradigm. We introduce a HBase table scheme for fast data query to better utilize the MapReduce model. Briefly, 5153 T1 images were retrieved from a university secure, shared web database and used to empirically access an in-house grid with 224 heterogeneous CPU cores. Three empirical experiments results are presented and discussed: (1) load balancer wall-time improvement of 1.5-fold compared with a framework with built-in data allocation strategy, (2) a summary statistic model is empirically verified on grid framework and is compared with the cluster when deployed with a standard Sun Grid Engine (SGE), which reduces 8-fold of wall clock time and 14-fold of resource time, and (3) the proposed HBase table scheme improves MapReduce computation with 7 fold reduction of wall time compare with a naïve scheme when datasets are relative

  13. The Sun and How to Observe It

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2009-01-01

    Without the Sun, all life on Earth would perish. But what exactly do we know about this star that lights, heats, and powers Earth? Actually, we know quite a lot, thanks mainly to a host of eager solar observers. Looking directly at the Sun is EXTREMELY hazardous. But many astronomers, both professional and amateur, have found ways to view the Sun safely to learn about it. You, too, can view the Sun in all of its glorious detail. Some of the newest, most exciting telescopes on the market are affordable to amateur astronomers or even just curious sky watchers, and with this guide to what the Sun has to offer, including sunspots, prominences, and flares, plus reviews of the latest instruments for seeing and capturing images of the Sun, you can contribute to humankind’s knowledge of this immense ball of glowing gases that gives us all life. For a complete guide to Sun viewing, see also Total Solar Eclipses and How to Observe Them (2007) by Martin Mobberley in this same series.

  14. SunPy—Python for solar physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community, The SunPy; Mumford, Stuart J; Freij, Nabil; Bennett, Samuel M; Christe, Steven; Ireland, Jack; Shih, Albert Y; Inglis, Andrew R; Pérez-Suárez, David; Liedtke, Simon; Hewett, Russell J; Mayer, Florian; Hughitt, Keith; Meszaros, Tomas; Malocha, Michael; Evans, John; Agrawal, Ankit; Leonard, Andrew J; Robitaille, Thomas P; Mampaey, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents SunPy (version 0.5), a community-developed Python package for solar physics. Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language, has seen widespread adoption among the scientific community, resulting in the availability of a large number of software packages, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy) and machine learning (scikit-learn) to visualization and plotting (matplotlib). SunPy is a data-analysis environment specializing in providing the software necessary to analyse solar and heliospheric data in Python. SunPy is open-source software (BSD licence) and has an open and transparent development workflow that anyone can contribute to. SunPy provides access to solar data through integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), and the HELiophysics Integrated Observatory (HELIO) webservices. It currently supports image data from major solar missions (e.g., SDO, SOHO, STEREO, and IRIS), time-series data from missions such as GOES, SDO/EVE, and PROBA2/LYRA, and radio spectra from e-Callisto and STEREO/SWAVES. We describe SunPy's functionality, provide examples of solar data analysis in SunPy, and show how Python-based solar data-analysis can leverage the many existing tools already available in Python. We discuss the future goals of the project and encourage interested users to become involved in the planning and development of SunPy. (paper)

  15. Beyond grid security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, B; Epting, U; Koenig, T

    2008-01-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls

  16. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  17. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  18. Work-time sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers: results from the 2006 National Sun Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrett, Loraine D; Pichora, Erin C; Costa, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe summer work-related sun behaviours among Canadian outdoor workers. Information on time in the sun and sun protection practices at work during the summer of 2006 were collected from 1,337 outdoor workers aged 16-64 years as part of the Second National Sun Survey. Proportions (and 95% confidence intervals) were estimated using procedures appropriate for complex survey designs. Twenty-six percent of all Canadians, 39% of males and 33% of those aged 16-24 years work outdoors during the summer. Although 41% spend four or more hours daily in the sun at work, just over half always or often protect themselves by covering their heads (58%), wearing protective clothing (56%) or wearing sunglasses (54%), and only 29% use sunscreen. Males and those aged 16-24 spend the most work time in the sun but are the least likely to use protection. The prevalence of outdoor work and sun behaviours varies among regions. Study findings confirm the need for strategies to reduce time in the sun and increase the use of sun protection among outdoor workers. In order to be effective, these strategies must include both enhanced workplace policies and practice, and increased individual use of sun protection.

  19. Vitamin D Beliefs and Associations with Sunburns, Sun Exposure, and Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Glanz, Karen; Nehl, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine certain beliefs about vitamin D and associations with sun exposure, sun protection behaviors, and sunburns. A total of 3,922 lifeguards, pool managers, and parents completed a survey in 2006 about beliefs regarding vitamin D and sun-related behaviors. Multivariate ordinal regression analyses and linear regression analysis were used to examine associations of beliefs and other variables. Results revealed that Non-Caucasian lifeguards and pool managers were less likely to agree that they needed to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D. Lifeguards and parents who were non-Caucasian were less likely to report that sunlight helped the body to produce vitamin D. A stronger belief about the need to go out in the sun to get enough vitamin D predicted more sun exposure for lifeguards. For parents, a stronger belief that they can get enough vitamin D from foods predicted greater sun protection and a stronger belief that sunlight helps the body produce vitamin D predicted lower sun exposure. This study provides information regarding vitamin D beliefs and their association with certain sun related behaviors across different demographic groups that can inform education efforts about vitamin D and sun protection. PMID:22851950

  20. Sun Protection Practices and Sun Exposure among Children with a Parental History of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Beth A.; Lin, Tiffany; Chang, L. Cindy; Okada, Ashley; Wong, Weng Kee; Glanz, Karen; Bastani, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives of melanoma survivors have a substantially higher lifetime risk for melanoma than individuals with no family history. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the primary modifiable risk factor for the disease. Reducing UV exposure through sun protection may be particularly important for children with a parental history of melanoma. Nonetheless, limited prior research has investigated sun protection practices and sun exposure among these children. Methods The California Cancer Registry was used to identify melanoma survivors eligible to participate in a survey to assess their children's sun protection practices and sun exposure. The survey was administered by mail, telephone, or web to Latino and non-Latino white melanoma survivors with at least one child (0–17 years; N = 324). Results Sun exposure was high and the rate of sunburn was equivalent to or higher than estimates from average risk populations. Use of sun protection was suboptimal. Latino children were less likely to wear sunscreen and hats and more likely to wear sunglasses, although these differences disappeared in adjusted analyses. Increasing age of the child was associated with lower sun protection and higher risk for sunburn whereas higher objective risk for melanoma predicted improved sun protection and a higher risk for sunburns. Perception of high barriers to sun protection was the strongest modifiable correlate of sun protection. Conclusions Interventions to improve sun protection and reduce sun exposure and sunburns in high risk children are needed. Impact Intervening in high risk populations may help reduce the burden of melanoma in the U.S. PMID:25587110

  1. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  2. The Sun's Mysteries from Space - I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climate. Historically, it was the motion of the planets around the. Sun that .... concentrations of magnetic field, the convection is suppressed ... near-Earth space environments. ... Some of these reach our eyes and can be detected during the rare.

  3. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... months and 6 years before the start of the study. During a summer season participants filled in sun exposure diaries daily and wore personal electronic UVR dosimeters in a wristwatch that continuously measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema dose. Results  The UVR dose of recently diagnosed...

  4. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  5. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    acceptable since it makes possible an overall and local error reduction through grid redistribution. SAGE includes the ability to modify the adaption techniques in boundary regions, which substantially improves the flexibility of the adaptive scheme. The vectorial approach used in the analysis also provides flexibility. The user has complete choice of adaption direction and order of sequential adaptions without concern for the computational data structure. Multiple passes are available with no restraint on stepping directions; for each adaptive pass the user can choose a completely new set of adaptive parameters. This facility, combined with the capability of edge boundary control, enables the code to individually adapt multi-dimensional multiple grids. Zonal grids can be adapted while maintaining continuity along the common boundaries. For patched grids, the multiple-pass capability enables complete adaption. SAGE is written in FORTRAN 77 and is intended to be machine independent; however, it requires a FORTRAN compiler which supports NAMELIST input. It has been successfully implemented on Sun series computers, SGI IRIS's, DEC MicroVAX computers, HP series computers, the Cray YMP, and IBM PC compatibles. Source code is provided, but no sample input and output files are provided. The code reads three datafiles: one that contains the initial grid coordinates (x,y,z), one that contains corresponding flow-field variables, and one that contains the user control parameters. It is assumed that the first two datasets are formatted as defined in the plotting software package PLOT3D. Several machine versions of PLOT3D are available from COSMIC. The amount of main memory is dependent on the size of the matrix. The standard distribution medium for SAGE is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. It is also available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format or on a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII CARD IMAGE format magnetic tape. SAGE was developed in 1989, first

  6. The Sun murrab Baltimaadesse ja Soome

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Aprillis andis ansambel Tanel Padar & The Sun Soomes, Lätis, Leedus ja Eestis üksteist kontserti. Heliplaadi "Here Gomes The Sun" lugu "Hopelessness You" on Soome raadiote tipp 300s neljakümnendal kohal, lugu "Learn the game" on Leedu FM99 raadios 33 enim mängitava loo seas, laul "One of those days" saavutas Läti raadio SWH rokkmuusika edetabelis teise koha.

  7. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  8. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  9. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  10. How to Observe the Sun Safely

    CERN Document Server

    Macdonald, Lee

    2012-01-01

    How to Observe the Sun Safely, Second Edition gives all the basic information and advice the amateur astronomer needs to get started in observing our own ever-fascinating star. Unlike many other astronomical objects, you do not need a large telescope or expensive equipment to observe the Sun. And it is possible to take excellent pictures of the Sun with today's low-cost digital cameras! This book surveys what is visible on the Sun and then describes how to record solar features and measure solar activity levels. There is also an account of how to use H-alpha and Calcium-K filters to observe and record prominences and other features of the solar chromosphere, the Sun's inner atmosphere. Because we are just entering a period of high activity on the Sun, following a long, quiet period, this is a great time to get involved with solar observing. Still emphasizing safety first, this Second Edition reflects recent and exciting advances in solar observing equipment. Chapters 6 through 8 have been completely revised ...

  11. Improvement of prediction accuracy of large eddy simulation on colocated grids; Colocation koshi wo mochiita LES no keisan seido kaizen ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, M.; Abe, K. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-07-25

    With the recent advances in computers, large eddy simulation (LES) has become applicable to engineering prediction. However, most cases of the engineering applications need to use the nonorthgonal curvilimear coordinate systems. The staggered grids, usually used in LES in the orthgonal coordinates, don`t keep conservative properties in the nonorthgonal curvilinear coordinates. On the other hand, the colocated grids can be applied in the nonorthgonal curvilinear coordinates without losing its conservative properties, although its prediction accuracy isn`t so high as the staggered grid`s in the orthgonal coordinates especially with the coarse grids. In this research, the discretization method of the colocated grids is modified to improve its prediction accuracy. Plane channel flows are simulated on four grids of different resolution using the modified colocated grids and the original colocated grids. The results show that the modified colocated grids have higher accuracy than the original colocated grids. 17 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  13. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  14. Thermal comfort in sun spaces: To what extend can energy collectors and seasonal energy storages provide thermal comfort in sun space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wiegel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for fossil fuel substitution in the building sector persists as an essential subject in architectural engineering. Since the building sector still remains as one of the three major global end energy consumer – climate change is closely related to construction and design. We have developed the archetype sun space to what it is today : a simple but effective predominant naturally ventilated sun trap and as well as living space enlargement. With the invention of industrial glass orangery’s more and more changed from frost protecting envelopes to living spaces from which we meantime expect thermal comfort in high quality. But what level of thermal comfort provide sun spaces? And to what extend may sun spaces manage autarkic operation profiting from passive solar gains and, beyond that, surplus energy generation for energy neutral conditioning of aligned spaces? We deliver detailed information for this detected gap of knowledge. We know about limited thermal comfort in sun spaces winter times. This reasons the inspection of manifold collector technologies, which enable to be embedded in facades and specifically in sun space envelopes. Nonetheless, effective façade integrated collectors are ineffective in seasons with poor irradiation. Hence, the mismatch of offer and demand we have experienced with renewable energies ignites thinking about appropriate seasonal energy storages, which enlarges the research scope of this work. This PhD thesis project investigates on both, a yearly empirical test set up analysis and a virtual simulation of different oriented and located sun spaces abroad Germany. Both empirical and theoretical evaluation result in a holistic research focusing on a preferred occupation time in terms of cumulative frequencies of operational temperature and decided local discomfort, of potential autarkic sun space operation and prospective surplus exergy for alternative heating of aligned buildings. The results are mapped

  15. Sunburn, sun exposure, and sun sensitivity in the Study of Nevi in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya M; Oliveria, Susan A; Arora, Arshi; Marchetti, Michael A; Orlow, Irene; Dusza, Stephen W; Weinstock, Martin A; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-11-01

    To examine the joint effect of sun exposure and sunburn on nevus counts (on the natural logarithm scale; log nevi) and the role of sun sensitivity. We describe an analysis of cross-sectional data from 443 children enrolled in the prospective Study of Nevi in Children. To evaluate the joint effect, we partitioned the sum of squares because of interaction between sunburn and sun exposure into orthogonal components representing (1) monotonic increase in log nevi with increasing sun exposure (rate of increase of log nevi depends on sunburn), and (2) nonmonotonic pattern. In unadjusted analyses, there was a marginally significant monotonic pattern of interaction (P = .08). In adjusted analyses, sun exposure was associated with higher log nevi among those without sunburn (P sunburn (P = .14). Sunburn was independently associated with log nevi (P = .02), even though sun sensitivity explained 29% (95% confidence interval: 2%-56%, P = .04) of its effect. Children with high sun sensitivity and sunburn had more nevi, regardless of sun exposure. A program of increasing sun protection in early childhood as a strategy for reducing nevi, when applied to the general population, may not equally benefit everyone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Grid sleeve bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Vaill, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved grid sleeve bulge tool is designed for securing control rod guide tubes to sleeves brazed in a fuel assembly grid. The tool includes a cylinder having an outer diameter less than the internal diameter of the control rod guide tubes. The walls of the cylinder are cut in an axial direction along its length to provide several flexible tines or ligaments. These tines are similar to a fork except they are spaced in a circumferential direction. The end of each alternate tine is equipped with a semispherical projection which extends radially outwardly from the tine surface. A ram or plunger of generally cylindrical configuration and about the same length as the cylinder is designed to fit in and move axially of the cylinder and thereby force the tined projections outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder. The ram surface includes axially extending grooves and plane surfaces which are complimentary to the inner surfaces formed on the tines on the cylinder. As the cylinder is inserted into a control rod guide tube, and the projections on the cylinder placed in a position just below or above a grid strap, the ram is pulled into the cylinder, thus moving the tines and the projections thereon outwardly into contact with the sleeve, to plastically deform both the sleeve and the control rod guide tube, and thereby form four bulges which extend outwardly from the sleeve surface and beyond the outer periphery of the grid peripheral strap. This process is then repeated at the points above the grid to also provide for outwardly projecting surfaces, the result being that the grid is accurately positioned on and mechanically secured to the control rod guide tubes which extend the length of a fuel assembly

  17. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  18. Smart Grid Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to address the evolution of distribution grid architectures following the widespread introduction of renewable energy sources. The increasing connection of distributed resources has a strong impact on the topology and the control functionality of the current distribution...... grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...

  19. Instant jqGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Manricks, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.

  20. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  1. Preface: Workshop on Off-Grid Technology Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    Off-grid houses are dwellings that do not rely on water supply, sewer, or electrical power grid, and are able to operate independently of all public utility services. These houses are ideal for remote communities or population suffering natural or human-made disasters. Our aim is to develop compact and affordable off-grid technologies by integrating high-end nano-engineering with systems that imitates natural biological processes. The key areas of focus in the workshop were: solar energy harvesting using nanotechnology, wind energy harvesting from vertical-axis wind turbines, supercapacitors energy storage systems, treatment of greywater, and green roofs to achieve air comfort.

  2. The Hel Peninsula – Smart Grid Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Noske

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the scope and results of engineering, and the scope of Smart Grid deployment in the Hel Peninsula. The following functionalities will be described: Fault Detection, Isolation & Recovery – FDIR function, Integrated Volt/Var Control (IVVC function, advanced supervision of LV grid, including distributed energy resources. The paper contains implementation results and research findings, as well as preliminary cost-benefit analysis of the project. Moreover, since Smart Metering and Smart Grid projects are being deployed in the same region – the Hel Peninisula – the benefit achieved by merging the two projects will be explained.

  3. Grid computing the European Data Grid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, B; Gagliardi, F; Carminati, F

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of a novel environment to support globally distributed scientific exploration involving multi- PetaByte datasets. The project will devise and develop middleware solutions and testbeds capable of scaling to handle many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of resources (processors, disks, etc.), and thousands of simultaneous users. The scale of the problem and the distribution of the resources and user community preclude straightforward replication of the data at different sites, while the aim of providing a general purpose application environment precludes distributing the data using static policies. We will construct this environment by combining and extending newly emerging "Grid" technologies to manage large distributed datasets in addition to computational elements. A consequence of this project will be the emergence of fundamental new modes of scientific exploration, as access to fundamental scientific data is no longer constrained to the producer of...

  4. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  5. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  6. Assessment of grid optimisation measures for the German transmission grid using open source grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.

  7. Utah Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Utah. Number of columns is 196 and number of rows is 245. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  8. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  9. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  10. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. A.; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD's 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  11. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD’s 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  12. Nevada Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Isostatic anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 269 and number of rows is 394. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  13. Steering the Smart Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies and optimization methodologies were developed to increase the efficiency, maintain the grid stability and support large scale

  14. Cutback for grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulmeester, P.; De Laat, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), in which the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) is included plan to decrease the capital cost compensation (or weighted average cost of capital or WACC) for grid operators. In this article it is explained how the compensation is calculated, why this measure will be taken and what the effects of this cutback are [nl

  15. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  16. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  17. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  18. Kids Enjoy Grids

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I want to come back and work here when I'm older,' was the spontaneous reaction of one of the children invited to CERN by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project for a 'Grids for Kids' day at the end of January. The EGEE project is led by CERN, and the EGEE gender action team organized the day to introduce children to grid technology at an early age. The school group included both boys and girls, aged 9 to 11. All of the presenters were women. 'In general, before this visit, the children thought that scientists always wore white coats and were usually male, with wild Einstein-like hair,' said Jackie Beaver, the class's teacher at the Institut International de Lancy, a school near Geneva. 'They were surprised and pleased to see that women became scientists, and that scientists were quite 'normal'.' The half-day event included presentations about why Grids are needed, a visit of the computer centre, some online games, and plenty of time for questions. In the end, everyone agreed that it was a big success a...

  19. Reconsidering solar grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.

  20. Maine Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  1. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  2. Molecular Grid Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michl, Josef; Magnera, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    ...) porphyrin triply linked in the meso-meso, and both beta-beta positions four times by carbon-carbon bonds to each of its neighbors to form porphite sheets a grid-type material that would be an analog of graphene...

  3. The Grid challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Lundquest, E

    2003-01-01

    At a customer panel discussion during OracleWorld in San Franciso, grid computing was being pushed as the next big thing - even if panellists couldsn't quite agree on what it is, what it will cost or when it will appear (1 page).

  4. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  5. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  6. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  7. SunPy: Python for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.; Inglis, A. R.; Mumford, S.; Christe, S.; Freij, N.; Hewett, R.; Ireland, J.; Martinez Oliveros, J. C.; Reardon, K.; Savage, S. L.; Shih, A. Y.; Pérez-Suárez, D.

    2017-12-01

    SunPy is a community-developed open-source software library for solar physics. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language which is being increasingly adopted throughout the scientific community. SunPy aims to provide the software for obtaining and analyzing solar and heliospheric data. This poster introduces a new major release, SunPy version 0.8. The first major new feature introduced is Fido, the new primary interface to download data. It provides a consistent and powerful search interface to all major data providers including the VSO and the JSOC, as well as individual data sources such as GOES XRS time series. It is also easy to add new data sources as they become available, i.e. DKIST. The second major new feature is the SunPy coordinate framework. This provides a powerful way of representing coordinates, allowing simple and intuitive conversion between coordinate systems and viewpoints of different instruments (i.e., Solar Orbiter and the Parker Solar Probe), including transformation to astrophysical frames like ICRS. Other new features including new timeseries capabilities with better support for concatenation and metadata, updated documentation and example gallery. SunPy is distributed through pip and conda and all of its code is publicly available (sunpy.org).

  8. The sun and space weather Second Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    This second edition is a great enhancement of literature which will help the reader get deeper into the specific topics. There are new sections included such as space weather data sources and examples, new satellite missions, and the latest results. At the end a comprehensive index is given which will allow the reader to quickly find his topics of interest. The Sun and Space weather are two rapidly evolving topics. The importance of the Sun for the Earth, life on Earth, climate and weather processes was recognized long ago by the ancients. Now, for the first time there is a continuous surveillance of solar activity at nearly all wavelengths. These data can be used to improve our understanding of the complex Sun-Earth interaction. The first chapters of the book deal with the Sun as a star and its activity phenomena as well as its activity cycle in order to understand the complex physics of the Sun-Earth system. The reader will see that there are many phenomena but still no definite explanations and models exis...

  9. After the Bell: Developing Sun Sense--Learning about Protection from the Sun's Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stephen J.; Ness, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology (2008) reports that our students will experience 80% of their lifetime exposure to the Sun by the time they are 18. Further, research has demonstrated that continued exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet rays can lead to skin aging, sunburn, immune suppression, ocular melanoma, cataracts, corneal burns, and even…

  10. The Sun Sense Study: An Intervention to Improve Sun Protection in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasser, Alice; Shaheen, Magda; Glenn, Beth A.; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a multicomponent intervention on parental knowledge, sun avoidance behaviors, and sun protection practices in children 3-10 years. Methods: A randomized trial at a pediatric clinic recruited 197 caregiver-child pairs (90% parents). Intervention included a brief presentation and brochure for the parent and…

  11. Dark winter how the sun is causing a 30-year cold spell

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, John L

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been a perplexing problem for years. In Dark Winter, author John L. Casey, a former White House national space policy advisor, NASA headquarters consultant, and space shuttle engineer tells the truth about ominous changes taking place in the climate and the Sun. Casey's research into the Sun's activity, which began almost a decade ago, resulted in discovery of a solar cycle that is now reversing from its global warming phase to that of dangerous global cooling for the next thirty years or more. This new cold climate will dramatically impact the world's citizens. In Dark Wint

  12. Developing a Grid-based search and categorization tool

    CERN Document Server

    Haya, Glenn; Vigen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Grid technology has the potential to improve the accessibility of digital libraries. The participants in Project GRACE (Grid Search And Categorization Engine) are in the process of developing a search engine that will allow users to search through heterogeneous resources stored in geographically distributed digital collections. What differentiates this project from current search tools is that GRACE will be run on the European Data Grid, a large distributed network, and will not have a single centralized index as current web search engines do. In some cases, the distributed approach offers advantages over the centralized approach since it is more scalable, can be used on otherwise inaccessible material, and can provide advanced search options customized for each data source.

  13. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, L; Schulz, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: Laurence.Field@cern.ch, E-mail: Markus.Schulz@cern.ch

    2008-07-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards.

  14. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, L; Schulz, M

    2008-01-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards

  15. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  16. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management; GridCom, Grid Commander: graficheskij interfejs dlya raboty s zadachami i dannymi v gride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaktionov, V V

    2011-07-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  17. 77 FR 34122 - Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary [Docket DOT-OST-2011-0169] Application of Sun Air Express, LLC, d/b/a Sun Air International for Commuter Authority AGENCY: Department of... order finding Sun Air Express, LLC d/b/a Sun Air International fit, willing, and able, and awarding it...

  18. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2013-01-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined......-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose...... and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data...

  19. Convective penetration in a young sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jane; Baraffe, Isabelle; Goffrey, Tom; MUSIC developers group

    2018-01-01

    To interpret the high-quality data produced from recent space-missions it is necessary to study convection under realistic stellar conditions. We describe the multi-dimensional, time implicit, fully compressible, hydrodynamic, implicit large eddy simulation code MUSIC. We use MUSIC to study convection during an early stage in the evolution of our sun where the convection zone covers approximately half of the solar radius. This model of the young sun possesses a realistic stratification in density, temperature, and luminosity. We approach convection in a stellar context using extreme value theory and derive a new model for convective penetration, targeted for one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations. This model provides a scenario that can explain the observed lithium abundance in the sun and in solar-like stars at a range of ages.

  20. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely populated areas

  1. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    For many centuries, the study of the Sun has been an important testbed for understanding stars that are further away. One of the first astronomical observations Galileo Galilei made in 1612 with the newly invented telescope concerned the sunspots, and in 1814, Joseph von Fraunhofer employed his new spectroscope to discover the absorption lines in the solar spectrum that are now named after him. Even though more refined and new modes of observation are now available than in the days of Galileo and Fraunhofer, the study of the Sun is still high on the agenda of contemporary science, due to three guiding interests. The first is connected to the ages-old human striving to understand the structure of the larger world surrounding us. Modern telescopes, some of them even based outside the Earth's atmosphere in space, have succeeded in observing astronomical objects that are billions of light-years away. However, for practical reasons precision data that are important for understanding stars can still only be gained from the Sun. In a sense, the observations of far-away astronomical objects thus call for a more precise study of the closeby, of the Sun, for their interpretation. The second interest stems from the human desire to understand the essence of the world, in particular the elementary particles of which it consists. Large accelerators have been constructed to produce and collide these particles. However, man-made machines can never be as luminous as the Sun when it comes to producing particles. Solar neutrinos have thus served not only as an astronomical tool to understand the Sun's inner workings, but their behavior on the way from the Sun to the Earth is also being studied with the aim to understand their nature and interactions. The third interest is strictly connected to life on Earth. A multitude of research has shown that even relatively slight changes in the Earth's climate may strongly affect the living conditions in a number of densely

  2. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  3. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O

    2012-01-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  4. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  5. Grid3: An Application Grid Laboratory for Science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    level services required by the participating experiments. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. The Grid3 infrastructure was deployed from grid level services provided by groups and applications within the collaboration. The services were organized into four distinct "grid level services" including: Grid3 Packaging, Monitoring and Information systems, User Authentication and the iGOC Grid Operatio...

  6. SunShot Initiative Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2015-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort launched in 2011 that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost competitive with traditional energy sources before the end of the decade. The SunShot fact sheet outlines goals and successes of the program as it works with private companies, universities, non-profit organizations, state and local governments, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, without incentives, by the year 2020.

  7. Heating the Chromosphere in the Quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    The best-studied star the Sun still harbors mysteries for scientists to puzzle over. A new study has now explored the role of tiny magnetic-field hiccups in an effort to explain the strangely high temperatures of the Suns upper atmosphere.Schematic illustrating the temperatures in different layers of the Sun. [ESA]Strange Temperature RiseSince the Suns energy is produced in its core, the temperature is hottest here. As expected, the temperature decreases further from the Suns core up until just above its surface, where it oddly begins to rise again. While the Suns surface is 6,000 K, the temperature is higher above this: 10,000 K in the outer chromosphere.So how is the chromosphere of the Sun heated? Its possible that the explanation can be found not amid high solar activity, but in quiet-Sun regions.In a new study led by Milan Goi (Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Bay Area Environmental Research Institute), a team of scientists has examined a process that quietly happens in the background: the cancellation of magnetic field lines in the quiet Sun.Activity in a SupergranuleTop left: SDO AIA image of part of the solar disk. The next three panels are a zoom of the particular quiet-Sun region that the authors studied, all taken with IRIS at varying wavelengths: 1400 (top right), 2796 (bottom left), and 2832 (bottom right). [Goi et al. 2018]The Sun is threaded by strong magnetic field lines that divide it into supergranules measuring 30 million meters across (more than double the diameter of Earth!). Supergranules may seem quiet inside, but looks can be deceiving: the interiors of supergranules contain smaller, transient internetwork fields that move about, often resulting in magnetic elements of opposite polarity encountering and canceling each other.For those internetwork flux cancellations that occur above the Suns surface, a small amount of energy could be released that locally heats the chromosphere. But though each individual event has a small

  8. Ra: The Sun for Science and Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    To guide the development of the Ra Strategic Framework, we defined scientific and applications objectives. For our primary areas of scientific interest, we choose the corona, the solar wind, the Sun's effect on the Earth, and solar theory and model development. For secondary areas of scientific interest, we selected sunspots, the solar constant, the Sun's gravitational field, helioseismology and the galactic cosmic rays. We stress the importance of stereoscopic imaging, observations at high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, as well as of long duration measurements. Further exploration of the Sun's polar regions is also important, as shown already by the Ulysses mission. From an applications perspective, we adopted three broad objectives that would derive complementary inputs for the Strategic Framework. These were to identify and investigate: possible application spin-offs from science missions, possible solar-terrestrial missions dedicated to a particular application, and possible future applications that require technology development. The Sun can be viewed as both a source of resources and of threats. Our principal applications focus was that of threat mitigation, by examining ways to improve solar threat monitoring and early warning systems. We compared these objectives to the mission objectives of past, current, and planned international solar missions. Past missions (1962-1980) seem to have been focused on improvement of scientific knowledge, using multiple instrument spacecraft. A ten year gap followed this period, during which the results from previous missions were analyzed and solar study programmes were prepared in international organizations. Current missions (1990-1996) focus on particular topics such as the corona, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. In planned missions, Sun/Earth interactions and environmental effects of solar activity are becoming more important. The corona is the centre of interest of almost all planned missions

  9. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  10. Ultraviolet radiation, sun damage and preventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, B.; Christensen, T.; Nilsen, L.T.; Hannevik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The report focuses on the large impact of health damages due to excessive UV exposure from natural sun. The first part of the report gives background information on factors significantly affecting the intensity of UV radiation. The second part gives an overview of health effects related to UV exposure, with recommendations on how to avoid excessive UV exposure and still enjoy the positive sides of outdoor activity. The report is intended to contribute to informational activities about sun exposure as recommended by the World Health Organisation and the World Meteorology Organisation. (Author)

  11. The Sun in Time: Activity and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güdel Manuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's magnetic activity has steadily declined during its main-sequence life. While the solar photospheric luminosity was about 30% lower 4.6 Gyr ago when the Sun arrived on the main sequence compared to present-day levels, its faster rotation generated enhanced magnetic activity; magnetic heating processes in the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona induced ultraviolet, extreme-ultraviolet, and X-ray emission about 10, 100, and 1000 times, respectively, the present-day levels, as inferred from young solar-analog stars. Also, the production rate of accelerated, high-energy particles was orders of magnitude higher than in present-day solar flares, and a much stronger wind escaped from the Sun, permeating the entire solar system. The consequences of the enhanced radiation and particle fluxes from the young Sun were potentially severe for the evolution of solar-system planets and moons. Interactions of high-energy radiation and the solar wind with upper planetary atmospheres may have led to the escape of important amounts of atmospheric constituents. The present dry atmosphere of Venus and the thin atmosphere of Mars may be a product of early irradiation and heating by solar high-energy radiation. High levels of magnetic activity are also inferred for the pre-main sequence Sun. At those stages, interactions of high-energy radiation and particles with the circumsolar disk in which planets eventually formed were important. Traces left in meteorites by energetic particles and anomalous isotopic abundance ratios in meteoritic inclusions may provide evidence for a highly active pre-main sequence Sun. The present article reviews these various issues related to the magnetic activity of the young Sun and the consequent interactions with its environment. The emphasis is on the phenomenology related to the production of high-energy photons and particles. Apart from the activity on the young Sun, systematic trends applicable to the entire

  12. Grid-connected wind and photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devabakthuni, Sindhuja

    The objective of this thesis is to design a grid connected wind and photovoltaic system. A new model of converter control was designed which maintains the voltage of the bus to grid as constant when combined system of solar and wind is connected to AC bus. The model is designed to track maximum power at each point irrespective of changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed which affects the power supplied to grid. Solar power from the sun is not constant as it is affected by changes in irradiances and temperature. Even the wind power is affected by wind speed. A MPPT controller was designed for both systems. A boost converter is designed which uses the pulses from MPPT controller to boost the output. Wind system consists of wind turbine block from the MATLAB with a pitch angle controller to maintain optimum pitch angle. The output from wind turbine is connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator. The unregulated DC output from the photovoltaic system is directly given to boost converter. The AC output from the wind system is given to an uncontrolled rectifier to get a unregulated DC output. The unregulated DC output goes to the boost converter. A voltage source inverter was designed which converts the rectified DC output from the boost converter to AC power. The inverter is designed to maintain constant AC bus voltage irrespective of the disturbances in the power supply. Photovoltaic and wind systems are individually designed for 5KW each in MATLAB-Simulink environment. In this thesis, the models were subjected to changes in irradiance, temperature and wind speed and the results were interpreted. The model was successful in tracking maximum at every instant and the AC bus voltage was maintained constant throughout the simulation.

  13. Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the

  14. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  15. Pyramid solar micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen

    2018-03-01

    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  16. MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.

  17. Solar Probe Plus: A NASA Mission to Touch the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, N. J.; Velli, M. M. C.; Kasper, J. C.; McComas, D. J.; Howard, R.; Bale, S. D.; Decker, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP), currently in Phase C, will be the first mission to fly into the low solar corona, revealing how the corona is heated and the solar wind and energetic particles are accelerated, solving fundamental mysteries that have been top priority science goals since such a mission was first proposed in 1958. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The primary science goal of the Solar Probe Plus mission is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission will achieve this by identifying and quantifying the basic plasma physical processes at the heart of the Heliosphere. SPP uses an innovative mission design, significant technology development and a risk-reducing engineering development to meet the SPP science objectives: 1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; 2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and 3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. In this presentation, we present Solar Probe Plus and examine how the mission will address the science questions that have remained unanswered for over 5 decades.

  18. Thermal and orbital analysis of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamentals of an Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous orbit are presented. A Sun-synchronous Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) was developed to calculate orbital parameters for an entire year. The output from this program provides the required input data for the TRASYS thermal radiation computer code, which in turn computes the infrared, solar and Earth albedo heat fluxes incident on a space experiment. Direct incident heat fluxes can be used as input to a generalized thermal analyzer program to size radiators and predict instrument operating temperatures. The SOAP computer code and its application to the thermal analysis methodology presented, should prove useful to the thermal engineer during the design phases of Earth monitoring Sun-synchronous space experiments.

  19. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  20. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  1. Skin Cancer-Sun Knowledge and Sun Protection Behaviors of Liver Transplant Recipients in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Meryem Ozturk; Ordin, Yaprak Sarigol; Arkan, Gulcihan

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to compare liver transplant recipients (LTRs) with the general population regarding their knowledge of skin cancer, sun health, sun protection behaviors, and affecting factors. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey between March 2016 and September 2016 with 104 LTRs and 100 participants from the general population group (GPG). The mean age of the LTRs was 53.2 ± 11.8 and that of the GPG was 42.7 ± 14.5. The LTRs' skin cancer and sun knowledge were significantly lower than in the GPG, but there was no difference between the two groups in terms of their sun protection behavior scores. The most commonly used sun protection behaviors of LTRs were not being outside and not sunbathing between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., wearing clothing that covers the skin, and avoiding the solarium. Behaviors commonly practiced by the GPG were wearing sunglasses, wearing sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 or higher before going outside, wearing sunscreen at the beach, while swimming or doing physical activity outside, and reapplying it every 2 h. Results of our study will contribute to the development of education and training programs for LTRs on skin cancer. The results also demonstrated the importance of practicing adequate sun protection behaviors which will certainly impact their future health.

  2. Sun exposure and sun protection practices of children and their parents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A D

    2009-05-01

    The primary aims of this study were: to estimate sun exposure in hours of children in Cork during the summer months; to examine sun protection measures used by children and their parents and to explore parental knowledge of sun exposure and protection. A cross-sectional study, using a semi-structured questionnaire, was conducted in June 2006 in primary schools, pre-schools and creches throughout Cork City and County. Parents of 250 children aged less than 12 years were sampled. Mean sun exposure of Cork children was 40.9 hours per week in the summer months, with 77 (46.1%) children developing sunburn. 59.3% of the studied children were of skin type 1 or 2. 95 (57%) children on weekdays and 137 (82%) children at weekends were exposed to the sun between 11 am and 3 pm. Sunscreen and hats\\/caps were the most common protection measures used. A minority used protective clothing, sunglasses or sought shade. Thirty one (30.5%) children had sunscreen reapplied every 2 hours. Knowledge of sun protection was considerable among Irish parents. However the frequency of sunburn among Irish children suggests we are not providing them with adequate sun protection.

  3. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  4. The Grid PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Housed in the CERN Computer Centre, these banks of computers process and store data produced on the CERN systems. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDs 20 km tall. To handle this huge amount of data, CERN has also developed the Grid, allowing processing power to be shared between computer centres around the world.

  5. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  6. Smart Grid Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    The largest interconnected machine on Earth, the century-old power grid is so massively complex and inextricably linked to human involvement and endeavor that it has been called an ecosystem. To meet sustainability requirements, the electric industry is poised to make the transformation from a centralized, producer-controlled network to one that is less centralized and more consumerinteractive. This move promises to change the industry’s entire business model and its relationship with all sta...

  7. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  8. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  9. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  10. Parallel runs of a large air pollution model on a grid of Sun computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandrov, V.N.; Owczarz, W.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2004-01-01

    Large -scale air pollution models can successfully be used in different environmental studies. These models are described mathematically by systems of partial differential equations. Splitting procedures followed by discretization of the spatial derivatives leads to several large systems...

  11. Thermal heliotrope - A passive sun-tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byxbee, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Continuous sun tracking device consists of helical bimetallic coil and control mechanism. Coil produces torque and angular displacement with temperature change, and acts as device's driving element. Control mechanism, concentric shading mechanism containing bimetallic sensor coil, controls tracking rate and provides for reset cycle.

  12. Save Beady Kid from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa; Thompson, Wesley; Pecore, John

    2017-01-01

    Art and science help students investigate light energy and practice fair testing. With the goal of finding a way to save "Beady Kid" from invisible rays, students used science practices to investigate the transfer of light energy from the Sun. During this art-integrated science lesson presented in this article, upper elementary (grades…

  13. Neutrinos and our Sun - Part 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the sun during its lifetime of four and a half billion years is given by ... The balance between ... per unit time (the luminosity): ... are operative in all stars during the bulk of their life: (a) ..... Thus the data collected over several years of hard work.

  14. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children's skin health.

  15. Self-Powered Sun Sensor Microsystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; Graaf, G. de; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    An analog sun sensor has been designed based on shade profile proportional to the angle of incidence of incoming light projected onto a 2×2 array of photodiodes. This concept enables an autonomous self-powered optical system with two the main functions (electrical power generation for the amplifier

  16. A sun holiday is a sunburn holiday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Bibi; Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Heydenreich, Jakob; Young, Antony Richard; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2013-08-01

    Many people take holidays in sunny locations with the express aim of sunbathing. This may result in sunburn, which is a risk factor for skin cancer. We investigated 25 Danish sun seekers during a week's holiday in the Canary Islands. The percentage of body surface area with sunburn was determined by daily skin examinations by the same observer. Erythemally effective ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure was assessed with time-stamped personal dosimeters worn on the wrist. Volunteers reported their clothing cover and sunscreen use in diaries, and this information was used to determine body site-specific UVR doses after adjustment for sun protection factor. Remarkably, we found that all volunteers sunburned at some point. The risk of sunburn correlated significantly with the adjusted body site-specific UVR dose. Furthermore, there was also a significant relationship between the daily UVR dose and percentage of body surface area with sunburn. Our study shows that holiday UVR exposure results in a high risk of sunburn, which potentially increases the risk of skin cancer. Possible protection by melanogenesis is insufficient to protect against sunburn during a 1-week sun holiday. Finally, our data clearly support a substantial skin cancer risk from sun holidays. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. No smoking guns under the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The Sun is a typical main sequence star that generates its energy via the fusion of hydrogen into helium in two chains of nuclear reactions: the so-called pp chain and the CNO chain. If the nucleon number, electric charge, lepton flavour and energy are conserved and the Sun is in a steady state, then the total solar neutrino flux is fixed, to a good approximation, by the solar luminosity (approximately 65 billion neutrinos/cm2/s at Earth), independent of the specific nuclear reactions that power the Sun and produce neutrinos by beta decay or the electron capture of reaction products. The neutrinos from the dominant pp chain are produced by the beta decay of proton pairs (pp), boron-8 and lithium-4, and by electron capture by pp pairs and beryllium-7. Their spectra can be measured directly in the laboratory or calculated from the standard theory of electroweak interactions. To a very good approximation, they are independent of the conditions in the Sun. Only their relative contributions depend on the detailed ...

  18. Market aspects of smart power grids development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Makowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids herald a revolution in the power sector. The centralized and passive power grid model known for over a century is before our very eyes assuming a completely brand new shape: of an active and dynamic network with an increasingly relevant role of consumers – prosumers, who are offered brand new products and services. Such an active development is possible due to a number of factors, such as: 1. Synergy of ICT with power engineering – these disciplines are becoming an indispensable element of the modern power grid’s operation, 2. The European Union’s regulations in the area of reduction of CO2 emission and improved energy efficiency, as well as identification of Smart Grids as one of the optimum tools, 3. Growth, thanks to continuously increasing expenditures, public awareness of the purchase and rational use of energy. However, the Smart Grid development and ICT implementation in the power sector also carry a risk in the matter of setting up system and process links between the systems of concerned energy market players, which should be mitigated by development of technical standards, methods and principles of good cooperation between the concerned parties. Mitigation of the risk, and as a consequence, effective Smart Grids development will provide conditions for dynamic development of new roles and mechanisms on the energy market. Offering modern products and services to consumers and prosumers, and effective implementation on a national scale of demand management mechanisms will be a source of multidimensional benefits of a functional and financial nature, and will also have a positive impact on the National Lower Grid’s security.

  19. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  20. Smart Grid Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  1. The Sun among the stars. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardorp, J.

    1980-01-01

    Energy distributions from 3308 to 8390 Angstroem of two candidates for a solar spectral analog and of 14 other northern G-type dwarfs are compared to the solar energy distribution via stellar spectrophotometric standards. The reliability of the stellar and solar flux-calibrations is evaluated. While the stellar calibration seems to be in good shape, solar calibrations differ widely. Labs.and Neckel's calibration is the best match to the energy distributions from 4500 to 8390 Angstroem of those four stars that share the Sun's ultraviolet line spectrum (16 Cyg B, G5V, and the three Hyades stars VB 64, 106, and 142). Below 4500 Angstroem, discrepancies of up to 6% remain which do not seem to be genuine Sun-star differences. An error in the Labs and Neckel tables between 5700 and 6000 Angstroem is corrected. The NASA Standard Tables of Solar Spectral Irradiance cannot be trusted, since there seems to be no star in the sky that look like the NASA-sun. The four stars mentioned are taken to be perfect solar spectral analogs. An improved table of solar spectral irradiance is then given by the magnitudes of 16 Cyg B minus 32.945, based on Tueg's atellar and Labs and Neckel's solar calibrations. The Sun's place in the UBV system is V = -26.71 +- 0.03, B-V = 0.665 +- 0.005, and U-B = 0.20 +- 0.01. Most previous photometric investigations found a bluer Sun because they used the wrong solar calibration. For deriving accurate albedos of planets, any one of the calibrated G-type stars can be used as a standard star, when corrections are applied, although the solar analogs themselves are to be preferred. The MK system of spectral classification should be revised. (orig.)

  2. Micro-Grids for Colonias (TX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean Schneider; Michael Martin; Renee Berry; Charles Moyer

    2012-07-31

    This report describes the results of the final implementation and testing of a hybrid micro-grid system designed for off-grid applications in underserved Colonias along the Texas/Mexico border. The project is a federally funded follow-on to a project funded by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office in 2007 that developed and demonstrated initial prototype hybrid generation systems consisting of a proprietary energy storage technology, high efficiency charging and inverting systems, photovoltaic cells, a wind turbine, and bio-diesel generators. This combination of technologies provided continuous power to dwellings that are not grid connected, with a significant savings in fuel by allowing power generation at highly efficient operating conditions. The objective of this project was to complete development of the prototype systems and to finalize and engineering design; to install and operate the systems in the intended environment, and to evaluate the technical and economic effectiveness of the systems. The objectives of this project were met. This report documents the final design that was achieved and includes the engineering design documents for the system. The system operated as designed, with the system availability limited by maintenance requirements of the diesel gensets. Overall, the system achieved a 96% availability over the operation of the three deployed systems. Capital costs of the systems were dependent upon both the size of the generation system and the scope of the distribution grid, but, in this instance, the systems averaged $0.72/kWh delivered. This cost would decrease significantly as utilization of the system increased. The system with the highest utilization achieved a capitol cost amortized value of $0.34/kWh produced. The average amortized fuel and maintenance cost was $0.48/kWh which was dependent upon the amount of maintenance required by the diesel generator. Economically, the system is difficult to justify as an alternative to grid

  3. Sun-Earth Scientists and Native Americans Collaborate on Sun-Earth Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y.; Lopez, R. E.; Hawkins, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sun-Earth Connection scientists have established partnerships with several minority professional societies to reach out to the blacks, Hispanics and Native American students. Working with NSBP, SACNAS, AISES and NSHP, SEC scientists were able to speak in their board meetings and national conferences, to network with minority scientists, and to engage them in Sun-Earth Day. Through these opportunities and programs, scientists have introduced NASA research results as well indigenous views of science. They also serve as role models in various communities. Since the theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005 is Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge, scientists and education specialists are hopeful to excite many with diverse backgrounds. Sun-Earth Day is a highly visible annual program since 2001 that touches millions of students and the general public. Interviews, classroom activities and other education resources are available on the web at sunearthday.nasa.gov.

  4. High voltage direct current transmission converters, systems and DC grids

    CERN Document Server

    Jovcic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive reference guides the reader through all HVDC technologies, including LCC (Line Commutated Converter), 2-level VSC and VSC HVDC based on modular multilevel converters (MMC) for an in-depth understanding of converters, system level design, operating principles and modeling. Written in a tutorial style, the book also describes the key principles of design, control, protection and operation of DC transmission grids, which will be substantially different from the practice with AC transmission grids. The first dedicated reference to the latest HVDC technologies and DC grid developments; this is an essential resource for graduate students and researchers as well as engineers and professionals working on the design, modeling and operation of DC grids and HVDC.

  5. Sun burn incidence and knowledge of greek elementary and high school children about sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridi, Maria Ioannis; Toska, Aikaterini George; Rekleiti, Maria Dimitrios; Tsironi, Maria; Geitona, Maria; Souliotis, Kyriakos

    2015-01-01

    Overexposure to sun radiation and particularly its accumulation during childhood and adolescence is a significant risk factor for skin cancer development. The sun burn is particularly important. To estimate sun burn incidence in young pupils in a coastal area of Greece. Two surveys were conducted in a school population in the same district in Greece, over different periods of time, in young people 9 to 18 years old (n=2 977). Anonymous questionnaires were completed. Levels of significance were two- tailed and statistical significance was set at p=0.05. SPSS 17.0 software was used for statistical analysis. From the individual characteristics of the participants it was shown that the majority of them had dark hair and fair skin, whereas a significant percentage reported the existence of moles on face and their body (83.4% vs 68.1%). The sun burn incidence was high in adolescents and the younger pupils (41.9% vs 55.6%). The younger aged children who were living in an urban area had significantly higher rates of sun burn than those living in semi-urban areas (33.8% vs 24.8%, p=0.020). As far as the knowledge of pupils about the risks of sun radiation it was shown that the elementary school pupils had better knowledge than those at high school. Finally, those with better knowledge had the fewer sun burns (Mean 2.83 SD 0.87, pknowledge to the decrease of sun burn incidence is important as long as this is continuous. Therefore, the education should concern not only children but also teachers and parents in the context of continuous and systematic programs of health education.

  6. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  7. Observing the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a space telescope primarily designed to detect high-energy X-rays from faint, distant astrophysical sources. Recently, however, its occasionally been pointing much closer to home, with the goal of solving a few longstanding mysteries about the Sun.Intensity maps from an observation of a quiet-Sun region near the north solar pole and an active region just below the solar limb. The quiet-Sun data will be searched for small flares that could be heating the solar corona, and the high-altitude emission above the limb may provide clues about particle acceleration. [Adapted from Grefenstette et al. 2016]An Unexpected TargetThough we have a small fleet of space telescopes designed to observe the Sun, theres an important gap: until recently, there was no focusing telescope making solar observations in the hard X-ray band (above ~3 keV). Conveniently, there is a tool capable of doing this: NuSTAR.Though NuSTARs primary mission is to observe faint astrophysical X-ray sources, a team of scientists has recently conducted a series of observations in which NuSTAR was temporarily repurposed and turned to focus on the Sun instead.These observations pose an interesting challenge precisely because of NuSTARs extreme sensitivity: pointing at such a nearby, bright source can quickly swamp the detectors. But though the instrument cant be used to observe the bright flares and outbursts from the Sun, its the perfect tool for examining the parts of the Sun weve been unable to explore in hard X-rays before now such as faint flares, or the quiet, inactive solar surface.In a recently published study led by Brian Grefenstette (California Institute of Technology), the team describes the purpose and initial results of NuSTARs first observations of the Sun.Solar MysteriesWhat is NuSTAR hoping to accomplish with its solar observations? There are two main questions that hard X-ray observations may help to answer.How are particles accelerated in

  8. Child sun protection: sun-related attitudes mediate the association between children's knowledge and behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee; Reeder, Anthony I; Gray, Andrew; Cox, Brian

    2008-12-01

    To describe and investigate the relationship among the sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of New Zealand primary schoolchildren and consider the roles of sex and school year level. A randomly selected, two-stage cluster sample of 488 children from 27 primary schools in five regions of New Zealand was surveyed regarding their sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. A scoring system was used to assign a knowledge, attitude and behaviour score to each child. Although knowledge increased with school year level, there was a decline in sun protective attitudes and behaviours. There was little variation in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour between boys and girls, but sex-year level interactions were found for knowledge and behaviour. When considering children's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours simultaneously, knowledge was only significantly associated with behaviours when mediated by attitudes. When targeting child sun protection and skin cancer prevention programmes, a focus on attitudes towards sun exposure and a suntan may prove beneficial in influencing sun-related behaviours.

  9. Sun exposure and sun protection behaviours among young adult sport competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Sheleigh; Spathonis, Kym; Eakin, Elizabeth; Gallois, Cindy; Leslie, Eva; Owen, Neville

    2007-06-01

    To explore the relationship between sun protection and physical activity in young adults (18-30 years) involved in four organised sports. Participants (n=237) in field hockey, soccer, tennis and surf sports completed a self-administered survey on demographic and sun-protective behaviours while playing sport. Differences in sun-protective behaviour were explored by sport and by gender. Sunburn during the previous sporting season was high (69%). There were differences between sports for sunburn, sunscreen use and reapplication of sunscreen. Lifesaving had the highest rates compared with the other three sports. Hats and sunglasses worn by participants varied significantly by sports. A greater proportion of soccer and hockey players indicated they were not allowed to wear a hat or sunglasses during competition. For all sports, competition was played mainly in the open with no shade provision for competitors while they were playing. There were some gender differences within each of the sports. Female soccer and tennis players were more likely to wear sunscreen compared with males. Female hockey players were more likely to wear a hat compared with males. Our findings highlight that there is still room for improvement in sun-protective behaviours among young adult sport competitors. There is a need for a systematic approach to sun protection in the sporting environments of young adults. Health promotion efforts to increase physical activity need to be paired with sun protection messages.

  10. Final Report Report: Smart Grid Ready PV Inverters with Utility Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, Brian [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Huque, Aminul [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, Lindsey [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Key, Tom [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Riley, Cameron [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Li, Huijuan [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); York, Ben [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Purcell, Chris [BPL Global, Inc., Canonsburg, PA (United States); Pacific, Oliver [Spirae, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Ropp, Michael [Northern Plains Power Technologies, Brookings, SD (United States); Tran, Teresa [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Asgeirsson, Hawk [DTE Energy, Detroit, MI (United States); Woodard, Justin [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom); Steffel, Steve [Pepco Holdings, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-30

    In 2011, EPRI began a four-year effort under the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems - Advanced Concepts (SEGIS-AC) to demonstrate smart grid ready inverters with utility communication. The objective of the project was to successfully implement and demonstrate effective utilization of inverters with grid support functionality to capture the full value of distributed photovoltaic (PV). The project leveraged ongoing investments and expanded PV inverter capabilities, to enable grid operators to better utilize these grid assets. Developing and implementing key elements of PV inverter grid support capabilities will increase the distribution system’s capacity for higher penetration levels of PV, while reducing the cost. The project team included EPRI, Yaskawa-Solectria Solar, Spirae, BPL Global, DTE Energy, National Grid, Pepco, EDD, NPPT and NREL. The project was divided into three phases: development, deployment, and demonstration. Within each phase, the key areas included: head-end communications for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) at the utility operations center; methods for coordinating DER with existing distribution equipment; back-end PV plant master controller; and inverters with smart-grid functionality. Four demonstration sites were chosen in three regions of the United States with different types of utility operating systems and implementations of utility-scale PV inverters. This report summarizes the project and findings from field demonstration at three utility sites.

  11. Self-pressurizing Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-10-12

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  12. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  13. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  14. The Knowledge Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuge, Hai

    2004-01-01

    The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.

  15. The GridSite Web/Grid security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, Andrew; Li Yibiao

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the GridSite toolkit, describing the security model for interactive and programmatic uses introduced in the last year. We discuss our experiences of implementing these internal changes and how they and previous rounds of improvements have been prompted by requirements from users and wider security trends in Grids (such as CSRF). Finally, we explain how these have improved the user experience of GridSite-based websites, and wider implications for portals and similar web/grid sites.

  16. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  17. Workflow Support for Advanced Grid-Enabled Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fenglian; Eres, M.H.; Tao, Feng; Cox, Simon J.

    2004-01-01

    The Geodise project brings computer scientists and engineer's skills together to build up a service-oriented computing environmnet for engineers to perform complicated computations in a distributed system. The workflow tool is a front GUI to provide a full life cycle of workflow functions for Grid-enabled computing. The full life cycle of workflow functions have been enhanced based our initial research and development. The life cycle starts with a composition of a workflow, followed by an ins...

  18. Handbook of air pollution from internal combustion engines: pollutant formation and control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sher, Eran

    1998-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix PART I OVERViEW . 1. Motor Vehicle Emissions Control: Achievements, Future Prospects Past 3 John B. Heywood Sun Jae Professor of Mechanical Engineering...

  19. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjö, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  20. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjoe, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    The prospects for detecting neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes

  1. Recent trends in grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    Grid computing is a technology which allows uniform and transparent access to geographically dispersed computational resources, such as computers, databases, experimental and observational equipment etc. via high-speed, high-bandwidth networking. The commonly used analogy is that of electrical power grid, whereby the household electricity is made available from outlets on the wall, and little thought need to be given to where the electricity is generated and how it is transmitted. The usage of grid also includes distributed parallel computing, high through-put computing, data intensive computing (data grid) and collaborative computing. This paper reviews the historical background, software structure, current status and on-going grid projects, including applications of grid technology to nuclear fusion research. (author)

  2. Workshop on Future Generation Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas

  3. GRIZ: Visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovey, D.; Loomis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application that supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on three-dimensional unstructured grids. GRIZ includes direct-to-videodisc animation capabilities and is being used as a production tool for creating engineering animations

  4. Putting the sun to work in Sacramento

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    At dawn this morning, the sun went to work for customers of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The largest photovoltaic (PV) power plant in the world, adjacent to the closed nuclear power plant at Rancho Seco, generated enough electricity for over a thousand customers, rooftop solar water heaters lowered thousands of residential electric bills and rooftop PV systems turned hundreds of Sacramento homes into mini power plants. SMUD, in partnership with their customers-owners, is leading the way in putting the sun to work today. SMUD plans to have at least half of its energy come from energy efficiency, existing hydroelectric plants and renewable resources in this decade. SMUD expects investments made in solar power today to provide its customer-owners with substantial long-term energy, environmental and community benefits. This article describes some of SMUD's efforts

  5. PROPERTIES OF NEAR-SUN ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Asteroids near the Sun can attain equilibrium temperatures sufficient to induce surface modification from thermal fracture, desiccation, and decomposition of hydrated silicates. We present optical observations of nine asteroids with perihelia <0.25 AU (sub-solar temperatures {>=}800 K) taken to search for evidence of thermal modification. We find that the broadband colors of these objects are diverse but statistically indistinguishable from those of planet-crossing asteroids having perihelia near 1 AU. Furthermore, images of these bodies taken away from perihelion show no evidence for on-going mass-loss (model-dependent limits {approx}<1 kg s{sup -1}) that might result from thermal disintegration of the surface. We conclude that, while thermal modification may be an important process in the decay of near-Sun asteroids and in the production of debris, our new data provide no evidence for it.

  6. Power producing sun shades; Elproducerende solafskaermninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, K.; Soerensen, Henrik; Katic, I.; Schmidt-Petersen, H.; AAroe, D.

    2012-01-15

    Integrating photovoltaics into sun shades takes advantage of the best opportunities to capture and utilize solar energy when the shades are most needed to shield users from solar radiation. The report describes results of a development project for solar shading in the form of broad, horizontal and rotating lamellae with solar cells and an integrated control function that simultaneously is optimized based on energy consumption and thermal and visual indoor climate. The project idea was to meet the needs for effective sun protection in the present office, commercial and public buildings, where glass facades are dominant. The conclusion of the development project is that it rarely would be optimal to integrate solar cells into movable shades. This will normally only be relevant in cases where it is justified by architectural considerations. (LN)

  7. Observing the sun a pocket field guide

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Jamey L

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive solar observing guide for use at the telescope by amateur astronomers at all three levels: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Users will find invaluable information for identifying features through photos, charts, diagrams in a logical, orderly fashion and then interpreting the observations. Because the Sun is a dynamic celestial body in constant flux, astronomers rarely know for certain what awaits them at the eyepiece. All features of the Sun are transient and sometimes rather fleeting. Given the number of features and the complex life cycles of some solar features, it can be a challenging hobby, and this guide provides all of the guidance necessary to inform observers about the sights and events unfolding before their eyes on the most active and powerful member of our Solar System.

  8. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  9. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  10. Blinded by the light the secret life of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1991-01-01

    An investigation into the secrets and the new scientific developments which are changing our perceptions of the sun. The book tackles such questions as: does the sun breathe?; can it make sound?; is its centre ice-cold? The new research in sun science will alter our perception not only of the sun, but of the whole universe and add to the understanding of how the world works. The author has also written "Hothouse Earth" and "The Hole in the Sky".

  11. Sun Protection; A risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffey, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Sun Protection differentiates itself from other texts by adopting a risk-management approach to determine whether, how, and in what circumstances, harm might be caused, and to explore the feasibility of various strategies in controlling exposure to solar UV radiation. This multi-disciplinary book covers topics from climatology through human exposure to sunlight, as well as biological and clinical effects of UV radiation to physical and chemical strategies for photoprotection.

  12. BepiColombo fine sun sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslooper, Erik; van der Heiden, Nico; Naron, Daniël.; Schmits, Ruud; van der Velde, Jacob Jan; van Wakeren, Jorrit

    2017-11-01

    Design, development and verification of the passive Fine Sun Sensor (FSS) for the BepiColombo spacecraft is described. Major challenge in the design is to keep the detector at acceptable temperature levels while exposed to a solar flux intensity exceeding 10 times what is experienced in Earth orbit. A mesh type Heat Rejection Filter has been developed. The overall sensor design and its performance verification program is described.

  13. Counseling on Sun Protection and Indoor Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Sophie J; Gottschlich, Elizabeth A; Holman, Dawn M; Watson, Meg

    2017-12-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends clinical counseling for individuals ages 10 to 24 years to decrease skin cancer risk. A national, random sample of US American Academy of Pediatrics members practicing primary care in 2002 (response rate 55%) and 2015 (response rate 43%). Surveys explored attitudes and experiences regarding sun protection counseling; indoor tanning questions were added in 2015. χ 2 tests compared demographics and counseling responses across years, and multivariable logistic regression models examined counseling predictors. More pediatricians in 2015 (34%) than in 2002 (23%) reported discussing sun protection during recent summer months with ≥75% of patients. This pattern held across all patient age groups (each P tanning at least once with 10 to 13 year-old patients; approximately half discussed this with older adolescents. Most (70%) did not know if their states had laws on minors' indoor tanning access; those stating they knew whether a law existed counseled more. Although improved, sun protection counseling rates remain low. Indoor tanning counseling can be improved. Because early-life exposure to UV radiation increases risk and clinician counseling can positively impact prevention behaviors, pediatricians have an important role in skin cancer prevention; counseling may save lives. Time constraints remain a barrier. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Sun following system adjustment at the UTFSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Roth, P.; Olivares, A.

    2004-01-01

    The 'Evaluacion Solar' Laboratory of the Technical University Federico Santa Maria (UTFSM) in Valparaiso exists since 1957. Some types of sun following systems using instruments for different types of solar measurements were created during the mentioned period in this Laboratory. A solar tracking unit INTRA was recently installed in the UTFSM. It is considered a modern measuring and registering system for actual measuring of radiation in digital form, easier to store and to process. The action of the sun tracker is autonomous, which makes it a flexible tool to support direct radiation measurements. A special device was designed and constructed to support the measuring instruments. Three Eppley pyrheliometers were mounted on the unit and connected with an automatic registering system. An additional UV measuring sensor will be mounted soon. The realized measurements were compared with the results obtained manually from a K and Z pyrheliometer. The difference between both types of pyrheliometers is very small, which is a good precondition for using the INTRA sun tracker for precise measurements in the future

  15. The structure and evolution of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Severino, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This book equips the reader with a coherent understanding of the structure of the Sun and its evolution and provides all the knowledge required to construct a simplified model of the Sun. The early chapters cover key aspects of basic physics and describe the Sun’s size, mass, luminosity, and temperature. Using a semi-empirical approach, the structure of the present Sun is then modeled in detail, layer by layer, proceeding from the photosphere to the convection zone, radiation zone, and core. Finally, all stages of the Sun’s evolution, from its formation to the end of its life, are carefully explained. The book is primarily intended for university students taking the initial steps in moving from physics to astrophysics. It includes worked exercises and problems to illustrate the concepts discussed, as well as additional problems for independent study. With the aim of helping the reader as much as possible, most of the mathematics required to use the book are provided in the text.

  16. Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10 24 Mx of net toroidal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed ∼2x10 45 Mx 2 of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx 2 cm -3 at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations

  17. Learning about the Dynamic Sun through Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Luhmann, J.; MacCallum, J.

    2008-06-01

    Can we hear the Sun or its solar wind? Not in the sense that they make sound. But we can take the particle, magnetic field, electric field, and image data and turn it into sound to demonstrate what the data tells us. We present work on turning data from the two-satellite NASA mission called STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) into sounds and music (sonification). STEREO has two satellites orbiting the Sun near Earth's orbit to study the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Corona. One sonification project aims to inspire musicians, museum patrons, and the public to learn more about CMEs by downloading STEREO data and using it to make music. We demonstrate the software and discuss the way in which it was developed. A second project aims to produce a museum exhibit using STEREO imagery and sounds from STEREO data. We demonstrate a "walk across the Sun" created for this exhibit so people can hear the features on solar images. We show how pixel intensity translates into pitches from selectable scales with selectable musical scale size and octave locations. We also share our successes and lessons learned.

  18. Grid cut-off-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1992-01-01

    Tilting of a grid during portable radiography leads to uneven exposures, and errors greater than 3 0 can lead to errors in interpretation. Differentiation from abnormal findings can be made by recognising exposure difference of extrathoracic comparable areas. The difficulties caused by tilting of the grid can be reduced by increasing the film focus distance and by using suitable grids. A new cassette holder with an integrated balance makes it possible to correct tilting of the grid rapidly and effectively. This results in improved image quality which can be applied not only to conventional exposure systems but is also of advantage when using digital methods. (orig.) [de

  19. Smart Grids and Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin BICĂ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of Smart Grids and distributed generation. Smart Grids can be defined as a modernization of the power system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements (power plants, transmission and distribution system, industrial and residential loads. Distributed generation (DG refers to the production of electricity near the consumption place using renewable energy sources. A load flow analysis is performed for the IEEE14 system in which a DG source (a 5MW wind turbine is added that is on-grid or off-grid. The power losses are determined for these two cases.

  20. Outdoor Workers' Use of Sun Protection at Work and Leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This high-participation rate cohort helps characterize sun protection behaviors among outdoor workers. Workers practiced better sun protection at work than on weekends, suggesting that workplace policies supportive of sun protection could be useful for skin cancer prevention in the construction industry.

  1. Protective clothing in the sun | Tamas | Nigerian Journal of Clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sun protecting clothing is clothing designed for sun protection and is producted from the fabric rated for its level ultraviolet (UV) protection. Some textiles and fabrics emloyed in the use of sun protective clothing may be pre-treated with UV inhibiting ingredients during manufacture to enhance their UV blocking capacitiy.

  2. OGC and Grid Interoperability in enviroGRIDS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Rodila, Denisa; Bacu, Victor; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    EnviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is a 4-years FP7 Project aiming to address the subjects of ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate resource management. The project develops a Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Black Sea Catchment region. The geospatial technologies offer very specialized functionality for Earth Science oriented applications as well as the Grid oriented technology that is able to support distributed and parallel processing. One challenge of the enviroGRIDS project is the interoperability between geospatial and Grid infrastructures by providing the basic and the extended features of the both technologies. The geospatial interoperability technology has been promoted as a way of dealing with large volumes of geospatial data in distributed environments through the development of interoperable Web service specifications proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with applications spread across multiple fields but especially in Earth observation research. Due to the huge volumes of data available in the geospatial domain and the additional introduced issues (data management, secure data transfer, data distribution and data computation), the need for an infrastructure capable to manage all those problems becomes an important aspect. The Grid promotes and facilitates the secure interoperations of geospatial heterogeneous distributed data within a distributed environment, the creation and management of large distributed computational jobs and assures a security level for communication and transfer of messages based on certificates. This presentation analysis and discusses the most significant use cases for enabling the OGC Web services interoperability with the Grid environment and focuses on the description and implementation of the most promising one. In these use cases we give a special attention to issues such as: the relations between computational grid and

  3. Extending the Fermi-LAT Data Processing Pipeline to the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, S.; Arrabito, L.; Glanzman, T.; Johnson, T.; Lavalley, C.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Data Handling Pipeline (“Pipeline”) has been developed for the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) Large Area Telescope (LAT) which launched in June 2008. Since then it has been in use to completely automate the production of data quality monitoring quantities, reconstruction and routine analysis of all data received from the satellite and to deliver science products to the collaboration and the Fermi Science Support Center. Aside from the reconstruction of raw data from the satellite (Level 1), data reprocessing and various event-level analyses are also reasonably heavy loads on the pipeline and computing resources. These other loads, unlike Level 1, can run continuously for weeks or months at a time. In addition it receives heavy use in performing production Monte Carlo tasks. In daily use it receives a new data download every 3 hours and launches about 2000 jobs to process each download, typically completing the processing of the data before the next download arrives. The need for manual intervention has been reduced to less than 0.01% of submitted jobs. The Pipeline software is written almost entirely in Java and comprises several modules. The software comprises web-services that allow online monitoring and provides charts summarizing work flow aspects and performance information. The server supports communication with several batch systems such as LSF and BQS and recently also Sun Grid Engine and Condor. This is accomplished through dedicated job control services that for Fermi are running at SLAC and the other computing site involved in this large scale framework, the Lyon computing center of IN2P3. While being different in the logic of a task, we evaluate a separate interface to the Dirac system in order to communicate with EGI sites to utilize Grid resources, using dedicated Grid optimized systems rather than developing our own. More recently the Pipeline and its associated data catalog have been generalized for use by other experiments, and are

  4. Grid Generation Techniques Utilizing the Volume Grid Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents grid generation techniques available in the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) code. The VGM code is designed to manipulate existing line, surface and volume grids to improve the quality of the data. It embodies an easy to read rich language of commands that enables such alterations as topology changes, grid adaption and smoothing. Additionally, the VGM code can be used to construct simplified straight lines, splines, and conic sections which are common curves used in the generation and manipulation of points, lines, surfaces and volumes (i.e., grid data). These simple geometric curves are essential in the construction of domain discretizations for computational fluid dynamic simulations. By comparison to previously established methods of generating these curves interactively, the VGM code provides control of slope continuity and grid point-to-point stretchings as well as quick changes in the controlling parameters. The VGM code offers the capability to couple the generation of these geometries with an extensive manipulation methodology in a scripting language. The scripting language allows parametric studies of a vehicle geometry to be efficiently performed to evaluate favorable trends in the design process. As examples of the powerful capabilities of the VGM code, a wake flow field domain will be appended to an existing X33 Venturestar volume grid; negative volumes resulting from grid expansions to enable flow field capture on a simple geometry, will be corrected; and geometrical changes to a vehicle component of the X33 Venturestar will be shown.

  5. From the grid to the smart grid, topologically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.

  6. Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a

  7. Ethical Implications to the Assessment of the Smart Grid Technology in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Makienko Marina A.; Kurkan Natalia V.; Emelyanenko Ekaterina E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper brings up the issue of staff training for professional development of the Smart Grid technology and for use of its elements by customers in households. It was revealed that the considerable part of the respondents was not familiar with the definition of Smart Grid. That required the development of communication skills by energy engineering students and their social activity as well. The reasons mentioned make actual the following elements of engineering education: social responsibi...

  8. Thermo-mechanical design of the extraction grids for RF negative ion source at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Chen; Liu, Kaifeng, E-mail: kfliuhust@hust.edu.cn; Li, Dong; Mei, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Dezhi

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An extraction system with cooling channels has been designed for HUST negative ion source. • Corresponding heat loads onto three grids has been used in thermo-mechanical analysis. • The analysis results could be very useful for driving the engineering design. - Abstract: Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) is developing a small radio frequency negative ion source experimental setup to promote research on neutral beam injection ion sources. The extraction system for the negative ion source is the key component to obtain the negative ions. The extraction system is composed of three grids: the plasma grid, the extraction grid and the grounded grid. Each grid is impacted by different heat loads. As the grids have to fulfil specific requirements regarding ion extraction, beam optics, and thermo-mechanical issues, grid cooling systems have been included for ensuring reliable operation. This paper focuses on the thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of the grids. Finite element calculations have been carried out to analyse the temperature and deformation of the grids under heat loads using the fluid dynamics code CFX. Based on these results, the cooling circuit design and cooling parameters are optimised to satisfy the grid requirements.

  9. The Sun: the Earth light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  10. Grid-connected to/from off-grid transference for micro-grid inverters

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Chillón Antón, Cristian; Pages Gimenez, Marc; Gross, Gabriel Igor; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two methods for controlling the on-line transference from connected to stand-alone mode and vice versa in converters for micro-grids. The first proposes a method where the converter changes from CSI (Current Source Inverter) in grid-connected mode to VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) in off-grid. In the second method, the inverter always works as a non-ideal voltage source, acting as VSI, using AC droop control strategy.

  11. Innovative technologies for sustainable electrical grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagana-Hammer, B.

    2016-01-01

    This year's Energy Day is under the motto "Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Energy Networks". According to the ideas of the European Commission, a sustainable, secure, efficient, affordable and competitive energy supply with particular attention to the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions is to be created. In future, energy should flow freely through Europe without technical barriers in an integrated internal market. For the power supply, this means a renewal and consolidation of the 50-year-old and largely isolated national distribution networks. In addition, the decentralized power plants, which are often remote from the consumers and dependent on the whims of the sun or the wind, are also to be integrated into this network. The fact that electricity can only be saved insufficiently is a further hurdle. In this light, the target of a minimum degree of synchronisation in the European grid of 10% to 2020 and 15% to 2030 seems ambitious. According to the European Commission, the construction of new infrastructure is to be given priority, but there are considerable difficulties with implementation. In addition to the technical barriers, the barriers to the expansion of the energy market and the protracted licensing procedures, the lack of confidence on the part of the citizens question the realization of the plans for a European Supergrid. Today's event attempts to illuminate the large-scale technical possibilities for the exchange of fluctuating renewable energies over long distances as well as the regional grids, which are of interest to the private consumer. The question of the sustainability and expediency of the planned European internal electricity market completes the 2016 Energy Day program. (rössner) [de

  12. The Grid2003 Production Grid Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, I; Gose, S; Maltsev, N; May, E; Rodríguez, A; Sulakhe, D; Vaniachine, A; Shank, J; Youssef, S; Adams, D; Baker, R; Deng, W; Smith, J; Yu, D; Legrand, I; Singh, S; Steenberg, C; Xia, Y; Afaq, A; Berman, E; Annis, J; Bauerdick, L A T; Ernst, M; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Graham, G; Heavey, A; Kaiser, J; Kuropatkin, N; Pordes, R; Sekhri, V; Weigand, J; Wu, Y; Baker, K; Sorrillo, L; Huth, J; Allen, M; Grundhoefer, L; Hicks, J; Luehring, F C; Peck, S; Quick, R; Simms, S; Fekete, G; Van den Berg, J; Cho, K; Kwon, K; Son, D; Park, H; Canon, S; Jackson, K; Konerding, D E; Lee, J; Olson, D; Sakrejda, I; Tierney, B; Green, M; Miller, R; Letts, J; Martin, T; Bury, D; Dumitrescu, C; Engh, D; Gardner, R; Mambelli, M; Smirnov, Y; Voeckler, J; Wilde, M; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Avery, P; Cavanaugh, R J; Kim, B; Prescott, C; Rodríguez, J; Zahn, A; McKee, S; Jordan, C; Prewett, J; Thomas, T; Severini, H; Clifford, B; Deelman, E; Flon, L; Kesselman, C; Mehta, G; Olomu, N; Vahi, K; De, K; McGuigan, P; Sosebee, M; Bradley, D; Couvares, P; De Smet, A; Kireyev, C; Paulson, E; Roy, A; Koranda, S; Moe, B; Brown, B; Sheldon, P

    2004-01-01

    The Grid2003 Project has deployed a multi-virtual organization, application-driven grid laboratory ("GridS") that has sustained for several months the production-level services required by physics experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (ATLAS and CMS), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey project, the gravitational wave search experiment LIGO, the BTeV experiment at Fermilab, as well as applications in molecular structure analysis and genome analysis, and computer science research projects in such areas as job and data scheduling. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. We describe the principles that have guided the development of this unique infrastructure and the practical experiences that have resulted from its creation and use. We discuss application requirements for grid services deployment and configur...

  13. Solar Probe Plus: A mission to touch the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, J.; Lockwood, M. K.; Fox, N.; Conde, R.; Driesman, A.

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP), currently in Phase B, will be the first mission to fly into the low solar corona, revealing how the corona is heated and the solar wind is accelerated, solving two fundamental mysteries that have been top priority science goals since such a mission was first proposed in 1958. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. SPP uses an innovative mission design, significant technology development and a risk-reducing engineering development to meet the SPP science objectives: 1) determine the structure and dynamics of the magnetic fields at the sources of the fast and slow solar wind, 2) trace the flow of energy that heats the corona and accelerates the solar wind. and 3) determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles. In this paper, we present the Solar Probe Plus mission along with a brief comparison with some previous concepts for such a mission, and discuss the trade studies that led to the SPP implementation. We present a summary of the challenges associated with operation in the solar encounter environment and discuss the technology development and engineering trade studies to compose a mission that will not only survive this environment, but will provide the data needed to answer the science questions that have remained unanswered to date.

  14. A practical equation of state for the sun and sun-like stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.H.; Daeppen, W.

    2012-01-01

    For models of the Sun and Sun-like stars, a high-quality equation of state is crucial. Conversely, helio- and asteroseismological observations put constraints on the physical formalisms. They effectively turn the Sun and stars into laboratories for dense plasmas. For models of the Sun and Sun-like stars, the most accurate equation of state so far has been the one developed as part of OPAL opacity project of Livermore. However, the OPAL equation of state is limited in two important respects. First, it is only available in the form of pre-computed tables that are provided from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Applications to stellar modeling require therefore interpolation, with unavoidable loss of accuracy. Second, the OPAL equation of state is proprietary and not freely available. Varying its underlying physical parameters is therefore no option for the community. We report on the most recent progress with the development of a high-precision emulation of the OPAL equation of state that will lead to an in-line tool for modelers (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Sun-Direction Estimation Using a Partially Underdetermined Set of Coarse Sun Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2015-09-01

    A comparison of different methods to estimate the sun-direction vector using a partially underdetermined set of cosine-type coarse sun sensors (CSS), while simultaneously controlling the attitude towards a power-positive orientation, is presented. CSS are commonly used in performing power-positive sun-pointing and are attractive due to their relative inexpensiveness, small size, and reduced power consumption. For this study only CSS and rate gyro measurements are available, and the sensor configuration does not provide global triple coverage required for a unique sun-direction calculation. The methods investigated include a vector average method, a combination of least squares and minimum norm criteria, and an extended Kalman filter approach. All cases are formulated such that precise ground calibration of the CSS is not required. Despite significant biases in the state dynamics and measurement models, Monte Carlo simulations show that an extended Kalman filter approach, despite the underdetermined sensor coverage, can provide degree-level accuracy of the sun-direction vector both with and without a control algorithm running simultaneously. If no rate gyro measurements are available, and rates are partially estimated from CSS, the EKF performance degrades as expected, but is still able to achieve better than 10∘ accuracy using only CSS measurements.

  16. Sun-care product advertising in parenting magazines: what information does it provide about sun protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Walsh-Childers, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the content of sun-care product advertisements in five major U.S. parenting magazines with high circulation: Family Circle, Parents, Family Fun, Parenting (Early Years), and Parenting (School Years). The study examined what information sun-care product advertisements tell parents about skin cancer prevention and about sunscreen use for themselves or for their children based on the Health Belief Model concepts of perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Results showed that the most commonly mentioned benefit of the product was that it blocks ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays. One-third of the ads promoted the product's effectiveness in overcoming four of the barriers that prevent people from using sunscreens: eye irritation, skin irritation, an unpleasant smell, and the need to reapply sunscreen too often or after physical activity. However, only a few of the ads provided information about the consequences of unprotected sun exposure or mentioned methods of sun protection or skin cancer prevention other than sunscreen use. We discuss the implications of these messages for parents' ability to understand correctly how to protect their children from damaging sun exposure.

  17. The Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  18. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  19. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  20. Revelation of the Sun Self-Similarity Skeletal Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of databases of photographic images of a surface of the Sun, its atmosphere and the closest its space environment taken at various spatial resolutions and for various types of radiation of a surface of the Sun by means of a method multilevel dynamic contrasting, has revealed presence skeletal structures as on the Sun directly such and in its environment. It is demonstrated the revealed a global structures of the Sun and powerful ejections of mass of its corona, as well as the structures of its atmosphere, protuberances, sun-spots and a globular structures of its photosphere

  1. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  2. Resource allocation in grid computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, Ger; Righter, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Grid computing, in which a network of computers is integrated to create a very fast virtual computer, is becoming ever more prevalent. Examples include the TeraGrid and Planet-lab.org, as well as applications on the existing Internet that take advantage of unused computing and storage capacity of

  3. The smart grid research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troi, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2013-01-01

    Grid Network’s recommendations’, which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties...

  4. Wingridder - an interactive grid generator for TOUGH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Lehua

    2003-01-01

    The TOUGH (Transport Of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat) family of codes has great flexibility in handling the variety of grid information required to describe a complex subsurface system. However, designing and generating such a grid can be a tedious and error-prone process. This is especially true when the number of cells and connections is very large. As a user-friendly, efficient, and effective grid generating software, WinGridder has been developed for designing, generating, and visualizing (at various spatial scales) numerical grids used in reservoir simulations and groundwater modeling studies. It can save mesh files for TOUGH family codes. It can also output additional grid information for various purposes in either graphic format or plain text format. It has user-friendly graphical user interfaces, along with an easy-to-use interactive design and plot tools. Many important features, such as inclined faults and offset, layering structure, local refinements, and embedded engineering structures, can be represented in the grid

  5. The DataGrid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, F

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and status of the DataGrid Project is presented, together with a brief introduction to the Grid metaphor and some references to the Grid activities and initiatives related to DataGrid. High energy physics experiments have always requested state of the art computing facilities to efficiently perform several computing activities related with the handling of large amounts of data and fairly large computing resources. Some of the ideas born inside the community to enhance the user friendliness of all the steps in the computing chain have been, sometimes, successfully applied also in other contexts: one bright example is the World Wide Web. The LHC computing challenge has triggered inside the high energy physics community, the start of the DataGrid Project. The objective of the project is to enable next generation scientific exploration requiring intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases. (12 refs).

  6. gCube Grid services

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    gCube is a service-based framework for eScience applications requiring collaboratory, on-demand, and intensive information processing. It provides to these communities Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to support their activities. gCube is build on top of standard technologies for computational Grids, namely the gLite middleware. The software was produced by the DILIGENT project and will continue to be supported and further developed by the D4Science project. gCube reflects within its name a three-sided interpretation of the Grid vision of resource sharing: sharing of computational resources, sharing of structured data, and sharing of application services. As such, gCube embodies the defining characteristics of computational Grids, data Grids, and virtual data Grids. Precisely, it builds on gLite middleware for managing distributed computations and unstructured data, includes dedicated services for managing data and metadata, provides services for distributed information retrieval, allows the orchestration...

  7. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  8. Smart grid: hope or hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...

  9. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  10. Associations between authoritative parenting and the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewse, Avril J; Lea, Stephen E G; Ntala, Eleni; Eiser, J Richard

    2011-05-01

    Associations between the sun exposure and sun protective behaviours of adolescents and their friends were examined along with the role played by authoritative parenting and other family and peer socialisation factors. Four hundred and two adolescents (198 males, 204 females) participated in the research. It was found that these adolescents and their friends shared similar sun exposure and sun protective behaviours and had similar parenting backgrounds. Parental authoritativeness was positively associated with the use of sun protection, even after the effects of other familial and peer variables were controlled, but not with the time spent sunbathing which was associated with friends' behaviours. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Moon and sun shadowing effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Michelle Mesquita de; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The deficit due to the absorption of cosmic rays by the Moon and the Sun can be observed detecting the muon flux generated in extensive air showers. This phenomenon, known as cosmic ray shadow, can be used to study the behaviour of the geomagnetic, solar and interplanetary magnetic fields, to measure the antiproton-proton ratio and to determine the angular resolution and alignment of the detectors to confirm its accuracy and precision. Many experiments using surface or underground detectors have measured the Moon and Sun shadow: MINOS, CYGNUS, CASA, Tibet, MACRO, Soudan2, L3+C, Milagro, BUST, GRAPE and HEGRA. The MINOS experiment (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search) uses two layered steel and plastic scintillator detectors (Near Detector and Far Detector) along with a muon neutrino beam (NuMI - Neutrinos at the Main Injector) to search for ν μ disappearance, and thus neutrino oscillations. However the magnetic field and the fiducial volume of the underground Far Detector at Soudan Underground Mine State Park (Minnesota, USA) allow a great opportunity to investigate cosmic rays at TeV surface energy. The deficit caused by the Moon and the Sun was detected by the MINOS Far Detector and this could also be done using the Near Detector. In this report we describe the motivation of measuring this effect. We present the recent results from MINOS along with its experimental apparatus and, in addition, the main results from the various experiments. We also make considerations about the possibility of doing such a measurement with the MINOS Near Detector. (author)

  12. AQUAGRID: The subsurface hydrology Grid service of the Sardinian regional Grid infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, G.; Murgia, F.; Maggi, P.; Perias, A.

    2007-01-01

    AQUAGRID is the subsurface hydrology service of the Sardinian regional Grid infrastructure, designed to deliver complex environmental applications via a user-friendly Web portal. The service is oriented towards the needs of water professionals providing them a flexible and powerful tool to solve water resources management problems and aid decision between different remediation options for contaminated soil and groundwater. In this paper, the AQUAGRID application concept and the enabling technologies are illustrated. The heart of the service is the CODESA-3D hydrogeological model to simulate complex and large groundwater flow and contaminant transport problems. The relevant experience gained from the porting of the CODESA-3D application on the EGEE infrastructure, via the GILDA test bed (https://gilda.ct.infn.it), has contributed to the service prototype. AQUAGRID is built on top of compute-Grid technologies by means of the EnginFrame Grid portal. The portal enables the interaction with the underlying Grid infrastructure and manages the computational requirements of the whole application system. Data management, distribution and visualization mechanisms are based on the tools provided by the DatacroSSing Decision Support System (http://datacrossing.crs4.it). The DSS, built on top of the SRB data-Grid middleware, is based on Web-GIS and relational database technologies. The resulting production environment allows the end-user to visualize and interact with the results of the performed analyses, using graphs, annotated maps and 3D objects. Such a set of graphical widgets increases enormously the number of AQUAGRID potential users because it does not require any specific expertise of the physical model and technological background to be understood. (Author)

  13. Search for Neutrinos from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1968-09-01

    A solar neutrino detection system has been built to observe the neutrino radiation from the sun. The detector uses 3,900,000 liters of tetrachloroethylene as the neutrino capturing medium. Argon is removed from the liquid by sweeping with helium gas, and counted in a small low level proportional counter. The recovery efficiency of the system was tested with Ar{sup 36} by the isotope dilution method, and also with Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by fast neutrons. These tests demonstrate that Ar{sup 37} produced in the liquid by neutrino capture can be removed with a 95 percent efficiency by the procedure used.

  14. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  15. Hinode, the Sun, and public outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaji, K.; Tonooka, H.; Shimojo, M.; Tokimasa, N.; Suzuki, D.; Nakamichi, A.; Shimoikura, I.

    2015-03-01

    Extended Abstract Hinode is a solar observation satellite in Japan and its launch was in September 2006. Its name means ``SUNRISE`` in Japanese. It has three instruments onboard in visible light, X-ray, EUV to solve mystery of coronal heating and origins of magnetic fields. Hinode has been providing us with impressive solar data, which are very important for not only investigating solar phenomena but also giving new knowledge about the sun to the public. In order to efficiently communicate Hinode data to the public, we organized working group for public use of Hinode data. which are composed of both researchers and educators in collaboration. As follow, we introduce our activities in brief. For the public use of Hinode data, at first, we produced two DVDs introducing Hinode observation results. In particular, second DVD contains a movie for kids, which are devloped to picturebook. Now, it is under producing an illustrated book and a planetarium program. It turn out that the DVDs help the public understand the sun from questionnaire surveys. Second, we developed teaching materials from Hinode data and had a science classroom about the sun, solar observations, practice with PC such as imaging software at junior high school. As the results, they had much interests in Hinode data. Third, we have joint observations with high school students and so on in a few years. The students compare their own data with Hinode data and have a presentation at science contests. The joint observations make their motivation higher in their activities. It is important to record and report our activities in some ways. So, we positively publish papers and have presentions in domestic/international meetings. Though we are supported in budget, resources and so on by NAOJ Hinode Team, we apply research funds for promoting our EPO activities and acquire some funds such as NAOJ Joint Research Expenses and Grands-Aid for Scientific Research Funds since the launch. This way, since its launch, we

  16. Asymmetric dark matter and the Sun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sarkar, Subir

    2010-01-01

    Cold dark matter particles with an intrinsic matter-antimatter asymmetry do not annihilate after gravitational capture by the Sun and can affect its interior structure. The rate of capture is exponentially enhanced when such particles have self-interactions of the right order to explain structure...... formation on galactic scales. A `dark baryon' of mass 5 GeV is a natural candidate and has the required relic abundance if its asymmetry is similar to that of ordinary baryons. We show that such particles can solve the `solar composition problem'. The predicted small decrease in the low energy neutrino...

  17. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Businger, S.

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed

  18. Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M.; Olsen, Jorn; Johansen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to study the association between occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. SUBJECTS and METHODS: A European multicenter case-control study including seven rare cases (one being MF) was conducted between 1995 and 1997. From the 118...... accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were definite cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational experiences was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure...

  19. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  20. A review on distributed energy resources and MicroGrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayi, Huang; Chuanwen, Jiang; Rong, Xu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Huashan Road 1954, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The distributed energy resources (DER) comprise several technologies, such as diesel engines, micro turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic, small wind turbines, etc. The coordinated operation and control of DER together with controllable loads and storage devices, such as flywheels, energy capacitors and batteries are central to the concept of MicroGrid (MG). MG can operate interconnected to the main distribution grid, or in an islanded mode. This paper reviews the researches and studies on MG technology. The operation of MG and the MG in the market environment are also described in the paper. (author)

  1. Energy management of internet data centers in smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This book reports the latest findings on intelligent energy management of Internet data centers in smart-grid environments. The book gathers novel research ideas in Internet data center energy management, especially scenarios with cyber-related vulnerabilities, power outages and carbon emission constraints. The book will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in communication and networking areas who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of energy management of Internet data centers in smart grids.

  2. Study of Λ parameters and crossover phenomena in SU(N) x SU(N) sigma models in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigemitsu, J.; Kogut, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The spin system analogues of recent studies of the string tension and Λ parameters of SU(N) gauge theories in 4 dimensions are carried out for the SU(N) x SU(N) and O(N) models in 2 dimensions. The relations between the Λ parameters of both the Euclidean and Hamiltonian formulation of the lattice models and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. The one loop finite renormalization of the speed of light in the lattice Hamiltonian formulations of the O(N) and SU(N) x SU(N) models is calculated. Strong coupling calculations of the mass gaps of these spin models are done for all N and the constants of proportionality between the gap and the Λ parameter of the continuum models are obtained. These results are contrasted with similar calculations for the SU(N) gauge models in 3+1 dimensions. Identifying suitable coupling constants for discussing the N → infinity limits, the numerical results suggest that the crossover from weak to strong coupling in the lattice O(N) models becomes less abrupt as N increases while the crossover for the SU(N) x SU(N) models becomes more abrupt. The crossover in SU(N) gauge theories also becomes more abrupt with increasing N, however, at an even greater rate than in the SU(N) x SU(N) spin models

  3. Smart grid security innovative solutions for a modernized grid

    CERN Document Server

    Skopik, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid security ecosystem is complex and multi-disciplinary, and relatively under-researched compared to the traditional information and network security disciplines. While the Smart Grid has provided increased efficiencies in monitoring power usage, directing power supplies to serve peak power needs and improving efficiency of power delivery, the Smart Grid has also opened the way for information security breaches and other types of security breaches. Potential threats range from meter manipulation to directed, high-impact attacks on critical infrastructure that could bring down regi

  4. Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population density grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's...

  5. Optimizing solar-cell grid geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, A. P.

    1969-01-01

    Trade-off analysis and mathematical expressions calculate optimum grid geometry in terms of various cell parameters. Determination of the grid geometry provides proper balance between grid resistance and cell output to optimize the energy conversion process.

  6. Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Martini, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.

  7. Research on Thermal-Field and Sound-Field Coupling Properties of Different Grid Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enlai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The inlet grid and exhaust grid are widely used in engineering machinery products. The process that airflow goes through grids is a complex turbulent flow and directly related to the heat dispersion and aerodynamic noise. The theoretical analysis result shows that the jet noise generated by airflow has a connection with the grid structure form, fluid flowing situation, and heat conduction. In addition, the influences of different grid structure forms (included the round hole, long hole, and square hole and porosity on the heat dissipation and aerodynamic noise were analyzed and presented based on the verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD model. Results show that the heat dispersion and aerodynamic noise of the round hole are most effective under the same porosity; as the porosity increases, the disturbance degree decreases and the noise reduction effect gets better. Finally, the research result provides the scientific basis for improving grid structure and achieving energy saving and noise reduction.

  8. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  9. The Internet of things and Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Lv, Sen; Pan, Qing

    2018-02-01

    The Internet of things and smart grid are the frontier of information and Industry. The combination of Internet of things and smart grid will greatly enhance the ability of smart grid information and communication support. The key technologies of the Internet of things will be applied to the smart grid, and the grid operation and management information perception service centre will be built to support the commanding heights of the world’s smart grid.

  10. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Lifestyle, sun worshipping and sun tanning - what about UV-A sun beds. Livsstil, soling og bruning - hva med UV-A solarier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thune, P [Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway)

    1991-06-01

    This article considers the effects of ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and UV-A sun beds on the skin. Sun worshipping and sun therapy has been en vogue for centuries, but in another way than used today. A changing lifestyle has led to an increase of various skin diseases, including skin cancer. Short wave UV-light (UV-B) in particular has been blamed for inducing not only erythema and pigmentation but also more chronic skin lesions. Long wave UV-light (UV-A) has been shown to be the cause of similar changes to the skin but the pigmentation is of another quality and affords less protection against the harmful effects of UV-B. A concept of sun reactive skin typing has been created. This is based on self-reported responses to an initial exposure to sun as regards tanning ability and erythema reaction. These two factors have certain practical consequences, not only for UV-phototherapy but also for a person's risk of developing skin cancer. Recently, several research groups and dermatologists have discouraged extensive use of UV-A sun beds because of side effects of varying degrees of seriousness. The possible implications of these side effects for the organism are not fully elucidated and may be more profound than known today. The British Photodermatology Group has issued more stringent rules for persons who, despite advice to the contrary, still wish to use UV-A sun beds. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  13. The depth of the honeybee's backup sun-compass systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Katelyn M; Kemfort, Jordan R; Towne, William F

    2013-06-01

    Honeybees have at least three compass mechanisms: a magnetic compass; a celestial or sun compass, based on the daily rotation of the sun and sun-linked skylight patterns; and a backup celestial compass based on a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the landscape. The interactions of these compass systems have yet to be fully elucidated, but the celestial compass is primary in most contexts, the magnetic compass is a backup in certain contexts, and the bees' memory of the sun's course in relation to the landscape is a backup system for cloudy days. Here we ask whether bees have any further compass systems, for example a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the magnetic field. To test this, we challenged bees to locate the sun when their known celestial compass systems were unavailable, that is, under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes. We measured the bees' knowledge of the sun's location by observing their waggle dances, by which foragers indicate the directions toward food sources in relation to the sun's compass bearing. We found that bees have no celestial compass systems beyond those already known: under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes, bees attempt to use their landscape-based backup system to locate the sun, matching the landscapes or skylines at the test sites with those at their natal sites as best they can, even if the matches are poor and yield weak or inconsistent orientation.

  14. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  15. The Sun and the Earth's Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigh Joanna D.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in solar activity, at least as observed in numbers of sunspots, have been apparent since ancient times but to what extent solar variability may affect global climate has been far more controversial. The subject had been in and out of fashion for at least two centuries but the current need to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change has brought it again to the forefront of meteorological research. The absolute radiometers carried by satellites since the late 1970s have produced indisputable evidence that total solar irradiance varies systematically over the 11-year sunspot cycle, relegating to history the term “solar constant”, but it is difficult to explain how the apparent response to the Sun, seen in many climate records, can be brought about by these rather small changes in radiation. This article reviews some of the evidence for a solar influence on the lower atmosphere and discusses some of the mechanisms whereby the Sun may produce more significant impacts than might be surmised from a consideration only of variations in total solar irradiance.

  16. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  17. The SunWise Policy Intervention for School-Based Sun Protection: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M.; Geller, Alan C.; Viswanath, Vish; Rutsch, Linda; Zwirn, Jodie; Gorham, Sue; Puleo, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Skin cancer is highly preventable, but clearly there is a critical need to focus on better ways to disseminate information about known skin cancer prevention. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SunWise Program is one channel for reaching children, teachers, and school nurses. In a pilot study designed to increase adoption of…

  18. Grid simulator for power quality assessment of micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Joaquin Eloy Garcia; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    voltages, low-order harmonics and flicker. The aim of this equipment is to test the performance of a given system under such distorted voltages. A prototype of the simulator, consisting of two inverters connected back-to-back to a 380 V three-phase grid and feeding a micro-grid composed of two......-inverter interfaced distributed generators and a critical load was built and tested. A set of experimental results for linear purely resistive loads, non-linear loads and current-controlled inverters is presented to prove the capabilities of the simulator. Finally, a case study is presented by testing a micro-grid.......In this study, a grid simulator based on a back-to-back inverter topology with resonant controllers is presented. The simulator is able to generate three-phase voltages for a range of amplitudes and frequencies with different types of perturbations, such as voltage sags, steady-state unbalanced...

  19. Profitability of smart grid solutions applied in power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Nenad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a Smart Grid solution has been developing for years, as complete solution for a power utility, consisting of different advanced technologies aimed at improving of the efficiency of operation. The trend of implementing various smart systems continues, e.g. Energy Management Systems, Grid Automation Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart power equipment, Distributed Energy Resources, Demand Response systems, etc. Futhermore, emerging technologies, such as energy storages, electrical vehicles or distributed generators, become integrated in distribution networks and systems. Nowadays, the idea of a Smart Grid solution becomes more realistic by full integration of all advanced operation technologies (OT within IT environment, providing the complete digitalization of an Utility (IT/OT integration. The overview of smart grid solutions, estimation of investments, operation costs and possible benefits are presented in this article, with discusison about profitability of such systems.

  20. Grid Transmission Expansion Planning Model Based on Grid Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Quan; Wang, Xi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Quanming; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Huaqiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on grid vulnerability and uniformity theory, proposed global network structure and state vulnerability factor model used to measure different grid models. established a multi-objective power grid planning model which considering the global power network vulnerability, economy and grid security constraint. Using improved chaos crossover and mutation genetic algorithm to optimize the optimal plan. For the problem of multi-objective optimization, dimension is not uniform, the weight is not easy given. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method to comprehensive assessment of the population every generation, make the results more objective and credible assessment. the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are validated by simulation results of Garver-6 bus system and Garver-18 bus.

  1. Power grid control in retreat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2000-01-01

    Bilateral grid control that obstructs free trade of electricity is in retreat. Negotiations on opening the Skagerrak cables are in progress. The EU, national authorities, network companies with system responsibility, market actors, electricity exchanges all push for quick opening of the grid. At present, free trade of electricity is hindered not so much by physical bottlenecks in the grid as by market actors possessing control and bilateral agreements. The article discusses current bilateral agreements and how they might affect the possibility of a free trade of electricity in Europe

  2. Smart Grid Security. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    One of the biggest concerns for smart grid developers is cyber security due to the reliance on IT communication networks. While the current grid is not immune to energy theft, fraud and malicious cyber-attacks, the smart grid poses new security issues. It is more likely now that theft, malicious attack and fraud will be committed by people working remotely from a laptop several miles away, even in a different country, than someone physically manipulating meters. This makes it difficult to predict where attacks will come from.

  3. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  4. Storm: A Manager for Storage Resource in Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiselli, A.; Magnoni, L.; Zappi, R.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, data intensive applications demand high-performance and large-storage systems capable of serving up to various Peta bytes of storage space. Therefore, common solutions adopted in data centres include Storage Area Networks (San) and cluster parallel file systems, such as GPFS from IBM and Lustre from Sun Microsystems. In order to make these storage system solutions available in modern Data Grid architectures, standard interfaces are needed. The Grid Storage Resource Manager (SRM) interface is one of these standard interfaces. Grid storage services implementing the SRM standard provide common capabilities and advanced functionality such as dynamic space allocation and file management on shared storage systems. In this paper, we describe Storm (Storage Resource Manager). Storm is a flexible and high-performing implementation of the standard SRM interface version 2.2. The software architecture of Storm allows for an easy integration to different underlying storage systems via a plug-in mechanism. In particular, Storm takes advantage from storage systems based on cluster file systems. Currently, Storm is installed and used in production in various data centres, including the WLCG Italian Tier-1. In addition, Economics and Financial communities, as represented by the EGRID Project, adopt Storm in production as well.

  5. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul; Cutululis, N.A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Wind Enegy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant countries. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. (au)

  6. 'My child did not like using sun protection': practices and perceptions of child sun protection among rural black African mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunene, Zamantimande; Albers, Patricia N; Lucas, Robyn M; Banwell, Cathy; Mathee, Angela; Wright, Caradee Y

    2017-08-25

    Photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, but immune suppression, photoaging and cataracts occur among individuals with all skin types. To assess practices and acceptability to Black African mothers of sun protection equipment for their children living in a rural area, participants were recruited at the time of their child's 18-month vaccinations. Mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on usual sun behaviours and sun protection practices. They were then provided with sun protection equipment and advice. A follow-up questionnaire was administered two weeks later. Mothers reported that during the week prior to the baseline questionnaire, children spent on average less than 1 hour of time outdoors (most often spent in the shade). Most mothers (97%) liked the sun protection equipment. However, many (78 of 86) reported that their child did not like any of the sun protection equipment and two-thirds stated that the sun protection equipment was not easy to use. Among Black Africans in rural northern South Africa, we found a mismatch between parental preferences and child acceptance for using sun protection when outdoors. A better understanding of the health risks of incidental excess sun exposure and potential benefits of sun protection is required among Black Africans.

  7. What is the sun's real potential?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joliot, P.

    2009-01-01

    The sun has colossal energy potential, yet it is barely exploited. It radiates 10,000 times more energy than man now uses. Plants only recover one thousandth of this immense energy source. A closer look at the potential of processes for using solar energy, from photovoltaics to biofuels and biomass to the 'promise' of artificial photosynthesis The sun represents an inexhaustible source of energy. It is the well from which most of the energy sources available on the earth's surface spring, excepting nuclear and geothermal energy. Among the methods capable of recovering solar energy directly, three of them are currently in use: - Producing hot water with solar collectors; - High-temperature thermal power plants (1,000 deg.C or more); - Photovoltaics. Photovoltaic electricity already represents a significant source of energy in areas with low population density. Generating such power can also help meet the basic needs of poor countries. The last two methods nevertheless require a means for storing the energy produced, a function provided by the hot water tank in the first method. What about photosynthetic reactions that convert solar energy into chemical energy? Photosynthesis not only synthesizes organic products, it also recycles carbon dioxide and regenerates oxygen, all of which are vital to maintaining life on earth. We currently expect to produce renewable energy - mainly biofuels - by converting biomass produced by photosynthesis. Plants generally store less than 1% of the sun's energy in their organic matter. This feeble energy balance can become negative when the energy spent for sowing, harvesting and processing is taken into account, especially if only a fraction of the organic matter is actually collected, as in the case of corn or rapeseed oil. The substantial amount of land and water needed to produce large quantities of biofuels would put too much strain on food crops, especially in light of the large and ever growing numbers of people suffering from

  8. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  9. Governments plan data grid projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Thibodeau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Some governments and not-for-profit organizations such as hospitals are beginning to look at data grid technology as a means to improve servies, lower operating costs and spur economic development." (1 page)

  10. Transmission Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission Integration Transmission Integration The goal of NREL's transmission integration integration issues and provide data, analysis, and models to enable the electric power system to more and finding solutions to address them to enable transmission grid integration. Capabilities Power

  11. 84-KILOMETER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Roe

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the development of a radial grid that is suitable for evaluating the pathways and potential impacts of a release of radioactive materials to the environment within a distance of 84 kilometers (km). The center of the grid represents an approximate location from which a potential release of radioactive materials could originate. The center is located on Nevada State Plane coordinates Northing 765621.5, and Easting 570433.6, which is on the eastern side of Exile Hill at the Yucca Mountain site. The North Portal Pad is located over this point. The grid resulting from this calculation is intended for use primarily in the Radiological Monitoring Program (RadMP). This grid also is suitable for use in Biosphere Modeling and other Yucca Mountain Site Characteristic Project (YMP) activities that require the evaluation of data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates

  12. U.S. Topographic Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...

  13. VT US National Grid Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) USNGVT is a U.S. National Grid Index (1000m x 1000m) covering Vermont. It is a polygon feature class originally constructed by the Center for...

  14. Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation): A Path to Good Health

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Vaibhav; Swati Shukla; Om Prakash Singh

    2016-01-01

    Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation) is an ancient and sacred yogic technique of India for expressing gratitude to the Sun. Surya Namaskar is a set of 12 Asanas (postures), It is done preferably in the morning while facing the rising sun. There are numerous health benefits of Surya Namaskar for different system of the body specially musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, nervous system, respiratory and endocrinal. The heart, liver, intestine, stomach, chest, throat, legs and backbone a...

  15. The quiet Sun brightness temperature at 408 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignon, Y.; Lantos, P.; Palagi, F.; Patriarchi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of the radio quiet Sun and the brightness temperature at 408 MHz (73cm) are derived from measurements with the E-W Nancay interferometer and the E-W arm of the Medicina North Cross. It is shown that the lowest envelopes, which defined the radio quiet Sun, correspond to transits of extended coronal holes across the disk of the Sun. (Auth.)

  16. Grid Voltage Modulated Control of Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters under Unbalanced Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingshen; Gui, Yonghao; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an improved grid voltage modulated control (GVM) with power compensation is proposed for grid-connected voltage inverters when the grid voltage is unbalanced. The objective of the proposed control is to remove the power ripple and to improve current quality. Three power compensation...... objectives are selected to eliminate the negative sequence components of currents. The modified GVM method is designed to obtain two separate second-order systems for not only the fast convergence rate of the instantaneous active and reactive powers but also the robust performance. In addition, this method...

  17. Grid for a fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention has one or more corrugations formed in the surface of a fuel element grid for a nuclear reactor. Not only does the corrugation enhance the strength of the grid plate in which it is formed, but it also provides a simple and convenient means for regulating the reactor coolant pressure drop through an appropriate choice of the corrugation depth

  18. Smart grid applications and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Mah, Daphne; Li, Victor OK; Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologi

  19. Micro Grid: A Smart Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Naveenkumar, M; Ratnakar, N

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. Todays DG technologies often consist of renewable generators, and offer a number of potential benefits. This paper presents a design of micro grid as part of Smart grid technologies with renewable energy resources like solar, wind and Diesel generator. The design of the microgrid with integration of Renewable energy sources are done in PSCAD/EMTDC.This paper...

  20. Material Development of Faraday Cup Grids for the Solar Probe Plus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Wright, K. H.; Cirtain, J. W.; Lee, R.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Probe Plus mission will launch a spacecraft to the Sun to study it's outer atmosphere. One of the instruments on board will be a Faraday Cup (FC) sensor. The FC will determine solar wind properties by measuring the current produced by ions striking a metal collector plate. It will be directly exposed to the Sun and will be subject to the temperature and radiation environment that exist within 10 solar radii. Conducting grids within the FC are biased up to 10 kV and are used to selectively transmit particles based on their energy to charge ratio. We report on the development of SiC grids. Tests were done on nitrogen-doped SiC starting disks obtained from several vendors, including annealing under vacuum at 1400 C and measurement of their electrical properties. SiC grids were manufactured using a photolithographic and plasma-etching process. The grids were incorporated into a prototype FC and tested in a simulated solar wind chamber. The energy cutoffs were measured for both proton and electron fluxes and met the anticipated sensor requirements.

  1. Grand Minima: Is The Sun Going To Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, S. W.; Leamon, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    We explore recent observational work which indicate that the energetics of the sun's outer atmosphere have been on a steady decline for the past decade and perhaps longer. Futher, we show that new investigations into evolution of the Sun's global magnetic activity appear to demonstrate a path through which the Sun can go into, and exit from, a grand activity minimum without great difficulty while retaining an activity cycle - only losing sunspots. Are we at the begining of a new grand(-ish) minimum? Naturally, only time will tell, but the observational evidence hint that one may not be far off to what impact on the Sun-Earth Connection.

  2. Multi-Aperture CMOS Sun Sensor for Microsatellite Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grassi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the high precision digital sun sensor under development at the University of Naples. The sensor determines the sun line orientation in the sensor frame from the measurement of the sun position on the focal plane. It exploits CMOS technology and an original optical head design with multiple apertures. This allows simultaneous multiple acquisitions of the sun as spots on the focal plane. The sensor can be operated either with a fixed or a variable number of sun spots, depending on the required field of view and sun-line measurement precision. Multiple acquisitions are averaged by using techniques which minimize the computational load to extract the sun line orientation with high precision. Accuracy and computational efficiency are also improved thanks to an original design of the calibration function relying on neural networks. Extensive test campaigns are carried out using a laboratory test facility reproducing sun spectrum, apparent size and distance, and variable illumination directions. Test results validate the sensor concept, confirming the precision improvement achievable with multiple apertures, and sensor operation with a variable number of sun spots. Specifically, the sensor provides accuracy and precision in the order of 1 arcmin and 1 arcsec, respectively.

  3. Imaging convection and magnetism in the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Hanasoge, Shravan

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the field of helioseismology and its outstanding challenges and also offers a detailed discussion of the latest computational methodologies. The focus is on the development and implementation of techniques to create 3-D images of convection and magnetism in the solar interior and to introduce the latest computational and theoretical methods to the interested reader. With the increasing availability of computational resources, demand for greater accuracy in the interpretation of helioseismic measurements and the advent of billion-dollar instruments taking high-quality observations, computational methods of helioseismology that enable probing the 3-D structure of the Sun have increasingly become central. This book will benefit students and researchers with proficiency in basic numerical methods, differential equations and linear algebra who are interested in helioseismology.

  4. Public health challenges in sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Melody J; Weinstock, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    Sunscreens are a popular choice for protection from ultraviolet radiation, and hence, important components in the public health campaign to reduce the burden of skin cancer. Public health messages in skin cancer prevention have been used effectively in educational campaigns. The benefits of sunscreen extend beyond skin cancer prevention into other aspects of health and disease prevention: sunscreen decreases the risk for sunburn during physical activity outdoors and seems not to increase the risk for osteoporosis. Public health efforts have laid a solid foundation on which to face the continuing challenge of promoting and developing effective public health campaigns and health policies that encourage sunscreen use, sun protection, and the primary prevention of skin cancer. In this article, the controversies, concerns, and challenges of sunscreen use as it relates to public health are discussed.

  5. Cartography of the sun and the stars

    CERN Document Server

    Neiner, Coralie

    2016-01-01

    The mapping of the surface of stars requires diverse skills, analysis techniques and advanced modeling, i.e. the collaboration of scientists in various specialties. This volume gives insights into new techniques allowing for the first time to obtain resolved images of stars. It takes stock of what has been achieved so far in Chile, on the ESO VLTI instrument or, in the States, on the CHARA instrument. In recent times interferometry, combined with adaptive optics has allowed to reconstruct images of stars. Besides the Sun (of course) by now five stars have been resolved in detail. In addition to interferometry, this book highlights techniques used for mapping the surfaces of stars using photometry made by space observatories; Zeeman- and Doppler Imaging; mapping the surface element abundances via spectroscopy. This book will also take stock of the best images of the  solar surface, made by connecting the differential rotation to the underlying physical parameters derived from helioseismology. Recent measureme...

  6. An Encounter between the Sun and Venus

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The astronomical event of the year will take place on Tuesday, 8 June, when Venus transits across the disk of the sun. In the framework of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations, the CERN Astronomy Club and the Orion Club invite you to attend their observation of the event on the car park of the Val-Thoiry shopping centre (France) between 7.15 a.m. and 1.30 p.m. Various instruments will be set up in a special tent so that the event can be observed without any risk of damage to the eyes. As the observation of this astronomical event will depend on the weather forecast, confirmation of the above arrangements will be given on the 50th anniversary website the day before.

  7. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  8. Sun's pole-equator flux differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvedere, G [Istituto di Astronomia dell' Universita di Catania, Italy; Paterno, L [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Italy

    1977-04-01

    The possibility that large flux differences between the poles and the equator at the bottom of the solar convective zone are compatible with the small differences observed at the surface is studied. The consequences of increasing the depth of the convective zone due to overshooting are explored. A Boussinesq model is used for the convective zone and it is assumed that the interaction of the global convection with rotation is modelled through a convective flux coefficient whose perturbed part is proportional to the local Taylor number. The numerical integration of the equations of motion and energy shows that coexistence between large pole-equator flux differences at the bottom and small ones at the surface is possible if the solar convective zone extends to a depth of 0.4 R(Sun). The angular velocity distribution inside the convective zone is in agreement with the ..cap alpha omega..-dynamo theories of the solar cycle.

  9. Fly me to the Sun! ESA inaugurates the European Project on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    In an initiative mounted by ECSITE (European Collaborative for Science, Industry and Technology Exhibitions) with funding from the European Commission and under the supervision, coordination and co-sponsorship of ESA, five teams of youngsters (16-18 years old) from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands were selected and coordinated by European science museums from each of their countries (Musée des Sciences et des Techniques - Parentville, B; Cité de l'Espace - Toulouse, F; Deutsches Museum - Munich, D; Fondazione IDIS - Naples, I; Foundation Noordwijk Space Expo - Noordwijk, NL). The teams each focused on a theme related to solar research: "How does the Sun work?" (I), "The Sun as a star" (F), "Solar activity" (NL), "Observing the Sun" (D), "Humans and the Sun" (B), and built exhibition "modules" that they will present at the inauguration, in the context of European Science and Technology Week 2000 (6-10 November), promoted by the European Commission. During the two-day event, a jury of representatives of other European science and technology museums, ESA scientists, a science journalist, and two ESA astronauts (Frank de Winne and Andre Kuipers) will judge the youngsters' exhibition modules on the basis of their scientific correctness, their museological value and the commitment shown by the young "communication experts". The winning team will be officially announced on 9 November. The prize is a weekend at the Space Camp in Redu, Belgium. The objective of the European Project on the Sun is educational. It aims, through the direct and "fresh" involvement of youngsters, to heighten European citizens' awareness of space research in general and the Sun's influence on our daily lives in particular. The role of the European Space Agency as reference point in Europe for solar research has been fundamental to the project. From ESA's perspective, EPOS is part of this autumn's wider communication initiative called the Solar Season, which is highlighting ESA

  10. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, M; Mahalov, A; Moustaoui, M

    2012-01-01

    Conversion of natural to urban land forms imparts influence on local and regional hydroclimate via modification of the surface energy and water balance, and consideration of such effects due to rapidly expanding megapolitan areas is necessary in light of the growing global share of urban inhabitants. Based on a suite of ensemble-based, multi-year simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we quantify seasonally varying hydroclimatic impacts of the most rapidly expanding megapolitan area in the US: Arizona’s Sun Corridor, centered upon the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Using a scenario-based urban expansion approach that accounts for the full range of Sun Corridor growth uncertainty through 2050, we show that built environment induced warming for the maximum development scenario is greatest during the summer season (regionally averaged warming over AZ exceeds 1 °C). Warming remains significant during the spring and fall seasons (regionally averaged warming over AZ approaches 0.9 °C during both seasons), and is least during the winter season (regionally averaged warming over AZ of 0.5 °C). Impacts from a minimum expansion scenario are reduced, with regionally averaged warming ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 °C for all seasons except winter, when no warming impacts are diagnosed. Integration of highly reflective cool roofs within the built environment, increasingly recognized as a cost-effective option intended to offset the warming influence of urban complexes, reduces urban-induced warming considerably. However, impacts on the hydrologic cycle are aggravated via enhanced evapotranspiration reduction, leading to a 4% total accumulated precipitation decrease relative to the non-adaptive maximum expansion scenario. Our results highlight potentially unintended consequences of this adaptation approach within rapidly expanding megapolitan areas, and emphasize the need for undeniably sustainable development paths that account for

  11. AMP: a science-driven web-based application for the TeraGrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitaszek, M.; Metcalfe, T.; Shorrock, I.

    The Asteroseismic Modeling Portal (AMP) provides a web-based interface for astronomers to run and view simulations that derive the properties of Sun-like stars from observations of their pulsation frequencies. In this paper, we describe the architecture and implementation of AMP, highlighting the lightweight design principles and tools used to produce a functional fully-custom web-based science application in less than a year. Targeted as a TeraGrid science gateway, AMP's architecture and implementation are intended to simplify its orchestration of TeraGrid computational resources. AMP's web-based interface was developed as a traditional standalone database-backed web application using the Python-based Django web development framework, allowing us to leverage the Django framework's capabilities while cleanly separating the user interface development from the grid interface development. We have found this combination of tools flexible and effective for rapid gateway development and deployment.

  12. Marketing the sun: Text of presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The title conference and the texts of the presentations give insight into the activities and the developments in the field of solar energy and of the parties involved. The increased interest in the application of solar energy is shown in the subjects dealt with, while they are aimed more at the market than at research. Three parallel sesions and one plenary session were held. In each parallel session 20 presentations were given. In session one on the subjects market development of thermal solar energy, new housing construction in series, minimal energy houses, new solar water heaters, technical and economical options in sunny countries. In session two on the subjects policy, maintenance and renovation of existing houses, solar energy and planning, grid-connected photovoltaic systems, perspectives and experiences in sunny countries. In session three on the subjects solar cells, autonomous photovoltaic systems, future developemnts of thermal solar energy, solar architecture, market for photovoltaic systems in sunny countries. In the plenary session 3 presentations were held on the subject market for solar energy in newly built houses. Apart from the text of the session presentations 43 posters are presented on the subjects thermal solar energy (8), solar cells (9), autonomous photovoltaic systems (2), grid-connected PV systems (14), policy (2), integration (6), and sunny countries (1). tabs., figs., refs

  13. Adaptive hierarchical grid model of water-borne pollutant dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwick, A. G. L.; Marchant, R. D.; Copeland, G. J. M.

    Water pollution by industrial and agricultural waste is an increasingly major public health issue. It is therefore important for water engineers and managers to be able to predict accurately the local behaviour of water-borne pollutants. This paper describes the novel and efficient coupling of dynamically adaptive hierarchical grids with standard solvers of the advection-diffusion equation. Adaptive quadtree grids are able to focus on regions of interest such as pollutant fronts, while retaining economy in the total number of grid elements through selective grid refinement. Advection is treated using Lagrangian particle tracking. Diffusion is solved separately using two grid-based methods; one is by explicit finite differences, the other a diffusion-velocity approach. Results are given in two dimensions for pure diffusion of an initially Gaussian plume, advection-diffusion of the Gaussian plume in the rotating flow field of a forced vortex, and the transport of species in a rectangular channel with side wall boundary layers. Close agreement is achieved with analytical solutions of the advection-diffusion equation and simulations from a Lagrangian random walk model. An application to Sepetiba Bay, Brazil is included to demonstrate the method with complex flows and topography.

  14. GENIUS: a web portal for the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronico, A.; Barbera, R.; Falzone, A.; Lo Re, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Rodolico, A.

    2003-01-01

    The architecture and the current implementation of the grid portal GENIUS (Grid Enabled web environment for site Independent User job Submission), jointly developed by INFN and NICE within the context of the INFN Grid and DataGrid Project, is presented and discussed

  15. Grid-Optimization Program for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. E.; Lee, T. S.

    1986-01-01

    CELLOPT program developed to assist in designing grid pattern of current-conducting material on photovoltaic cell. Analyzes parasitic resistance losses and shadow loss associated with metallized grid pattern on both round and rectangular solar cells. Though performs sensitivity studies, used primarily to optimize grid design in terms of bus bar and grid lines by minimizing power loss. CELLOPT written in APL.

  16. The evolution of protostellar envelopes of masses 3 Msub(sun) and 10 Msub(sun)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorke, H.W.

    1979-10-01

    The results of numerical calculations solving the coupled equations of hydrodynamics and radiation transfer are presented in a sequence of papers describing the structure, evolution and appearance of protostellar clouds of intermediate mass (3 Msub(sun) 10 Msub(sun). These numerical calculations begin at the time of initial gravitational collapse and continue through the birth of a central protostar, until the infall of material onto the central object has been reversed. For the 10 M case the formation and evolution of a compact HII region is crudely followed after the gas density in the envelope had decreased sufficiently to allow an ionization front to propagate outwards. For all cases calculated spherical symmetry was assumed. Solar abundances were used. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  17. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle; Strickland, Mark; Minto, Carolyn; Slevin, Terry; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Lin, Chad

    2016-07-13

    Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals' risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day) and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14-17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity), gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  18. Sun-Earth Day 2005: Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Hawkins, I.; Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.

    2005-05-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. For Sun-Earth Day 2005 SECEF has selected a theme called "Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge. This year's Sun-Earth Day theme is your ticket to a fascinating journey through time as we explore centuries of sun watching by a great variety of cultures. From ancient solar motion tracking to modern solar activity monitoring the Sun has always occupied an important spot in mankind's quest to understand the Universe. Sun-Earth Day events usually are centered on the spring equinox around March 21, but this year there has already been a webcast from the San Francisco Exploratorium and the Native American ruins at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico on the day of winter solstice 2004. There will be another webcast on March 20 live from Chichen Itza, Mexico highlighting the solar alignment that makes a serpent appear on one of the ancient pyramids. The website http://sunearthday.nasa.gov has been developed to provide the necessary resources and opportunities for participation by scientists and educators in giving school or general public programs about Sun-Earth Day. The goal is to involve as much of the student population and the public in this event as possible and to help them understand the importance of the Sun for ancient and modern peoples. Through engaging activities available on the website, classrooms and museums can create their own event or participate in one of the opportunities we make available. Scientists, educators, amateur astronomers, and museums are invited to register on the website to receive a free packet of materials about Sun-Earth Day for use in making presentations or programs about the event. Past and future Sun-Earth Days will be discussed as well.

  19. Predictors of sun protection behaviours and sunburn among Australian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pettigrew

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive sun exposure and sunburn increase individuals’ risk of skin cancer. It is especially important to prevent sunburn in childhood due to the higher relative risk of skin cancer across the life span compared to risk associated with sunburn episodes experienced later in life. This study examined demographic and attitudinal factors associated with engagement in a range of sun protection behaviours (wearing a hat, wearing protective clothing, staying in the shade, and staying indoors during the middle of the day and the frequency of sunburn among Western Australian adolescents to provide insights of relevance for future sun protection campaigns. Methods Cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted annually with Western Australians between 2005/06 and 2014/15. The results from 4150 adolescents aged 14–17 years were used to conduct a path analysis of factors predicting various sun protection behaviours and sunburn. Results Significant primary predictors of the sun protection behaviours included in the study were skin type (sun sensitivity, gender, tanning-related attitudes and behaviours, and perceived relevance of public service advertisements that advocate sun protection. Of the four sun protection behaviours investigated, staying in the shade and staying indoors during the middle of the day were associated with a lower frequency of sunburn. Conclusion There is a particular need to target sun protection messages at adolescent males who are less likely to engage in the most effective sun protection behaviours and demonstrate an increased propensity to experience sunburn. The results suggest that such future sun protection messages should include a focus on the importance of staying in the shade or indoors during periods of high UV radiation to increase awareness of the efficacy of these methods of avoiding skin cancer.

  20. Vortices in the SU(N) x SU(N) spin systems in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kares, R.J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The SU(N) x SU(N) or chiral spin systems in two dimensions with spin variables in both the fundamental and the adjoint representations of SU(N) are considered. In the adjoint representation the chiral models are found to possess topologically stable, classical vortex solutions which carry a Z(N) topological charge. A relationship is established between the chiral models and massive Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions. This relationship is exploited to prove the asymptotic freedom of the chiral models and to find their weak coupling mass gap. The connection between the vortices of the chiral models and those of the massive Yang-Mills theory is discussed. The behavior of a gas of vortices in the SU(2) chiral model is considered. This gas is converted to an equivalent field theory and studied using the renormalization group. It is shown that the SU(2) vortex gas does not undergo a Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition. This behavior probably persists for the higher SU(N) groups as well. Finally, using the massive Yang-Mills theory the effect of the coupling of vortices to spin wave fluctuations is investigated. It is argued that as a result of the vortex-spin wave interaction the vortices acquire a mass scale dynamically. A self consistency condition is derived for the vortex scale and used to compute the mass gap for the chiral models in the presence of vortices. The mass gap obtained in this way is found to be in agreement with the weak coupling result suggesting that vortices may be responsible for generating the mass gap in the chiral models near T = 0

  1. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  2. Sun protection policies of Australian primary schools in a region of high sun exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S L; Garzón-Chavez, D R; Nikles, C J

    2016-06-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP available publicly. Total SPP scores were low {mean 3.6 [95% CI: 3.4-3.9]; median 2 [interquartile range (IQR) 2, 4]}, with only 3.2% of schools achieving the maximum score of 12. Median SPP scores were higher in Northern and Central Queensland [both 2 (IQR 2, 6) and (IQR 2, 5), respectively] than in Southern Queensland [2 (IQR 2, 3); P = 0.004]. Clothing and hat-wearing were addressed in most policies (96% and 89%) while few schools used their SPP to plan outdoor events (5.2%) or reschedule activities to minimize sun exposure (11.7%). The SunSmart Schools program has been operating in Queensland for 17 years, and while most primary schools now have a written SPP, most are not comprehensive. Incentive-based approaches (5-star-rating award scheme and grants) may assist in addressing this issue, to reduce sun exposure of students and teachers. These data provide a baseline from which improvements in the comprehensiveness of school SPPs can be evaluated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies'. Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid.

  4. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  5. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate the ecosystem based business model in a smart grid infrastructure and the potential of value capture in the highly complex macro infrastructure such as smart grid. This paper proposes an alternative perspective to study the smart grid business ecosystem to support the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on t...

  6. Securing the smart grid information exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Steffen; Falk, Rainer [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The smart grid is based on information exchange between various stakeholders using open communication technologies, to control the physical electric grid through the information grid. Protection against cyber attacks is essential to ensure a reliable operation of the smart grid. This challenge is addressed by various regulatory, standardization, and research activities. After giving an overview of the security demand of a smart grid, existing and appearing standardization activities are described. (orig.)

  7. Icing modelling in NSMB with chimera overset grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, D. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France); Deloze, T.; Laurendeau, E. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); Hoarau, Y. [ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France)

    2015-03-10

    In aerospace Engineering, the accurate simulation of ice accretion is a key element to increase flight safety and avoid accidents related to icing effects. The icing code developed in the NSMB solver is based on an Eulerian formulation for droplets tracking, an iterative Messinger model using a modified water runback scheme for ice thickness calculation and mesh deformation to track the ice/air interface through time. The whole process is parallelized with MPI and applied with chimera grids.

  8. Vehicle to Grid Implementation and Battery Management Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yuchen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONVehicle to Grid Implementation and Battery Management OptimizationbyYuchen ZhaoMaster of Science, Graduate Program in Electrical EngineeringUniversity of California, Riverside, September 2017Dr. Matthew Barth, Chairperson The need for energy independence and rising environmental pollution concerns are factors that drive the growing popularity of electric vehicles (EV), including electric and plug-in hybrid cars. Studies indicate the for 90% of the Americans who use...

  9. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  10. Triana Safehold: A New Gyroless, Sun-Pointing Attitude Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Morgenstern, Wendy; Garrick, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Triana is a single-string spacecraft to be placed in a halo orbit about the sun-earth Ll Lagrangian point. The Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) hardware includes four reaction wheels, ten thrusters, six coarse sun sensors, a star tracker, and a three-axis Inertial Measuring Unit (IMU). The ACS Safehold design features a gyroless sun-pointing control scheme using only sun sensors and wheels. With this minimum hardware approach, Safehold increases mission reliability in the event of a gyroscope anomaly. In place of the gyroscope rate measurements, Triana Safehold uses wheel tachometers to help provide a scaled estimation of the spacecraft body rate about the sun vector. Since Triana nominally performs momentum management every three months, its accumulated system momentum can reach a significant fraction of the wheel capacity. It is therefore a requirement for Safehold to maintain a sun-pointing attitude even when the spacecraft system momentum is reasonably large. The tachometer sun-line rate estimation enables the controller to bring the spacecraft close to its desired sun-pointing attitude even with reasonably high system momentum and wheel drags. This paper presents the design rationale behind this gyroless controller, stability analysis, and some time-domain simulation results showing performances with various initial conditions. Finally, suggestions for future improvements are briefly discussed.

  11. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  12. Cell Phones and Sun Shadows: Exploring the Equation of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    For thousands of years before the invention of reliable clocks, humans measured their days by the motion of the sun. Astronomically, one day was the length of time it took for the sun to return to the same position in the sky. With the advent of precise mechanical chronometers such as Harrison's timekeepers (Sobel and Andrewes 1998), which ran at…

  13. Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of Diplotaxodon fish species (Ndunduma) from lake Malawi, Malawi. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The fish were washed then weighed and thereafter, smoked in a traditional smoking kiln and sun dried on reed mats.

  14. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  15. THE SUN WAS NOT BORN IN M67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichardo, Bárbara; Moreno, Edmundo; Allen, Christine; Bedin, Luigi R.; Bellini, Andrea; Pasquini, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Using the most recent proper-motion determination of the old, solar-metallicity, Galactic open cluster M67 in orbital computations in a non-axisymmetric model of the Milky Way, including a bar and three-dimensional spiral arms, we explore the possibility that the Sun once belonged to this cluster. We have performed Monte Carlo numerical simulations to generate the present-day orbital conditions of the Sun and M67, and all the parameters in the Galactic model. We compute 3.5 × 10 5 pairs of orbits Sun-M67 looking for close encounters in the past with a minimum distance approach within the tidal radius of M67. In these encounters we find that the relative velocity between the Sun and M67 is larger than 20 km s –1 . If the Sun had been ejected from M67 with this high velocity by means of a three-body encounter, this interaction would have either destroyed an initial circumstellar disk around the Sun or dispersed its already formed planets. We also find a very low probability, much lower than 10 –7 , that the Sun was ejected from M67 by an encounter of this cluster with a giant molecular cloud. This study also excludes the possibility that the Sun and M67 were born in the same molecular cloud. Our dynamical results convincingly demonstrate that M67 could not have been the birth cluster of our solar system.

  16. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  17. Relationship Factors and Couples' Engagement in Sun Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S. L.; Coups, E. J.; Kashy, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may be more motivated to adopt health practices if they consider the benefits of these behaviors for their close relationships. The goal of this study was to examine couple concordance with sun protection and use the interdependence and communal coping theory to evaluate the role of relationship factors in sun protection. One hundred…

  18. Regular Biology Students Learn Like AP Students with SUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Bo; Gruhl, Mary; Nelson, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Ning, Ling; Roberts, Marisa; Knopp, Jonathan; Harrington, Tom; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Marcey, David

    2016-01-01

    The SUN approach to biological energy transfer education is fundamentally different from past practices that trace chemical and energy inputs and outputs. The SUN approach uses a hydrogen fuel cell to convince learners that electrons can move from one substance to another based on differential attraction. With a hydrogen fuel cell, learners can…

  19. Dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics of the Sun-Earth-Moon system is discussed with special attention to the effects of. Sun's perturbations on the Moon's orbit around the Earth. Important secular effects are the re- gression of the nodes, the advance of the perigee and the increase in the Moon's mean longitude. We discuss the relationship of the ...

  20. Spacecraft Attitude Determination with Earth Albedo Corrected Sun Sensor Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    -Method, Extended Kalman Filter, and Unscented Kalman Filter algorithms are presented and the results are compared. Combining the Unscented Kalman Filter with Earth albedo and enhanced Sun sensor modeling allows for three-axis attitude determination from Sun sensor only, which previously has been perceived...